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Sample records for fluorescence enhanced diffuse

  1. Multiple step algorithms for fluorescence -enhanced diffuse optical tomography; Algorithmes multi-etape pour la tomographie optique diffusive de fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, A.; Planat-Chretien, A.; Dinten, J.M.; Gliere, A

    2004-07-01

    A discussion on recent works on diffusive inverse problems is presented with a special focus n three-dimensional shape-based imaging methods and their application to small animal imaging by fluorescence-enhanced Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT). Numerical approaches (Finite Element Method) for handling problems modelled by elliptic coupled PDEs is justified by the complexity of the geometry of the system but is known to be time-and memory-consuming. The use of an 'adjoint field technique' considerably speeds up the treatment and allows a full 3D resolution. Nevertheless, because of the ill-posing of the problem, the reconstruction scheme is sensitive to a priori knowledge on the parameters to be reconstructed. Multiple modality imaging techniques (DOT coupled with CT or MRI for example) is becoming of great interest for introducing a priori knowledge of the regions of interest (ROI) and justifies the use of shape-based methods that reduces the dimension of the system, by identifying a finite number of ROI (absorption, scattering and/or, in our case, fluorescent zones), and intrinsically regularizes the reconstruction of the desired parameters. This study led to the proposal of a multiple step, self regularized, reconstruction algorithm of the bio-distribution of molecular fluorescent probes specially designed for tumour targeting. We introduce the a priori knowledge of the ROI via a segmentation of the results performed with a first rough reconstruction of the fluorescent regions. The results are then refined along iterations of the segmentation/reconstruction scheme. Measurements were performed on calibrated objects (phantoms) as well as in vivo (nude mice) with a plane parallel plate tomographer using a CCD camera as a detection scheme. (authors)

  2. Plasmon Enhancement of Triplet Exciton Diffusion Revealed by Nanoscale Imaging of Photochemical Fluorescence Upconversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujak, Lukasz; Narushima, K.; Sharma, D.K.; Hirata, S.; Vácha, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 45 (2017), s. 25479-25486 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Plasmons * Fluorescence upconversion * Nanostructures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  3. Transient Enhanced Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, Hans-Joachim L.

    1996-03-01

    Ion implantation is the standard method for dopant introduction during integrated circuit manufacturing, determining crucial device characteristics. Implantation creates point-defects, such as Si self-interstitials and vacancies, far in excess of equilibrium concentrations. Since the diffusion of common dopants involves Si point defects, the interaction of damage and dopants during subsequent annealing steps leads to the phenomenon known as "transient enhanced diffusion" (TED): The dopant diffusivities are enhanced, possibly by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement is transient since the intrinsic defects eventually diffuse into the bulk or annihilate at the surface. The desired specific dopant profile of the device is thus the result of a complex reaction, involving the creation of damage and its spatial distribution, diffusion, and interaction of the point defects among themselves and with interfaces and other defects. As device dimensions shrink and experiments become more and more expensive, the capability to predict these kinds of non-equilibrium phenomena accurately becomes crucial to Si technology development. In our experiments to extract physical mechanisms and parameters of TED we use the method of sharp B- and Sb doping spikes to track interstitial and vacancy concentrations as a function of depth during processing. Thus we gain sensitivity to small diffusion distances (low temperatures) and separate the damaged region from the region of the interaction with dopants. In addition, our method yields directly the actual point defect diffusivity. Although an ion implant initially produces Frenkel pairs, Monte-carlo simulations show that the vacancies annihilate quickly. The excess interstitials, roughly one for each implanted ion coalesce into 311defects. The subsequent evaporation of interstitials from 311ś drives TED. Si interstitial diffusion is influenced by carbon-related traps and we will demonstrate that this finding reconciles quantitatively a

  4. Plasmonics Enhanced Smartphone Fluorescence Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Qingshan

    2017-05-12

    Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film. In this plasmonic design, the samples are placed on a silver-coated glass slide with a thin spacer, and excited by a laser-diode from the backside through a glass hemisphere, generating surface plasmon polaritons. We optimized this mobile SEF system by tuning the metal-film thickness, spacer distance, excitation angle and polarization, and achieved ~10-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity compared to a bare glass substrate, which enabled us to image single fluorescent particles as small as 50 nm in diameter and single quantum-dots. Furthermore, we quantified the detection limit of this platform by using DNA origami-based brightness standards, demonstrating that ~80 fluorophores per diffraction-limited spot can be readily detected by our mobile microscope, which opens up new opportunities for POC diagnostics and sensing applications in resource-limited-settings.

  5. Metal enhanced fluorescence with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Shaina LaRissa Strating

    A novel hybrid nanocomposite of Au nanoparticle-modified silicon nanowire was developed for surface enhanced fluorescence applications. The designed nanocomposite contained a silicon nanowire, gold nanoparticles and a silica layer doped with dye molecules. The hybrid nanomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), fluorescence measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly adhered on the silicon nanowires and covered by a thin silica layer. The nanostructure exhibited strong capacity for surface enhanced fluorescence. Different enhancement factors were obtained by changing synthetic conditions. The second goal of the project was to determine if the shape of gold nanoparticles affects the extent of its fluorescence enhancement under constant external factors. Two shapes of gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by SEM, STEM, zeta potential and absorbance measurements. Then they were coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica and the fluorescence intensity was measured and compared to the pure fluorescent dye. Gold nanorods enhanced fluorescence more than gold nanostars and that the fluorescent dye Alexafluor 700 showed a greater fluorescence intensity change in the presence of nanoparticles than methylene blue.

  6. Measurement of diffusion of fluorescent molecules in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarkova, S A; Lloyd, C; Khaira, S K; Berk, D

    2003-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for studying the molecular dynamics in living cells are demonstrated. The method provides point measurements of extremely low concentrations of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion coefficients with a high time resolution in a microscopic volume, which is especially important in pharmacological investigations. A biological model of the interaction of liposomes with a cellular membrane is considered. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescent molecules are measured directly in the living cell cytoplasm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Distribution of diffusion times determined by fluorescence (lifetime) correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Jiří; Loukotová, Lenka; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2018), s. 2796-2804 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solution * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * diffusion time distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  8. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal–dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle’s surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES, plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF. As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF. First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC and down-conversion (DC nanoparticles (NPs are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  9. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: the case of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubelski, Ariel; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    The method of FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching), which has been broadly used to measure lateral mobility of fluorescent-labeled molecules in cell membranes, is formulated here in terms of continuous time random walks (CTRWs), which offer both analytical expressions and a scheme for numerical simulations. We propose an approach based on the CTRW and the corresponding fractional diffusion equation (FDE) to analyze FRAP results in the presence of anomalous subdiffusion. The FDE generalizes the simple diffusive picture, which has been applied to FRAP when assuming regular diffusion, to account for subdiffusion. We use a subordination relationship between the solutions of the fractional and normal diffusion equations to fit FRAP recovery curves obtained from CTRW simulations, and compare the fits to the commonly used approach based on the simple diffusion equation with a time dependent diffusion coefficient (TDDC). The CTRW and TDDC describe two different dynamical schemes, and although the CTRW formalism appears to be more complicated, it provides a physical description that underlies anomalous lateral diffusion.

  10. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  11. Image Restoration for Fluorescence Planar Imaging with Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanxuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence planar imaging (FPI is failure to capture high resolution images of deep fluorochromes due to photon diffusion. This paper presents an image restoration method to deal with this kind of blurring. The scheme of this method is conceived based on a reconstruction method in fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT with diffusion model. A new unknown parameter is defined through introducing the first mean value theorem for definite integrals. System matrix converting this unknown parameter to the blurry image is constructed with the elements of depth conversion matrices related to a chosen plane named focal plane. Results of phantom and mouse experiments show that the proposed method is capable of reducing the blurring of FPI image caused by photon diffusion when the depth of focal plane is chosen within a proper interval around the true depth of fluorochrome. This method will be helpful to the estimation of the size of deep fluorochrome.

  12. Multispectral guided fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenmarker, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.svenmarker@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Xu, Can T.; Liu, Haichun; Wu, Xia; Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-17

    We report on improved image detectability for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using upconverting nanoparticles doped with rare-earth elements. Core-shell NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}@NaYF{sub 4} upconverting nanoparticles were synthesized through a stoichiometric method. The Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} sensitizer-activator pair yielded two anti-Stokes shifted fluorescence emission bands at 540 nm and 660 nm, here used to a priori estimate the fluorescence source depth with sub-millimeter precision. A spatially varying regularization incorporated the a priori fluorescence source depth estimation into the tomography reconstruction scheme. Tissue phantom experiments showed both an improved resolution and contrast in the reconstructed images as compared to not using any a priori information.

  13. Enhancement of diffusers BRDF accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Gerard; Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; van Brug, Hedser; Schaarsberg, Jos Groote; Delwart, Steven; del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the result of an ESA study conducted at TNO to investigate properties of various diffusers. Diffusers are widely used in space instruments as part of the on-board absolute calibration. Knowledge of the behaviour of the diffuser is therefore most important. From measurements of launched instruments in-orbit it has been discovered that when a diffuser is used in the vacuum of space the BRDF can change with respect to the one in ambient conditions. This is called the air/vacuum effect and has been simulated in this study by measuring the BRDF in a laboratory in ambient as well as vacuum conditions. Another studied effect is related to the design parameters of the optical system and the scattering properties of the diffuser. The effect is called Spectral Features and is a noise like structure superimposed on the diffuser BRDF. Modern space spectrometers, which have high spectral resolution and/or a small field of view (high spatial resolution) are suffering from this effect. The choice of diffuser can be very critical with respect to the required absolute radiometric calibration of an instrument. Even if the Spectral Features are small it can influence the error budget of the retrieval algorithms for the level 2 products. in this presentation diffuser trade-off results are presented and the Spectral Features model applied to the optical configuration of the MERIS instrument is compared to in-flight measurements of MERIS.

  14. Confined diffusion in tubular structures analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, Emilien; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Sturgis, James N.; Rigneault, Herve

    2006-01-01

    In fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis it is generally assumed that molecular species diffuse freely in volumes much larger than the three-dimensional FCS observation volume. However, this standard assumption is not valid in many measurement conditions, particularly in tubular structures with diameters in the micrometer range, such as those found in living cells (organelles, dendrites) and microfluidic devices (capillaries,reaction chambers). As a result the measured autocorrelation functions (ACFs) deviate from those predicted for free diffusion, and this can shift the measured diffusion coefficient by as much as ∼50% when the tube diameter is comparable with the axial extension of the FCS observation volume. We show that the range of validity of the FCS measurements can be drastically improved if the tubular structures are located in the close vicinity of a mirror on which FCS is performed. In this case a new fluctuation time in the ACF, arising from the diffusion of fluorescent probes in optical fringes,permits measurement of the real diffusion coefficient within the tubular structure without assumptions about either the confined geometry orthe FCS observation volume geometry. We show that such a measurement can be done when the tubular structure contains at least one pair of dark and bright fringes resulting from interference between the incoming and the reflected excitation beams on the mirror surface. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and IscS-EGFP in the cytoplasm of living Escherichiacoli illustrates the capabilities of the technique

  15. Distinguishing free and anomalous diffusion by rectangular fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Ben; Cleuren, Bart; Deschout, Hendrik; Braeckmans, Kevin; Ameloot, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a common technique to probe mobility of fluorescently labeled proteins in biological membranes by monitoring the time-dependence of the spatially integrated fluorescence signals after a bleaching pulse. Discrimination by FRAP between free diffusion with an immobile fraction (FDIM) and the phenomenological model for anomalous diffusion based on the time-dependent diffusion coefficient (TDDC) is a challenging problem, requiring extremely long observation times for differentiation. Recently, rectangular FRAP (rFRAP) has been introduced for normal diffusion by considering not only the temporal but also spatial information, taking the effective point spread function of the optical system into account. In this work we provide an extension of rFRAP toward anomalous diffusion according to the continuous time random walk (CTRW). We explore whether the spatial information in rFRAP allows for enhanced discrimination between FDIM, TDDC, and CTRW in a single experiment within a feasible time window. Simulations indicate that rFRAP can indeed differentiate the different models by evaluating the spatial autocorrelation of the differences between the measured and fitted pixel values. Hence, rFRAP offers a tool that is capable of discriminating different types of diffusion at shorter time scales than in the case where spatial information is discarded.

  16. Enhanced ALA-induced fluorescence in hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schroeter, Lioba; Gahlen, Johannes

    2005-04-04

    Intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands can be challenging especially in minimally invasive surgery. Fluorescence diagnosis using the photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been described to identify normal parathyroid glands during experimental bilateral neck exploration. The present study evaluated fluorescence differences between hyperplastic and normal parathyroid glands as a precondition for a clinical application of the technique. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) rats with hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplastic parathyroid glands and Wistar rats with normal parathyroid glands were photosensitized by peritoneal lavage with ALA solution. After surgical exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands the operative site was observed under blue light conditions using the d-light system to assess fluorescence characteristics of each tissue. Fluorescence intensities of parathyroid glands and surrounding thyroid tissue were measured by spectrometry. Parathyroid hormone in serum of the rats was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Observation of the exposed thyroid site showed a subjectively stronger red fluorescence of the parathyroid glands in the PKD rats in comparison to the Wistar rats, whereas thyroid tissue appeared equally fluorescent. In the PKD animals, spectrometric fluorescence intensity was 10 times higher in the parathyroid glands than in the thyroid gland, whereas in the Wistar rats the ratio was 3.2:1. Fluorescence intensity in the parathyroid glands was more than twice in the PKD rats than in the Wistar rats, however slightly lower in the thyroid tissue. ELISA confirmed the pathophysiological change of a hyperparathyroidism with significantly increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone in the PKD rats. Hyperparathyroidism enhances ALA-induced fluorescence of the parathyroid glands. A combined surgical fluorescence strategy may justify a unilateral, minimally invasive approach in selected patients and serve to improve

  17. Fluorescence enhancement of modified silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meicen; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Gaining; Dong, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Guian

    2011-11-01

    Surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) effect of acridine orange fluorophore in the proximity of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated experimentally in the aqueous solution system. It was found that the SEF effect could be influenced by the distribution of the NPs and the separation between the fluorophore molecule and metal surface. The fluorescence enhancement was improved significantly when Ag NPs was capped with 4-Aminothiophenol (PATP) that was acted as an isolating layer between the metal surface and fluorophore molecules. The results suggest that a proper distribution of metallic NPs and proper separation between fluorophore molecule and the particle surface are important for obtaining an optimal SEF effect.

  18. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  19. In Vivo Diffuse Optical Tomography and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingze Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT are two attractive imaging techniques for in vivo physiological and psychological research. They have distinct advantages such as non-invasiveness, non-ionizing radiation, high sensitivity and longitudinal monitoring. This paper reviews the key components of DOT and FMT. Light propagation model, mathematical reconstruction algorithm, imaging instrumentation and medical applications are included. Future challenges and perspective on optical tomography are discussed.

  20. Frequency domain fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Plehanov, Vladimir I.; Balalaeva, Irina V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Kleshnin, Michail S.

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds for selective cancer cell marking are used for development of novel medical diagnostic methods, investigation of the influence of external factors on tumor growth, regress and metastasis. Only special tools for turbid media imaging, such as optical diffusion tomography permit noninvasive monitoring of fluorescent-labeled tumor alterations deep in animal tissue. In this work, the results of preliminary experiments utilizing frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography (FD FDT) experimental setup in small animal are presented. Low-frequency modulated light (1 kHz) from Nd:YAG laser with second harmonic generation at the wavelength of 532 nm was used in the setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Models of deep tumors were created by two methods: (1) glass capsules containing fluorophore solution were inserted into esophagus of small animals to simulate marked tumors; (2) a suspension of transfected HEΚ293-Turbo-RFP cells was subcutaneously injected to small animal. The conducted experiments have shown that FD FDT allows one to detect the presence of labeled tumor cells in small animals, to determine the volume of an experimental tumor, to perform 3D tumor reconstruction, as well as to conduct monitoring investigations. The obtained results demonstrate the potential capability of the FD FDT method for noninvasive whole-body imaging in cancer studies, diagnostics and therapy.

  1. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins.

  2. Microperforations significantly enhance diffusion across round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Catherine M; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Wazen, Joseph M; Bucher, Tizian; Qian, Zhen J; Olson, Elizabeth S; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2015-04-01

    Introduction of microperforations in round window membrane (RWM) will allow reliable and predictable intracochlear delivery of pharmaceutical, molecular, or cellular therapeutic agents. Reliable delivery of medications into the inner ear remains a formidable challenge. The RWM is an attractive target for intracochlear delivery. However, simple diffusion across intact RWM is limited by what material can be delivered, size of material to be delivered, difficulty with precise dosing, timing, and precision of delivery over time. Further, absence of reliable methods for measuring diffusion across RWM in vitro is a significant experimental impediment. A novel model for measuring diffusion across guinea pig RWM, with and without microperforation, was developed and tested: cochleae, sparing the RWM, were embedded in 3D-printed acrylic holders using hybrid dental composite and light cured to adapt the round window niche to 3 ml Franz diffusion cells. Perforations were created with 12.5-μm-diameter needles and examined with light microscopy. Diffusion of 1 mM Rhodamine B across RWM in static diffusion cells was measured via fluorescence microscopy. The diffusion cell apparatus provided reliable and replicable measurements of diffusion across RWM. The permeability of Rhodamine B across intact RWM was 5.1 × 10(9-) m/s. Manual application of microperforation with a 12.5-μm-diameter tip produced an elliptical tear removing 0.22 ± 0.07% of the membrane and was associated with a 35× enhancement in diffusion (P Diffusion cells can be applied to the study of RWM permeability in vitro. Microperforation in RWM is an effective means of increasing diffusion across the RWM.

  3. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  4. Diffusion Enhanced Upconversion in Organic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monguzzi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The upconverted fluorescence generation in a solution of multicomponent organic systems has been studied as a function of the temperature to investigate the role of resonant energy transfer processes and of the molecular diffusion on the overall emission yield. The strong blue emission observed exciting the samples at 532 nm derives from a bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation between 9,10 diphenylanthracene molecules, which produces singlet excited states from which the higher energy emission takes place. Diphenylanthracene excited triplet states are populated by energy transfer from a phosphorescent donor (Pt(IIoctaethylporphyrin which acts as excitation light harvesting. At low temperature, the experimental data on the efficiency of the transfer have been interpreted in the frame of a Dexter energy transfer in the Perrin approximation. At room temperature, the fast diffusion of the molecules has been found to be the main factor which affects the energy transfer rates and the overall photon upconversion efficiency.

  5. Metal ions diffusion through polymeric matrices: A total reflection X-ray fluorescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeykens, S.; Caracciolo, N.; D'Angelo, M.V.; Vazquez, C.

    2006-01-01

    This work proposes the use of X-ray fluorescence with total reflection geometry to explore the metal ions transport in aqueous hydrophilic polymer solutions. It is centered in the study of polymer concentration influence on ion diffusion. This subject is relevant to various and diverse applications, such as drug controlled release, microbiologic corrosion protection and enhanced oil recovery. It is anticipated that diffusion is influenced by various factors in these systems, including those specific to the diffusing species, such as charge, shape, molecular size, and those related to the structural complexity of the matrix as well as any specific interaction between the diffusing species and the matrix. The diffusion of nitrate salts of Ba and Mn (same charge, different hydrodynamic radii) through water-swollen polymeric solutions and gels in the 0.01% to 1% concentration ranges was investigated. The measurements of the metal concentration were performed by TXRF analysis using the scattered radiation by the sample as internal standard. Results are discussed according to different physical models for solute diffusion in polymeric solutions

  6. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper

  7. Radioactivity-synchronized fluorescence enhancement using a radionuclide fluorescence-quenched dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Mikhail Y; Guo, Kevin; Teng, Bao; Edwards, W Barry; Anderson, Carolyn J; Vasalatiy, Olga; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Griffiths, Gary L; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-07-08

    We demonstrate the first evidence of radioactivity-synchronized fluorescence quenching of a near-infrared light-emitting dye by a radionuclide, (64)Cu, and subsequent fluorescence enhancement upon (64)Cu decay to the daughter isotopes (64)Ni and (64)Zn. The dynamic switch from high radioactivity and low fluorescence to low radioactivity and high fluorescence is potentially useful for developing complementary multimodal imaging and detection platforms for chemical, environmental, and biomedical applications as well as for unraveling the mechanisms of metal-induced dynamic fluorescence changes.

  8. Riboflavin enhanced fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliut, Maria; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Leordean, Cosmin; Simon, Timea; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Astilean, Simion

    2013-10-01

    The improvement of graphene derivates' fluorescence properties is a challenging topic and very few ways were reported up to now. In this Letter we propose an easy method to enhance the fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through non-covalent binding to a molecular fluorophore, namely the riboflavin (Rb). While the fluorescence of Rb is quenched, the Rb - decorated rGO exhibits strong blue fluorescence and significantly increased fluorescence lifetime, as compared to its pristine form. The data reported here represent a promising start towards tailoring the optical properties of rGOs, having utmost importance in optical applications.

  9. Enhanced Fluorescence from Fluorophores on Fractal Silver Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Parfenov, Alexandr; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Malicka, Joanna; Geddes, Chris D.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent reports have shown enhanced fluorescence for fluorophores in close proximity to chemically deposited silver islands or colloids. To expand the usefulness of metal-enhanced fluorescence we tested fractal silver structures formed on, or near, silver electrodes by passage of electric currents. The emission intensity of fluorescein-labeled human serum albumin (FITC-HSA) was enhanced over 100-fold when adsorbed to the fractal silver structures as compared to glass. The amplitude-weighted li...

  10. Diffusion of ofloxacin in the endocarditis vegetation assessed with synchrotron radiation UV fluorescence microspectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Batard

    Full Text Available The diffusion of antibiotics in endocarditis vegetation bacterial masses has not been described, although it may influence the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in endocarditis. The objective of this work was to assess the diffusion of ofloxacin in experimental endocarditis vegetation bacterial masses using synchrotron-radiation UV fluorescence microspectroscopy. Streptococcal endocarditis was induced in 5 rabbits. Three animals received an unique i.v. injection of 150 mg/kg ofloxacin, and 2 control rabbits were left untreated. Two fluorescence microscopes were coupled to a synchrotron beam for excitation at 275 nm. A spectral microscope collected fluorescence spectra between 285 and 550 nm. A second, full field microscope was used with bandpass filters at 510-560 nm. Spectra of ofloxacin-treated vegetations presented higher fluorescence between 390 and 540 nm than control. Full field imaging showed that ofloxacin increased fluorescence between 510 and 560 nm. Ofloxacin diffused into vegetation bacterial masses, although it accumulated in their immediate neighborhood. Fluorescence images additionally suggested an ofloxacin concentration gradient between the vegetation peripheral and central areas. In conclusion, ofloxacin diffuses into vegetation bacterial masses, but it accumulates in their immediate neighborhood. Synchrotron radiation UV fluorescence microscopy is a new tool for assessment of antibiotic diffusion in the endocarditis vegetation bacterial masses.

  11. Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, R. M.; Drachev, V. P.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced fluorescence is observed from dye molecules interacting with optical nanoantenna arrays. Elliptical gold dimers form individual nanoantennae with tunable plasmon resonances depending upon the geometry of the two particles and the size of the gap between them. A fluorescent dye, Rhodamine...... 800, is uniformly embedded in a dielectric host that coats the nanoantennae. The nanoantennae act to enhance the dye absorption. In turn, emission from the dye drives the plasmon resonance of the antennae; the nanoantennae act to enhance the fluorescence signal and change the angular distribution...... of emission. These effects depend upon the overlap of the plasmon resonance with the excitation wavelength and the fluorescence emission band. A decreased fluorescence lifetime is observed along with highly polarized emission that displays the characteristics of the nanoantenna's dipole mode. Being able...

  12. Fluorescence-enhancement with different ionic inputs in a cryptand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of N attached to the anthryl group. However, when a metal salt is added, the lone pair is engaged, thus in blocking of the PET and leading to recovery of fluorescence to different extents depending upon the nature of the metal ion. Keywords. Fluorescence enhancement; photoinduced electron transfer; cryptand receptor; ...

  13. Frequency domain diffuse fluorescence tomography for detection of deep lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Uwe J.; Gersonde, Ingo; Toelsner, Jan; Illing, Gerd

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two-dimensional phantom measurements of fluorescence light distribution in the frequency domain and reconstruction of three-dimensional fluorophore distribution. An experimental set-up was built up with two dimensional laser scanning, intensity modulation with frequencies up to 1 GHz, and two-dimensional imaging of modulated fluorescence light. Stable phantoms were developed simulating mammary tissue to perform measurements in a backscattering geometry for a variety of cylindrical fluorescence sources with different diameters, fluorophore concentrations, and surface distances at different modulation frequencies. At first calculated fluorescence light distributions from Monte-Carlo simulations was compared to measured data. In a second step from tomographic data sets of calculated fluorescent light, three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of fluorophore distribution were performed. Finally three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of fluorophore distribution were performed from tomographic fluorescence measurements. We found good concurrence between measured and calculated fluorescence distribution. Synthetic and real tomographic reconstruction showed good localization but underestimated the depth of fluorophore distribution.

  14. Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlu, Alper; Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Rosen, Mark A.; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-05-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) in vivo images of human breast cancer based on fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). To our knowledge, this work represents the first reported 3D fluorescence tomography of human breast cancer in vivo. In our protocol, the fluorophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) is injected intravenously. Fluorescence excitation and detection are accomplished in the soft-compression, parallel-plane, transmission geometry using laser sources at 786 nm and spectrally filtered CCD detection. Phantom and in vivo studies confirm the signals are due to ICG fluorescence, rather than tissue autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. Fluorescence images of breast tumors were in good agreement with those of MRI, and with DOT based on endogenous contrast. Tumorto- normal tissue contrast based on ICG fluorescence was two-to-four-fold higher than contrast based on hemoglobin and scattering parameters. In total the measurements demonstrate that FDOT of breast cancer is feasible and promising.

  15. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, G [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sivaguru, Mayandi [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen Yi, E-mail: loganliu@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  16. Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, G; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen Yi

    2011-01-01

    We have created a randomly distributed nanocone substrate on silicon coated with silver for surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence detection and 3D cell imaging. Optical characterization of the nanocone substrate showed it can support several plasmonic modes (in the 300-800 nm wavelength range) that can be coupled to a fluorophore on the surface of the substrate, which gives rise to the enhanced fluorescence. Spectral analysis suggests that a nanocone substrate can create more excitons and shorter lifetime in the model fluorophore Rhodamine 6G (R6G) due to plasmon resonance energy transfer from the nanocone substrate to the nearby fluorophore. We observed three-dimensional fluorescence enhancement on our substrate shown from the confocal fluorescence imaging of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown on the substrate. The fluorescence intensity from the fluorophores bound on the cell membrane was amplified more than 100-fold as compared to that on a glass substrate. We believe that strong scattering within the nanostructured area coupled with random scattering inside the cell resulted in the observed three-dimensional enhancement in fluorescence with higher photostability on the substrate surface.

  17. ICTS of MOS Interface States Enhanced by Gold Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Haruhiko; Niu, Hirohiko; Kishino, Seigô

    1991-07-01

    An enhancement of interface states of Si MOS diode by gold diffusion is observed by the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) measurement. The observed ICTS spectra are identified as the interface states with the help of numerical simulation. Although the gold diffusion is accompanied by thermal annealing, the effect of the thermal annealing on the interface states is eliminated with the use of an extra annealing at a low temperature in a nitrogen ambient. It is also ascertained that the interface states enhanced by the gold diffusion increase as the density of diffused gold increases.

  18. Lipid diffusion in planar membranes investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Hof, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1798, č. 7 (2010), s. 1377-1391 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0114; GA AV ČR GEMEM/09/E006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : supported lipid bilayer * giant unilamellar vesicle * fluorescence recovery after photobleaching Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.647, year: 2010

  19. Dependence of metal-enhanced fluorescence on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Alexandre; Sciacca, Beniamino; Zuber, Agnieszka; Klantsataya, Elizaveta; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-03-01

    Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) takes advantage of the coupling between surface plasmons, in either a metallic thin film or metallic nanoparticles, and fluorophores located in proximity of the metal, yielding an increase of the fluorophore emission. While MEF has been widely studied on metallic nanoparticles with the emphasis on creating brighter fluorescent labels, planar surfaces have not benefitted from the same attention. Here we investigate the influence of the surface roughness of a thin metallic film on the fluorescence enhancement. 50nm thick silver films were deposited on glass slides using either thermal evaporation with different evaporation currents or an electroless plating method based on the Tollens reaction to vary the surface roughness. Multiple layers of positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes were deposited on top of the metallic coating to map out the enhancement factor as function of the gap between the metallic coating and fluorophore molecules covalently bound to the last polyelectrolyte layer. We show that fluorescence is enhanced by the presence of the metallic film, and in particular that the enhancement increases by a factor 3 to 40 for roughness ranging from 3 nm to 8 nm. Although these enhancement factors are modest compared to the enhancement produced by complex metallic nanoparticles or nano-patterned metallic thin films, the thin films used here are capable of supporting a plasmonic wave and offer the possibility of combining different techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance (with its higher refractive index sensitivity compared to localized plasmons) and MEF within a single device.

  20. Anisotropic diffusion of fluorescently labeled ATP in rat cardiomyocytes determined by raster image correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke

    2008-11-01

    A series of experimental data points to the existence of profound diffusion restrictions of ADP/ATP in rat cardiomyocytes. This assumption is required to explain the measurements of kinetics of respiration, sarcoplasmic reticulum loading with calcium, and kinetics of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. To be able to analyze and estimate the role of intracellular diffusion restrictions on bioenergetics, the intracellular diffusion coefficients of metabolites have to be determined. The aim of this work was to develop a practical method for determining diffusion coefficients in anisotropic medium and to estimate the overall diffusion coefficients of fluorescently labeled ATP in rat cardiomyocytes. For that, we have extended raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) protocols to be able to discriminate the anisotropy in the diffusion coefficient tensor. Using this extended protocol, we estimated diffusion coefficients of ATP labeled with the fluorescent conjugate Alexa Fluor 647 (Alexa-ATP). In the analysis, we assumed that the diffusion tensor can be described by two values: diffusion coefficient along the myofibril and that across it. The average diffusion coefficients found for Alexa-ATP were as follows: 83 +/- 14 microm(2)/s in the longitudinal and 52 +/- 16 microm(2)/s in the transverse directions (n = 8, mean +/- SD). Those values are approximately 2 (longitudinal) and approximately 3.5 (transverse) times smaller than the diffusion coefficient value estimated for the surrounding solution. Such uneven reduction of average diffusion coefficient leads to anisotropic diffusion in rat cardiomyocytes. Although the source for such anisotropy is uncertain, we speculate that it may be induced by the ordered pattern of intracellular structures in rat cardiomyocytes.

  1. Radiation-enhanced diffusion in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Rothman, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some phenomena that involves diffusion during irradiation include fission-product redistribution in reactor fuels, defect clustering in CTR walls or fast-reactor cladding, smearing-out of gradients in ion-implanted semiconductors, and microstructure development in a HVEM. This paper is a review of the basics of radiation-enhanced diffusion (REM). The present status of REM today is somewhat the same as diffusion in the 1940's, and recommendations are made for further work. 105 references

  2. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  3. Measurement of biomolecular diffusion in extracellular matrix condensed by fibroblasts using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kihara

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM comprises the heterogeneous environment outside of cells in a biological system. The ECM is dynamically organized and regulated, and many biomolecules secreted from cells diffuse throughout the ECM, regulating a variety of cellular processes. Therefore, investigation of the diffusive behaviors of biomolecules in the extracellular environment is critical. In this study, we investigated the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules of various sizes, measuring from 1 to 10 nm in radius, by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in contracted collagen gel caused by fibroblasts, a traditional culture model of dynamic rearrangement of collagen fibers. The diffusion coefficients of the biomolecules in control collagen gel without cells decreased slightly as compared to those in solution, while the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules in the contracted gel at the cell vicinity decreased dramatically. Additionally, the diffusion coefficients of biomolecules were inversely correlated with molecular radius. In collagen gels populated with fibroblasts, the diffusion coefficient at the cell vicinity clearly decreased in the first 24 h of culture. Furthermore, molecular diffusion was greatly restricted, with a central focus on the populated cells. By using the obtained diffusion coefficients of biomolecules, we calculated the collagen fiber condensation ratio by fibroblasts in the cell vicinity at 3 days of culture to represent a 52-fold concentration. Thus, biomolecular diffusion is restricted in the vicinity of the cells where collagen fibers are highly condensed.

  4. Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, R.M.; Yuan, H.-K.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Pairs of gold elliptical nanoparticles form antennae, resonant in the visible. A dye, embedded in a dielectric host, coats the antennae; its emission excites plasmon resonances in the antennae and is enhanced. Far-field excitation of the dye-nanoantenna system shows a wavelength-dependent increase...... for increasing light extraction from emitters localized around antennae and for potential development of a subwavelength sized laser. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Pleckstrin Homology Domain Diffusion in Dictyostelium Cytoplasm Studied Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Hink, Mark A.; Bosgraaf, Leonard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  6. Pleckstrin homology domain diffusion in Dictyostelium cytoplasm studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.; Hink, M.A.; Bosgraaf, L.; Haastert, van P.J.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  7. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.

    2016-12-28

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  8. Comparison of nanoparticle diffusion using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and differential dynamic microscopy within concentrated polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Namita; Issa, Christopher; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2017-12-01

    We studied the diffusion of nanoparticles (NPs) within aqueous entangled solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) by using two different optical techniques. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, a method widely used to investigate nanoparticle dynamics in polymer solution, was used to measure the long-time diffusion coefficient (D) of 25 nm radius particles within high molecular weight, Mw = 600 kg/mol PEO in water solutions. Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) was used to determine the wave-vector dependent dynamics of NPs within the same polymer solutions. Our results showed good agreement between the two methods, including demonstration of normal diffusion and almost identical diffusion coefficients obtained by both techniques. The research extends the scope of DDM to study the dynamics and rheological properties of soft matter at a nanoscale. The measured diffusion coefficients followed a scaling theory, which can be explained by the coupling between polymer dynamics and NP motion.

  9. Color Histogram Diffusion for Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taemin

    2011-01-01

    Various color histogram equalization (CHE) methods have been proposed to extend grayscale histogram equalization (GHE) for color images. In this paper a new method called histogram diffusion that extends the GHE method to arbitrary dimensions is proposed. Ranges in a histogram are specified as overlapping bars of uniform heights and variable widths which are proportional to their frequencies. This diagram is called the vistogram. As an alternative approach to GHE, the squared error of the vistogram from the uniform distribution is minimized. Each bar in the vistogram is approximated by a Gaussian function. Gaussian particles in the vistoram diffuse as a nonlinear autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. CHE results of color images showed that the approach is effective.

  10. Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, Hanna; Heinrich, Doris; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties

  11. Radiation-enhanced self- and boron diffusion in germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, S.; Bracht, H.; Klug, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    and the interstitialcy and dissociative diffusion mechanisms. The numerical simulations ascertain concentrations of Ge interstitials and B-interstitial pairs that deviate by several orders of magnitude from their thermal equilibrium values. The dominance of self-interstitial related defects under irradiation leads......We report experiments on proton radiation-enhanced self- and boron (B) diffusion in germanium (Ge) for temperatures between 515 ∘ C and 720 ∘ C. Modeling of the experimental diffusion profiles measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry is achieved on the basis of the Frenkel pair reaction...... to an enhanced self- and B diffusion in Ge. Analysis of the experimental profiles yields data for the diffusion of self-interstitials (I ) and the thermal equilibrium concentration of BI pairs in Ge. The temperature dependence of these quantities provides the migration enthalpy of I and formation enthalpy of BI...

  12. Fluorescence-enhancement with different ionic inputs in a cryptand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fluorescence enhancement; photoinduced electron transfer; cryptand receptor; metal cryptate. 1. Introduction ... ions. In this technique, the optical transduction of binding of metal ions with receptors is dependent upon the nature of the metal ion and its concentration, .... water, extracted with CHCl3, and after drying over.

  13. Enhancement of Fluorescent Labeling via a Composited Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taikei Suyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent labeling is the prevailing imaging technique in cell biological research. When statistical investigations on a large number of cells are involved, experimental study is required for both low magnification to get a reliable statistical population and high contrast to achieve accurate diagnosis on the nature of the cells’ perturbation. As microscope objectives of low magnification generally yield low collection efficiency, such studies are limited by the fluorescence signal weakness. To overcome this technological insufficiency, Le Moal et al. proposed a method based on metal-coated substrates that enhanced the fluorescence process and improved collection efficiency in fluorescence microscope observation and that could be directly used with a common microscope setup. In this paper, we use an Ag-Si3N4-Ag multilayer film coated on the substrate and numerically analyse the optical behavior of a fluorophore which was placed above the composited film coated on the substrate. The results shows that by using an Ag-Si3N4-Ag composited film the fluorescence imaging can be enhanced remarkably.

  14. Concentration Dependence of Gold Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joel; Wittmershaus, Bruce

    Noble metal nanoparticles possess a unique property known as surface plasmon resonance in which the conduction electrons oscillate due to incoming light, dramatically increasing their absorption and scattering of light. The oscillating electrons create a varying electric field that can affect nearby molecules. The fluorescence and photostability of fluorophores can be enhanced significantly when they are near plasmonic nanoparticles. This effect is called metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). MEF from two fluorescence organic dyes, Lucifer Yellow CH and Riboflavin, was measured with different concentrations of 50-nm colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au-NP). The concentration range of Au-NP was varied from 2.5 to 250 pM. To maximize the interaction, the dyes were chosen so their emission spectra had considerable overlap with the absorption spectra of the Au-NP, which is common in MEF studies. If the dye molecules are too close to the surface of Au-NP, fluorescence quenching can occur instead of MEF. To try to observe this difference, silica-coated Au-NP were compared to citrate-based Au-NP; however, fluorescence quenching was observed with both Au-NP. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF-ECCS-1306157.

  15. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tsung-Hua [Department of Dermatology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chen-Yuan, E-mail: cydong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Optimizing plasmon-enhanced fluorescence with nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, Nikolaos; Wubs, Martijn

    The fluorescence signal η of molecules coupled to plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is optimized through extended simulations, taking the metal nonlocal optical response fully into account. Solid Au and Ag nanospheres, as well as SiO2/Au(Ag) core/shell NPs (of total radius R), are engineered to maxim......The fluorescence signal η of molecules coupled to plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is optimized through extended simulations, taking the metal nonlocal optical response fully into account. Solid Au and Ag nanospheres, as well as SiO2/Au(Ag) core/shell NPs (of total radius R), are engineered......, through the recent Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response (GNOR) theory, the concurrent contribution of modal shifts and nonradiative losses, together with a reduced emitter excitation rate due to the decreased field intensity, lead always to a strong reduction of fluorescence (see Fig. 1). Finally, we...... identify situations where the common, intuitive recipe of tuning the NP modes to match λem can in fact lead to strong fluorescence quenching, instead of the anticipated enhancement. Our results highlight the necessity for careful modeling and design of plasmon-field-enhancement based applications....

  17. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors\\' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  18. Recent Developments in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy for Diffusion Measurements in Planar Lipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Hof, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2010), s. 427-457 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0114; GA AV ČR GEMEM/09/E006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lateral diffusion * fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2010

  19. New Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers illustrates axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection: simulation and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Timothy M; Foster, Thomas H

    2011-08-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo model of cylindrical diffusing fibers that is implemented with a graphics processing unit. Unlike previously published models that approximate the diffuser as a linear array of point sources, this model is based on the construction of these fibers. This allows for accurate determination of fluence distributions and modeling of fluorescence generation and collection. We demonstrate that our model generates fluence profiles similar to a linear array of point sources, but reveals axially heterogeneous fluorescence detection. With axially homogeneous excitation fluence, approximately 90% of detected fluorescence is collected by the proximal third of the diffuser for μ(s)'∕μ(a) = 8 in the tissue and 70 to 88% is collected in this region for μ(s)'∕μ(a) = 80. Increased fluorescence detection by the distal end of the diffuser relative to the center section is also demonstrated. Validation of these results was performed by creating phantoms consisting of layered fluorescent regions. Diffusers were inserted into these layered phantoms and fluorescence spectra were collected. Fits to these spectra show quantitative agreement between simulated fluorescence collection sensitivities and experimental results. These results will be applicable to the use of diffusers as detectors for dosimetry in interstitial photodynamic therapy.

  20. Strain enhanced lithium adsorption and diffusion on silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Luo, Youhua; Yan, Ting; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Meng

    2017-03-01

    The performance of Li-ion batteries relies heavily on the capacity and stability of constituent electrodes. Recently synthesized 2D silicene has demonstrated excellent Li-ion capacity with high charging rates. To explore the external influences for battery performance, in this work, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the effect of external strain on the adsorption and diffusion of Li on silicene monolayers. It was found that tensile strain could enhance Li binding on silicene. The diffusion barrier is also calculated and the results show that Li diffusion through silicene is facilitated by tensile strain, whereas the strain has a limited effect on the energy barrier of diffusion parallel to the plane of pristine silicene. Our results suggest that silicene could be a promising electrode material for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Control of Phosphorus Transient Enhanced Diffusion using Co-implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Aaron; Budrevich, Andre; Taylor, Mitch

    2006-11-01

    The production of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ) in silicon devices requires controlling the Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED) of electrical dopants. USJ development has focused on boron because hole mobility is lower than electron mobility in silicon and because arsenic has such excellent diffusion properties. However, the advent of strain enhanced mobility in P-type silicon has created the need to study higher solubility N-type dopants like phosphorus and find methods to control their diffusion. Co-implants have proven effective in controlling the interstitial diffusion mechanisms of boron TED. In this work the effectiveness of some co-implants on phosphorus to form high performance USJ is reported. It has been found that carbon and fluorine co-implants reduce phosphorus diffusion. As work with boron has shown, this is due to the carbon Kick-out mechanism and Fluorine-Vacancy clusters, both of which consume the interstitials driving TED. It has also been found that record levels of phosphorus diffusion control can be obtained if boron and carbon are co-implanted. In this junction diffusion control increases as the boron implant energy decreases; even as low as 0.5 KeV. However, this may be activating Uphill diffusion. The data also shows that the carbon implant energy has very little effect on phosphorus diffusion. The boron and carbon co-implants also produce the steepest phosphorus USJ yet reported at 2.5nm/decade with a solubility >1.0E21 atoms/cm3. Counter intuitively it has been found that the boron and carbon USJ is shallower with a higher solubility if the phosphorus implant energy is increased from 2 to 3 KeV. These boron and carbon co-implant findings are quite novel even if they are not technologically useful. They strongly support the widely held model that phosphorus TED occurs via an interstitial diffusion mechanism and that techniques to block this mechanism can control it. The boron implanted below the phosphorus is probably consuming interstitials

  2. Structural plasticity of green fluorescent protein to amino acid deletions and fluorescence rescue by folding-enhancing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-su; Wei, Xuan; Dong, Xue; Xu, Liang; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Biao

    2015-07-25

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivative fluorescent proteins (FPs) are among the most commonly used reporter systems for studying gene expression and protein interaction in biomedical research. Most commercially available FPs have been optimized for their oligomerization state to prevent potential structural constraints that may interfere with the native function of fused proteins. Other approach to reducing structural constraints may include minimizing the structure of GFPs. Previous studies in an enhanced GFP variant (EGFP) identified a series of deletions that can retain GFP fluorescence. In this study, we interrogated the structural plasticity of a UV-optimized GFP variant (GFP(UV)) to amino acid deletions, characterized the effects of deletions and explored the feasibility of rescuing the fluorescence of deletion mutants using folding-enhancing mutations. Transposon mutagenesis was used to screen amino acid deletions in GFP that led to fluorescent and nonfluorescent phenotypes. The fluorescent GFP mutants were characterized for their whole-cell fluorescence and fraction soluble. Fluorescent GFP mutants with internal deletions were purified and characterized for their spectral and folding properties. Folding-ehancing mutations were introduced to deletion mutants to rescue their compromised fluorescence. We identified twelve amino acid deletions that can retain the fluorescence of GFP(UV). Seven of these deletions are either at the N- or C- terminus, while the other five are located at internal helices or strands. Further analysis suggested that the five internal deletions diminished the efficiency of protein folding and chromophore maturation. Protein expression under hypothermic condition or incorporation of folding-enhancing mutations could rescue the compromised fluorescence of deletion mutants. In addition, we generated dual deletion mutants that can retain GFP fluorescence. Our results suggested that a "size-minimized" GFP may be developed by

  3. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy Reveals Local Diffusion Coefficients in the Pore Network of an Individual Catalyst Particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412642697; Meirer, Florian; Kubarev, Alexey V.; Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Vogt, Eelco T. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073717398; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2017-01-01

    We used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to study self-diffusion of a feedstock-like probe molecule with nanometer accuracy in the macropores of a micrometer-sized, real-life fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle. Movies of single fluorescent molecules allowed their movement through the

  4. Fluorescence-enhanced gadolinium-doped zinc oxide quantum dots for magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlan; Ai, Kelong; Yuan, Qinghai; Lu, Lehui

    2011-02-01

    We report here the development of Gd-doped ZnO quantum dots (QDs) as dual modal fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobes. They are fabricated in a simple, versatile and environmentally friendly method, not only decreasing the difficulty and complexity, but also avoiding the increase of particle's size brought about by silica coating procedure in the synthesis of nanoprobes reported previously. These nanoprobes, with exceptionally small size and enhanced fluorescence resulting from the Gd doping, can label successfully the HeLa cells in short time and present no evidence of toxicity or adverse affect on cell growth even at the concentration up to 1 mm. These results show that such nanoprobes have low toxicity, especially in comparison with the traditional PEGylated CdSe/ZnS or CdSe/CdS QDs. In MRI studies, they exert strong positive contrast effect with a large longitudinal relaxivity (r(1)) of water proton of 16 mm(-1) s(-1). Their capability of imaging HeLa cells with MRI implies that they have great potential as MRI contrast agents. Combining the high sensitivity of fluorescence imaging with high spatial resolution of MRI, We expect that the as-prepared Gd-doped Zno QDs can provide a better reliability of the collected data and find promising applications in biological, medical and other fields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fringe pattern denoising using coherence-enhancing diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian; Gao, Wenjing; Lin, Feng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2009-04-15

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is one of the methods measuring the displacement on object surfaces in which fringe patterns need to be evaluated. Noise is one of the key problems affecting further processing and reducing measurement quality. We propose an application of coherence-enhancing diffusion to fringe-pattern denoising. It smoothes a fringe pattern along directions both parallel and perpendicular to fringe orientation with suitable diffusion speeds to more effectively reduce noise and improve fringe-pattern quality. It is a generalized work of Tang's et al.'s [Opt. Lett.33, 2179 (2008)] model that only smoothes a fringe pattern along fringe orientation. Since our model diffuses a fringe pattern with an additional direction, it is able to denoise low-density fringes as well as improve denoising effectiveness for high-density fringes. Theoretical analysis as well as simulation and experimental verifications are addressed.

  6. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography: benefits of using the time-resolved modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography enables the three-dimensional reconstruction of fluorescence markers injected within a biological tissue, with light in the near infrared range. The simple continuous modality uses steady excitation light and operates from the measurements at different positions of the attenuation of the incident beam. This technique is low-cost, non-ionizing, and easy to handle, but subject to low resolution for thick tissues due to diffusion. Hopefully, the time-resolved modality, which provides the time of flight of any detected photon, could overcome this limitation and pave the way to clinical applications. This thesis aims at determining the best way to exploit the time resolved information and at quantifying the advantages of this modality over the standard continuous wave one. Model deviations must be carefully limited when ill-posed problems as fluorescence diffuse optical tomography are considered. As a result, we have first addressed the modelling part of the problem. We have shown that the photons density models to good approximation the measurable quantity that is the quantity measured by an actual acquisition set-up. Then, the moment-based reconstruction scheme has been thoroughly evaluated by means of a theoretical analysis of the moments properties. It was found that the moment-based approach requires high photon counts to be profitable compared to the continuous wave modality. Last, a novel wavelet-based approach, which enables an improved reconstruction quality, has been introduced. This approach has shown good ability to exploit the temporal information at lower photon counts. (author) [fr

  7. Enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic pulse trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Bartha, Robert

    2007-09-01

    A theoretical description and experimental validation of the enhanced diffusion weighting generated by selective adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulse trains is provided. Six phantoms (Ph-1-Ph-6) were studied on a 4 T Varian/Siemens whole body MRI system. Phantoms consisted of 2.8 cm diameter plastic tubes containing a mixture of 10 μm ORGASOL polymer beads and 2 mM Gd-DTPA dissolved in 5% agar (Ph-1) or nickel(II) ammonium sulphate hexahydrate doped (56.3-0.8 mM) water solutions (Ph-2-Ph-6). A customized localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) sequence containing slice selective AFP pulse trains and pulsed diffusion gradients applied in the phase encoding direction was used to measure 1H 2O diffusion. The b-value associated with the LASER sequence was derived using the Bloch-Torrey equation. The apparent diffusion coefficients measured by LASER were comparable to those measured by a conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence for all phantoms. Image signal intensity increased in Ph-1 and decreased in Ph-2-Ph-6 as AFP pulse train length increased while maintaining a constant echo-time. These experimental results suggest that such AFP pulse trains can enhance contrast between regions containing microscopic magnetic susceptibility variations and homogeneous regions in which dynamic dephasing relaxation mechanisms are dominant.

  8. Small-molecule diffusion through polycrystalline triglyceride networks quantified using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Melanie; Baker, Kenneth W; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2009-08-04

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been used to quantify Nile red diffusion through five different triglyceride crystal networks composed of pure peanut oil (PeO), pure chemically interesterified fully hydrogenated palm oil (IHPO), two blends of PeO and IHPO blended in different mass ratios (70:30 and 30:70%, w/w), and pure cocoa butter. Calculated components from FRAP experiments (effective diffusion coefficient (D(eff)) and mobile fraction (Mr)) were correlated with crystal network structural characteristics (crystalline mass fraction and permeability coefficient) and illustrated that D(eff) can be predicted using this tool. Higher-permeability coefficients found for higher fractal dimensions, lower volume fraction of solids, and larger average particle sizes were significantly correlated to higher D(eff).

  9. Enhanced Fluorescent Immunoassays on Silver Fractal-like Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Chang, I-Fen; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Goldys, Ewa; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Using the effect of the fluorescence enhancement in close proximity to metal nanostructures, we have been able to demonstrate ultrasensitive immunoassays suitable for the detection of biomarkers. Silver fractal-like structures have been grown by electrochemical reduction of silver on the surface of glass slides. A model immunoassay was performed on the slide surface with rabbit IgG (antigen) non-covalently immobilized on the slide, and Rhodamine Red-X labeled anti-rabbit IgG conjugate subsequently bound to the immobilized antigen. The fluorescence signal was measured from the glass-fractals surface using a confocal microscope, and the images were compared to the images from the same surface not coated with fractals. Our results showed significant enhancement (more than 100-fold) of the signal detected on fractals compared to bare glass. We thus demonstrate that such fractal-like structures can assist in improving the signals from assays used in medical diagnostics, especially those for analytes with molecular weight under 100 kD. PMID:18288816

  10. Multi-spectral and fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlu, Alper

    Multi-spectral and fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (DOT) techniques are explored and applied to image human breast cancer in vivo. Image reconstruction algorithms that utilize first and second order gradient information are described in detail. Breast DOT requires large computational memory and long run times. To this end, parallel computation techniques were developed appropriate to each reconstruction algorithm. A parallel plate DOT instrument developed for breast cancer imaging is described. The system relies heavily on continuous-wave (CW) transmission measurements and utilizes frequency domain (FD) measurements on the reemission side. However, traditional DOT image reconstruction methods based on CW measurements fail to separate tissue absorption and scattering uniquely. In this manuscript, multi-spectral DOT is shown to be capable of minimizing cross-talk and retrieving spectral parameters almost uniquely when the measurement wavelengths are optimized. A theoretical framework to select optimum wavelengths is provided, and tested with computer simulations. Results from phantom spectroscopy experiments and in vivo patient measurements support the notion that multi-spectral methods are superior to traditional DOT image reconstruction schemes. The same breast DOT instrument is improved and utilized to obtain the first in vivo images of human breast cancer based on fluorescence DOT (FDOT). To this end the fluorophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) is injected intravenously and fluorescence excitation and detection are accomplished in the soft-compression, parallel-plane, transmission geometry using laser sources at 786 nm and spectrally filtered CCD detection. Careful phantom and in vivo measurements are carried on to assure that the signals are due to ICG fluorescence, rather than tissue autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. An in vivo measurement protocol is designed to maximize the ICG contrast by acquiring full fluorescence tomographic scan during

  11. Fluorescence enhancement of DNA-silver nanoclusters from guanine proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-chih [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, Jaswinder [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Hyojong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-templated, silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs) are a versatile set of fluorophores and have already been used for live cell imaging, detection of specific metal ions, and single-nucleotide variation identification. Compared to commonly used organic dyes, these fluorescent nanoclusters have much better photostability and are often a few times brighter. Owing to their small size, simple preparation, and biocompatibility (i.e. made of nontoxic metals), DNA/Ag NCs should find more applications in biological imaging and chemical detection in the years to come. While clearly promising as new fluorophores, DNA/Ag NCs possess a unique and poorly understood dynamic process not shared by organic dyes or photoluminescent nanocrystals - the conversion among different NC species due to silver oxidation/reduction or NC regrouping. While this environmental sensitivity can be viewed as a drawback, in the appropriate context, it can be used as a sensor or reporter. Often reversible, conversions among different NC species have been found to depend upon a number of factors, including time, temperature, oxygen and salt content. In this communication, we report significant fluorescence enhancement of DNA/Ag NCs via interactions with guanine-rich DNA sequences. Moreover, we demonstrated this property can be used for sensitive detection of specific target DNA from a human oncogene (i.e. Braf gene).

  12. Fluorescence enhancement of mazindol in the presence of anionic surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Guardia, Miguel; Galdú, Manuel V.

    Experimental conditions for the determination of mazindol {[ 3H] imidazo(2,1-a)isoindol-5-ol-5(4 chlorophenyl-2,5 dihydro)} by u.v. spectroscopy and by spectrofluorimetry have been studied. We have found that the addition of anionic surfactants provides a four-fold increase in the sensitivity of the fluorimetric determination of mazindol at 325 nm. Sensitization parameters of each of the moieties of the anionic surfactant structures have been obtained and it has been found that the triethanolamine lauryl sulphate is the most adequate structure to produce an enhancement of the mazindol fluorescence. A new method for the fluorimetric determination of mazindol that involves prior u.v. irradiation of the samples is proposed which allows a sensitivity increase of 17,500% and a detection limit of 3.6 ng ml -1.

  13. Evaluation of a radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation hybrid forward solver for fluorescence molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    The solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging strongly influences the successful convergence of the fluorophore reconstruction. The most common approach to meeting this problem has been to apply the diffusion approximation. However, this model is a first-order angular approximation of the radiative transfer equation, and thus is subject to some well-known limitations. This manuscript proposes a methodology that confronts these limitations by applying the radiative transfer equation in spatial regions in which the diffusion approximation gives decreased accuracy. The explicit integro differential equations that formulate this model were solved by applying the Galerkin finite element approximation. The required spatial discretization of the investigated domain was implemented through the Delaunay triangulation, while the azimuthal discretization scheme was used for the angular space. This model has been evaluated on two simulation geometries and the results were compared with results from an independent Monte Carlo method and the radiative transfer equation by calculating the absolute values of the relative errors between these models. The results show that the proposed forward solver can approximate the radiative transfer equation and the Monte Carlo method with better than 95% accuracy, while the accuracy of the diffusion approximation is approximately 10% lower.

  14. A generative model for resolution enhancement of diffusion MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) presents unique opportunities for the exploration of white matter connectivity in vivo and non-invasively. However, DMRI suffers from insufficient spatial resolution, often limiting its utility to the studying of only major white matter structures. Many image enhancement techniques rely on expensive scanner upgrades and complex time-consuming sequences. We will instead take a post-processing approach in this paper for resolution enhancement of DMRI data. This will allow the enhancement of existing data without re-acquisition. Our method uses a generative model that reflects the image generation process and, after the parameters of the model have been estimated, we can effectively sample high-resolution images from this model. More specifically, we assume that the diffusion-weighted signal at each voxel is an agglomeration of signals from an ensemble of fiber segments that can be oriented and located freely within the voxel. Our model for each voxel therefore consists of an arbitrary number of signal generating fiber segments, and the model parameters that need to be determined are the locations and orientations of these fiber segments. Solving for these parameters is an ill-posed problem. However, by borrowing information from neighboring voxels, we show that this can be solved by using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that out method substantially increases structural visibility in both subcortical and cortical regions.

  15. Singular value decomposition metrics show limitations of detector design in diffuse fluorescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Frederic; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Pogue, Brian W

    2010-11-29

    The spatial resolution and recovered contrast of images reconstructed from diffuse fluorescence tomography data are limited by the high scattering properties of light propagation in biological tissue. As a result, the image reconstruction process can be exceedingly vulnerable to inaccurate prior knowledge of tissue optical properties and stochastic noise. In light of these limitations, the optimal source-detector geometry for a fluorescence tomography system is non-trivial, requiring analytical methods to guide design. Analysis of the singular value decomposition of the matrix to be inverted for image reconstruction is one potential approach, providing key quantitative metrics, such as singular image mode spatial resolution and singular data mode frequency as a function of singular mode. In the present study, these metrics are used to analyze the effects of different sources of noise and model errors as related to image quality in the form of spatial resolution and contrast recovery. The image quality is demonstrated to be inherently noise-limited even when detection geometries were increased in complexity to allow maximal tissue sampling, suggesting that detection noise characteristics outweigh detection geometry for achieving optimal reconstructions.

  16. Single-molecule-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer in freely-diffusing attoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanseresht, Sheema; Ramos, Kieran P.; Gamari, Ben D.; Goldner, Lori S., E-mail: lgoldner@physics.umass.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Milas, Peker [Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from individual, dye-labeled RNA molecules confined in freely-diffusing attoliter-volume aqueous droplets is carefully compared to FRET from unconfined RNA in solution. The use of freely-diffusing droplets is a remarkably simple and high-throughput technique that facilitates a substantial increase in signal-to-noise for single-molecular-pair FRET measurements. We show that there can be dramatic differences between FRET in solution and in droplets, which we attribute primarily to an altered pH in the confining environment. We also demonstrate that a sufficient concentration of a non-ionic surfactant mitigates this effect and restores FRET to its neutral-pH solution value. At low surfactant levels, even accounting for pH, we observe differences between the distribution of FRET values in solution and in droplets which remain unexplained. Our results will facilitate the use of nanoemulsion droplets as attoliter volume reactors for use in biophysical and biochemical assays, and also in applications such as protein crystallization or nanoparticle synthesis, where careful attention to the pH of the confined phase is required.

  17. A study of the diffusion dynamics and concentration distribution of gold nanospheres (GNSs) without fluorescent labeling inside live cells using fluorescence single particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

    2018-03-15

    Colloidal gold nanospheres (GNSs) have become important nanomaterials in biomedical applications due to their special optical properties, good chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, measuring the diffusion coefficients or concentration distribution of GNSs within live cells accurately without any extra fluorescent labeling in situ has still not been resolved. In this work, a single particle method is developed to study the concentration distribution of folic acid-modified GNSs (FA-GNSs) internalized via folate receptors, and investigates their diffusion dynamics within live cells using single particle fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We optimized the experimental conditions and verified the feasibility of 30 nm GNSs without extra fluorescence labeling being used for single particle detection inside live cells. Then, the FCS characterization strategy was used to measure the concentration and diffusion coefficient distributions of GNSs inside live cells and the obtained results were basically in agreement with those obtained by TEM. The results demonstrate that our strategy is characterized as an in situ, nondestructive, rapid and dynamic method for the assay of live cells, and it may be widely used in the further design of GNP-based drug delivery and therapeutics.

  18. Diffusion-like recommendation with enhanced similarity of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ya-Hui; Dong, Qiang; Sun, Chong-Jing; Nie, Da-Cheng; Fu, Yan

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, diversity and accuracy have been regarded as two important measures in evaluating a recommendation model. However, a clear concern is that a model focusing excessively on one measure will put the other one at risk, thus it is not easy to greatly improve diversity and accuracy simultaneously. In this paper, we propose to enhance the Resource-Allocation (RA) similarity in resource transfer equations of diffusion-like models, by giving a tunable exponent to the RA similarity, and traversing the value of this exponent to achieve the optimal recommendation results. In this way, we can increase the recommendation scores (allocated resource) of many unpopular objects. Experiments on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and RateYourMusic show that the modified models can yield remarkable performance improvement compared with the original ones.

  19. Multi-site and multi-depth in vivo cancer localization enhancement after auto-fluorescence removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montcuquet, A.S.; Herve, L.; Navarro, F.; Dinten, J.M.; Mars, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in diffusive media locates tumors tagged by injected fluorescent markers in NIR wavelengths. For deep embedded markers, natural auto-fluorescence of tissues comes to be a limiting factor to tumor detection and accurate FDOT reconstructions. A spectroscopic approach coupled with Non-negative Matrix Factorization source separation method is explored to discriminate fluorescence sources according to their fluorescence spectra and remove unwanted auto-fluorescence. We successfully removed auto-fluorescence from acquisitions on living mice with a single subcutaneous tumor or two capillary tubes inserted at different depths. (authors)

  20. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, Jörg P.; Mogensen, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver...... quantum clusters are subsequently synthesized at the surface of the nanoparticles by photoactivation in presence of Ag+ cations in solution. The photogeneration of these silver quantum clusters leads to a great increase in the fluorescent signal. This photoactivated surface can then be used for sensing...... purposes. It was found, that in presence of a strong nucleophile (such as CN-), silver quantum clusters are dissolved into non-fluorescing AgCN complexes, resulting in a fast and observable decrease of the fluorescent signal....

  1. Diffusion behaviors of fluorescence probe molecules through the stratum corneum layer under physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Kim, Jin Woong

    2013-04-01

    This study experimentally demonstrates how application of an external physical stress onto the skin membrane affects the permeation of penetrating molecules. As a proxy of active compounds, in this study, a series of fluorescence probe molecules were utilized. We observed that skin permeation could be enhanced by imparting vertical strokes from a tapping head consisting of projections onto the skin. This was confirmed with consistency from in vitro and in vivo transdermal permeation studies. After an effective physical stress was applied to the skin, the permeation depth of probe molecules remarkably increased, which was comparable to the case of topical treatment. This seems to arise from temporal disordering of the stratum corneum layer in response to the applied physical stress.

  2. Gold nanoparticle cluster-plasmon-enhanced fluorescent silica core-shell nanoparticles for X-ray computed tomography-fluorescence dual-mode imaging of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michihiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Shuji; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Ishimura, Kazunori

    2013-06-11

    Owing to the surface plasmon resonance-enhanced electromagnetic field, clustered gold nanoparticles-fluorescent silica core-shell nanoparticles became excited within the therapeutic window and fluoresced strongly in this window. The nanoparticles enabled tumor detection using fluorescence imaging and X-ray computed tomography.

  3. Fluorescence enhancement and reflection of the excitation light observed with a multilayered substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Takuo; Yasuda, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence enhancement from a multilayered substrate fabricated with Ag and Al(2)O(3) was investigated using fluorescein, rhodamine B, Cy3, and Cy5 as fluorophores. The change in the fluorescence enhancement with Al(2)O(3) had two peaks and one valley in the range from 0 to 300 nm of Al(2)O(3) thickness, and such peaks and valley were found to appear periodically. Moreover, the reflection of the excitation light from the multilayered substrate was investigated. The reflection of the excitation light periodically changed depending on the Al(2)O(3) thickness as well, and the maximum reflection was observed near the Al(2)O(3) thickness of the peak fluorescence enhancement. It was found that the periodic changes of the fluorescence enhancement and the reflection of the excitation light could be explained, for the most part, with the integral multiples of the lambda/4 derived by a simple interference theory.

  4. Energy Conservation Using Scotopically Enhanced Fluorescent Lighting In An Office Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-03-01

    This study was conducted in a recently built and occupied office building to determine whether the energy savings benefits of scotopically enhanced fluorescent lighting can be achieved while maintaining user acceptability.

  5. Silver nanoparticle aggregates as highly efficient plasmonic antennas for fluorescence enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.; Tian, L.; Somerville, W.R.C.; Ru, Le E.C.; Amerongen, van H.; Subramaniam, V.

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced local fields around plasmonic structures can lead to enhancement of the excitation and modification of the emission quantum yield of fluorophores. So far, high enhancement of fluorescence intensity from dye molecules was demonstrated using bow-tie gap antenna made by e-beam lithography.

  6. Silver Nanoparticle Aggregates as Highly Efficient Plasmonic Antennas for Fluorescence Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, Ron; Tian, L.; Somerville, W.R.C.; le Ru, E.C.; Amerongen, H.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced local fields around plasmonic structures can lead to enhancement of the excitation and modification of the emission quantum yield of fluorophores. So far, high enhancement of fluorescence intensity from dye molecules was demonstrated using bow-tie gap antenna made by e-beam lithography.

  7. Monitoring the diffusion behavior of Na,K-ATPase by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) upon fluorescence labelling with eGFP or Dreiklang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Cornelia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Vukojević, Vladana; Friedrich, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of lateral mobility of membraneembedded proteins in living cells with high spatial and temporal precision is a challenging task of optofluidics. Biological membranes are complex structures, whose physico-chemical properties depend on the local lipid composition, cholesterol content and the presence of integral or peripheral membrane proteins, which may be involved in supramolecular complexes or are linked to cellular matrix proteins or the cytoskeleton. The high proteinto- lipid ratios in biomembranes indicate that membrane proteins are particularly subject to molecular crowding, making it difficult to follow the track of individual molecules carrying a fluorescence label. Novel switchable fluorescence proteins such as Dreiklang [1], are, in principle, promising tools to study the diffusion behavior of individual molecules in situations of molecular crowding due to excellent spectral control of the ON- and OFF-switching process. In this work, we expressed an integral membrane transport protein, the Na,K-ATPase comprising the human α2-subunit carrying an N-terminal eGFP or Dreiklang tag and human β1-subunit, in HEK293T cells and measured autocorrelation curves by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Furthermore,we measured diffusion times and diffusion constants of eGFP and Dreiklang by FCS, first, in aqueous solution after purification of the proteins upon expression in E. coli, and, second, upon expression as soluble proteins in the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells. Our data show that the diffusion behavior of the purified eGFP and Dreiklang in solution as well as the properties of the proteins expressed in the cytoplasm are very similar. However, the autocorrelation curves of eGFP- and Dreiklanglabeled Na,K-ATPase measured in the plasma membrane exhibit marked differences, with the Dreiklang-labeled construct showing shorter diffusion times. This may be related to an additional, as yet unrecognized quenching process that occurs on the same time

  8. Silver-graphene oxide based plasmonic spacer for surface plasmon-coupled fluorescence emission enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sathish Ramamurthy, Sai

    2017-06-01

    We report the application of single layered graphene oxide (SLGO) and silver decorated SLGO (Ag-SLGO) as plasmonic spacer material for obtaining enhanced fluorescence from a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) radiating dipole in a surface plasmon-coupled emission platform. To this end, we have decorated SLGO with biphasic silver nanoparticles using an in situ deposition technique to achieve 112-fold fluorescence enhancements.

  9. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals–A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H.; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructue CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing. PMID:26400503

  10. Anomalous Fluorescence Enhancement from Double Heterostructure 3D Colloidal Photonic Crystals--A Multifunctional Fluorescence-Based Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Kim, Tak H; Gan, Zongsong; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Kielpinski, Dave; Gu, Min; Li, Qin

    2015-09-24

    Augmenting fluorescence intensity is of vital importance to the development of chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and miniature light sources. Here we report an unprecedented fluorescence enhancement with a novel architecture of multilayer three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals self-assembled from polystyrene spheres. The new technique uses a double heterostructure, which comprises a top and a bottom layer with a periodicity overlapping the excitation wavelength (E) of the emitters, and a middle layer with a periodicity matching the fluorescence wavelength (F) and a thickness that supports constructive interference for the excitation wavelength. This E-F-E double heterostructure displays direction-dependent light trapping for both excitation and fluorescence, coupling the modes of photonic crystal with multiple-beam interference. The E-F-E double heterostructure renders an additional 5-fold enhancement to the extraordinary FL amplification of Rhodamine B in monolithic E CPhCs, and 4.3-fold acceleration of emission dynamics. Such a self-assembled double heterostructure CPhCs may find significant applications in illumination, laser, chemical/biochemical sensing, and solar energy harvesting. We further demonstrate the multi-functionality of the E-F-E double heterostructure CPhCs in Hg (II) sensing.

  11. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  12. Enhancing early bladder cancer detection with fluorescence-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  13. Nanoscale control of Ag nanostructures for plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Fang

    2013-05-23

    Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based detection techniques. Metal induced fluorescence enhancement offers the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of protein detection in clinical applications. We report the use of tunable plasmonic silver nanostructures for the fluorescence enhancement of a near-infrared (NIR) dye (Alexa Fluor 790). Extensive fluorescence enhancement of ∼2 orders of magnitude is obtained by the nanoscale control of the Ag nanostructure dimensions and interparticle distance. These Ag nanostructures also enhanced fluorescence from a dye with very high quantum yield (7.8 fold for Alexa Fluor 488, quantum efficiency (Qy) = 0.92). A combination of greatly enhanced excitation and an increased radiative decay rate, leading to an associated enhancement of the quantum efficiency leads to the large enhancement. These results show the potential of Ag nanostructures as metal induced fluorescence enhancement (MIFE) substrates for dyes in the NIR "biological window" as well as the visible region. Ag nanostructured arrays fabricated by colloidal lithography thus show great potential for NIR dye-based biosensing applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Effects of arsenic deactivation on arsenic-implant induced enhanced diffusion in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokumaci, O.; Law, M.E.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Jones, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The enhanced diffusion of boron due to high dose arsenic implantation into silicon is studied as a function of arsenic dose. The behavior of both the type-V and end-of-range loops is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The role of arsenic deactivation induced interstitials and type-V loops on enhanced diffusion is assessed. Reduction of the boron diffusivity is observed with increasing arsenic dose at three different temperatures. The possible explanations for this reduction are discussed

  15. Enhanced extraction efficiency of fluorescent SiC by surface nanostructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%.......Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%....

  16. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, Jörg P.; Mogensen, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver...

  17. Fluorescence-enhancement with different ionic inputs in a cryptand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of a metal ion, weak fluorescence is observed upon excitation of the anthryl group owing to efficient photo-induced electron transfer (PET) of the lone pair of N attached to the anthryl group. However, when a metal salt is added, the lone pair is engaged, thus in blocking of the PET and leading to recovery of ...

  18. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, J.P.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver q...

  19. Synergistic Combination of Unquenching and Plasmonic Fluorescence Enhancement in Fluorogenic Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietz, Carolin; Lalkens, Birka; Acuna, Guillermo P; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2017-10-11

    Fluorogenic nucleic acid hybridization probes are widely used for detecting and quantifying nucleic acids. The achieved sensitivity strongly depends on the contrast between a quenched closed form and an unquenched opened form with liberated fluorescence. So far, this contrast was improved by improving the quenching efficiency of the closed form. In this study, we modularly combine these probes with optical antennas used for plasmonic fluorescence enhancement and study the effect of the nanophotonic structure on the fluorescence of the quenched and the opened form. As quenched fluorescent dyes are usually enhanced more by fluorescence enhancement, a detrimental reduction of the contrast between closed and opened form was anticipated. In contrast, we could achieve a surprising increase of the contrast with full additivity of quenching of the dark form and fluorescence enhancement of the bright form. Using single-molecule experiments, we demonstrate that the additivity of the two mechanisms depends on the perfect quenching in the quenched form, and we delineate the rules for new nucleic acid probes for enhanced contrast and absolute brightness. Fluorogenic hybridization probes optimized not only for quenching but also for the brightness of the open form might find application in nucleic acid assays with PCR avoiding detection schemes.

  20. Identifiability analysis of rotational diffusion tensor and electronic transition moments measured in time-resolved fluorescence depolarization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is studies of the deterministic identifiability of molecular parameters, such as rotational diffusion tensor components and orientation of electronic transition moments, resulting from the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiment. In the most general case considered, a pair of perpendicularly polarized emissions enables the unique determination of all the rotational diffusion tensor's principal components. The influence of the tensor's symmetry and the associated degeneration of its eigenvalues on the identifiability of the electronic transitions moments is systematically investigated. The analysis reveals that independently of the rotational diffusion tensor's symmetry, the transition moments involved in photoselection and emission processes cannot be uniquely identified without a priori information about their mutual orientation or their orientation with respect to the principal axes of the tensor. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the symmetry of the rotational diffusion tensor deteriorates the degree of the transition moments identifiability. To obtain these results analytically, a novel approach to solve bilinear system of equations for Markov parameters is applied. The effect of the additional information, obtained from fluorescence measurements for different molecular mobilities, to improve the identifiability at various levels of analysis is shown. The effectiveness and reliability of the target analysis method for experimental determination of the molecular parameters is also discussed

  1. The influence of cheese composition and microstructure on the diffusion of macromolecules: A study using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeau, A L; Silva, Juliana V C; Schuck, Pierre; Thierry, Anne; Floury, Juliane

    2016-02-01

    In cheese technology, the diffusion phenomena are crucial during ripening. The technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching was applied for the first time on real cheese, in order to investigate the relationships between molecular diffusion and the cheese composition and/or its microstructure. Measured effective diffusion coefficients in soft and hard cheese of a group of dextrans (10-500 kDa) were found to be in the same order of magnitude with values observed when using a comparable non-fat model cheese (∼ 0.1-20 μm(2) s(-1)). Diffusion of the dextrans was mainly dependent on the fraction of "free" aqueous phase present in the cheese, closely which is linked to cheese-making technology and ripening stage. Diffusion coefficients were modeled by a power law relationship as a function of dextran molecular weight, which allowed some study of the cheese microstructure. A tighter protein network will require some deformation of those flexible macromolecules with a higher molecular weight (>250 kDa), in order to diffuse through the pores of such cheese structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa, E-mail: ktorigoe@sumcosi.com; Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki [Technology Division, Advanced Evaluation and Technology Development Department, SUMCO Corporation, 1-52 Kubara, Yamashiro-cho, Imari, Saga 849-4256 (Japan); Nakamura, Kozo [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  3. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K; Carter, Michael S; Alcala, Diego B; Brown, Avery E; Chattin, Amy M; Haldeman, Brian D; Walsh, Michael P; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. © 2015 Hong et al.

  4. Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Hens, Philip

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, antireflective sub-wavelength structures have been fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC to enhance the white light extraction efficiency by using the reactive-ion etching method. Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection characteristics show that 6H-SiC with antireflective sub......-wavelength structures suppress the average surface reflection significantly from 20.5% to 1.01% over a wide spectral range of 390-784 nm. The luminescence intensity of the fluorescent 6H-SiC could be enhanced in the whole emission angle range. It maintains an enhancement larger than 91% up to the incident angle of 70...

  5. Preclinical, fluorescence and diffuse optical tomography: non-contact instrumentation, modeling and time-resolved 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouizi, F.

    2011-09-01

    Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-DOT) is a new non-invasive imaging technique increasingly used in the clinical and preclinical fields. It yields optical absorption and scattering maps of the explored organs, and related physiological parameters. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Diffuse Optical Tomography (TR-FDOT) is based on the detection of fluorescence photons. It provides spatio-temporal maps of fluorescent probe concentrations and life times, and allows access to metabolic and molecular imaging which is important for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, particularly in oncology. The main goal of this thesis was to reconstruct 3D TR-DOT/TR-FDOT images of small animals using time-resolved optical technology. Data were acquired using optical fibers fixed around the animal without contact with its surface. The work was achieved in four steps: 1)- Setting up an imaging device to record the 3D coordinates of an animal's surface; 2)- Modeling the no-contact approach to solve the forward problem; 3)- Processing of the measured signals taking into account the impulse response of the device; 4)- Implementation of a new image reconstruction method based on a selection of carefully chosen points. As a result, good-quality 3D optical images were obtained owing to reduced cross-talk between absorption and scattering. Moreover, the computation time was cut down, compared to full-time methods using whole temporal profiles. (author)

  6. Electrochemical and Laser Deposition of Silver for Use in Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes, Chris D.; Parfenov, Alexandr; Roll, David; Fang, Jiyu; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    We describe two reagentless methods of silver deposition for metal-enhanced fluorescence. Silver was deposited on glass positioned between two silver electrodes with a constant current in pure water. Illumination of the glass between the electrodes resulted in localized silver deposition. Alternatively, silver was deposited on an Indium Tin Oxide cathode, with a silver electrode as the anode. Both types of deposited silver produced a 5–18-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of a nearb...

  7. Enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of DNA intercalators using nano-imprinted 2-dimensional photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Ueda, China; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Kajita, Hiroshi; Okuda, Norimichi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated polymer-based 2-dimensional photonic crystals that play a key role in enhancing the fluorescence of DNA intercalators. Highly ordered 2-dimensional photonic crystals possessing triangle-shaped and nm-sized hole arrays were fabricated on a 100 μm thick polymer film using nano-imprint lithography. Samples of double-stranded DNAs (sizes: 4361 and 48502 bp; concentration: 1 pM to 10 nM) were adsorbed on the surface of the 2-dimensional photonic crystal by electrostatic interactions and then treated with intercalators. It is found that the fluorescence intensity of the intercalator is enhanced by a factor of up to 10 compared to the enhancement in the absence of the 2-dimensional photonic crystal. Fluorescence intensity increases with increasing length and concentration of the DNAs. If the 2-dimensional photonic crystal is used as a Bragg reflection mirror, the enhancement of fluorescence intensity can be easily observed using a conventional spectrofluorometer. These results suggest that the printed photonic crystal offers a great potential for highly sensitive intercalator-based fluorescent detection of DNAs. (author)

  8. Fluorescence enhancement in large-scale self-assembled gold nanoparticle double arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekini, M.; Bierwagen, J.; Cunningham, A.; Bürgi, T.; Filter, R.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonances excited in metallic nanoparticles confine and enhance electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale. This is particularly pronounced in dimers made from two closely spaced nanoparticles. When quantum emitters, such as dyes, are placed in the gap of those dimers, their absorption and emission characteristics can be modified. Both processes have to be considered when aiming to enhance the fluorescence from the quantum emitters. This is particularly challenging for dimers, since the electromagnetic properties and the enhanced fluorescence sensitively depend on the distance between the nanoparticles. Here, we use a layer-by-layer method to precisely control the distances in such systems. We consider a dye layer deposited on top of an array of gold nanoparticles or integrated into a central position of a double array of gold nanoparticles. We study the effect of the spatial arrangement and the average distance on the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. We found a maximum of a 99-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of the dye layer sandwiched between two gold nanoparticle arrays. The interaction of the dye layer with the plasmonic system also causes a spectral shift in the emission wavelengths and a shortening of the fluorescence life times. Our work paves the way for large-scale, high throughput, and low-cost self-assembled functionalized plasmonic systems that can be used as efficient light sources

  9. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  10. Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose-cationic surfactant interactions: Electrical conductivity, self-diffusion, and time-resolved fluorescence quenching investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zana, R.; Binana-Limbele, W. [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France); Kamenka, N. [CNRS URA, Montpellier (France)] [and others

    1992-06-25

    The interaction of EHEC with CTAC and CTAB in aqueous solution is investigated as a function of temperature, electrical conductivity, chloride ion self-diffusion (CTAC), and time-resolved fluorescence quenching (CTAC, CTAB). The EHEC-cationic surfactant strength increases with temperature, resulting in a decreased critical micellization concentration, increased micelle ionization degree, and decreased micelle aggregation number that can be used to explain the reaction with pyrene. The polymer-bound surfactant micelles may hinder the motion of probe and quencher more than free micelles. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Nanograting-based plasmon enhancement for total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyujung; Cho, Eun-Jin; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Dong Jun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated evanescent field enhancement based on subwavelength nanogratings for improved sensitivity in total internal reflection microscopy of live cells. The field enhancement is associated with subwavelength-grating-coupled plasmon excitation. An optimum sample employed a silver grating on a silver film and an SF10 glass substrate. Field intensity was enhanced by approximately 90% when measured by fluorescent excitation of microbeads relative to that on a bare prism as a control, which is in good agreement with numerical results. The subwavelength-grating-mediated field enhancement was also applied to live cell imaging of quantum dots, which confirmed the sensitivity enhancement qualitatively.

  12. Metal-enhanced fluorescent detection for protein microarrays based on a silver plasmonic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Min; Qiang, Weibing; Hu, Hongting; Li, Wei; Xu, Danke

    2014-04-07

    This paper presents an ultrasensitive fluorescent detection method through fabricating a silver microarray substrate. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles with different sizes were first synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method and the metal-enhanced fluorescence of these nanoparticles on different fluorescent dyes was investigated. The results indicated that AgNPs could act as a versatile and effective metal-enhanced fluorescence material for various fluorophores, whereas the enhanced fluorescence from Ag@Au was limited only to certain fluorophores. When the AgNPs were functionalized with aptamers and fluorescent dyes, a good analytical performance for simultaneous detection of human IgE and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) could be obtained. AgNPs were not only used as detection tags but also used to fabricate the plasmonic microarray substrate to further enhance the sensitivity of fluorescent detection. As a result, a linear response to PDGF-BB concentration was obtained in the concentration range of 16 pg mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1), and the detection limit was 3.2 pg mL(-1). In addition, the AgNP modified plasmonic microarrays showed remarkable recovery and no significant interference from human serum when applied to 2 ng mL(-1) PDGF-BB concentration. The plasmonic microarray substrate demonstrated both high specificity and sensitivity for protein microarray detection and this novel approach has great potential for ultrasensitive detection of protein biomarkers in the bio-medical field.

  13. Selective recognition of Glutamate based on fluorescence enhancement of graphene quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Morteza; Khabbaz, Hossein; Dezfoli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dadmehr, Mehdi

    2015-02-05

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have successfully been utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescence chemosensor to detect selectively Glutamate (Glu) in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH=9). The fluorescence emission spectrum of graphene quantum dots was at about 430nm. The study showed that fluorescence intensity of the quantum dot gradually enhanced with increase in concentration of Glutamate and any change in fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of Glutamate. Under optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of Glutamate was 1.6×10(-7)M to 1.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 5.2×10(-8)M. The sensor showed high selectivity toward Glutamate in comparison with other amino acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of the conjugated polymer films based on well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Benbin; Zu, Xihong, E-mail: zxhong329@126.com; Yi, Guobin, E-mail: ygb702@163.com; Huang, Hailiang; Zhang, Minghai; Luo, Hongsheng [Guangdong University of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays on silicon substrates were employed as efficient metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) substrates for investigating the fluorescence properties of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The ordered Au nanoparticle arrays were fabricated by block copolymer self-assembly technology, and the particle sizes were controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of HAuCl{sub 4} precursor to vinyl pyridine units. The approach is economical and suitable to fabricate large-area MEF substrates. The results about fluorescence properties of P3HT showed that the fluorescence intensities of the P3HT films were improved on ordered Au nanoparticle arrays compared to those on bare silicon substrate and were significantly enhanced with the Au nanoparticle sizes increasing. The mechanism is based on localized surface plasmon resonances, coupling and propagating surface plasmons, and the emission enhancement mainly resulted from the increase of the excitation rate. This work provides a new way to prepare efficient MEF substrates for high-performance fluorescence-based devices.

  15. Fluorescence enhancement of the conjugated polymer films based on well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Benbin; Zu, Xihong; Yi, Guobin; Huang, Hailiang; Zhang, Minghai; Luo, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays on silicon substrates were employed as efficient metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) substrates for investigating the fluorescence properties of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The ordered Au nanoparticle arrays were fabricated by block copolymer self-assembly technology, and the particle sizes were controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of HAuCl 4 precursor to vinyl pyridine units. The approach is economical and suitable to fabricate large-area MEF substrates. The results about fluorescence properties of P3HT showed that the fluorescence intensities of the P3HT films were improved on ordered Au nanoparticle arrays compared to those on bare silicon substrate and were significantly enhanced with the Au nanoparticle sizes increasing. The mechanism is based on localized surface plasmon resonances, coupling and propagating surface plasmons, and the emission enhancement mainly resulted from the increase of the excitation rate. This work provides a new way to prepare efficient MEF substrates for high-performance fluorescence-based devices.

  16. Detection of DNA hybridization based on SnO2 nanomaterial enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cuiping; Huang Jiarui; Ni Ning; Li Minqiang; Liu Jinhuai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, enhanced fluorescence emissions were firstly investigated based on SnO 2 nanomaterial, and its application in the detection of DNA hybridization was also demonstrated. The microarray of SnO 2 nanomaterial was fabricated by the vapour phase transport method catalyzed by patterned Au nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. A probe DNA was immobilized on the substrate with patterned SnO 2 nanomaterial, respectively, by covalent and non-covalent linking schemes. When a fluorophore labelled target DNA was hybridized with a probe DNA on the substrate, fluorescence emissions were only observed on the surface of SnO 2 nanomaterial, which indicated the property of enhancing fluorescence signals from the SnO 2 nanomaterial. By comparing the different fluorescence images from covalent and non-covalent linking schemes, the covalent method was confirmed to be more effective for immobilizing a probe DNA. With the combined use of SnO 2 nanomaterial and the covalent linking scheme, the target DNA could be detected at a very low concentration of 10 fM. And the stability of SnO 2 nanomaterial under the experimental conditions was also compared with silicon nanowires. The findings strongly suggested that SnO 2 nanomaterial could be extensively applied in detections of biological samples with enhancing fluorescence property and high stability

  17. Prediction of Ba, Co and Ni for tropical soils using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes Camargo, Livia; Marques Júnior, José; Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni, Luís; Tadeu Pereira, Gener; De Bortoli Teixeira, Daniel; Santos Rabelo de Souza Bahia, Angélica

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impact assessments may be assisted by spatial characterization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) are rapid, non-destructive, low-cost, prediction tools for a simultaneous characterization of different soil attributes. Although low concentrations of PTEs might preclude the observation of spectral features, their contents can be predicted using spectroscopy by exploring the existing relationship between the PTEs and soil attributes with spectral features. This study aimed to evaluate, in three geomorphic surfaces of Oxisols, the capacity for predicting PTEs (Ba, Co, and Ni) and their spatial variability by means of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). For that, soil samples were collected from three geomorphic surfaces and analyzed for chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties, and then analyzed in DRS (visible + near infrared - VIS+NIR and medium infrared - MIR) and XRF equipment. PTE prediction models were calibrated using partial least squares regression (PLSR). PTE spatial distribution maps were built using the values calculated by the calibrated models that reached the best accuracy using geostatistics. PTE prediction models were satisfactorily calibrated using MIR DRS for Ba, and Co (residual prediction deviation - RPD > 3.0), Vis DRS for Ni (RPD > 2.0) and FRX for all the studied PTEs (RPD > 1.8). DRS- and XRF-predicted values allowed the characterization and the understanding of spatial variability of the studied PTEs.

  18. Fluorescence enhancement of quercetin complexes by silver nanoparticles and its analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Zhao, Liangliang; Wu, Xia; Huang, Fei; Wang, Minqin; Liu, Xiaodan

    2014-03-01

    It is found that the plasmon effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) helps to enhance the fluorescence intensity of the quercetin (Qu) and nucleic acids system. Qu exhibited strong fluorescence enhancement when it bound to nucleic acids in the presence of AgNPs. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of nucleic acids was developed. The detection limits for the nucleic acids (S/N = 3) were reduced to the ng mL-1 level. The interaction mechanism of the AgNPs-fish sperm DNA (fsDNA)-Qu system was also investigated in this paper. This complex system of Qu and AgNPs was also successfully used for the detection of nucleic acids in agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Preliminary results indicated that AgNPs also helped to improve sensitivity in the fluorescence image analysis of Qu combined with cellular contents in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts.

  19. Increased fluorescence of PbS quantum dots in photonic crystals by excitation enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Carlo; Roder, Sebastian; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Kraus, Tobias; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Burger, Sven; Becker, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    We report on the enhanced fluorescence of lead sulfide quantum dots interacting with leaky modes of slab-type silicon photonic crystals. The photonic crystal slabs were fabricated, supporting leaky modes in the near infrared wavelength range. Lead sulfite quantum dots which are resonant in the same spectral range were prepared in a thin layer above the slab. We selectively excited the leaky modes by tuning the wavelength and angle of incidence of the laser source and measured distinct resonances of enhanced fluorescence. By an appropriate experiment design, we ruled out directional light extraction effects and determined the impact of enhanced excitation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations consistently explain the experimental findings by strong near-field enhancements in the vicinity of the photonic crystal surface. Our study provides a basis for systematic tailoring of photonic crystals used in biological applications such as biosensing and single molecule detection, as well as quantum dot solar cells and spectral conversion applications.

  20. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B + , the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 x 10 14 and of 1 x 10 15 /cm -2 . Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B + requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold

  1. Thin-film-based sensitivity enhancement for total internal reflection fluorescence live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyujung; Cho, Eun-Jin; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Donghyun

    2007-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the evanescent field enhancement based on dielectric thin films in total internal reflection microscopy. The sample employed two layers of Al2O3 and SiO2 deposited on an SF10 glass substrate. Field intensity enhancement measured by fluorescent excitation of microbeads relative to that of a control sample without dielectric films was polarization dependent, determined as 4.2 and 2.4 for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, and was in good agreement with numerical results. The thin-film-based field enhancement was also applied to live-cell imaging of quantum dots, which confirmed the sensitivity enhancement qualitatively.

  2. How nonlocal damping reduces plasmon-enhanced fluorescence in ultranarrow gaps [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    , in comparison with appropriate analytical modelling, it is shown that, within classical electrodynamics, and for the largely reduced separations explored, fluorescence enhancement factors of the order of 106 can be achieved. This remarkable prediction is mainly governed by the dramatic increase in excitation...

  3. Controlling Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence via Intersystem Crossing in Photoswitchable Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingsong; Hartmann, Gregory; Wu, Zilong; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Jarrett, Jeremy W; Perillo, Evan P; Dunn, Andrew K; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Hwang, Gyeong S; Zheng, Yuebing

    2017-10-01

    By harnessing photoswitchable intersystem crossing (ISC) in spiropyran (SP) molecules, active control of plasmon-enhanced fluorescence in the hybrid systems of SP molecules and plasmonic nanostructures is achieved. Specifically, SP-derived merocyanine (MC) molecules formed by photochemical ring-opening reaction display efficient ISC due to their zwitterionic character. In contrast, ISC in quinoidal MC molecules formed by thermal ring-opening reaction is negligible. The high ISC rate can improve fluorescence quantum yield of the plasmon-modified spontaneous emission, only when the plasmonic electromagnetic field enhancement is sufficiently high. Along this line, extensive photomodulation of fluorescence is demonstrated by switching the ISC in MC molecules at Au nanoparticle aggregates, where strongly enhanced plasmonic hot spots exist. The ISC-mediated plasmon-enhanced fluorescence represents a new approach toward controlling the spontaneous emission of fluorophores near plasmonic nanostructures, which expands the applications of active molecular plasmonics in information processing, biosensing, and bioimaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Determination of norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin by carbon dots fluorescence enhancement using magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jianhao; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yaling

    2018-01-27

    The authors describe a method for the determination of norfloxacin (NOR) or ciprofloxacin (CIP). It is making use of a combination of fluorescence enhancement and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Sulfur-doped carbon dots (S-CDs) are used as a fluorescent probe. They were prepared by a one-pot method using poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a source for carbon and sulfur. NOR or CIP act as sensitizers of fluorescence (with excitation/emission maxima at 324/412 nm), probably due to strong hydrogen bond interaction and charge transfer with the S-CDs. The S-CDs were characterized by using TEM, XRD, XPS, FT-IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. Response is linear in the 0.02-1.25 μM NOR concentration range, and the detection limit is 4.6 nM. The respective data for CIP are 0.02-1.0 μM and 6.7 nM. The average recoveries of NOR and CIP residues from spiked bovine raw milk are 96.2%~105.2% and 92.3%~102.5%. Graphical abstract Sulfur doped carbon dots (S-CDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSMA). Norfloxacin (NOR) or ciprofloxacin (CIP) was extracted by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), they were detected by carbon dots fluorescence enhancement.

  5. A Codon Deletion at the Beginning of Green Fluorescent Protein Genes Enhances Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mejía, José-Luis; Roldán-Salgado, Abigail; Osuna, Joel; Merino, Enrique; Gaytán, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein expression is one of the key issues in protein engineering and biotechnology. Among the different models for assessing protein production and structure-function studies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the preferred models because of its importance as a reporter in cellular and molecular studies. In this research we analyze the effect of codon deletions near the amino terminus of different GFP proteins on fluorescence. Our study includes Gly4 deletions in the enhanced GFP (EGFP), the red-shifted GFP and the red-shifted EGFP. The Gly4 deletion mutants and their corresponding wild-type counterparts were transcribed under the control of the T7 or Trc promoters and their expression patterns were analyzed. Different fluorescent outcomes were observed depending on the type of fluorescent gene versions. In silico analysis of the RNA secondary structures near the ribosome binding site revealed a direct relationship between their minimum free energy and GFP production. Integrative analysis of these results, including SDS-PAGE analysis, led us to conclude that the fluorescence improvement of cells expressing different versions of GFPs with Gly4 deleted is due to an enhancement of the accessibility of the ribosome binding site by reducing the stability of the RNA secondary structures at their mRNA leader regions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Silica Nanoparticle-Enhanced Fluorescent Sensor Array for Heavy Metal Ions Detection in Colloid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juanjuan; Li, Junyao; Xu, Wang; Wang, Lu; Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Chang, Young-Tae

    2018-02-06

    Sensitivity and detection limit are two vital factors that affect fluorophores-based sensing and imaging system. However, it remains a challenge to improve the sensitivity and detection limit of fluorophores, largely due to their limited response and photophysical properties. In this study, we report for the first time, a novel approach to enhance the sensitivity and detection limit of probes using silica nanoparticles, also known as silica nanoparticles-enhanced fluorescence (SiEF). SiEF can drastically improve the fluorescence intensities and detection limit of fluorophores. A SiEF-improved fluorescent sensor array for rapid and sensitive identification of different heavy metal ions is achieved, and a 3D spatial dispersion graph is obtained based on the SiEF-improved fluorescent sensor array, which provides a lower concentration dependent pattern than fluorophores alone, allowing qualitative, quantitative, and sensitive detection of heavy metal ions. Furthermore, with UV lamp irradiation of the sensor-metal ion mixtures, the output signals enable direct visual of heavy metal ions with low concentration. Thus, the SiEF approach provides a simple and practical strategy for fluorescent probes to improve their sensitivity and detection limit in analytes sensing.

  7. Application of a wavelet-Galerkin method to the forward problem resolution in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landragin-Frassati, Anne; Bonnet, Stéphane; Da Silva, Anabela; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Georges, Didier

    2009-10-12

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography is a powerful tool for the investigation of molecular events in studies for new therapeutic developments. Here, the emphasis is put on the mathematical problem of tomography, which can be formulated in terms of an estimation of physical parameters appearing as a set of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). The standard polynomial Finite Element Method (FEM) is a method of choice to solve the diffusion equation because it has no restriction in terms of neither the geometry nor the homogeneity of the system, but it is time consuming. In order to speed up computation time, this paper proposes an alternative numerical model, describing the diffusion operator in orthonormal basis of compactly supported wavelets. The discretization of the PDEs yields to matrices which are easily computed from derivative wavelet product integrals. Due to the shape of the wavelet basis, the studied domain is included in a regular fictitious domain. A validation study and a comparison with the standard FEM are conducted on synthetic data.

  8. Detection of early interproximal caries in vitro using laser fluorescence, dye-enhanced laser fluorescence and direct visual examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsson, H; Analoui, M; van der Veen, M; González-Cabezas, C; Eckert, G; Stookey, G

    1999-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the use of laser fluorescence (LF) for the detection of early interproximal carious lesions and whether the detection could be enhanced using a fluorescent dye (DELF). Direct visual examination (DV) was used for comparison. Eighty extracted teeth were used, arranged in 20 blocks, each block having 2 premolars and 2 molars, lined up in a simulated sextant situation. After cleaning with a microabrasion kit, a subcontact window on half of the surfaces (60) was exposed to Carbopol white-spot solution for 5 days. The teeth were remounted in stone and examined by three independent examiners. For LF and DELF an argon laser was used (mixed wavelength of 488 and 514 nm) viewed through glasses (excluding wavelength stained with rhodamine B, and images were taken using a confocal microscope. The images were analyzed using a histogram program for lesion depth and image area. Lesions were present in 62 out of 120 approximal surfaces, with an average depth of 60 microm (range 17-190 microm). Sensitivity ranges for LF, DELF and DV were 56-74, 61-79 and 58-74%, and specificity ranges 67-78, 86-98 and 83-97%, respectively. With this model DELF compared favorably with DV and LF in sensitivity, but specificity was better for DELF and DV than for LF.

  9. Linking Catalyst-Coated Isotropic Colloids into "Active" Flexible Chains Enhances Their Diffusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bipul; Manna, Raj Kumar; Laskar, Abhrajit; Kumar, P B Sunil; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy

    2017-10-24

    Active colloids are not constrained by equilibrium: ballistic propulsion, superdiffusive behavior, or enhanced diffusivities have been reported for active Janus particles. At high concentrations, interactions between active colloids give rise to complex emergent behavior. Their collective dynamics result in the formation of several hundred particle-strong flocks or swarms. Here, we demonstrate significant diffusivity enhancement for colloidal objects that neither have a Janus architecture nor are at high concentrations. We employ uniformly catalyst-coated, viz. chemo-mechanically, isotropic colloids and link them into a chain to enforce proximity. Activity arises from hydrodynamic interactions between enchained colloidal beads due to reaction-induced phoretic flows catalyzed by platinum nanoparticles on the colloid surface. This results in diffusivity enhancements of up to 60% for individual chains in dilute solution. Chains with increasing flexibility exhibit higher diffusivities. Simulations accounting for hydrodynamic interactions between enchained colloids due to active phoretic flows accurately capture the experimental diffusivity. These simulations reveal that the enhancement in diffusivity can be attributed to the interplay between chain conformational fluctuations and activity. Our results show that activity can be used to systematically modulate the mobility of soft slender bodies.

  10. Blue-Shifted Green Fluorescent Protein Homologues Are Brighter than Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein under Two-Photon Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rosana S; Tran, Tam M; Campbell, Robert E; Lambert, Gerard G; Salih, Anya; Shaner, Nathan C; Hughes, Thomas E; Drobizhev, Mikhail

    2017-06-15

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are indispensable markers for two-photon imaging of live tissue, especially in the brains of small model organisms. The quantity of physiologically relevant data collected, however, is limited by heat-induced damage of the tissue due to the high intensities of the excitation laser. We seek to minimize this damage by developing FPs with improved brightness. Among FPs with the same chromophore structure, the spectral properties can vary widely due to differences in the local protein environment. Using a physical model that describes the spectra of FPs containing the anionic green FP (GFP) chromophore, we predict that those that are blue-shifted in one-photon absorption will have stronger peak two-photon absorption cross sections. Following this prediction, we present 12 blue-shifted GFP homologues and demonstrate that they are up to 2.5 times brighter than the commonly used enhanced GFP (EGFP).

  11. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy diffusion laws in the presence of moving nanodomains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šachl, Radek; Bergstrand, J.; Widengren, J.; Hof, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2016), 114002 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-03141J Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : FCS * lipid nanodomains * anomalous diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  12. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: IVIM diffusion quantification for prediction of tumor necrosis compared to enhancement ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakite, Suguru; Dyvorne, Hadrien A.; Lee, Karen M.; Jajamovich, Guido H.; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-01-01

    To correlate intra voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion parameters of liver parenchyma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with degree of liver/tumor enhancement and necrosis; and to assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion parameters vs. enhancement ratios (ER) for prediction of complete tumor necrosis. In this IRB approved HIPAA compliant study, we included 46 patients with HCC who underwent IVIM diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in addition to routine sequences at 3.0 T. True diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (PF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were quantified in tumors and liver parenchyma. Tumor ER were calculated using contrast-enhanced imaging, and degree of tumor necrosis was assessed using post-contrast image subtraction. IVIM parameters and ER were compared between HCC and background liver and between necrotic and viable tumor components. ROC analysis for prediction of complete tumor necrosis was performed. 79 HCCs were assessed (mean size 2.5 cm). D, PF and ADC were significantly higher in HCC vs. liver (p < 0.0001). There were weak significant negative/positive correlations between D/PF and ER, and significant correlations between D/PF/ADC and tumor necrosis (for D, r 0.452, p < 0.001). Among diffusion parameters, D had the highest area under the curve (AUC 0.811) for predicting complete tumor necrosis. ER outperformed diffusion parameters for prediction of complete tumor necrosis (AUC > 0.95, p < 0.002). D has a reasonable diagnostic performance for predicting complete tumor necrosis, however lower than that of contrast-enhanced imaging

  14. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo

    2016-12-15

    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  15. Thickness dependence of polydopamine thin films on detection sensitivity of surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Mana; Tawa, Keiko

    2018-03-01

    A bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) coating is a good candidate for the rapid and cheap chemical modification of biosensor surfaces. Herein, we report the effect of PDA thickness on the detection sensitivity of a fluorescence biosensor utilizing surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. The thickness of PDA films was tuned by the incubation time of the dopamine solution and varied from 1 to 17 nm. The detection sensitivity was evaluated as the limit of detection (LOD) of a fluorescently labelled target analyte by a model immunoassay. The LOD was determined to be 1.6 pM for the thickest PDA film and was improved to 1.0 pM by reducing the thickness to the range from 1 to 5 nm, corresponding to the incubation time of 10 to 60 min. The experimental results indicate that the PDA coating is suitable for the surface functionalization of biosensors in mass production as it does not require precise control of the incubation time.

  16. Structured oblique illumination microscopy for enhanced resolution imaging of non-fluorescent, coherently scattering samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shwetadwip; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Izatt, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Many biological structures of interest are beyond the diffraction limit of conventional microscopes and their visualization requires application of super-resolution techniques. Such techniques have found remarkable success in surpassing the diffraction limit to achieve sub-diffraction limited resolution; however, they are predominantly limited to fluorescent samples. Here, we introduce a non-fluorescent analogue to structured illumination microscopy, termed structured oblique illumination microscopy (SOIM), where we use simultaneous oblique illuminations of the sample to multiplex high spatial-frequency content into the frequency support of the system. We introduce a theoretical framework describing how to demodulate this multiplexed information to reconstruct an image with a spatial-frequency support exceeding that of the system's classical diffraction limit. This approach allows enhanced-resolution imaging of non-fluorescent samples. Experimental confirmation of the approach is obtained in a reflection test target with moderate numerical aperture.

  17. On the enhancement of Er3+ diffusion in LiNbO3 crystals by Er3+/Ti4+ co-diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, José Manuel Marques Martins de; Sada, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of the diffusion of erbium ions (Er 3+ ) in lithium niobate crystals. • Incoherence on published results lead to need for systematic revision of literature. • Further insight into the topic of co-diffusion of Er 3+ /Ti 4+ ions into LiNbO 3 . - Abstract: After carrying out a revision of the literature on the enhancement of Er 3+ diffusion in LiNbO 3 crystals by Er 3+ /Ti 4+ co-diffusion and analyzing our own experimental results, we conclude that no reproducible results were reported, meaning that further research on this subject is necessary.

  18. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed

  19. Fluorescence Enhancement on Large Area Self-Assembled Plasmonic-3D Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guojian; Wang, Dongzhu; Hong, Wei; Sun, Lu; Zhu, Yongxiang; Chen, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuous plasmonic-3D photonic crystal hybrid structures are fabricated in order to evaluate the coupling effect of surface plasmon resonance and the photonic stop band. The nanostructures are prepared by silver sputtering deposition on top of hydrophobic 3D photonic crystals. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructure has a symbiotic relationship with the 3D photonic stop band, leading to highly tunable characteristics. Fluorescence enhancements of conjugated polymer and quantum dot based on these hybrid structures are studied. The maximum fluorescence enhancement for the conjugated polymer of poly(5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) potassium salt by a factor of 87 is achieved as compared with that on a glass substrate due to the enhanced near-field from the discontinuous plasmonic structures, strong scattering effects from rough metal surface with photonic stop band, and accelerated decay rates from metal-coupled excited state of the fluorophore. It is demonstrated that the enhancement induced by the hybrid structures has a larger effective distance (optimum thickness ≈130 nm) than conventional plasmonic systems. It is expected that this approach has tremendous potential in the field of sensors, fluorescence-imaging, and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Distance-dependent metal enhanced fluorescence by flowerlike silver nanostructures fabricated in liquid crystalline phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Guiyang; Peng, Zenghui; Yao, Lishuang; Wang, Qidong; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2017-10-01

    Flowerlike silver nanostructure substrates were fabricated in liquid crystalline phase and the distance dependent property of metal enhanced fluorescence for such substrate was studied for the first time. The distance between silver nanostructures and fluorophore was controlled by the well-established layer-by-layer (LbL) technique constructing alternate layers of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules were electrostatically attached to the outmost negative charged PSS layer. The fluorescence enhancement factor of flowerlike nanostructure substrate increased firstly and then decreased with the distance increasing. The best enhanced fluorescence intensity of 71 fold was obtained at a distance of 5.2 nm from the surface of flowerlike silver nanostructure. The distance for best enhancement effect is an instructive parameter for the applications of such substrates and could be used in the practical MEF applications with the flowerlike nanostructure substrates fabricated in such way which is simple, controllable and cost-effective.

  1. 'Green mice' display limitations in enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in retina and optic nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminos, Elena; Vaquero, Cecilia F; García-Olmo, Dolores C

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of retinal cells, cell transplants and gene therapies may be helped by pre-labeled retinal cells, such as those transfected with vectors for green fluorescent protein expression. The aim of this study was to analyze retinal cells and optic nerve components from transgenic green mice (GM) with the 'enhanced' green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene under the control of the CAG promoter (a chicken β-actin promoter and a cytomegalovirus enhancer). The structural analysis and electroretinography recordings showed a normal, healthy retina. Surprisingly, EGFP expression was not ubiquitously located in the retina and optic nerve. Epithelial cells, photoreceptors and bipolar cells presented high green fluorescence levels. In contrast, horizontal cells, specific amacrine cells and ganglion cells exhibited a null EGFP expression level. The synaptic terminals of rod bipolar cells displayed a high green fluorescence level when animals were kept in the dark. Immature retinas exhibited different EGFP expression patterns to those noted in adults. Axons and glial cells in the optic nerve revealed a specific regional EGFP expression pattern, which correlated with the presence of myelin. These results suggest that EGFP expression might be related to the activity of both the CAG promoter and β-actin in mature retinal neurons and oligodendrocytes. Moreover, EGFP expression might be regulated by light in both immature and adult animals. Since GM are used in numerous retina bioassays, it is essential to know the differential EGFP expression in order to select cells of interest for each study.

  2. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, I. V.; Doronina-Amitonova, L. V. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Anokhin, K. V. [Kurchatov Institute National Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kilin, S. Ya. [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zheltikov, A. M. [International Laser Center, Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, ul. Novaya 100, Skolkovo, Moscow Region 1430125 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center of Photochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 117421 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-24

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection.

  3. The Fluorescence Enhancement of Mercury Detected in Food Based on Rhodamine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cai-ling; Xie, Pu-hui; Cui, Shu-min; Yang, Li-na; Sun, Qing; Ai, Zhi-lu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the problem of food security is more and more serious, and people pay attention to mercury because of the toxic of it. A new approach for the determination of mercury content in foodstuff is devised. In this paper, first, we design and synthesis a new kind of fluorescent probe whose matrix based on rhodamine B, hydrazine hydrate and hydroxy benzaldehyde. Through the analysis of H-NMR spectra of the synthesized product L1, we confirm that the synthetic substance is the adjacent carboxyl benzaldehyde hydrazone structure generation of rhodamine B. Then, we measure the fluorescence signal intensity of the probe with different concentrations of mercury ions fully upon complexation by fluorescence spectrometer and we can study the relationship between the mercury ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity and draw the standard working curve. Following, It's time to discuss the microwave digestion processing of tea, after digestion we use the synthetic probe Li for determination of mercury content in tea. The experimental results show that the maximum excitation wavelength of the probe and coordination compound are 568. 05 and 560. 00 nm, the maximum emission wavelength are 587. 94 and 580. 00 nm. Then we can find the best testing conditions to improve the degree of accuracy, that is: room temperature, 50% the methanol solution, 3. 0 mL pH 4. 0 buffer solution, in the extent of 30 min. The experimental results show that Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+ have little impact on the fluorescence intensity of the:probe. Fe3+, Mg2+, Ba2+ has a weak enhancement to the fluorescence intensity of the probe. While a low concentrations of Hg2+ have an obviously enhanced effect on the fluorescence intensity of the probe. In contrast to other metal ions, the probe for Hg2+ has a good selectivity. Linear relationship between the magnitude of increase in fluorescence intensity and concentration of mercury ion was in the range of 5~20 ng . L-1 with detection limit (3S/N) of

  4. Guest-responsive reversible swelling and enhanced fluorescence in a super-absorbent, dynamic microporous polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Venkata; Mohapatra, Sudip; Maji, Tapas Kumar; George, Subi J

    2012-04-10

    A swell idea! The guest-responsive reversible swelling and fluorescence enhancement of a dynamic, microporous polymer network is presented. Guest-induced breathing of hydrophobic pores imparts multi-functional properties, such as super-absorbency, phase-selective swelling of oil from water and encapsulation of C(60) (see figure), to this soft micro-porous organic polymer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL, containing minoxidil (2% and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC, hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC. The nanoemulsions significantly enhanced the permeation of minoxidil through skin compared with control solutions. The eucalyptol formulations (NE promoted minoxidil retention in the SC and deeper skin layers more than did the oleic acid formulations, while the oleic acid formulations (NO gave the greatest hair follicle penetration. Minoxidil maximum flux enhancement was associated with increases in both minoxidil SC solubility and skin diffusivity in both nanoemulsion systems. The mechanism of enhancement appeared to be driven largely by increased diffusivity, rather than increased partitioning into the stratum corneum, supporting the concept of enhanced fluidity and disruption of stratum corneum lipids.

  6. A fluorometric microarray with ZnO substrate-enhanced fluorescence and suppressed ``coffee-ring'' effects for fluorescence immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Dong, Minmin; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liyan; Qiao, Yuchun; Jiang, Yao; Qi, Wei; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric immunoassays of human IgG, showing a linear detection range from 0.010 to 10.0 ng mL-1. Such a throughput-improved fluorometric microarray could be tailored for probing multiple biomarkers in complicated media like serum or blood.A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric

  7. Theoretical reconsiderations when estimating the mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion in leaves of C3 plants by analysis of combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing methods to estimate the mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm) are often based on combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. However, estimations of average gm by these methods are often unreliable either because the range of usable data is too narrow or because

  8. Water diffusion-exchange effect on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in off-resonance rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiming; Xie, Yang; Ji, Tongyu

    2007-06-01

    The off-resonance rotating frame technique based on the spin relaxation properties of off-resonance T1 ρ can significantly increase the sensitivity of detecting paramagnetic labeling at high magnetic fields by MRI. However, the in vivo detectable dimension for labeled cell clusters/tissues in T1 ρ-weighted images is limited by the water diffusion-exchange between mesoscopic scale compartments. An experimental investigation of the effect of water diffusion-exchange between compartments on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of paramagnetic agent compartment is presented for in vitro/ in vivo models. In these models, the size of paramagnetic agent compartment is comparable to the mean diffusion displacement of water molecules during the long RF pulses that are used to generate the off-resonance rotating frame. The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to qualitatively correlate the effect of water diffusion-exchange with the RF parameters of the long pulse and the rates of water diffusion, (2) to explore the effect of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vitro, and (3) to demonstrate the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vivo. The in vitro models include the water permeable dialysis tubes or water permeable hollow fibers embedded in cross-linked proteins gels. The MWCO of the dialysis tubes was chosen from 0.1 to 15 kDa to control the water diffusion rate. Thin hollow fibers were chosen to provide sub-millimeter scale compartments for the paramagnetic agents. The in vivo model utilized the rat cerebral vasculatures as a paramagnetic agent compartment, and intravascular agents (Gd-DTPA) 30-BSA were administrated into the compartment via bolus injections. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement is predominant in the T1 ρ-weighted image in the presence of water diffusion-exchange. The T1 ρ contrast has substantially higher sensitivity than the conventional T1

  9. How nonlocal damping reduces plasmon-enhanced fluorescence in ultranarrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkezis, C.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-08-01

    The nonclassical modification of plasmon-assisted fluorescence enhancement is theoretically explored by placing two-level dipole emitters at the narrow gaps encountered in canonical plasmonic architectures, namely, dimers and trimers of different metallic nanoparticles. Through detailed simulations, in comparison with appropriate analytical modeling, it is shown that within classical electrodynamics and for the reduced separations explored here, fluorescence enhancement factors of the order of 105 can be achieved, with a divergent behavior as the particle touching regime is approached. This remarkable prediction is mainly governed by the dramatic increase in excitation rate triggered by the corresponding field enhancement inside the gaps. Nevertheless, once nonclassical corrections are included, the amplification factors decrease by up to two orders of magnitude, and a saturation regime for narrower gaps is reached. These nonclassical limitations are demonstrated by simulations based on the generalized nonlocal optical response theory, which accounts in an efficient way not only for nonlocal screening but also for the enhanced Landau damping near the metal surface. A simple strategy to introduce nonlocal corrections to the analytic solutions is also proposed. It is therefore shown that the nonlocal optical response of the metal imposes more realistic, finite upper bounds to the enhancement feasible with ultrasmall plasmonic cavities, thus providing a theoretical description closer to state-of-the-art experiments.

  10. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  11. Enhanced wavefront reconstruction by random phase modulation with a phase diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2011-01-01

    A phase retrieval technique for enhanced wavefront reconstruction using random phase modulation and a phase diffuser is proposed. The speckle field generated is sampled at multiple axially displaced planes and the speckle patterns are used in an iterative algorithm based on the optical wave propa...

  12. Persistent wind-induced enhancement of diffusive CO2 transport in a mountain forest snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Bowling; W. J. Massman

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion dominates the transport of trace gases between soil and the atmosphere. Pressure gradients induced by atmospheric flow and wind interacting with topographical features cause a small but persistent bulk flow of air within soil or snow. This forcing, called pressure pumping or wind pumping, leads to a poorly quantified enhancement of gas transport beyond the...

  13. Methionine-Capped Gold Nanoclusters as a Fluorescence-Enhanced Probe for Cadmium(II Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine as a stabilizer. The nanoclusters emit orange fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 420/565 nm and a quantum yield of about 1.46%. The fluorescence of the Au NCs is selectively and sensitively enhanced by addition of Cd(II ions attributed to the Cd(II ion-induced aggregation of nanoclusters. This finding was further used to design a fluorometric method for the determination of Cd(II ions, which had a linear response in the concentration range from 50 nM to 35 μM and a detection limit of 12.25 nM. The practicality of the nanoprobe was validated in various environmental water samples and milk powder samples, with a fairly satisfactory recovery percent.

  14. Diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement on brain MRI: spontaneous intracranial hypotension and head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Chang Woo; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Young A; Kim, Hee Jin; Ko, Young Sik [Pochon CHA Univ. College of Medicine, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    We evaluated the MRI finding of pachymeningeal enhancement in patients with intracranial hypotension and head trauma with particular attention to differential findings and change in follow-up study, and in order to support the knowledge about the pathophysiology of dural enhancement. The findings of enhanced brain MRI of fifteen patients who showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement were retrospectively examined. Seven of fifteen patients were finally diagnosed as spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Eight of fifteen patients had a recent history of head trauma. We analyzed the shape, thickness, continuity and extent of dural enhancement, and the others concerned with positive MR findings. We also analyzed findings suggested displacement of brain parenchyma-displacement of the iter and cerebellar tonsil, and flattening of the anterior aspect of the pons-. Four of seven patients with SIH and four of eight patients with head trauma, underwent follow-up MRI. In the follow-up study, the presence of resolving pachymeningeal enhancement and symptom improvement was investigated. In all cases of SIH, the dura showed diffuse, even 31mm thick, global and contiguous enhancement along both cerebral convexities, both tentoria, and the falx. Displacement of the iter was noted in six cases and flattening of the anterior aspect of the pons in five. Displacement of the cerebellar tonsil was noted in one case. Five of seven cases showed small amount of subdural fluid collection. In all cases of head trauma, the dura was enhanced diffusely and asymmetrically, and showed no contiguity. Its distribution was consistent with the locations of traumatic lesions. Displacement of the iter was noted in one case. In four cases of SIH, clinical symptoms had improved, and three showed complete resolution of dural enhancement, in one patient continuously showed partial dural enhancement. Four cases of head trauma showed complete resolution of dural enhancement. Reversible diffuse

  15. One-pot synthesis of gold nanoclusters with bright red fluorescence and good biorecognition abilities for visualization fluorescence enhancement detection of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiali; Lu, Lili; Xu, Suying; Wang, Leyu

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-pot strategy was developed for the synthesis of lysozyme functionalized fluorescence gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The lysozymes added to reduce Au(3+) ions and stabilize the AuNCs during the synthesis were coated on the AuNCs surface and retained their specific recognition ability for bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). Based on such ability, these AuNCs were specifically attached onto the surface of E. coli, which resulted in great red fluorescence enhancement. Nevertheless, the bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilized AuNCs could not recognize E. coli and no fluorescence enhancement was observed. Upon the addition of E. coli, the red fluorescence intensity of lysozyme-AuNCs was enhanced linearly over the range of 2.4×10(4) -6.0×10(6) CFU/mL of E. coli with high sensitivity (LOD=2.0×10(4) CFU/mL, S/N=3). The visualization fluorescence evolution may enable the rapid and real-time detection of bacteria. This study may be extended to other functional proteins such as antibody, enzyme, and peptide functionalized nanoclusters while retaining the bioactivity of coating proteins and find wide applications in the fields of biochemistry and biomedicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  17. Several hundred-fold enhanced fluorescence from single fluorophores assembled on silver nanoparticle-dielectric-metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishanu; Badugu, Ramachandram; Szmacinski, Henryk; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2015-10-18

    We observed over 400-fold enhanced fluorescence from single Cy5 molecules assembled on multilayer silver nanoparticle-dielectric-metal (PDM) substrate. This substantial enhancement is due to the near-field enhanced excitation, emission, and interaction of Cy5 with plasmonic nanostructures. Experimental observation is supported by finite-element method calculations.

  18. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  19. Quasi-resonance enhancement of laser-induced-fluorescence diagnosis of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.; Vancaillie, Thierry G.

    1990-05-01

    Endometriosis, a common disease in women in the reproductive age group, is defined pathologically by the presence of endometrial tissue (inner lining of the uterus) outside the uterus. The displaced tissue is histologically identical to endometrium. In addition to being a highly prevalent disease, this disease is associated with many distressing and debilitating symptoms. Motivated by the need to improve diagnosis by endoscopic imaging instrumentation, we have previously used several drugs to cause selective laser-induced fluorescence of active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo using ultraviolet-wavelength (351.1 and 363.8 nm) excitation from an argon-ion laser. In the present study we have investigated methods of enhancing differentiation between normal and abnormal tissue by using other excitation wavelengths. In addition to an enhanced capability for detecting abnormal tissue, there are several other advantages associated with using visible-wavelength excitation, such as deeper penetration into the tissue, as well as increased equipment performance, reliability, versatility, and availability. The disadvantage is that because only wavelengths longer than the excitation wavelength can be used for detection, some of the spectral information is lost. Because human endomeiriosis samples were somewhat limited in quantity, as well as specimen size, we used normal ovarian tissue for the laser-induced-fluorescence differentiation-enhancement studies. Positive enhancement of the laser-induced- fluorescence differentiation was found in human ovarian tissue in vitro utilizing 514.5-nm excitation from an argonion laser. Additionally, preliminary verification of this concept was accomplished in active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo with visible argon-ion laser excitation of two tetracycline-based drugs. Future experiments with other drug treatments and excitation/detection parameters are planned.

  20. Diffraction enhanced imaging and x-ray fluorescence microtomography for analyzing biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, H.S.; Pereira, G.R.; Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear-COPPE/UFRJ-RJ (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Instituto de Fisica-UERJ-RJ (Brazil); Faria, P. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer-INCa-RJ (Brazil); Kellermann, G.; Perez, C.A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-Campinas-SP (Brazil); Tirao, G. [Faculdad de Mat. Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF), UNC. Cordoba (Argentina); Mazzaro, I. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao-UFPR-Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia Aplicada e Raios X-UNICAMP-Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    In this work, breast tissue samples were investigated in order to verify the distribution of certain elements by x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XRFCT) correlated with the characteristics and pathology of each tissue observed by diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The DEI system can show details in low attenuation tissues. It is based on the contrast imaging obtained by extinction, diffraction and refraction characteristics and can improve reduction in false positive and false negative diagnoses. XRFCT allows mapping of all elements within the sample, since even a minute fluorescence signal can be detected. DEI imaging techniques revealed the complex structure of the disease, confirmed by the histological section, and showed microstructures in all planes of the sample. The XRFCT showed the distribution of Zn, Cu and Fe at higher concentration. (authors)

  1. Light extraction efficiency enhancement for fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    Fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light source, as an innovative energy-efficient light source, would even have longer lifetime, better light quality and eliminated blue-tone effect, compared to the current phosphor based white LED light source. In this paper, the yellow....... At a device level, the focus is on improving the light extraction efficiency due to the rather high refractive index of SiC by nanostructuring the surface of SiC. Both periodic nanostructures made by e-beam lithography and nanosphere lithography and random nanostructures made by self-assembled Au nanosphere...... mask and a thin layer of Al film have been investigated and all of them showed much enhanced extraction efficiency. All these good results pave the way to a very promising fluorescent SiC based white LED light source...

  2. Molecular fluorescence enhancement in plasmonic environments: exploring the role of nonlocal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, Nikolaos; Wubs, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    strongly affected. In this respect, experimental measurements of fluorescence, the theoretical description of which requires a precise concurrent evaluation of far- and near-field properties of the system, constitute a novel, more sensitive probe for assessing the validity of state-of-the-art nonclassical...... in the nanoparticle vicinity. Here we explore the influence of hitherto disregarded nonclassical effects in the description of emitter-plasmon hybrids, focusing on the roles of metal nonlocal response and especially size-dependent plasmon damping. Through extensive modelling of metallic nanospheres and nanoshells...... coupled to dipole emitters, we show that within a purely classical description a remarkable fluorescence enhancement can be achieved. However, once departing from the local-response approximation, and particularly by implementing the recent generalised nonlocal optical response theory, which provides...

  3. Preparation of plasmonic platforms of silver wires on gold mirrors and their application to surface enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Raut, Sangram; Rich, Ryan M; Sronce, Randy J; Fudala, Rafal; Mason, Rachel N; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a preparation of silver wires (SWs) on gold mirrors and its application to surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) using a new methodology. Silica protected gold mirrors were drop-coated with a solution of silver triangular nanoprisms. The triangular nanoprisms were slowly air-dried to get silver wires that self-assembled on the gold mirrors. Fluorescence enhancement was studied using methyl azadioxatriangulenium chloride (Me-ADOTA · Cl) dye in PVA spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. New Plasmonic Platforms (PPs) were assembled by placing a mirror with SWs in contact with a glass coverslip spin-coated with a uniform Me-ADOTA · Cl film. It was shown that surface enhanced fluorescence is a real phenomenon, not just an enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to an accumulation of the fluorophore on rough nanostructure surfaces. The average fluorescence enhancement was found to be about 15-fold. The lifetime of Me-ADOTA · Cl dye was significantly reduced (∼ 4 times) in the presence of SWs. Moreover, fluorescence enhancement and lifetime did not show any dependence on the excitation light polarization.

  4. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  5. Direct reconstruction in CT-analogous pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography: two-dimensional simulative and experimental validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2016-04-01

    We present a generalized strategy for direct reconstruction in pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) with CT-analogous scanning mode, which can accomplish one-step reconstruction of the indocyanine-green pharmacokinetic-rate images within in vivo small animals by incorporating the compartmental kinetic model into an adaptive extended Kalman filtering scheme and using an instantaneous sampling dataset. This scheme, compared with the established indirect and direct methods, eliminates the interim error of the DFT inversion and relaxes the expensive requirement of the instrument for obtaining highly time-resolved date-sets of complete 360 deg projections. The scheme is validated by two-dimensional simulations for the two-compartment model and pilot phantom experiments for the one-compartment model, suggesting that the proposed method can estimate the compartmental concentrations and the pharmacokinetic-rates simultaneously with a fair quantitative and localization accuracy, and is well suitable for cost-effective and dense-sampling instrumentation based on the highly-sensitive photon counting technique.

  6. Enhanced diffusion of dopants in vacancy supersaturation produced by MeV implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX; Haynes, T.E.; Agarwal, A.; Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ; Gossmann, H.J.; Eaglesham, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    The diffusion of Sb and B markers has been studied in vacancy supersaturations produced by MeV Si implantation in float zone (FZ) silicon and bonded etch-back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) substrates. MeV Si implantation produces a vacancy supersaturated near-surface region and an interstitial-rich region at the projected ion range. Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of Sb in the near surface layer was observed as a result of a 2 MeV Si + , 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 , implant. A 4x larger TED of Sb was observed in BESOI than in FZ silicon, demonstrating that the vacancy supersaturation persists longer in BESOI than in FZ. B markers in samples with MeV Si implant showed a factor of 10x smaller diffusion relative to markers without the MeV Si + implant. This data demonstrates that a 2 MeV Si + implant injects vacancies into the near surface region

  7. Induced-Charge Enhancement of the Diffusion Potential in Membranes with Polarizable Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, I I; Lebedev, D V; Solodovnichenko, V S; Shiverskiy, A V; Simunin, M M

    2017-12-01

    When a charged membrane separates two salt solutions of different concentrations, a potential difference appears due to interfacial Donnan equilibrium and the diffusion junction. Here, we report a new mechanism for the generation of a membrane potential in polarizable conductive membranes via an induced surface charge. It results from an electric field generated by the diffusion of ions with different mobilities. For uncharged membranes, this effect strongly enhances the diffusion potential and makes it highly sensitive to the ion mobilities ratio, electrolyte concentration, and pore size. Theoretical predictions on the basis of the space-charge model extended to polarizable nanopores fully agree with experimental measurements in KCl and NaCl aqueous solutions.

  8. itFISH: Enhanced Staining by Iterative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important tool for zebrafish research, particularly when observing the expression of two different genes in the same embryo. Peroxidase-catalyzed deposition of tyramide-conjugated dyes is a widely used and cost-effective approach to performing FISH. A major limitation of the technique is that it does not work well for weakly expressed genes. Here we present a method adapted from planarian research for use in zebrafish that provides a dramatic enhancement of weak staining. By iterating the antibody staining and development steps, a strong signal can be obtained from probes that were previously too weak to detect.

  9. Radiation-enhanced diffusion in nickel-10.6% chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieb, M.

    1995-01-01

    Results of investigations of the diffusion rate of nickel-10.6% chromium alloys after plastic deformation, after quenching from 700 C and from 1030 C, and during irradiation with 18 MeV protons and 1.85 MeV electrons are reported. The diffusion rate is measured by means of the electrical resistivity which increases with increasing degree of short range order. It was found that the characteristic temperature below which short range order develops is T t =550 C. Below about 400 C the atomic mobilities of the component atoms of the alloy are so small that no further increase in the degree of short range order is found in due laboratory times. The activation energy for self-diffusion was determined after quenching from 700 C to Q SD =2.88 eV. For the migration activation energy of vacancies a value of E M 1V =1.18 eV was obtained after quenching from 1030 C. For the migration activation energies of interstitials and vacancies values of E M 1I =1.04 eV and E M 1V =1.16 eV are derived from results of measurements of radiation enhanced diffusion, respectively. These values decrease with increasing high energy particle flux. The characteristic temperature for interstitial cluster formation is T t =300 C. Above this temperature radiation-induced interstitials and vacancies annihilate mainly by pair recombination. Below this temperature interstitials also annihilate at sinks which are formed during irradiation so that the concentration of vacancies increases with irradiation time. Their migration activation energy is approximately obtained in a straight-forward way from the experimental data. Above about 380 C the radiation enhanced diffusion rate is surprisingly much smaller than the thermal diffusion rate. The quasi-dynamic vacancy concentration built up during irradiation is much smaller than the thermal vacancy concentration. (orig.)

  10. A set of enhanced green fluorescent protein concatemers for quantitative determination of nuclear localization signal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Jennifer; Thavaraja, Ramya; Giehler, Susanne; Nalaskowski, Marcus M

    2017-09-15

    Regulated transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm is an important process in the eukaryotic cell. In most cases, active nucleo-cytoplasmic protein transport is mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS) and/or nuclear export signal (NES) motifs. In this study, we developed a set of vectors expressing enhanced GFP (EGFP) concatemers ranging from 2 to 12 subunits (2xEGFP to 12xEGFP) for analysis of NLS strength. As shown by in gel GFP fluorescence analysis and αGFP Western blotting, EGFP concatemers are expressed as fluorescent full-length proteins in eukaryotic cells. As expected, nuclear localization of concatemeric EGFPs decreases with increasing molecular weight. By oligonucleotide ligation this set of EGFP concatemers can be easily fused to NLS motifs. After determination of intracellular localization of EGFP concatemers alone and fused to different NLS motifs we calculated the size of a hypothetic EGFP concatemer showing a defined distribution of EGFP fluorescence between nucleus and cytoplasm (n/c ratio = 2). Clear differences of the size of the hypothetic EGFP concatemer depending on the fused NLS motif were observed. Therefore, we propose to use the size of this hypothetic concatemer as quantitative indicator for comparing strength of different NLS motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation using the importance function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagheian, Mehran; Vosoughi, Naser; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation is proposed. • A seven-step algorithm is considered based on the importance function. • Mesh points are distributed through entire reactor core with respect to the importance function. • The results all proved that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient. - Abstract: Mesh point positions in Finite Difference Method (FDM) of discretization for the neutron diffusion equation can remarkably affect the averaged neutron fluxes as well as the effective multiplication factor. In this study, by aid of improving the mesh point positions, an enhanced finite difference scheme for the neutron diffusion equation is proposed based on the neutron importance function. In order to determine the neutron importance function, the adjoint (backward) neutron diffusion calculations are performed in the same procedure as for the forward calculations. Considering the neutron importance function, the mesh points can be improved through the entire reactor core. Accordingly, in regions with greater neutron importance, density of mesh elements is higher than that in regions with less importance. The forward calculations are then performed for both of the uniform and improved non-uniform mesh point distributions and the results (the neutron fluxes along with the corresponding eigenvalues) for the two cases are compared with each other. The results are benchmarked against the reference values (with fine meshes) for Kang and Rod Bundle BWR benchmark problems. These benchmark cases revealed that the improved non-uniform mesh point distribution is highly efficient.

  12. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion in Cu3Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.A.; Funk, L.L.

    1986-03-01

    By using the ordering alloy Cu 3 Au and measuring resistivity changes during and following fast-neutron irradiations at IPNS, we have studied cascade defect production and irradiation enhanced diffusion between 10 and 460 0 K. Ordering and disordering rates were measured as functions of irradiation temperature, neutron dose, neutron dose rate, time following cessation of flux, and step annealing. Free and clustered vacancy production was observed. The temperature dependence of the production of total migrating vacancy concentrations was determined. Vacancy sink production was linear with neutron dose and is compared with recent transmission electron microscopy experiments on the production of dislocation loops in this alloy. Time dependent and quasi-steady state vacancy concentrations were measured and compared with solutions of reaction rate equations for irradiation enhanced diffusion. The influence of recombination of vacancies with interstitials is observed at low sink concentrations (low neutron doses)

  14. Enhancement of squeezing in resonance fluorescence of a driven quantum dot close to a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Wu, Qing-lin; Wu, Shao-ping; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate squeezing of the resonance fluorescence of a laser-driven quantum dot (QD) close to a graphene sheet. The coupling between the QD and the surface plasmon around the graphene sheet is frequency dependent in the terahertz region, which can be adjusted by the laser intensity. Distinct decay rates in different transition channels of dressed QDs can be achieved due to the tailored photon reservoir, which can be used to improve the squeezing. It is found that increases in both the dephasing rate and the environmental temperature are harmful to the squeezing. Meanwhile, an enhancement in the QD-plasmon coupling strength may reduce the fragility of squeezing against the decoherence process. Additionally, in the strong light-matter coupling region, squeezing can be largely enhanced by tuning the strength of the pump field and its detuning from the QD.

  15. T2-enhanced tensor diffusion trace-weighted image in the detection of hyper-acute cerebral infarction: Comparison with isotropic diffusion-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, M.-C.; Tzeng, W.-S.; Chung, H.-W.; Wang, C.-Y.; Liu, H.-S.; Juan, C.-J.; Lo, C.-P.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging (isoDWI) is very sensitive to the detection of acute ischemic stroke, it may occasionally show diffusion negative result in hyper-acute stroke. We hypothesize that high diffusion contrast diffusion trace-weighted image with enhanced T2 may improve stroke lesion conspicuity. Methods: Five hyper acute stroke patients (M:F = 0:5, average age = 61.8 ± 20.5 y/o) and 16 acute stroke patients (M:F = 11:5, average age = 67.7 ± 12 y/o) were examined six-direction tensor DWIs at b = 707 s/mm 2 . Three different diffusion-weighted images, including isotropic (isoDWI), diffusion trace-weighted image (trDWI) and T2-enhanced diffusion trace-weighted image (T2E t rDWI), were generated. Normalized lesion-to-normal ratio (nLNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of three diffusion images were calculated from each patient and statistically compared. Results: The trDWI shows better nLNR than isoDWI on both hyper-acute and acute stroke lesions, whereas no significant improvement in CNR. Nevertheless, the T2E t rDWI has statistically superior CNR and nLNR than those of isoDWI and trDWI in both hyper-acute and acute stroke. Conclusions: We concluded that tensor diffusion trace-weighted image with T2 enhancement is more sensitive to stroke lesion detection, and can provide higher lesion conspicuity than the conventional isotropic DWI for early stroke lesion delineation without the need of high-b-value technique.

  16. Influence of cavitation bubble growth by rectified diffusion on cavitation-enhanced HIFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kohei; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation is becoming increasingly important in therapeutic ultrasound applications such as diagnostic, tumor ablation and lithotripsy. Mass transfer through gas-liquid interface due to rectified diffusion is important role in an initial stage of cavitation bubble growth. In the present study, influences of the rectified diffusion on cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was investigated numerically. Firstly, the mass transfer rate of gas from the surrounding medium to the bubble was examined as function of the initial bubble radius and the driving pressure amplitude. As the result, the pressure required to bubble growth was decreases with increasing the initial bubble radius. Next, the cavitation-enhanced HIFU, which generates cavitation bubbles by high-intensity burst and induces the localized heating owing to cavitation bubble oscillation by low-intensity continuous waves, was reproduced by the present simulation. The heating region obtained by the simulation is agree to the treatment region of an in vitro experiment. Additionally, the simulation result shows that the localized heating is enhanced by the increase of the equilibrium bubble size due to the rectified diffusion. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26420125,JP17K06170.

  17. Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weihua; Ding Fei; Li Wendi; Wang Yuxuan; Hu, Jonathan; Chou, Stephen Y

    2012-01-01

    Using a new nanoplasmonic architecture and an optimized spacer, we observed the following: (a) the average fluorescence of an infrared dye (indocyanine green) is enhanced by 2970 fold uniformly (variation −2 ), laser excitation powers and laser beam sizes; and (b) for a single molecule placed at a ‘hot spot’, the fluorescence enhancement is 4.5 × 10 6 fold. The giant and uniform enhancements (orders of magnitude higher than before), plus easy and inexpensive large area fabrication ( > 4″ wafers), should open up wide applications. (paper)

  18. Discovery and Characterization of Super-Enhancer Associated Dependencies in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuy, Bjoern; McKeown, Michael R.; Lin, Charles Y.; Monti, Stefano; Roemer, Margaretha G.M.; Qi, Jun; Rahl, Peter B.; Sun, Heather H.; Yeda, Kelly T.; Doench, John G; Reichert, Elaine; Kung, Andrew L.; Rodig, Scott J.; Young, Richard A.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Bradner, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a biologically heterogeneous and clinically aggressive disease. Here, we explore the role of BET bromodomain proteins in DLBCL, using integrative chemical genetics and functional epigenomics. We observe highly asymmetric loading of BRD4 at enhancers, with approximately 33% of all BRD4 localizing to enhancers at 1.6% of occupied genes. These super-enhancers prove particularly sensitive to bromodomain inhibition, explaining the selective effect of BET inhibitors on oncogenic and lineage-specific transcriptional circuits. Functional study of genes marked by super-enhancers identifies DLBCLs dependent on OCA-B and suggests a strategy for discovering unrecognized cancer dependencies. Translational studies performed on a comprehensive panel of DLBCLs establish a therapeutic rationale for evaluating BET inhibitors in this disease. PMID:24332044

  19. Enhanced green fluorescent protein is a nearly ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic stem cells, whereas DsRed-express fluorescent protein is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wen; Evans, Barbara-Graham; Yao, Jing; Cooper, Scott; Cornetta, Kenneth; Ballas, Christopher B; Hangoc, Giao; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2007-03-01

    Validated gene transfer and expression tracers are essential for elucidating functions of mammalian genes. Here, we have determined the suitability and unintended side effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed-Express fluorescent protein as expression tracers in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Retrovirally transduced mouse bone marrow cells expressing either EGFP or DsRed-Express in single or mixed dual-color cell populations were clearly discerned by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results from in vivo competitive repopulation assays demonstrated that EGFP-expressing HSCs were maintained nearly throughout the lifespan of the transplanted mice and retained long-term multilineage repopulating potential. All mice assessed at 15 months post-transplantation were EGFP positive, and, on average, 24% total peripheral white blood cells expressed EGFP. Most EGFP-expressing recipient mice lived at least 22 months. In contrast, Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed)-expressing donor cells dramatically declined in transplant-recipient mice over time, particularly in the competitive setting, in which mixed EGFP- and DsRed-expressing cells were cotransplanted. Moreover, under in vitro culture condition favoring preservation of HSCs, purified EGFP-expressing cells grew robustly, whereas DsRed-expressing cells did not. Therefore, EGFP has no detectable deteriorative effects on HSCs, and is nearly an ideal long-term expression tracer for hematopoietic cells; however, DsRed-Express fluorescent protein is not suitable for these cells.

  20. Characterization of chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas: gadolinium-enhanced and diffusion weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Kebin; Zhang Jing; Qu Hui; Zhang Wei; Liang Wei; Li Xiaosong; Cheng Xiaoguang; Gong Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the Gadolinium-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) characteristics of the chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas. Methods: Contrast-enhanced MRI and DWI were performed in 14 cases of chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas (10 chondrosarcomas, 4 chondroblastic osteosarcomas) and 13 cases of other types of osteosarcomas. DWI was obtained with a single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager with two different b values of 0 and 700 s/mm 2 . The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained in GE Functiontool software. The contrast-enhancement pattern was evaluated and the ADC values of chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas was compared with that of other types of osteosareoma. Independent sample t-test was performed to evaluate the difference of ADC values between the group of chondroid matrix-forming sarcoma and the group of other types of osteosarcoma. In addition, nonparametric test was used to assess the difference of ADC values between the chondrosarcoma and the chondroblastic osteosarcoma. P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistical significance. Results: For 14 cases of chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas, peripheral enhancement was found in all cases, septonodular enhancement was identified in 12 cases. While 13 cases of other types of osteosarcomas demonstrated heterogeneous enhancement. The mean ADC value of chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas [(2.56±0.35) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s] was significantly higher than that of other types of osteosarcoma [(1.16 ± 0.20) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s] (t=12.704, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the ADC value between the chondrosarcoma and the chondroblastic osteosarcoma (Z=0.507, P=0.959). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MRI and DWI can improve differentiation between chondroid matrix-forming sarcomas and other types of osteosarcomas. (authors)

  1. Head and neck paragangliomas: diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ying; Shi, Huimin; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feature values of head and neck paragangliomas on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with primary head and neck paraganglioma who underwent both DWI and DCE-MRI before treatment between January 2010 and June 2013 were identified. Two radiologists assessed apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on DWI and kinetic characteristics on DCE-MRI. The time intensity curves (TICs) and dynamic parameters, including peak height (PH), maximum enhancement ratio (ER max ), time to peak enhancement (T peak ) and maximum rise slope (Slope max ), were generated and evaluated. Ten patients with head and neck paraganglioma were retrospectively analyzed. On conventional MRI, the tumors demonstrated as well-circumscribed, strongly enhanced lesions. Mean ADC value of the lesions was 1.12 ± 0.15 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s. The TICs demonstrated washout pattern (type-III) in all lesions. The mean PH, ER max , T peak and Slope max value was 121.24 ± 63.99, 193.79 ± 67.18, 8.16 ± 3.29 and 25.42 ± 7.91, respectively. Head and neck paragangliomas demonstrate distinctive DWI and DCE-MRI results than for other benign tumors which should be taken into account in further evaluation of MRI on head and neck lesions

  2. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of fluorescent proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, N.V.; Hink, M.A.; Borst, J.W.; Krogt, van der G.N.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectra have been obtained from several variants of green fluorescent protein: blue fluorescent protein (BFP), enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), all from Aequorea victoria, and the red

  3. Plasmonic enhancement of cyanine dyes for near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic/photothermal therapy and fluorescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mindan; Kang, Ning; Chen, Chuan; Yang, Liuqing; Li, Yang; Hong, Minghui; Luo, Xiangang; Ren, Lei; Wang, Xiumin

    2017-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) triggered cyanine dyes have attracted considerable attention in multimodal tumor theranostics. However, NIR cyanine dyes used in tumor treatment often suffer from low fluorescence intensity and weak singlet oxygen generation efficiency, resulting in inadequate diagnostic and therapy efficacy for tumors. It is still a great challenge to improve both the photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescent imaging (FLI) efficacy of cyanine dyes in tumor applications. Herein, a novel multifunctional nanoagent AuNRs@SiO2-IR795 was developed to realize the integrated photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) and FLI at a very low dosage of IR795 (0.4 μM) based on metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects. In our design, both the fluorescence intensity and reactive oxygen species of AuNRs@SiO2-IR795 nanocomposites were significantly enhanced up to 51.7 and 6.3 folds compared with free IR795, owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs overlapping with the absorption or fluorescence emission band of the IR795 dye. Under NIR laser irradiation, the cancer cell inhibition efficiency in vitro with synergetic PDT/PTT was up to 82.3%, compared with 10.3% for free IR795. Moreover, the enhanced fluorescence intensity of our designed nanocomposites was helpful to track their behavior in tumor cells. Therefore, our designed nanoagents highlight the applications of multimodal diagnostics and therapy in tumors based on MEF.

  4. Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED.

  5. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F [Carnegie Mellon University, 700 Technology Dr., CMRI/PTC 4218, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)], E-mail: shund@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: antaki@andrew.cmu.edu

    2009-10-21

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, {psi}, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  6. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

    2009-01-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  7. Vacancy enhancement of diffusion after quenching and during irradiation in silver-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.

    1980-01-01

    Quenching and annealing experiments were performed on silver-zinc alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn. From the changes of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short-range order, the activation energy of self-diffusion was determined to be Qsub(SD) = 1.60 and Qsub(SD) = 1.38 eV for both alloys, respectively. For the migration energy of vacancies, a value Esub(V)sup(M) = 0.64 eV was found for the alloy with 8.14 at %Zn. Evidence is given that the vacancy migration energy Esub(V)sup(M) of the alloys with 30 at %Zn is smaller than 0.60 eV in agreement with data given by Berry and Orehotsky. The results of measurements of radiation-enhanced diffusion obtained by a Russian and a French group, are reinterpreted. It follows that the increase of the degree of order during irradiation is obtained only be vacancy enhancement of diffusion and that the migration activation energy of self-interstitials is Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.46 eV and Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.41 eV for the alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn, respectively. (author)

  8. Quantifying Extremely Rapid Flux Enhancements of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons Associated With Radial Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si; Yan, Qi; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have revealed a typical picture that seed electrons are transported inward under the drive of radial diffusion and then accelerated via chorus to relativistic energies. Here we show a potentially different process during the 2-3 October 2013 storm when Van Allen Probes observed extremely rapid (by about 50 times in 2 h) flux enhancements of relativistic (1.8-3.4 MeV) electrons but without distinct chorus at lower L-shells. Meanwhile, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites simultaneously measured enhanced chorus and fluxes of energetic (˜100-300 keV) seed electrons at higher L-shells. Numerical calculations show that chorus can efficiently accelerate seed electrons at L ˜ 8.3. Then radial diffusion further increased the phase space density of relativistic electrons throughout the outer radiation belts, with a remarkable agreement with the observation in magnitude and timescale. The current results provide a different physical scenario on the interplay between radial diffusion and local acceleration in outer radiation belt.

  9. Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of boron in very low-energy N2+-implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, D.; Tsamis, C.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.

    2005-06-01

    In this article we study the interstitial injection during oxidation of very low-energy nitrogen-implanted silicon. Buried boron δ layers are used to monitor the interstitial supersaturation during the oxidation of nitrogen-implanted silicon. No difference in boron diffusivity enhancement was observed compared to dry oxidation of nonimplanted samples. This result is different from our experience from N2O oxynitridation study, during which a boron diffusivity enhancement of the order of 20% was observed, revealing the influence of interfacial nitrogen on interstitial kinetics. A possible explanation may be that implanted nitrogen acts as an excess interstitial sink in order to diffuse towards the surface via a non-Fickian mechanism. This work completes a wide study of oxidation of very low-energy nitrogen-implanted silicon related phenomena we performed within the last two years [D. Skarlatos, C. Tsamis, and D. Tsoukalas, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1832 (2003); D. Skarlatos, E. Kapetanakis, P. Normand, C. Tsamis, M. Perego, S. Ferrari, M. Fanciulli, and D. Tsoukalas, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 300 (2004)].

  10. Investigation of simultaneously existed Raman scattering enhancement and inhibiting fluorescence using surface modified gold nanostars as SERS probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Fu, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Li-Jiang; Su, Dan; Wang, Shan-Jiang; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Tong

    2017-07-28

    One of the main challenges for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection is the noise interference of fluorescence signals arising from the analyte molecules. Here we used three types of gold nanostars (GNSs) SERS probes treated by different surface modification methods to reveal the simultaneously existed Raman scattering enhancement and inhibiting fluorescence behaviors during the SERS detection process. As the distance between the metal nanostructures and the analyte molecules can be well controlled by these three surface modification methods, we demonstrated that the fluorescence signals can be either quenched or enhanced during the detection. We found that fluorescence quenching will occur when analyte molecules are closely contacted to the surface of GNSs, leading to a ~100 fold enhancement of the SERS sensitivity. An optimized Raman signal detection limit, as low as the level of 10 -11  M, were achieved when Rhodamine 6 G were used as the analyte. The presented fluorescence-free GNSs SERS substrates with plentiful hot spots and controllable surface plasmon resonance wavelengths, fabricated using a cost-effective self-assembling method, can be very competitive candidates for high-sensitive SERS applications.

  11. Heat transport in the XXZ spin chain: from ballistic to diffusive regimes and dephasing enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J J; Al-Assam, S; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size. (paper)

  12. POLA EKSPRESI GEN ENHANCED GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2016-04-01

    menggunakan gen reporter berguna untuk mendesain konstruksi gen yang akan digunakan pada penelitian transgenesis. Gen reporter yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian ekspresi sementara transgen adalah gen GFP (green fluorescent protein. Pengamatan gen EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein pada embrio dan larva ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus ditujukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kemampuan promoter -aktin ikan mas dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen EGFP. Gen EGFP diintroduksikan ke dalam sperma ikan patin siam menggunakan metode elektroporasi. Sperma yang telah dielektroporasi digunakan untuk membuahi sel telur ikan patin siam. Pengamatan ekspresi gen EGFP dilakukan setiap enam jam dimulai dari embrio fase 2 sel sampai larva. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, gen EGFP terekspresi pada fase embrio dan larva ikan patin siam. Puncak ekspresi gen EGFP terjadi pada fase neurula dan menurun pada fase larva. Berdasarkan penelitian ini maka ikan patin siam transgenik telah berhasil dibentuk dan promoter -aktin ikan mas terbukti aktif dalam mengarahkan ekspresi gen asing (GFP di dalam tubuh ikan patin siam.

  13. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  14. Non-Gaussian diffusion imaging for enhanced contrast of brain tissue affected by ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Farida; Farrher, Ezequiel; Ciobanu, Luisa; Geffroy, Françoise; Le Bihan, Denis; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the "gold standard". The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes.

  15. Non-Gaussian diffusion imaging for enhanced contrast of brain tissue affected by ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Grinberg

    Full Text Available Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC considered so far as the "gold standard". The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI. As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF, the stretched exponential model (SEM, and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes.

  16. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  17. Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of diffuse prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Liao, X H; Lu, L; Wang, L; Ma, Y; Qin, H Z; Yan, X; Guo, P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CE-TRUS) versus baseline TRUS (combination of grey-scale and colour Doppler imaging) for diffuse prostate cancer. Forty-six patients without an obvious focal mass on baseline TRUS (grey-scale and colour Doppler), underwent additional CE-TRUS and TRUS-guided biopsy due to elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA ≥4 ng/ml) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). In all patients, CE-TRUS was performed with intravenous injection of a contrast agent (sulphur hexafluoride microbubble; SonoVue, 2.4 ml) before biopsy. TRUS-guided biopsy targeted suspicious areas detected on CE-TRUS imaging or sampled the outer gland of the normal prostate. The final diagnosis was based on results of the TRUS-guided biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of baseline TRUS and CE-TRUS for diffuse prostatic lesions was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Diffuse prostate cancer was present in 32 (69.5%) patients and absent in 14 (30.5%) patients. Nineteen patients had diffuse prostate cancer that was not detected by baseline TRUS, whereas 15 cases were identified using CE-TRUS. Conversely, five patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) that was diagnosed as cancer by CE-TRUS, and two of these patients were diagnosed with BPH by baseline TRUS. The combined sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 87.5%, 64.2%, and 80.4%, respectively, for CE-TRUS, and 40.6%, 78.5%, and 52.1%, respectively, for baseline TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for the diagnostic accuracy of baseline CE-TRUS versus TRUS for diffuse prostate cancer differed significantly at 0.904 and 0.667, respectively (Z=4.098, pprostate cancer than baseline TRUS. CE-TRUS may improve cancer detection over baseline TRUS imaging for the diagnosis of diffuse prostate cancer in patients with an elevated PSA level. CE-TRUS detects diffuse prostate cancer without an obvious focal mass

  18. Monitoring ankylosing spondylitis therapy by dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspersic, Natasa [University Medical Centre, Department of Rheumatology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, Igor [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jevtic, Vladimir [Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomsic, Matija; Praprotnik, Sonja [University Medical Centre, Department of Rheumatology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-02-15

    The effects of different therapies on enthesitis/osteitis in active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim was to assess the role of quantitative MRI in the evaluation of AS treatment efficacy. Thirty patients with active spondylitis or bilateral sacroilitis were selected and followed up for 1 year. Ten of the patients were treated only with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 10 patients additionally received at baseline an intravenous pulse of glucocorticoids and 10 patients were treated with regular infusions of infliximab. Disease activity was measured according to clinical instruments and laboratory tests. For each patient, one selected inflamed lesion was followed from baseline through control visits quantitatively by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and by dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI) with evaluation of the enhancement factor (f{sub enh}) and enhancement gradient (g{sub enh}). Clinical and quantitative MRI parameters diminished significantly with regression of the inflammatory activity. The improvement in AS was most pronounced in patients treated with infliximab; after 12 months the ADC diminished from an average of 1.31 to 0.88 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, f{sub enh} from 1.85 to 0.60, and g{sub enh} from 3.09 to 1.40 %/s. Diffusion-weighted imaging and DCEI were shown to be effective in quantifying changes in inflammation in skeletal lesions during the treatment of AS, and could therefore be convenient for assessing treatment efficacy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time DWI was used to evaluate the activity of skeletal inflammation in rheumatic diseases such as AS. (orig.)

  19. Noninvasive optical diagnostics of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in skeletal muscle for comparison of electroporation and sonoporation efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Mindaugas; Kadikis, Roberts; Saknīte, Inga; Baltušnikas, Juozas; Kilikevičius, Audrius; Lihachev, Alexey; Petrovska, Ramona; Jakovels, Dainis; Šatkauskas, Saulius

    2016-04-01

    We highlight the options available for noninvasive optical diagnostics of reporter gene expression in mouse tibialis cranialis muscle. An in vivo multispectral imaging technique combined with fluorescence spectroscopy point measurements has been used for the transcutaneous detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, providing information on location and duration of EGFP expression and allowing quantification of EGFP expression levels. For EGFP coding plasmid (pEGFP-Nuc Vector, 10 μg/50 ml) transfection, we used electroporation or ultrasound enhanced microbubble cavitation [sonoporation (SP)]. The transcutaneous EGFP fluorescence in live mice was monitored over a period of one year using the described parameters: area of EGFP positive fibers, integral intensity, and mean intensity of EGFP fluorescence. The most efficient transfection of EGFP coding plasmid was achieved, when one high voltage and four low voltage electric pulses were applied. This protocol resulted in the highest short-term and long-term EGFP expression. Other electric pulse protocols as well as SP resulted in lower fluorescence intensities of EGFP in the transfected area. We conclude that noninvasive multispectral imaging technique combined with fluorescence spectroscopy point measurements is a suitable method to estimate the dynamics and efficiency of reporter gene transfection in vivo.

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and dynamic contrast enhancement patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous testicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Sylakos, Anastasios; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Stavrou, Sotirios; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional MRI in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors was assessed. • ADC values proved useful in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors. • Testicular germ cell tumors had similar enhancement patterns of dynamic MRI. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). Materials and methods: The MRI examinations of the scrotum of 26 men with histologically proven testicular GCTs were reviewed. DWI was performed in all patients, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s/mm 2 . Subtraction DCE-MRI was performed in 20 cases using a 3D fast-field echo sequence after gadolinium administration. Time-signal intensity curves were created and semi-quantitative parameters (peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate) were calculated. The Student's t-test was used to compare the mean values of ADC, peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate between seminomas and NSGCTs. ROC analysis was also performed. Results: Histopathology disclosed the presence of 15 seminomas and 11 NSGCTs. The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (× 10 −3 mm 2 /s) of seminomas (0.59 ± 0.009) were significantly lower than those of NSGCTs (0.90 ± 0.33) (P = 0.01). The optimal ADC cut-off value was 0.68 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s. No differences between the two groups were observed for peak enhancement (P = 0.18), time to peak (P = 0.63) wash-in rate (P = 0.32) and wash-out rate (P = 0.18). Conclusions: ADC values may be used to preoperatively differentiate seminomas from NSGCTs

  1. Heavy ion irradiation of glasses: enhanced diffusion and preferential sputtering of alkali elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, G.; Boscoletto, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Marchi, G.; Miotello, A.; Tiveron, B.

    1986-01-01

    Soda-lime glasses have been irradiated by using different ions (H,N,O,Ne,Ar,Kr) in 20-300 keV energy range. The observed modifications in the alkali depth distribution have been analyzed on the basis of a phenomenological model, which takes into account for an enhanced diffusion and a surface preferential sputtering. A correlation between the alkali sputtering cross-section and the electronic stopping power regimes of incident particles has been determined. The alkali profiles, before and after irradiation, have been determined by resonant nuclear reactions. (author)

  2. Trafficking of Na,K-ATPase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein is mediated by protein kinase A or C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Jørgensen, PL

    2003-01-01

    Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the C-terminal of rat Na,K-ATPase a1-subunit is introduced as a novel procedure for visualizing trafficking of Na,K-pumps in living COS-1 renal cells in response to PKA or PKC stimulation. Stable, functional expression of the fluorescent...... along the plasma membrane of COS cells. In unstimulated COS cells, Na,K-EGFP was also present in lysosomes and in vesicles en route from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, but it was almost absent from recycling endosomes labelled with fluorescent transferrin. After activation of protein...... chimera (Na,K-EGFP) was achieved in COS-1 cells using combined puromycin and ouabain selection procedures. Na,K-pump activities were unchanged after fusion with EGFP, both in basal and regulated states. In confocal laser scanning and fluorescence microscopes, the Na,K-EGFP chimera was distributed mainly...

  3. Biocompatible fluorescence-enhanced ZrO2-CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for in vitro cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhisong; Zhu, Zhihong; Zheng, Xinting; Qiao, Yan; Guo, Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-04-01

    With advances of quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging applications, various materials have been used to coat QDs to reduce their nanotoxicity; however, the coating could introduce new toxic sources and quench the fluorescence in bioimaging applications. In this work, ZrO2, an excellent ceramic material with low extinction coefficient and good biocompatibility, is utilized to coat CdTe QDs for the first time. Experimental results show that ZrO2-QD nanocomposites with the size of ~ 30 nm possess enhanced fluorescence emission, lower nanotoxicity and gradually increased fluorescence under 350 nm light illumination. After functionalization with folic acid, they were applied to label cultured HeLa cells effectively. Therefore, the ZrO2-QD nanocomposites could be promising biocompatible nanomaterials with strong fluorescence emission to replace or complement QDs in biomedical applications.

  4. Biocompatible fluorescence-enhanced ZrO2-CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for in vitro cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhisong; Zhu Zhihong; Zheng Xinting; Qiao Yan; Li Changming; Guo Jun

    2011-01-01

    With advances of quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging applications, various materials have been used to coat QDs to reduce their nanotoxicity; however, the coating could introduce new toxic sources and quench the fluorescence in bioimaging applications. In this work, ZrO 2 , an excellent ceramic material with low extinction coefficient and good biocompatibility, is utilized to coat CdTe QDs for the first time. Experimental results show that ZrO 2 -QD nanocomposites with the size of ∼ 30 nm possess enhanced fluorescence emission, lower nanotoxicity and gradually increased fluorescence under 350 nm light illumination. After functionalization with folic acid, they were applied to label cultured HeLa cells effectively. Therefore, the ZrO 2 -QD nanocomposites could be promising biocompatible nanomaterials with strong fluorescence emission to replace or complement QDs in biomedical applications.

  5. Biocompatible fluorescence-enhanced ZrO{sub 2}-CdTe quantum dot nanocomposite for in vitro cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zhisong; Zhu Zhihong; Zheng Xinting; Qiao Yan; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457 (Singapore); Guo Jun, E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-04-15

    With advances of quantum dots (QDs) in bioimaging applications, various materials have been used to coat QDs to reduce their nanotoxicity; however, the coating could introduce new toxic sources and quench the fluorescence in bioimaging applications. In this work, ZrO{sub 2}, an excellent ceramic material with low extinction coefficient and good biocompatibility, is utilized to coat CdTe QDs for the first time. Experimental results show that ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites with the size of {approx} 30 nm possess enhanced fluorescence emission, lower nanotoxicity and gradually increased fluorescence under 350 nm light illumination. After functionalization with folic acid, they were applied to label cultured HeLa cells effectively. Therefore, the ZrO{sub 2}-QD nanocomposites could be promising biocompatible nanomaterials with strong fluorescence emission to replace or complement QDs in biomedical applications.

  6. Fickian-Based Empirical Approach for Diffusivity Determination in Hollow Alginate-Based Microfibers Using 2D Fluorescence Microscopy and Comparison with Theoretical Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mobed-Miremadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollow alginate microfibers (od = 1.3 mm, id = 0.9 mm, th = 400 µm, L = 3.5 cm comprised of 2% (w/v medium molecular weight alginate cross-linked with 0.9 M CaCl2 were fabricated to model outward diffusion capture by 2D fluorescent microscopy. A two-fold comparison of diffusivity determination based on real-time diffusion of Fluorescein isothiocyanate molecular weight (FITC MW markers was conducted using a proposed Fickian-based approach in conjunction with a previously established numerical model developed based on spectrophotometric data. Computed empirical/numerical (Dempiricial/Dnumerical diffusivities characterized by small standard deviations for the 4-, 70- and 500-kDa markers expressed in m2/s are (1.06 × 10−9 ± 1.96 × 10−10/(2.03 × 10−11, (5.89 × 10−11 ± 2.83 × 10−12/(4.6 × 10−12 and (4.89 × 10−12 ± 3.94 × 10−13/(1.27 × 10−12, respectively, with the discrimination between the computation techniques narrowing down as a function of MW. The use of the numerical approach is recommended for fluorescence-based measurements as the standard computational method for effective diffusivity determination until capture rates (minimum 12 fps for the 4-kDa marker and the use of linear instead of polynomial interpolating functions to model temporal intensity gradients have been proven to minimize the extent of systematic errors associated with the proposed empirical method.

  7. Ag@Aggregation-induced emission dye core/shell nanostructures with enhanced one- and two-photon fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Qiujin; Luo, Liang

    2017-10-01

    Combining plasmonic nanostructures with two-photon fluorescence materials is a promising way to significantly enhance two-photon fluorescence. Ag@1,4-bis(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl) benzene (BCPEB) core/shell nanostructures were fabricated by simply incubating the isolated Ag nanoparticles with BCPEB microrods in ethanol. BCPEB was chosen as the fluorescent organic molecule owing to the aggregation-induced-emission (AIE) nature which would reduce the emission loss as being practically applied in solid phase. By utilizing the match of the extinction spectrum of Ag nanoparticles and BCPEB's absorption band, the target Ag@BCPEB core/shell nanostructures showed an enhanced one-photon (12×) fluorescence, integrating with SERS signal as well. Moreover, the resultant second harmonic generation of Ag nanoparticles under two-photon excitation also well matched with the absorption band of BCPEB, and significant enhanced two-photon (17×) fluorescence was obtained. The confocal images of NIH-3T3 cells with these nanostructures under one- and two-photon excitation showed good contrast and brightness for bio-imaging.

  8. Chlorine Diffusion in Uranium Dioxide: Thermal Effects versus Radiation Enhanced Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Yves; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Bererd, Nicolas; Jaffrezic, Henri; Toulhoat, Nelly; Barthe, Marie France; Desgardin, Pierre; Raimbault, Louis; Scheidegger, Andre M.; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-01-01

    Chlorine is present as an impurity in the UO 2 nuclear fuel. 35 Cl is activated into 36 Cl by thermal neutron capture. In case of interim storage or deep geological disposal of the spent fuel, this isotope is known to be able to contribute significantly to the instant release fraction because of its mobile behavior and its long half life (around 300000 years). It is therefore important to understand its migration behavior within the fuel rod. During reactor operation, chlorine diffusion can be due to thermally activated processes or can be favoured by irradiation defects induced by fission fragments or alpha decay. In order to decouple both phenomena, we performed two distinct experiments to study the effects of thermal annealing on the behaviour of chlorine on one hand and the effects of the irradiation with fission products on the other hand. During in reactor processes, part of the 36 Cl may be displaced from its original position, due to recoil or to collisions with fission products. In order to study the behavior of the displaced chlorine, 37 Cl has been implanted into sintered depleted UO 2 pellets (mean grain size around 18 μm). The spatial distribution of the implanted and pristine chlorine has been analyzed by SIMS before and after treatment. Thermal annealing of 37 Cl implanted UO 2 pellets (implantation fluence of 10 13 ions.cm -2 ) show that it is mobile from temperatures as low as 1273 K (E a =4.3 eV). The irradiation with fission products (Iodine, E=63.5 MeV) performed at 300 and 510 K, shows that the diffusion of chlorine is enhanced and that a thermally activated contribution is preserved (E a =0.1 eV). The diffusion coefficients measured at 1473 K and under fission product irradiation at 510 K are similar (D = 3.10 -14 cm 2 .s -1 ). Considering in first approximation that the diffusion length L can be expressed as a function of the diffusion coefficient D and time t by : L=(Dt)1/2, the diffusion distance after 3 years is L=17 μm. It results that

  9. First-principles study of hydrogen-enhanced phosphorus diffusion in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Anh, Le; Lam, Pham Tien; Manoharan, Muruganathan; Matsumura, Hideki; Otsuka, Nobuo; Hieu Chi, Dam; Tien Cuong, Nguyen; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We present a first-principles study on the interstitial-mediated diffusion process of neutral phosphorus (P) atoms in a silicon crystal with the presence of mono-atomic hydrogen (H). By relaxing initial Si structures containing a P atom and an H atom, we derived four low-energy P-H-Si defect complexes whose formation energies are significantly lower than those of P-Si defect complexes. These four defect complexes are classified into two groups. In group A, an H atom is located near a Si atom, whereas in group B, an H atom is close to a P atom. We found that the H atom pairs with P or Si atom and changes the nature bonding between P and Si atoms from out-of-phase conjugation to in-phase conjugation. This fact results in the lower formation energies compare to the cases without H atom. For the migration of defect complexes, we have found that P-H-Si defect complexes can migrate with low barrier energies if an H atom sticks to either P or Si atom. Group B complexes can migrate from one lattice site to another with an H atom staying close to a P atom. Group A complexes cannot migrate from one lattice site to another without a transfer of an H atom from one Si atom to another Si atom. A change in the structure of defect complexes between groups A and B during the migration results in a transfer of an H atom between P and Si atoms. The results for diffusion of group B complexes show that the presence of mono-atomic H significantly reduces the activation energy of P diffusion in a Si crystal, which is considered as a summation of formation energy and migration barrier energy, leading to the enhancement of diffusion of P atoms at low temperatures, which has been suggested by recent experimental studies

  10. Diffusion Limitation and Hyperoxic Enhancement of Oxygen Consumption in Zooxanthellate Sea Anemones, Zoanthids, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, J M

    1990-08-01

    Depending on their size and morphology, anthozoan polyps and colonies may be diffusion-limited in their oxygen consumption, even under well-stirred, air-saturated conditions. This is indicated by an enhancement of oxygen consumption under steady-state hyperoxic conditions that simulate the levels of O2 produced photosynthetically by zooxanthellae in the hosts' tissues. Such hyperoxia in the tissues of zooxanthellate species negates the effect of the diffusive boundary layer, and increases the rate of oxygen consumption; thus, in many cases, the rate of respiration measured under normoxia in the dark may not be representative of the rate during the day when the zooxanthellae are photosynthesizing and when the supply of oxygen for respiration is in the tissues themselves, not from the environment. These results have implications in respirometric methodology and in calculating the rate of gross photosynthesis in energetic studies. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase is higher in aposymbiotic than in zooxanthellate specimens of the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, and this may indicate a compensation for the relative hypoxia in the tissues of the former, enhancing the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria from the environment.

  11. Phosphor-doping enhanced efficiency in bilayer organic solar cells due to longer exciton diffusion length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kang [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Hou, Lintao, E-mail: thlt@jnu.edu.cn [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: wangping996633@163.com [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xia, Yuxin [Siyuan Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen, Dongcheng; Xiao, Biao [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-07-01

    We fabricated bilayer organic solar cells (OSCs) in the structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PtOEP:MEH-PPV/C{sub 70}/Al, where MEH-PPV was doped with platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP). Enhanced exciton diffusion length (L{sub D}) is realized via converting generated singlet excitons to triplet excitons. Investigation based on transfer matrix simulations reveals that it is the extended exciton L{sub D} of the doping donor layer that leads to the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement, when compared with those of the OSCs with a non-doping donor layer. As a result of the increased L{sub D}, J{sub sc} and PCE increase by 30% and 42% respectively for a device with 5 wt% PtOEP-doped 25 nm-thick donor layer. Meanwhile, by doping with phosphorescent bis(1-phenyl-isoquinoline)(acetylacetonato)iridium(III), the reduction in open-circuit voltage and the comparable J{sub sc} are shown due to its higher HOMO level and higher LUMO level, leading to the decrease of PCE. It demonstrates that doping a polymer with a suitable phosphorescent molecule is an important approach to be considered to increase the exciton L{sub D}. - Highlights: • Optical model based on transfer matrix method was used to study phosphor-doped organic planar hetero-junction solar cells. • The enhanced exciton diffusion length was experimentally investigated by absorption, PL, time-resolved transient PL, J–V and EQE curves. • Only suitable phosphor dyes can increase exciton diffusion length.

  12. Communication: Development of standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and its application to the lateral diffusion of lipids in a supported lipid bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2017-07-01

    We present standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SEW-FCS). This technique utilizes the interference of two evanescent waves which generates a standing evanescent-wave. Fringe-pattern illumination created by a standing evanescent-wave enables us to measure the diffusion coefficients of molecules with a super-resolution corresponding to one fringe width. Because the fringe width can be reliably estimated by a simple procedure, utilization of fringes is beneficial to quantitatively analyze the slow diffusion of molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a model biomembrane formed on a solid substrate, with the timescale relevant for reliable FCS analysis. Furthermore, comparison of the data between SEW-FCS and conventional total-internal reflection FCS, which can also be performed by the SEW-FCS instrument, effectively eliminates the artifact due to afterpulsing of the photodiode detector. The versatility of SEW-FCS is demonstrated by its application to various SLBs.

  13. Does ozone enhance the remineralizing potential of nanohydroxyapatite on artificially demineralized enamel? A laser induced fluorescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Samuelraj; Prabhu, Vijendra; Chandra, Subhash; Koshy, Shalini; Acharya, Shashidhar; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2014-02-01

    The present era of minimal invasive dentistry emphasizes the early detection and remineralization of initial enamel caries. Ozone has been shown to reverse the initial demineralization before the integrity of the enamel surface is lost. Nano-hydroxyapatite is a proven remineralizing agent for early enamel caries. In the present study, the effect of ozone in enhancing the remineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite on artificially demineralized enamel was investigated using laser induced fluorescence. Thirty five sound human premolars were collected from healthy subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. Fluorescence was recorded by exciting the mesial surfaces using 325 nm He-Cd laser with 2 mW power. Tooth specimens were subjected to demineralization to create initial enamel caries. Following which the specimens were divided into three groups, i.e ozone (ozonated water for 2 min), without ozone and artificial saliva. Remineralization regimen was followed for 3 weeks. The fluorescence spectra of the specimens were recorded from all the three experimental groups at baseline, after demineralization and remineralization. The average spectrum for each experimental group was used for statistical analysis. Fluorescence intensities of Ozone treated specimens following remineralization were higher than that of artificial saliva, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (Pozone enhanced the remineralizing potential of nanohydroxyapatite, and laser induced fluorescence was found to be effective in assessing the surface mineral changes in enamel. Ozone can be considered an effective agent in reversing the initial enamel caries there by preventing the tooth from entering into the repetitive restorative cycle.

  14. Label-free fluorescent detection of thrombin activity based on a recombinant enhanced green fluorescence protein and nickel ions immobilized nitrilotriacetic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Lei, Chunyang; Nie, Zhou; Guo, Manli; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-11-15

    Herein, a novel label-free fluorescent assay has been developed to detect the activity of thrombin and its inhibitor, based on a recombinant enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and Ni(2+) ions immobilized nitrilotriacetic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Ni(2+)-NTA MNPs). The EGFP, containing a thrombin cleavage site and a hexahistidine sequence (His-tag) at its N-terminal, was adsorbed onto Ni(2+)-NTA MNPs through Ni(2+)-hexahistidine interaction, and dragged out of the solution by magnetic separation. Thrombin can selectively digest EGFP accompanied by His-tag peptide sequence leaving, and the resulting EGFP cannot be captured by Ni(2+)-NTA MNPs and kept in supernatant. Hence the fluorescence change of supernatant can clearly represent the activity of thrombin. Under optimized conditions, such assay showed a relatively low detection limit (3.0×10(-4) U mL(-1)), and was also used to detect the thrombin inhibitor, Hirudin, and further applied to detect thrombin activity in serum. Combined with the satisfactory reusability of Ni(2+)-NTA MNPs, our method presents a promising candidate for simple, sensitive, and cost-saving protease activity detecting and inhibitor screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluorescence enhancement effect for the determination of curcumin with yttrium(III)-curcumin-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Huang Wei; Wang Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    It is found that the fluorescence of curcumin is greatly enhanced by yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ) in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Based on this, a sensitive fluorimetric method for the determination of curcumin in aqueous solution is proposed. In the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) buffer, the fluorescence intensity of curcumin is proportional to the concentration of curcumin in the range of 7.37x10 -4 -0.18, 0.18-2.95 μg mL -1 and the detection limit is 0.1583 ng mL -1 . The actual samples are satisfactorily determined. In addition, the interaction mechanism is also studied

  16. Expression of exogenetic enhanced green fluorescent protein in rat endocranium through lentivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qiang; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhaolong; Wu, Yina; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate whether exogenetic green fluorescent protein is able to express in the endocranium of rats, and to establish a method for further study in exogenetic gene knock-in or gene overexpression. Forty female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 in each: low and high dose groups, treated with 10% and 100% EGFP-lentivirus, respectively; negative control group, treated with virus enhancer; sham group, treated with normal saline. Seven days later, half rats' brain tissues were perfusion fixed and fresh brain tissues were obtained from the rest after euthanasia in each group. Immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting and RT-PCR were respectively performed to detect the site where EGFP expressed and its levels. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that EGFP was successfully expressed in brain tissue of those rats infected with EGFP-lentivirus. Both Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that EGFP was expressed after treatment with EGFP-lentivirus, and the expression level increased with the dosage of the vector. Exogenetic EGFP gene can express in brain tissue of the rat, which laid a solid foundation for future studies in exogenetic gene knock in or gene overexpression.

  17. Heterologous strategy enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence polarization immunoassay of clinafloxacin in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahong; Shanin, Ilya A; Lv, Shuwei; Wang, Qiang; Mao, Chuanbin; Xu, Zhenlin; Sun, Yuanming; Wu, Qing; Eremin, Sergei A; Lei, Hongtao

    2016-03-15

    Clinafloxacin is used for the treatment of disease in food-producing animals, e.g. Brucella melitensis, which often occurs in goats; however, the clinafloxacin residue in goat milk may harm human health and result in the development of drug-resistant bacterial strains or allergies. Despite this, there is not a rapid, sensitive and accurate analytical method in goat milk for rapid screening or monitoring purposes. One homologous and five heterologous tracers were designed and compared for fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) optimization. Based on the combination of a heterologous tracer (PAZ-FITC, synthesized with pazufloxacin and FITC) and the antibody against clinafloxacin, a highly sensitive FPIA was established for the detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk for the first time. The IC50 value was 29.3 µg L(-1) for clinafloxacin in the heterologous format - six times lower than that of the combination of the homologous tracers and the antibody. The recoveries ranged from 86.8% to 104.5%, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.1% to 7.2%. Validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed that the results obtained from the proposed FPIA were in agreement with those of HPLC. This proposed heterologous strategy for enhanced FPIA is sensitive and rapid enough for the high-throughput detection of clinafloxacin residue in goat milk. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Saturated excitation of Fluorescence to quantify excitation enhancement in aperture antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Aouani, Heykel

    2012-07-23

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used to probe the electromagnetic intensity amplification on optical antennas, yet measuring the excitation intensity amplification is a challenge, as the detected fluorescence signal is an intricate combination of excitation and emission. Here, we describe a novel approach to quantify the electromagnetic amplification in aperture antennas by taking advantage of the intrinsic non linear properties of the fluorescence process. Experimental measurements of the fundamental f and second harmonic 2f amplitudes of the fluorescence signal upon excitation modulation are used to quantify the electromagnetic intensity amplification with plasmonic aperture antennas. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  19. Enhanced fluorescence of graphene oxide by well-controlled Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiyan; Zhu, Yihua; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-01-01

    Graphene and graphene derivatives, including graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO), have attracted remarkable attention in different fields due to their unique electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, whereas the fluorescence property is rarely been studied. This paper reports on metal-enhanced fluorescence Au@SiO2 composite nanoparticles adsorbed graphene oxide nanosheets, where the silica-shell is used to control the distance between gold-core and fluorophore GO, and a positively charged polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) is used to adsorb the negatively charged silica-shell and GO by layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) approach. The silica-shell around the 80 nm gold-core can be well-controlled by ending the reaction at different times. Various analytical techniques were applied to characterize the morphology and optical characters of the as-prepared particles. A more than three-fold increase of the fluorescence intensity of GO was obtained.

  20. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, JUL (2015), s. 16-23 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23532S Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311202 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : hydride generation * arsenic * atomic fluorescence spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  1. Fluorescence Enhancement from Self-Assembled Aggregates II: Factors Influencing Florescence Color from Azobenzene Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mina

    2013-09-01

    We have chosen two types of azobenzene derivatives to elucidate the correlation between molecular structure and fluorescence color of light-driven azobenzene-based aggregates. The fluorescence color from azobenzene molecules (1 and 2), adopting a planar structure, was obviously red-shifted from that of the corresponding twisted ortho-alkylated azobenzene 3. The steric hindrance resulting from bulky alkyl groups at the ortho position of the azo linkage was considered to lessen the intermolecular π - π stacking between aromatic rings, leading to the relatively smaller spectral shift in fluorescence from the absorption band of the initial azobenzene solution. The substitution of electron-withdrawing groups into the azobenzene core gave rise to a blue-shift in fluorescence wavelength. That is, the extended π-conjugated system consisting of a planar azobenzene core as well as the electronic properties of the substituents are key factors influencing the fluorescence color from the light-driven azobenzene aggregates. Moreover, we could prepare fluorescent polymer films by mixing fluorescent azobenzene aggregates with polymers. The fluorescence colors from the polymer films were comparable to those from the azobenzene aggregates.

  2. Remarkable fluorescence enhancement versus complex formation of cationic porphyrins on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede

    2014-06-12

    Fluorescence enhancement of organic fluorophores shows tremendous potential to improve image contrast in fluorescence-based bioimaging. Here, we present an experimental study of the interaction of two cationic porphyrins, meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride (TMPyP) and meso-tetrakis(4-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium)porphyrin chloride (TMAP), with cationic surfactant-stabilized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) based on several steady-state and time-resolved techniques. We show the first experimental measurements demonstrating a clear transition from pronounced fluorescence enhancement to charge transfer (CT) complex formation by simply changing the nature and location of the positive charge of the meso substituent of the cationic porphyrins. For TMPyP, we observe a sixfold increase in the fluorescence intensity of TMPyP upon addition of ZnO NPs. Our experimental results indicate that the electrostatic binding of TMPyP with the surface of ZnO NPs increases the symmetry of the porphyrin macrocycle. This electronic communication hinders the rotational relaxation of the meso unit and/or decreases the intramolecular CT character between the cavity and the meso substituent of the porphyrin, resulting in the enhancement of the intensity of the fluorescence. For TMAP, on the other hand, the different type and nature of the positive charge resulting in the development of the CT band arise from the interaction with the surface of ZnO NPs. This observation is confirmed by the femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, which provides clear spectroscopic signatures of photoinduced electron transfer from TMAP to ZnO NPs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Janus nanobelts: fabrication, structure and enhanced magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Yu, Wensheng; Dong, Xiangting; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2014-02-01

    A new nanostructure of magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts with Fe3O4/PMMA as one half and Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA as the other half has been successfully fabricated by a specially designed parallel spinneret electrospinning technology. The morphology and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), biological microscopy (BM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that the [Fe3O4/PMMA]//[Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA] magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts possess superior magnetic and fluorescent properties due to their special nanostructure. Compared with Fe3O4/Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA composite nanobelts, the magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts provided better performance. The new magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts have potential applications in novel nano-bio-label materials, drug target delivery materials and future nanodevices due to their excellent magnetic-fluorescent properties, flexibility and insolubility. Moreover, the construction technique for the Janus nanobelts is of universal significance for the fabrication of other multifunctional Janus nanobelts.A new nanostructure of magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts with Fe3O4/PMMA as one half and Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA as the other half has been successfully fabricated by a specially designed parallel spinneret electrospinning technology. The morphology and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), biological microscopy (BM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that the [Fe3O4/PMMA]//[Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA] magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts possess superior magnetic and fluorescent properties due to their special

  4. Soy flour-derived carbon dots: facile preparation, fluorescence enhancement, and sensitive Fe{sup 3+} detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liyang; Xu, Qian [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China); Zheng, Xing [Bei Jing Sinen En-Tech Co., Ltd (China); Zhang, Weina; Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com; Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn; Wu, Wenting, E-mail: wuwt@upc.edu.cn [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China)

    2016-08-15

    Soy flour-derived carbon quantum dots (C-dots) were successfully synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal approach. The as-prepared C-dots exhibit an average diameter of 2.5 nm and the crystalline lattices are consistent with graphitic carbons. Meanwhile, they show strong photoluminescence (quantum yield is 7.85 %), good water solubility, and high photostability. Importantly, structural defects of the C-dots were designed to obtain controllable fluorescence, which was achieved by changing the contents of N defects and O defects of C-dots. Our results indicate that N defects can more effectively enhance the fluorescence emission than O defects. As the preparation temperature increases, the N defects are fine-tuned by substituting for partial O defects, reducing nonradiative recombination and enhancing fluorescence intensity, which is further confirmed by surface passivation. Due to its fine photostability, high sensitivity, and good selectivity for Fe{sup 3+}, the as-prepared C-dots were used as fluorescence probes for detection of ferric ion. The detection limitation comes to 0.021 µM.

  5. Coercivity enhancements of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by diffusing DyHx along different axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Xuejiao; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2015-01-01

    Diffusing heavy rare earth elements along the grain boundaries (GBs) for Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type sintered magnets serves as an effective method to enhance coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. Considering the texture anisotropy of Nd-rich GB phases, the coercivity incremental difference by diffusing DyH x fine powders along or perpendicular to the  <0 0 1 >  easy axis (c-axis) has been investigated. The coercivity increases more rapidly to 20.61 kOe (5.76 kOe higher than that of the as-sintered state) when diffusing along the c-axis than that diffusing perpendicular to c-axis (18.85 kOe, 4.00 kOe higher than the as-sintered state). Microstructural investigation reveals that Dy diffuses more easily towards the magnet inner part when treating along the c-axis than that for the perpendicular case due to the anisotropic distribution of the Nd-rich phase. This is verified by a higher Dy content at equivalent diffusing depth and a much deeper final diffusion distance. The local Dy-containing fractions with a stronger anisotropy field are richer for the magnet treated along the c-axis, leading to the much rapider coercivity enhancement. This work reveals that diffusion heavy rare earth along the c-axis is more effective to enhance coercivity for aligned Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. (paper)

  6. Fluorescent visualisation of the hypothalamic oxytocin neurones activated by cholecystokinin-8 in rats expressing c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein and oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fusion transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, A; Shoguchi, K; Matsuoka, H; Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J-I; Matsuura, T; Maruyama, T; Ishikura, T; Aritomi, T; Fujihara, H; Hashimoto, H; Suzuki, H; Murphy, D; Ueta, Y

    2014-05-01

    The up-regulation of c-fos gene expression is widely used as a marker of neuronal activation elicited by various stimuli. Anatomically precise observation of c-fos gene products can be achieved at the RNA level by in situ hybridisation or at the protein level by immunocytochemistry. Both of these methods are time and labour intensive. We have developed a novel transgenic rat system that enables the trivial visualisation of c-fos expression using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) tag. These rats express a transgene consisting of c-fos gene regulatory sequences that drive the expression of a c-fos-eGFP fusion protein. In c-fos-eGFP transgenic rats, robust nuclear eGFP fluorescence was observed in osmosensitive brain regions 90 min after i.p. administration of hypertonic saline. Nuclear eGFP fluorescence was also observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) 90 min after i.p. administration of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8, which selectively activates oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurones in the hypothalamus. In double transgenic rats that express c-fos-eGFP and an OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene, almost all mRFP1-positive neurones in the SON and PVN expressed nuclear eGFP fluorescence 90 min after i.p. administration of CCK-8. It is possible that not only a plane image, but also three-dimensional reconstruction image may identify cytoplasmic vesicles in an activated neurone at the same time. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  7. Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Hui, Xiaoying; Selner, Marc; Rosenthal, Bert; Maibach, Howard

    2014-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail plate and bed that affects up to 14% of the population and can have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected. This study compared the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ciclopirox dissolved in novel lipid diffusion enhancers with that of a commercial ciclopirox nail lacquer using the in vitro finite dose model. The penetration rate of ciclopirox was determined by applying doses of topical formulation twice daily to human nail plates for 11 d. Drug absorption was then measured by monitoring its rate of appearance in each nail layer and in the cotton pad/nail supporting bed. After a multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ciclopirox formulated with lipid enhancers in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of the commercial ciclopirox lacquer (p nail can be utilized as a means of effective transungual delivery.

  8. A capillary-based probe for in situ detection of enhanced fluorescence signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, F.; Xiao, R.; Zhu, A. N.; Shi, H. C.; Wang, S. Q.

    2013-07-01

    A simple, compact, and high sensitivity capillary-based probe for the in situ detection of fluorescence signals with high sensitivity is demonstrated. A home-made single-multi-mode fiber coupler that is coaxially aligned with the capillary-based probe provides for the transmission of excitation light and the collection and transmission of fluorescence. We propose a conceptually straightforward theoretical model to optimize the factors affecting the fluorescence-capture capability of the capillary-based probe. The fluorescence signal detected by fiber-optic spectroscopy non-linearly increases with the length of the capillary-based probe. In addition, the thicker the capillary tube wall is, the less the fluorescence signals determined are. The performance of the proposed probe is evaluated experimentally by measuring the fluorescence spectra of Cy5.5 dye and blue-green algae. The experimental results show that the proposed probe provides more than a ten-fold increase in fluorescence signal compared with direct measurements by a flat-tipped multi-mode fiber probe. The advantages of the capillary-based probe, which include its simple and compact structure, excellent light collection efficiency, requirement of small sample volume, and recoverability of samples, allow its wide application to in situ detection in the medical, forensic, biological, geological, and environmental fields with high sensitivity.

  9. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+).

  10. “Turn on” fluorescence enhancement of Zn octacarboxyphthaloyanine-graphene oxide conjugates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, Munyaradzi; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello

    2016-01-01

    Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis and X-ray photon spectroscopy. The presence of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide resulted in the quenching (turn on) of Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine fluorescence which can be explained by photoinduced electron transfer. Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates “turned on” fluorescence showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide hence their potential to be used as sensors. The nanoprobe developed showed high selectivity towards hydrogen peroxide in the presence of physiological interferences.

  11. An improved pyrolysis route to synthesize carbon-coated CdS quantum dots with fluorescence enhancement effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kejie; Liu Xiaoheng

    2011-01-01

    Well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS (CdS-C) quantum dots were successfully prepared via the improved pyrolysis of bis(1-dodecanethiol)-cadmium(II) under nitrogen atmosphere. This simple method effectively solved the sintered problem resulted from conventional pyrolysis process. The experimental results indicated that most of the as-prepared nanoparticles displayed well-defined core-shell structures. The CdS cores with diameter of ∼5 nm exhibited hexagonal crystal phase, the carbon shells with thickness of ∼2 nm acted as a good dispersion medium to prevent CdS particles from aggregation, and together with CdS effectively formed a monodisperse CdS-Carbon nanocomposite. This composite presented a remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect, which indicated that the prepared nanoparticles might be a promising photoresponsive material or biosensor. This improved pyrolysis method might also offer a facile way to prepare other carbon-coated semiconductor nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: We demonstrated a facile approach to synthesize well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS quantum dots. The as-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect. Highlights: → Carbon-coated CdS quantum dots were synthesized by an one-step pyrolysis method. → Well-dispersed CdS-carbon nanoparticles were obtained by an acid treatment process. → As-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect.

  12. Enhanced diffusion of uranium and thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Nicholas E; Kinny, Peter D; Reddy, Steven M

    2006-12-20

    The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a c.18 degree variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (zircon associated with the formation and migration of dislocations. A heterogeneous pattern of dark cathodoluminescence, with the darkest domains coinciding with low-angle boundaries, mimics the deformation microstructure identified by EBSD. Geochemical data collected using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) shows a positive correlation between concentrations of the elements U, Th and Pb (ranging from 20-60 ppm, 30-110 ppm, and 14-36 ppm, respectively) and Th/U ratio (1.13-1.8) with the deformation microstructure. The highest measured concentrations and Th/U coincide with low-angle boundaries. This enrichment is interpreted to reflect enhanced bulk diffusion of U and Th due to the formation and migration of high-diffusivity dislocations. 207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 +/- 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the

  13. Quantification of early adipose-derived stem cell survival: comparison between sodium iodide symporter and enhanced green fluorescence protein imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quach, Cung Hoa Thien; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Park, Jin-Won; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Strategies to overcome the problem of extensive early stem cell loss following transplantation requires a method to quantitatively assess their efficacy. This study compared the ability of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) imaging to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to enhance early stem cell survival. Methods: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transduced with an adenoviral vector to express both NIS and EGFP were mixed with culture media (control), matrigel (matrigel group) or pro-survival cocktail (PSC group), and 5 × 10 6 cells were injected into thigh muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Animals underwent serial optical imaging and 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy. Image-based EGFP fluorescence and 99m TcO 4 - uptake was measured by region-of-interest analysis, and extracted tissues were measured for 99m Tc activity. Fluorescent intensity measured from homogenized muscle tissue was used as reference for actual amount of viable ADSCs. Results: ADSCs were efficiently transduced to express EGFP and NIS without affecting proliferative capacity. The absence of significant apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V FACS analysis and Western blots for activated caspase-3. Both fluorescence optical imaging and 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy visualized implanted cells in living mice for up to 5 days. However, optical imaging displayed large variations in fluorescence intensity, and thus failed to detect difference in cell survival between groups or its change over time. In comparison, 99m TcO 4 - scintigraphy provided more reliable assessment of within-in group donor cell content as well as its temporal change. As a result, NIS imaging was able to discern beneficial effects of matrigel and pro-survival cocktail treatment on early ADSC survival, and provided quantitative measurements that correlated to actual donor cell content within implanted tissue. Conclusion: NIS reporter imaging may be useful for noninvasively assessing the

  14. Enhanced diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial and natural aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Fernqvist, M.M.; Christensen, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into organisms is often limited by the diffusive transport through a thin boundary layer. Therefore, a microscale diffusion technique was applied to determine the diffusive mass transfer of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through water, air, surfactant...

  15. Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI of a diffusable tracer: standardized quantities and symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofts, P.S.; Brix, G; Buckley, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a standard set of quantity names and symbols related to the estimation of kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data, using diffusable agents such as gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). These include a) the volume transfer constant K...

  16. Evaluation of conventional, dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI for quantitative Crohn's disease assessment with histopathology of surgical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Ziech, Manon L. W.; Li, Zhang; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Bemelman, Willem A.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Vos, Frans M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively compare conventional MRI sequences, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with histopathology of surgical specimens in Crohn's disease. 3-T MR enterography was performed in consecutive Crohn's disease patients scheduled for surgery within 4 weeks.

  17. Assessment of the link between quantitative biexponential diffusion-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced MRI in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Kappert, Peter; Sijens, Paul E.

    Purpose: To investigate if intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modeled diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be linked to contrast-enhanced (CE-)MRI in liver parenchyma and liver lesions. Methods: Twenty-five patients underwent IVIM-DWI followed by multiphase CE-MRI using Gd-EOB-DTPA (n = 20) or

  18. Theoretical reconsiderations when estimating the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) diffusion in leaves of C(3) plants by analysis of combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2009-11-01

    Existing methods to estimate the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)) are often based on combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. However, estimations of average g(m) by these methods are often unreliable either because the range of usable data is too narrow or because the estimations are very sensitive to measurement errors. We describe three method variants to estimate g(m), for which a wider range of data are usable. They use curve-fitting techniques, which minimise the sum of squared model deviations from the data for A (CO(2) assimilation rate) or for J (linear electron transport rate). Like the existing approaches, they are all based on common physiological principles assuming that electron transport limits A. The proposed variants were far less sensitive than the existing approaches to 'measurement noise' either created randomly in the generated data set or inevitably existing in real data sets. Yet, the estimates of g(m) from the three variants differed by approximately 15%. Moreover, for each variant, a stoichiometric uncertainty in linear electron transport-limited photosynthesis can cause another 15% difference. Any estimation of g(m) using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements should be considered with caution, especially when g(m) is high.

  19. Fluorescence enhancement of the aflatoxin B{sub 1} by forming inclusion complexes with some cyclodextrins and molecular modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Naader [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: alizaden@modares.ac.ir

    2007-12-15

    The interaction between the aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) and three cyclodextrins, {alpha}-cyclodextrin ({alpha}-CD), {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and heptakis-2,6-dimethyl-o-{beta}-cyclodextrin (ome-CD), was studied by spectrofluorescence technique. It was found that the inclusion association behavior occurs for the complexes of cyclodextrins with AFB{sub 1}. The fluorescence of AFB{sub 1} is generally enhanced in the complexes with cyclodextrins in aqueous solutions. The inclusion complex constants of the three types of cyclodextrins at different temperatures were evaluated from Benesi-Hildebrand plot and also by non-linear regression analysis. These cyclodextrins can only form the 1:1 (host:guest) inclusion complex in the studied temperature range of 20-50 deg. C. The enthalpy ({delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({delta}S{sup o}) changes of complexation were extracted from the temperature dependency of complex formation constants (K). Temperature-dependent measurements showed that the association step is controlled by enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. The use of ome-CD generally resulted in the greatest fluorescence intensity. On the other hand, the discrepancy between the exhibited enhanced fluorescence and thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}) is proposed to be different only by the orientation of the AFB{sub 1} within the cyclodextrin cavity. To find the most favorable structure, the geometry of complex was investigated by molecular modeling approach employing the semiemperical HF-SCF calculations.

  20. A Novel Methodology for Applying Multivoxel MR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, D I; Singh, R; Minkowitz, S; Zhou, Z; Haque, S; Peck, K K; Young, R J; Tsiouris, A J; Souweidane, M M; Thakur, S B

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas are inoperable high-grade gliomas with a median survival of less than 1 year. Convection-enhanced delivery is a promising local drug-delivery technique that can bypass the BBB in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma treatment. Evaluating tumor response is critical in the assessment of convection-enhanced delivery of treatment. We proposed to determine the potential of 3D multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy to evaluate convection-enhanced delivery treatment effect in these tumors. We prospectively analyzed 3D multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy data for 6 patients with nonprogressive diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas who received convection-enhanced delivery treatment of a therapeutic antibody (Phase I clinical trial NCT01502917). To compare changes in the metabolite ratios with time, we tracked the metabolite ratios Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at several ROIs: normal white matter, tumor within the convection-enhanced delivery infusion site, tumor outside of the infused area, and the tumor average. There was a comparative decrease in both Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA metabolite ratios at the tumor convection-enhanced delivery site versus tumor outside the infused area. We used MR spectroscopy voxels with dominant white matter as a reference. The difference between changes in metabolite ratios became more prominent with increasing time after convection-enhanced delivery treatment. The comparative change in metabolite ratios between the convection-enhanced delivery site and the tumor site outside the infused area suggests that multivoxel (1)H-MR spectroscopy, in combination with other imaging modalities, may provide a clinical tool to accurately evaluate local tumor response after convection-enhanced delivery treatment. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Radiation enhanced thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide; Diffusion thermique et sous irradiation du chlore dans le dioxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipon, Yves [Ecole doctorale de physique et d' astrophysique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-I, Lyon (France)

    2006-12-15

    This work concerns the study of the thermal and radiation enhanced diffusion of {sup 36}Cl in uranium dioxide. It is a contribution to PRECCI programme (research programme on the long-term behaviour of the spent nuclear fuel). {sup 36}Cl is a long lived volatile activation product (T = 300 000 years) able to contribute significantly to the instant release fraction in geological disposal conditions. We simulated the presence of {sup 36}Cl by implanting a quantity of {sup 37}Cl comparable to the impurity content of chlorine in UO{sub 2}. In order to evaluate the diffusion properties of chlorine in the fuel and in particular to assess the influence of the irradiation defects, we performed two kinds of experiments: - the influence of the temperature was studied by carrying out thermal annealings in the temperature range 900 - 1300 deg. C; we showed that implanted chlorine was mobile from temperatures as low as 1000 deg. C and determined a thermal diffusion coefficient D{sub 1000} {sub deg.} {sub C} around 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} and deduced an activation energy of 4.3 eV. This value is one of lowest compared to that of volatile fission products such as iodine or the xenon. These parameters reflect the very mobile behaviour of chlorine; - the irradiation effects induced by fission products were studied by irradiating the samples with {sup 127}I (energy of 63.5 MeV). We showed that the implanted chlorine diffusion in the temperature range 30 - 250 deg. C is not purely athermal. In these conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub 250} {sub deg.} {sub C} for the implanted chlorine is around 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} and the activation energy is calculated to be 0.1 eV. Moreover, at 250 deg. C, we observed an important transport of the pristine chlorine from the bulk towards the surface. This chlorine comes from a zone where the defects are mainly produced by the nuclear energy loss process at the end of iodine range. We showed the importance of the

  2. High-Field Diffusion MR Histology: Image-Based Correction of Eddy-Current Ghosts in Diffusion-Weighted Rapid Acquisition With Relaxation Enhancement (DW-RARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, J. Michael; Frank, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, diffusion-weighted (DW) MR microscopy is gaining increasing acceptance as a nondestructive histological tool for the study of fixed tissue samples. Spin-echo sequences are popular for high-field diffusion imaging due to their high tolerance to B0 field inhomogeneities. Volumetric DW rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (DW-RARE) currently offers the best tradeoff between imaging efficiency and image quality, but is relatively sensitive to residual eddy-current effects on the echo train phase, resulting in encoding direction-dependent ghosting in the DW images. We introduce two efficient, image-based phase corrections for ghost artifact reduction in DW-RARE of fixed tissue samples, neither of which require navigator echo acquisition. Both methods rely on the phase difference in k-space between the unweighted reference image and a given DW image and assume a constant, per-echo phase error arising from residual eddy-current effects in the absence of sample motion. Significant qualitative and quantitative ghost artifact reductions are demonstrated for individual DW and calculated diffusion tensor images. PMID:19097246

  3. Enhancement of growth and lipid production from microalgae using fluorescent paint under the solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Han, Jong-In

    2014-12-01

    Solar radiation has intensity that is too high to inhibit microalgae activity and is composed of wide light spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. For these reasons, the modification of solar radiation is required for effective microalgae cultivation, and to do that, fluorescent paint was used for not only blocking excessive solar energy but also converting UV to visible light. With fluorescent aqueous layer, microalgae was protected from photoinhibition and could grow well, but there was difference in growth and lipid accumulation efficiencies depending on the color; maximum dry weight of 1.7 g/L was achieved in red paint, whereas best lipid content of 30% was obtained in blue one. This phenomenon was due to the different light spectrum made by colors. With simple process using fluorescent paint, modification of light was successfully done and allowing microalgae to grow under strong radiation such as solar radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diphenylacrylonitrile-connected BODIPY dyes: fluorescence enhancement based on dark and AIE resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangbin; Lin, Xiaoru; Guo, Hongyu; Yang, Fafu

    2017-07-19

    This study focuses on the construction of novel diphenylacrylonitrile-connected BODIPY dyes with high fluorescence in both solution and an aggregated state by combining DRET and FRET processes in a single donor-acceptor system. The first BODIPY derivatives with one, two, or three AIE-active diphenylacrylonitrile groups were designed and synthesized in moderate yields. Strong fluorescence emissions were observed in the THF solution under excitation at the absorption wavelength of non-emissive diphenylacrylonitrile chromophores, implying the existence of the DRET process between the dark diphenylacrylonitrile donor and the emissive BODIPY acceptor. In the THF/H 2 O solution, the fluorescence intensity of the novel BODIPY derivatives gradually increased under excitation at the absorption wavelength of diphenylacrylonitrile chromophores, suggesting a FRET process between diphenylacrylonitrile and BODIPY moieties. A greater number of diphenylacrylonitrile units led to higher energy-transfer efficiencies. The pseudo-Stokes shift for both DRET and FRET processes was as large as 190 nm.

  5. Fluorescence enhancement of imidazolium ionic liquid by its confinement on PVC for in situ selective quantification of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yang; Han, Lu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xuwei; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-11-27

    A hydrophilic ionic liquid (methylimidazolium chloride, NmimCl)-polyvinyl chloride ionomer (NmimCl-PVC) was prepared by immobilizing and confining N-methylimidazole onto PVC chains. The NmimCl-PVC ionomer exhibits a 4-fold enhancement on the fluorescence intensity with respect to that of NmimCl, attributing to the confinement of ionic liquid by the PVC chain. The fluorescence is excitation-dependent with a maximum at λem 430 nm when excited at 325 nm. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of NmimCl-PVC ionomer increases remarkably with the loading ratio of N-methylimidazole in the range of 4.3-15.1%. The fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime were derived to be 0.112/7.1 ns for the NmimCl-PVC ionomer and 0.063/8.8 ns for NmimCl. Furthermore, hemoglobin is selectively adsorbed by NmimCl-PVC and causes significant fluorescence quenching of the ionomer via dynamic quenching and energy transfer between NmimCl-PVC and hemoglobin. A solid surface fluorimetric procedure was developed for surface adsorption and preconcentration of hemoglobin followed by in situ detection. A linear dynamic range of 0.3-26.2 μg mg(-1) is achieved with a detection limit of 0.1 μg mg(-1). Regarding hemoglobin in aqueous solution, the linear range 5-300 μg mL(-1) is achieved along with a detection limit of 2 μg mL(-1).

  6. Specific expression of an oxytocin-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat hypothalamus and posterior pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Akiko; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Young, W. Scott; Dayanithi, Govindan; Yamasaki, Yuka; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Otsubo, Hiroki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Murphy, David; Ueta, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    We have generated rats bearing an oxytocin (OXT)-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (eCFP) fusion transgene designed from a murine construct previously shown to be faithfully expressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridisation histochemistry revealed that the OXT-eCFP fusion gene was expressed in the supraoptic (SON) and the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in these rats. The fluorescence emanating from eCFP was observed only in the SON, the PVN, the internal layer of the median eminence (ME) and the posterior pituitary (PP). In in vitro preparations, freshly dissociated cells from the SON and axon terminals showed clear eCFP fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for OXT and arginine vasopressin (AVP) revealed that the eCFP fluorescence co-localises with OXT-immunofluorescence, but not with AVP-immunofluorescence in the SON and the PVN. Although the expression levels of the OXT-eCFP fusion gene in the SON and the PVN showed a wide range of variation in transgenic rats, eCFP fluorescence was markedly increased in the SON and the PVN, but decreased in the PP after chronic salt loading. The expression of the OXT gene was significantly increased in the SON and the PVN after chronic salt loading in both non-transgenic and transgenic rats. Compared to wild-type animals, euhydrated and salt-loaded male and female transgenic rats showed no significant differences in plasma osmolality, sodium concentration, OXT and AVP levels, suggesting that the fusion gene expression did not disturb any physiological processes. These results suggest that our new transgenic rat is a valuable new tool to identify OXT-producing neurones and their terminals. PMID:20026620

  7. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacconi, Chiara; Thakur, Sunitha B.; Dershaw, David D.; Brooks, Jennifer; Fry, Charles W.; Morris, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm 2 ) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well as of

  8. Impact of fluorescence emission from gold atoms on surrounding biological tissue-implications for nanoparticle radio-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, H L; Gholami, Y; Kuncic, Z

    2017-04-21

    The addition of gold nanoparticles within target tissue (i.e. a tumour) to enhance the delivered radiation dose is a well studied radiotherapy treatment strategy, despite not yet having been translated into standard clinical practice. While several studies have used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate radiation dose enhancement by Auger electrons emitted from irradiated gold nanoparticles, none have yet considered the effects due to escaping fluorescence photons. Geant4 was used to simulate a water phantom containing 10 mg ml -1 uniformly dispersed gold (1% by mass) at 5 cm depth. Incident monoenergetic photons with energies either side of the gold K-edge at 73 keV and 139.5 keV were chosen to give the same attenuation contrast against water, where water is used as a surrogate for biological tissue. For 73 keV incident photons, adding 1% gold into the water phantom enhances the energy deposited in the phantom by a factor of  ≈1.9 while 139.5 keV incident photons give a lower enhancement ratio of  ≈1.5. This difference in enhancement ratio, despite the equivalent attenuation ratios, can be attributed to energy carried from the target into the surrounding volume by fluorescence photons for the higher incident photon energy. The energy de-localisation is maximal just above the K-edge with 36% of the initial energy deposit in the phantom lost to escaping fluorescence photons. Conversely we find that the absorption of more photons by gold in the phantom reduces the number of scattered photons and hence energy deposited in the surrounding volume by up to 6% for incident photons below the K-edge. For incident photons above the K-edge this is somewhat offset by fluorescence. Our results give new insight into the previously unstudied centimetre scale energy deposition outside a target, which will be valuable for the future development of treatment plans using gold nanoparticles. From these results, we can conclude that gold nanoparticles delivered

  9. Enlarged extracellular space of aquaporin-4-deficient mice does not enhance diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488 or dextran polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F; Hrabetová, S

    2009-06-16

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels expressed on glia have been implicated in maintaining the volume of extracellular space (ECS). A previous diffusion study employing small cation tetramethylammonium and a real-time iontophoretic (RTI) method demonstrated an increase of about 25% in the ECS volume fraction (alpha) in the neocortex of AQP4(-/-) mice compared to AQP4(+/+) mice but no change in the hindrance imposed to diffusing molecules (tortuosity lambda). In contrast, other diffusion studies employing large molecules (dextran polymers) and a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method measured a decrease of about 10%-20% in lambda in the neocortex of AQP4(-/-) mice. These conflicting findings on lambda would imply that large molecules diffuse more readily in the enlarged ECS of AQP4(-/-) mice than in wild type but small molecules do not. To test this hypothesis, we used integrative optical imaging (IOI) to measure tortuosity with a small Alexa Fluor 488 (molecular weight [MW] 547, lambda(AF)) and two large dextran polymers (MW 3000, lambda(dex3) and MW 75,000, lambda(dex75)) in the in vitro neocortex of AQP4(+/+) and AQP4(-/-) mice. We found that lambda(AF)=1.59, lambda(dex3)=1.76 and lambda(dex75)=2.30 obtained in AQP4(-/-) mice were not significantly different from lambda(AF)=1.61, lambda(dex3)=1.76, and lambda(dex75)=2.33 in AQP4(+/+) mice. These IOI results demonstrate that lambda measured with small and large molecules each remain unchanged in the enlarged ECS of AQP4(-/-) mice compared to values in AQP4(+/+) mice. Further analysis suggests that the FRAP method yields diffusion parameters not directly comparable with those obtained by IOI or RTI methods. Our findings have implications for the role of glial AQP4 in maintaining the ECS structure.

  10. Using silicon-coated gold nanoparticles to enhance the fluorescence of CdTe quantum dot and improve the sensing ability of mercury (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chang, Hui; Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Xin; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2018-01-01

    The effect of silicon-coated gold nanoparticles with different gold core diameter and silica shell thickness on the fluorescence emission of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) was investigated. For gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 15 nm, silica coating can only results in fluorescence recover of the bare gold nanoparticle-induced quenching of QDs. However, when the size of gold nanoparticle is increased to 60 nm, fluorescence enhancement of the QDs could be obtained by silica coating. Because of the isolation of the silica shell-reduced quenching effect and local electric field effect, the fluorescence of QDs gets intense firstly and then decreases. The maximum fluorescence enhancement takes place as the silica shell has a thickness of 30 nm. This enhanced fluorescence from silicon-coated gold nanoparticles is demonstrated for sensing of Hg2 +. Under optimal conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity decreases linearly with the concentration of Hg2 + ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL. The limit of detection for Hg2 + is 1.25 ng/mL. Interference test and real samples detection indicate that the influence from other metal ions could be neglected, and the Hg2 + could be specifically detected.

  11. Fluorescence enhancement of single DNA molecules confined in Si/SiO2 nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, F.; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the detected emission intensity from YOYO-labeled DNA molecules confined in 180 nm deep Si/SiO2 nano-funnels changes significantly and not monotonically with the width of the funnel. This effect may be of importance for quantitative fluorescence microscopy and for experiments...

  12. Enhanced fluorescence of selected cationic dyes adsorbed on reduced-charge montmorillonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pustková, P.; Klika, Z.; Preclíková, J.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 93-103 ISSN 0009-8558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : cationic dye * crystal violet * Nile blue * rhodamine B * reduced-charge montmorillonite * visible spectrophotometry * fluorescence Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  13. Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, an approach of fabricating pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures (ARS) on fluorescent SiC by using self-assembled etch mask is demonstrated. By applying the pseudoperiodic (ARS), the average surface reflectance at 6° incidence over the spectral range of 390...

  14. Broadband Antireflection and Light Extraction Enhancement in Fluorescent SiC with Nanodome Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a time-efficient and low-cost approach to fabricate Si3N4 coated nanodome structures in fluorescent SiC. Nanosphere lithography is used as the nanopatterning method and SiC nanodome structures with Si3N4 coating are formed via dry etching and thin film deposition process. By using...... in the future....

  15. Oxygen diffusion and recovery of damage in irradiated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Schacht, S.

    1999-05-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in non-irradiated and irradiated polystyrene based plastic scintillators SCSN38 has been measured making use of a fluorescence quenching effect. Fluorescence light from electron or light excitation of dyes is reduced when oxygen is present in the sample. The reduction is characteristic for the dye and proportional to the partial pressure. Oxygen annealing of color centers of samples stored and irradiated in vacuum enhances the light yield. A diffusion model describes the results very well and results in a diffusion constant D=(1.00 ± 0.10)×10 -7 cm 2 s -1 at 23°C.

  16. Determination of Protein by Fluorescence Enhancement of Curcumin in Lanthanum-Curcumin-Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate-Protein System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Huang, Wei [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Zhang, Yunfeng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Mingyin [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Sun, Lina [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Tang, Bo [Shandong University, Jinan, China; Wang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We found that the fluorescence intensity of the lanthanum (La(3+))-curcumin (CU) complex can be highly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). Based on this finding, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of proteins in the range 0.0080-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 425 nm, and 0.00020-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1)for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 280 nm, while corresponding qualitative detection limits (S/N 3) are as low as 5.368, 0.573, 0.049, 0.562 g mL(-1), respectively. Study on reaction mechanism reveals that proteins can bind with La(3+), CU and SDBS through self-assembling function with electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces, etc. The proteins form a supermolecular association with multilayer structure, in which La(3+)-CU is clamped between BSA and SDBS. The unique high fluorescence enhancement of CU is resulted through synergic effects of favorable hydrophobic microenvironment provided by BSA and SDBS, and efficient intermolecular energy transfer among BSA, SDBS and CU. In energy transfer process, La(3+) plays a crucial role because it not only shortens the distance between SDBS and CU, but also acts as a "bridge" for transferring the energy from BSA to CU.

  17. Enhancement of adsorption and diffusion of lithium in single-walled carbon nanotubes by external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wenwu; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of an external transverse electric field on the adsorption and diffusion of Li atoms on the single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated using density functional theory. Results showed that the adsorption energy was significantly enhanced by applying the electric field. As the external electric field was increased from 0.0 to 0.6 V/Å, the adsorption energies were decreased from −1.37 to −2.31, −1.32 to −2.46, and −1.33 to −2.63 eV for the Li atoms adsorbed on (6,6), (8,8), and (10,10) CNTs, respectively. Meanwhile, the diffusion barriers of the Li atoms on the CNTs were also decreased as the external electric field was applied. When the external electric field was increased from 0.0 to 0.6 V/Å, the energy barriers were decreased from 0.42, 0.40, and 0.39 eV to 0.20, 0.17, and 0.15 eV for Li diffusion in the (6,6), (8,8), and (10,10) CNTs, respectively. The results proved that an external electric field can be applied to enhance the adsorption and diffusion of Li atoms on the CNTs (used as the anode) for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Structural and dynamic changes associated with beneficial engineered single-amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, James A J; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, D Dafydd

    2014-08-01

    Single-amino-acid deletions are a common part of the natural evolutionary landscape but are rarely sampled during protein engineering owing to limited and prejudiced molecular understanding of mutations that shorten the protein backbone. Single-amino-acid deletion variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) have been identified by directed evolution with the beneficial effect of imparting increased cellular fluorescence. Biophysical characterization revealed that increased functional protein production and not changes to the fluorescence parameters was the mechanism that was likely to be responsible. The structure EGFP(D190Δ) containing a deletion within a loop revealed propagated changes only after the deleted residue. The structure of EGFP(A227Δ) revealed that a `flipping' mechanism was used to adjust for residue deletion at the end of a β-strand, with amino acids C-terminal to the deletion site repositioning to take the place of the deleted amino acid. In both variants new networks of short-range and long-range interactions are generated while maintaining the integrity of the hydrophobic core. Both deletion variants also displayed significant local and long-range changes in dynamics, as evident by changes in B factors compared with EGFP. Rather than being detrimental, deletion mutations can introduce beneficial structural effects through altering core protein properties, folding and dynamics, as well as function.

  19. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) promoter fusions to study gene regulation at single cell and population levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utratna, Marta; O'Byrne, Conor P

    2014-01-01

    Reporter gene fusions based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) are powerful experimental tools that allow real-time changes in gene expression to be monitored both in single cells and in populations. Here we describe the development of a chromosomally integrated transcriptional reporter fusion in Listeria monocytogenes that allows real-time measurements of gene expression. To construct a single copy of an EGFP-based fluorescent reporter fused to a promoter of interest (Px) in L. monocytogenes, a suicide shuttle vector carrying the Px::egfp gene fusion is first constructed in Escherichia coli (as an intermediate host). Then, the vector is transformed into L. monocytogenes and integrated into its chromosome by homologous recombination within the selected promoter region. Subsequently, analysis of fluorescence exhibited by cells carrying a single copy reporter can be performed under selected experimental conditions by stringent sample preparation, optimized image acquisition, and processing of the digital data with the image analysis freeware ImageJ. Thus, the methodology described here can be adapted to investigate the activity and regulation of any promoter in L. monocytogenes both at the cell and population levels.

  20. Investigation of radiation enhanced diffusion of magnesium in substrates flown on the NASA genesis mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308 (Australia); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: bruce.king@newcastle.edu.au; Pellin, M.J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Burnett, D.S. [Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The thermal diffusion of an Mg implant in Si has been measured with SIMS and compared to RIMS (resonant ionisation mass spectrometry) measurements of Mg implantation and diffusion in Si wafers exposed to solar wind irradiation in the NASA Genesis mission. The Genesis samples show much more surface segregation that the samples annealed in the laboratory, due to diffusion and segregation of the implanted Mg to the heavily damaged near surface regions of the Genesis wafers. This Mg transport has been modeled by solving a set of stiff differential equations and found to agree with RIMS measurements for a Mg interstitial migration energy of 0.7 eV.

  1. Investigation of radiation enhanced diffusion of magnesium in substrates flown on the NASA genesis mission.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of Newcastle); (California Inst. of Tech.)

    2008-12-01

    The thermal diffusion of an Mg implant in Si has been measured with SIMS and compared to RIMS (resonant ionisation mass spectrometry) measurements of Mg implantation and diffusion in Si wafers exposed to solar wind irradiation in the NASA Genesis mission. The Genesis samples show much more surface segregation that the samples annealed in the laboratory, due to diffusion and segregation of the implanted Mg to the heavily damaged near surface regions of the Genesis wafers. This Mg transport has been modeled by solving a set of stiff differential equations and found to agree with RIMS measurements for a Mg interstitial migration energy of 0.7 eV.

  2. Oxygen-generating hybrid nanoparticles to enhance fluorescent/photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging guided tumor photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Guohao; Qin, Zainen; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Guoqing; Ma, Qingjie; Zhu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor treatment modality that can convert oxygen into cytotoxic singlet oxygen (SO) via photosensitizer to ablate tumor growth. However, the uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation during tumor development and the oxygen consumption during PDT always result in an insufficient oxygen level in tumors, which can adversely affect the PDT efficiency in turn. We designed an oxygen-generating PDT nanocomplex by encapsulating a manganese dioxide nanoparticle (MnO 2 NP) in an indocyanine green (ICG) modified hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (HANP) to overcome this limitation. Because of the excellent fluorescent and photoacoustic properties, the tumor accumulation of the ICG-HANP/MnO 2 (IHM) nanocomplex was monitored by fluorescent imaging and photoacoustic imaging after intravenous administration into the SCC7 tumor-bearing mouse model. Both high fluorescent and photoacoustic signals were detected and found peak at 6 h post-injection (tumor-muscle ratio: 4.03 ± 0.36 for fluorescent imaging and 2.93 ± 0.13 for photoacoustic imaging). In addition, due to the high reactivity of MnO 2 NP to H 2 O 2 , an unfavorable tumor cell metabolic, the oxygen content in the tumor is elevated 2.25 ± 0.07 times compared to that without IHM treatment as ultrasound imaging confirmed. After laser irradiation, significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in the IHM-treated group compared to the ICG-HANP-treated group, attributed to the beneficial oxygen-generating property of IHM for PDT. It is expected that the design of IHM will provide an alternative way of improving clinical PDT efficacy and will be widely applied in cancer theranostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-efficiency type II cell-enhanced green fluorescent protein expression facilitates cellular identification, tracking, and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Jeff N; Gonzalez, Robert F; Allen, Lennell; Gillespie, AnneMarie; Leaffer, David; Dean, Willow B; Chapin, Cheryl; Dobbs, Leland G

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a transgenic mouse expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in virtually all type II (TII) alveolar epithelial cells. The CBG mouse (SPC-BAC-EGFP) contains a bacterial artificial chromosome modified to express EGFP within the mouse surfactant protein (SP)-C gene 3' untranslated region. EGFP mRNA expression is limited to the lung. EGFP fluorescence is both limited to and exhibited by all cells expressing pro-SP-C; fluorescence is uniform throughout all lobes of the lung and does not change as mice age. EGFP(+) cells also express SP-B but do not express podoplanin, a type I (TI) cell marker. CBG mice show no evidence of lung disease with aging. In 3 hours, TII cells can be isolated in >99% purity from CBG mice by FACS; the yield of 3.7 ± 0.6 × 10(6) cells represents approximately 25 to 60% of the TII cells in the lung. By FACS analysis, approximately 0.9% of TII cells are in mitosis in uninjured lungs; after bleomycin injury, 4.1% are in mitosis. Because EGFP fluorescence can be detected for >14 days in culture, at a time that SP-C mRNA expression is essentially nil, this line may be useful for tracking TII cells in culture and in vivo. When CBG mice are crossed to transgenic mice expressing rat podoplanin, TI and TII cells can be easily simultaneously identified and isolated. When bred to other strains of mice, EGFP expression can be used to identify TII cells without the need for immunostaining for SP-C. These mice should be useful in models of mouse pulmonary disease and in studies of TII cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics.

  4. Regulatory mechanism of the arginine vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion gene expression in acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Makoto; Ohnishi, Hideo; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ueta, Yoichi

    2009-09-01

    Various kinds of stress cause neuroendocrine responses such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) release from parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined the effects of acute and chronic stress on the expression of the AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene in the hypothalamus, using chronic salt loading as an osmotic stimulation, intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as acute inflammatory stress and adjuvant arthritis (AA) as chronic inflammatory/nociceptive stress. Salt loading caused a marked increase in the eGFP gene expression and eGFP fluorescence in the supraoptic nucleus, magnocellular division of the PVN and internal layer of the median eminence (ME). Administration of LPS caused increased fluorescence in parvocellular division of the PVN and external layer of the ME. AA rats revealed an increased expression of the eGFP gene and eGFP fluorescence in both magnocellular and parvocellular divisions of the PVN and both internal and external layers of the ME. On the other hand, the levels of the CRH gene expression in parvocellular division of the PVN were significantly decreased as AA developed, though plasma concentrations of corticosterone were significantly increased. These results indicate that AVP-eGFP transgenic rats enable the detection of changes in AVP expression more easily than by using procedures such as immunohistochemistry. We propose that AVP-eGFP transgenic rats represent a useful animal model for further understanding of the physiology of AVP expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary system under various physiological conditions, including various kinds of stress.

  5. Grading diffuse gliomas without intense contrast enhancement by amide proton transfer MR imaging: comparisons with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Keupp, Jochen [Philips Research, Hamburg (Germany); Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Iihara, Koji [Kyushu University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoneyama, Masami [Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Iwaki, Toru [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi, Masaya [Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate whether amide proton transfer (APT) MR imaging can differentiate high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from low-grade gliomas (LGGs) among gliomas without intense contrast enhancement (CE). This retrospective study evaluated 34 patients (22 males, 12 females; age 36.0 ± 11.3 years) including 20 with LGGs and 14 with HGGs, all scanned on a 3T MR scanner. Only tumours without intense CE were included. Two neuroradiologists independently performed histogram analyses to measure the 90th-percentile (APT{sub 90}) and mean (APT{sub mean}) of the tumours' APT signals. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were also measured. The parameters were compared between the groups with Student's t-test. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The APT{sub 90} (2.80 ± 0.59 % in LGGs, 3.72 ± 0.89 in HGGs, P = 0.001) and APT{sub mean} (1.87 ± 0.49 % in LGGs, 2.70 ± 0.58 in HGGs, P = 0.0001) were significantly larger in the HGGs compared to the LGGs. The ADC and rCBV values were not significantly different between the groups. Both the APT{sub 90} and APT{sub mean} showed medium diagnostic performance in this discrimination. APT imaging is useful in discriminating HGGs from LGGs among diffuse gliomas without intense CE. (orig.)

  6. Spatially controlled fabrication of a bright fluorescent nanodiamond-array with enhanced far-red Si-V luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonal; Thomas, Vinoy; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Catledge, Shane A; Martyshkin, Dmitry; Kozlovskaya, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to precisely pattern fluorescent nanodiamond-arrays with enhanced far-red intense photostable luminescence from silicon-vacancy (Si-V) defect centers. The precision-patterned pre-growth seeding of nanodiamonds is achieved by a scanning probe ‘dip-pen’ nanolithography technique using electrostatically driven transfer of nanodiamonds from ‘inked’ cantilevers to a UV-treated hydrophilic SiO 2 substrate. The enhanced emission from nanodiamond dots in the far-red is achieved by incorporating Si-V defect centers in a subsequent chemical vapor deposition treatment. The development of a suitable nanodiamond ink and mechanism of ink transport, and the effect of humidity and dwell time on nanodiamond patterning are investigated. The precision patterning of as-printed (pre-CVD) arrays with dot diameter and dot height as small as 735 nm ± 27 nm and 61 nm ± 3 nm, respectively, and CVD-treated fluorescent ND-arrays with consistently patterned dots having diameter and height as small as 820 nm ± 20 nm and, 245 nm ± 23 nm, respectively, using 1 s dwell time and 30% RH is successfully achieved. We anticipate that the far-red intense photostable luminescence (∼738 nm) observed from Si-V defect centers integrated in spatially arranged nanodiamonds could be beneficial for the development of next generation fluorescence-based devices and applications. (paper)

  7. Evaluation of the diffusion of Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb in Middle Ages human teeth by synchrotron microprobe X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Marques, J.P.; Casaca, C.

    2007-01-01

    Human teeth from the Middle Ages have been analysed using a synchrotron microprobe evaluating Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb diffusion from the soil into the tooth structure. It is apparent that post-mortem teeth of ancient populations are influenced by the endogenous environment. The diffusion pattern of some elements can give information both for archaeological purposes and diagenesis processes affecting the apatite ante-mortem elemental content. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, 100 μm of spatial resolution and energy of 18 keV, installed at LURE synchrotron (France) was used. Line scans were performed along the several regions of the teeth, in steps of 100 to 1000 μm. Ba is much enriched in ancient teeth when compared to recent ones, where this element is almost non-existent. Furthermore, the concentration profiles show increased levels of this element close to the external enamel region, reaching values up to 200 μg g -1 decreasing in dentine and achieving a steady level in the inner dentine and root. Pb concentration profiles show strongly increased levels of this element close to the external enamel region (20 μg g -1 ), decreasing strongly to the inner part of the dentine (0.5 μg g -1 ) contrarily to the normal situation in modern citizens where the highest concentrations for Pb are in the inner root dentine. This behaviour suggests post-mortem uptake from the soil; the presence of elevated levels of Pb can be explained by the fact that this burial place was a car park for more than 20 years. The distribution of Mn and Fe follow very similar patterns and both are very much enriched especially in the outer surfaces in contact with the soil, showing strong contamination from the soil

  8. Evaluation of the diffusion of Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb in Middle Ages human teeth by synchrotron microprobe X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Marques, A. F.; Marques, J. P.; Casaca, C.

    2007-07-01

    Human teeth from the Middle Ages have been analysed using a synchrotron microprobe evaluating Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb diffusion from the soil into the tooth structure. It is apparent that post-mortem teeth of ancient populations are influenced by the endogenous environment. The diffusion pattern of some elements can give information both for archaeological purposes and diagenesis processes affecting the apatite ante-mortem elemental content. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, 100 μm of spatial resolution and energy of 18 keV, installed at LURE synchrotron (France) was used. Line scans were performed along the several regions of the teeth, in steps of 100 to 1000 μm. Ba is much enriched in ancient teeth when compared to recent ones, where this element is almost non-existent. Furthermore, the concentration profiles show increased levels of this element close to the external enamel region, reaching values up to 200 μg g - 1 decreasing in dentine and achieving a steady level in the inner dentine and root. Pb concentration profiles show strongly increased levels of this element close to the external enamel region (20 μg g - 1 ), decreasing strongly to the inner part of the dentine (0.5 μg g - 1 ) contrarily to the normal situation in modern citizens where the highest concentrations for Pb are in the inner root dentine. This behaviour suggests post-mortem uptake from the soil; the presence of elevated levels of Pb can be explained by the fact that this burial place was a car park for more than 20 years. The distribution of Mn and Fe follow very similar patterns and both are very much enriched especially in the outer surfaces in contact with the soil, showing strong contamination from the soil.

  9. Cu2+ colorimetric sensing and fluorescence enhancement and Hg2+ fluorescence diminution in "scorpionate"-like tetrathienyl-substituted boron-dipyrrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shin Hei; Pang, Keliang; Kim, Kibong; Churchill, David G

    2007-12-10

    Four novel tetrathienyl-substituted boron-dipyrrin-type (BODIPY-type) complexes, 3-(R')-4,4-di(R')-8-R-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (4a, R = 2-T, R' = 2-T; 4b, R = 3-T, R' = 2-T; 5a, R = 2-T, R' = 3-T; 5b, R = 3-T, R' = 3-T; T = thienyl) have been prepared and fully characterized to explore patterns of stoichiometric Mn+ recognition in solution. Treatment of the respective parent BF2 dipyrrin with 2- or 3-thienyllithium gave the unexpected asymmetric tetrathienyl-substituted products in 8.5-35% yield. Compounds 4a and 4b bear a neutral "scorpionate"-like [SSS] tridentate binding pocket. Extensive NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies were performed on 4a-5b; 5a, 4b, and 5b were structurally characterized. The PhiF values for 4a-5b all decrease compared to the BF2-containing parent molecules (0.00058, 0.012, 0.00090, and 0.0051, respectively), with lambda(abs,max) values (epsilon, M(-1) cm(-1)) of 563 (44,000), 553 (29,000), 539 (33,000), and 531 (44,000) nm, respectively, and Stokes' shifts of 25-36 nm. Upon treatment with metal ion (Ca2+, Cs+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+) perchlorate salts, the solution of 4b undergoes rapid pink-to-clear switch-off behavior upon Cu2+ addition (10 microM scale) with smaller effects seen for 4a. Further, there were 2- to 19-fold Cu2+ fluorescence enhancements for these ligands. Cu2+- and Hg2+-L (L = 4a-5b) binding was modeled, and response patterns for Mn+-L 1:1 molar solutions upon Cu2+ addition were measured. Upon treatment with Hg2+, all ligand solutions show a significant fluorescence decrease accompanied by minor absorption increases. The UV-vis spectroscopic detection limit for Cu2+ and Hg2+ is approximately 270 ppb and approximately 1.7 ppm, respectively; the naked eye detection limit for Cu2+ with 4b (1.0 x 10(-5) M) is approximately 23 microM. DFT calculations gave HOMO-LUMO gaps of 478 (4a), 462 (4b), 448 (5a), and 442 nm (5b). Molecular orbital diagrams for 4a-5b revealed that the HOMO and LUMO electron

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of the Visual Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Diffusion Tensor MRI and Contrast Enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarupa Kancherla

    Full Text Available Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0.01 M citric acid, and a sham control group by intraperitoneal injection of citric acid only. One month later, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI was performed to examine the white matter integrity in the brain, followed by chromium-enhanced MRI of retinal integrity and manganese-enhanced MRI of anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway. Prior to MRI experiments, the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significantly smaller weight gain and higher blood glucose level than the control rats. DTI revealed significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the prechiasmatic optic nerve of the diabetic rats compared to the control rats. No apparent difference was observed in the axial diffusivity of the optic nerve, the chromium enhancement in the retina, or the manganese enhancement in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus between groups. Our results suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to early injury in the optic nerve when no substantial change in retinal integrity or anterograde transport along the visual pathways was observed in MRI using contrast agent enhancement. DTI may be a useful tool for detecting and monitoring early pathophysiological changes in the visual system of experimental diabetes non-invasively.

  11. Selective detection of Mg2+ ions via enhanced fluorescence emission using Au–DNA nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Basu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs have attracted a great deal of research interest for various applications in biosensing. AuNPs have strong binding capability to the phosphate and sugar groups in DNA, rendering unique physicochemical properties for detection of metal ions. The formation of Au–DNA nanocomposites is evident from the observed changes in the optical absorption, plasmon band, zeta potential, DLS particle size distribution, as well as TEM and AFM surface morphology analysis. Circular dichroism studies also revealed that DNA-functionalized AuNP binding caused a conformational change in the DNA structure. Due to the size and shape dependent plasmonic interactions of AuNPs (33–78 nm with DNA, the resultant Au–DNA nanocomposites (NCs exhibit superior fluorescence emission due to chemical binding with Ca2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+ ions. A significant increase in fluorescence emission (λex = 260 nm of Au–DNA NCs was observed after selectively binding with Mg2+ ions (20–800 ppm in an aqueous solution where a minimum of 100 ppm Mg2+ ions was detected based on the linearity of concentration versus fluorescence intensity curve (λem = 400 nm. The effectiveness of Au–DNA nanocomposites was further verified by comparing the known concentration (50–120 ppm of Mg2+ ions in synthetic tap water and a real life sample of Gelusil (300–360 ppm Mg2+, a widely used antacid medicine. Therefore, this method could be a sensitive tool for the estimation of water hardness after careful preparation of a suitably designed Au–DNA nanostructure.

  12. Enhanced simulator software for image validation and interpretation for multimodal localization super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, Miklós; Sinkó, József; Gajdos, Tamás.; Novák, Tibor

    2017-02-01

    Optical super-resolution techniques such as single molecule localization have become one of the most dynamically developed areas in optical microscopy. These techniques routinely provide images of fixed cells or tissues with sub-diffraction spatial resolution, and can even be applied for live cell imaging under appropriate circumstances. Localization techniques are based on the precise fitting of the point spread functions (PSF) to the measured images of stochastically excited, identical fluorescent molecules. These techniques require controlling the rate between the on, off and the bleached states, keeping the number of active fluorescent molecules at an optimum value, so their diffraction limited images can be detected separately both spatially and temporally. Because of the numerous (and sometimes unknown) parameters, the imaging system can only be handled stochastically. For example, the rotation of the dye molecules obscures the polarization dependent PSF shape, and only an averaged distribution - typically estimated by a Gaussian function - is observed. TestSTORM software was developed to generate image stacks for traditional localization microscopes, where localization meant the precise determination of the spatial position of the molecules. However, additional optical properties (polarization, spectra, etc.) of the emitted photons can be used for further monitoring the chemical and physical properties (viscosity, pH, etc.) of the local environment. The image stack generating program was upgraded by several new features, such as: multicolour, polarization dependent PSF, built-in 3D visualization, structured background. These features make the program an ideal tool for optimizing the imaging and sample preparation conditions.

  13. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  14. Enhanced Absorption and Diffusion Properties of Lithium on B,N,VC-decorated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengting; Yu, L. C.; Shi, W. M.; Deng, J. G.; Zhang, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Li on different graphene layers with B/N-doping and/or C-vacancy, so as to understand why doping heteroatoms in graphene anode could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. We found that the formation of single or double carbon vacancies in graphene are critical for the adsorption of Li atoms. While the N-doping facilitates the formation of vacancies, it introduces over binding issue and hinders the Li diffusion. The presence of B takes the excessive electrons from Li and N and reduces the energy barrier of Li diffusion on substrates. We perceive that these clear insights are crucial for the further development of graphene based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27897202

  15. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, Yunfei; Li, Maojin; Yang, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters of diffuse spinal bone marrow infiltration in patients with hematological malignancies. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed in 26 patients with histologically proven diffuse bone marrow infiltration, including multiple myeloma (n = 6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). Twenty subjects whose spinal MRI was normal, made up the control group. Peak enhancement percentage (E max ), enhancement slope (ES), and time to peak (TTP) were determined from a time intensity curve (TIC) of lumbar vertebral bone marrow. A comparison between baseline and follow-up MR images and its histological correlation were evaluated in 10 patients. The infiltration grade of hematopoietic marrow with plasma cells was evaluated by a histological assessment of bone marrow. Differences in E max , ES, and TTP values between the control group and the patients with diffuse bone marrow infiltration were significant (t = -11.51, -9.81 and 3.91, respectively, p max , ES, and TTP values were significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 1 and Grade 2 (Z = -2.72, -2.24 and -2.89 respectively, p max , ES and TTP values were not significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 2 and Grade 3 (Z = -1.57, -1.82 and -1.58 respectively, p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between E max , ES values and the histological grade of bone marrow infiltration (r = 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p max and ES values was observed with increased TTP values after treatment in all of the 10 patients who responded to treatment (t = -7.92, -4.55, and 5.12, respectively, p max , ES, and TTP can reflect the malignancies' histological grade

  16. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile...... and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body...... a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization....

  17. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren; Bang, Ole

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization.

  18. Performance Evaluation and Durability Enhancement of FEP-Based Gas Diffusion Media for PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Latorrata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, micro-porous layers (MPLs for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are commonly deposited onto gas diffusion layer (GDL substrates starting from hydrophobic carbon-based dispersions. In this work, different quantities of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP, a fluorinated copolymer proven to be superior to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE for a proper water management, were used to make both GDL and MPL hydrophobic. After the identification of the optimal amount of FEP, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was also added to gas diffusion media (GDM to reduce overall ohmic resistance of the whole device and adhesion of MPLs to GDLs. Ex-situ chemical and mechanical accelerated stress tests (ASTs were carried out to accelerate degradation of materials aiming to assess their durability. The highest quantity of FEP in GDMs led to the best electrochemical and diffusive properties. The presence of CMC allowed reducing overall ohmic resistance due to a better electrolyte hydration. A satisfactory durability was proven since the fundamental properties related to gas diffusion medium, such as wettability, ohmic and mass transport resistances, revealed to be quasi-stable upon ASTs.

  19. Enhanced green fluorescent protein in optofluidic Fabry-Perot microcavity to detect laser induced temperature changes in a bacterial culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Walo, D.; Freire, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal therapy using laser sources can be used in combination with other cancer therapies to eliminate tumors. However, high precision temperature control is required to avoid damage in healthy surrounding tissues. Therefore, in order to detect laser induced temperature changes, we have used the fluorescence signal of the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) over-expressed in an E. coli bacterial culture. For that purpose, the bacteria expressing eGFP are injected in a Fabry-Perot (FP) optofluidic planar microcavity. In order to locally heat the bacterial culture, external infrared or ultraviolet lasers were used. Shifts in the wavelengths of the resonant FP modes are used to determine the temperature increase as a function of the heating laser pump power. Laser induced local temperature increments up to 6-7 °C were measured. These results show a relatively easy way to measure laser induced local temperature changes using a FP microcavity and using eGFP as a molecular probe instead of external nanoparticles, which could damage/alter the cell. Therefore, we believe that this approach can be of interest for the study of thermal effects in laser induced thermal therapies.

  20. Photosensized Controlling Benzyl Methacrylate-Based Matrix Enhanced Eu3+ Narrow-Band Emission for Fluorescence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiang Lin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study synthesized a europium (Eu3+ complex Eu(DBM3Cl-MIP (DBM = dibenzoyl methane; Cl-MIP = 2-(2-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline dispersed in a benzyl methacrylate (BMA monomer and treated with ultraviolet (UV light for polymerization. Spectral results showed that the europium complex containing an antenna, Cl-MIP, which had higher triplet energy into the Eu3+ energy level, was an energetically enhanced europium emission. Typical stacking behaviors of π–π interactions between the ligands and the Eu3+-ion were analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the luminescence performance of this europium composite, the ligand/defect emission was suppressed by dispersion in a poly-BMA (PBMA matrix. The underlying mechanism of the effective enhancement of the pure Eu3+ emission was attributed to the combined effects of structural modifications, defect emissions, and carrier charge transfer. Fluorescence spectra were compared to the composite of optimized Eu3+ emission where they were subsequently chelated to four metal ions via carboxylate groups on the BMA unit. The optical enhanced europium composite clearly demonstrated highly efficient optical responses and is, therefore a promising application as an optical detection material.

  1. Co-registration of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) with positron emission tomography (PET) and development of multi-angle fDOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, X.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns the image processing of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT), following two axes: fDOT image co-registration with PET (positron emission tomography) image and improvement of fDOT image reconstructions using mirrors to collect additional projections. It is presented in two parts:In the first part, an automatic method to co-register the fDOT images with PET images has been developed to correlate all the information from each modality. This co-registration method is based on automatic detection of fiducial markers (FM) present in both modalities. The particularity of this method is the use of optical surface image obtained in fDOT imaging system, which serves to identify the Z position of FM in optical images. We tested this method on a model of mice bearing tumor xenografts of MEN2A cancer cells that mimic a human medullary thyroid carcinoma, after a double injection of radiotracer [ 18 F] 2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for PET imaging and optical fluorescent infrared tracer Sentidye. With the accuracy of our method, we can demonstrate that the signal of Sentidye is present both in the tumor and surrounding vessels.The fDOT reconstruction image quality is degraded along the Z axis due to a limited number of projections for reconstruction. In the second part, the work is oriented towards a new method of fDOT image reconstruction with a new multi-angle data acquisition system in placing two mirrors on each side of the animal. This work was conducted in collaboration with the CS Department of University College London (UCL), a partner of the European project FMT-XCT. TOAST software developed by this team was used as source code for the reconstruction algorithm, and was modified to adapt to the concerned problem. After several tests on the adjustment of program parameters, we applied this method on a phantom that simulating the biological tissue and on mice. The results showed an improvement in the reconstructed image of a semi

  2. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yunfei; Li, Maojin [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Yang, Jianyong [the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate the significance of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters of diffuse spinal bone marrow infiltration in patients with hematological malignancies. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed in 26 patients with histologically proven diffuse bone marrow infiltration, including multiple myeloma (n = 6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). Twenty subjects whose spinal MRI was normal, made up the control group. Peak enhancement percentage (E{sub max}), enhancement slope (ES), and time to peak (TTP) were determined from a time intensity curve (TIC) of lumbar vertebral bone marrow. A comparison between baseline and follow-up MR images and its histological correlation were evaluated in 10 patients. The infiltration grade of hematopoietic marrow with plasma cells was evaluated by a histological assessment of bone marrow. Differences in E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values between the control group and the patients with diffuse bone marrow infiltration were significant (t = -11.51, -9.81 and 3.91, respectively, p < 0.01). E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values were significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 1 and Grade 2 (Z = -2.72, -2.24 and -2.89 respectively, p < 0.05). E{sub max}, ES and TTP values were not significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 2 and Grade 3 (Z = -1.57, -1.82 and -1.58 respectively, p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between E{sub max}, ES values and the histological grade of bone marrow infiltration (r = 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between the TTP values and bone marrow infiltration histological grade (r = -0.54, p < 0.01). A decrease in the E{sub max} and ES values was observed with increased TTP values after treatment in all of the 10 patients who responded to treatment (t

  3. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene expression in Tetraselmis subcordiformis chloroplast with endogenous regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yulin; Zhao, Jialin; Hou, Shichang; Qin, Song

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of fundamental genetic transformation technologies, the goal of this study was to optimize Tetraselmis subcordiformis chloroplast transformation through the use of endogenous regulators. The genes rrn16S, rbcL, psbA, and psbC are commonly highly expressed in chloroplasts, and the regulators of these genes are often used in chloroplast transformation. For lack of a known chloroplast genome sequence, the genome-walking method was used here to obtain full sequences of T. subcordiformis endogenous regulators. The resulting regulators, including three promoters, two terminators, and a ribosome combination sequence, were inserted into the previously constructed plasmid pPSC-R, with the egfp gene included as a reporter gene, and five chloroplast expression vectors prepared. These vectors were successfully transformed into T. subcordiformis by particle bombardment and the efficiency of each vector tested by assessing EGFP fluorescence via microscopy. The results showed that these vectors exhibited higher efficiency than the former vector pPSC-G carrying exogenous regulators, and the vector pRFA with Prrn, psbA-5'RE, and TpsbA showed the highest efficiency. This research provides a set of effective endogenous regulators for T. subcordiformis and will facilitate future fundamental studies of this alga.

  4. Enhanced fluorescence imaging performance of hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles by a facile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual phase hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. • ZnO nanoparticles show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. • ZnO nanoparticles with a blue emission wavelength at around 420 nm and small size (30 nm). • ZnO nanoparticles as biological labeling agent was also shown. - Abstract: A facile synthesis method for the formation of ZnO nanoparticles by using a double-phase reaction was demonstrated in this paper. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles shows a flower-shape. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a unique oxygenic source to promote the formation of ZnO in the presence of organic zinc precursor. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles also show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. The structure and properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-prepared hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles could be modified to become water-soluble via ligand exchange with amineothanethiol⋅HCl while retaining the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the potential application for biological label of water-soluble ZnO nanoparticles were also demonstrated. These results not only have applications towards using colloidal ZnO nanoparticles effectively in biological fluorescence imaging, but also promote its application in the field of targeted drug delivery

  5. Metal-organic gel enhanced fluorescence anisotropy for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Peng, Zhe Wei; Yuan, Dan; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang

    2018-03-01

    In this contribution, we demonstrated that Cu-based metal-organic gel (Cu-MOG) was able to serve as a novel amplification platform for fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the first time, which was confirmed by the sensitive detection of a common cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen (PSA). The dye-labeled probe aptamer (PA) product was adsorbed onto the benzimidazole derivative-containing Cu-MOG via electrostatic incorporation and strong π-π stacking interactions, which significantly increased the FA value due to the enlargement of the molecular volume of the PA/Cu-MOG complex. With the introduction of target PSA, the FA value was obviously decreased on account of the specific recognition between PSA and PA which resulted in the detachment of PA from the surface of MOG. The linear range was from 0.5-8 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL. Our work has thus helped to demonstrate promising application of MOG material in the fields of biomolecules analysis and disease diagnosis.

  6. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-04

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions.

  7. Diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging as markers of clinical behavior in children with optic pathway glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Sarah C. [Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Seattle, WA (United States); Ackerman, Joseph W. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Garbow, Joel R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Manwaring, Linda P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Genomic Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gutmann, David H. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); McKinstry, Robert C. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are common pediatric brain tumors that pose significant clinical challenges with regard to predicting which tumors are likely to become symptomatic and require treatment. These tumors can arise sporadically or in the context of the inherited cancer predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Few studies have suggested biological or imaging markers that predict the clinical course of this disease. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that the clinical behavior of OPGs in children can be differentiated by diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. A total of 27 children with OPG were studied using DW and DCE MRI protocols. Diffusivity and permeability were calculated and correlated with the clinical behavior the OPG. Mean diffusivity values of 1.39 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms and mean permeability values of 2.10 ml/min per 100 cm{sup 3} of tissue were measured. Clinically aggressive OPGs had significantly higher mean permeability values (P = 0.05) than clinically stable tumors. In addition, there was a strong correlation between clinical aggressiveness and the absence of NF1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that DCE MRI might be a useful biomarker for clinically aggressive OPG, which should be confirmed in larger prospective longitudinal studies. (orig.)

  8. The diffusion of performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) on the internet: the abuse of the cognitive enhancer piracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Brunoro, Roberto; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs), also known as "lifestyle drugs," are increasingly sold on the Internet to enhance cognitive as well as sexual, muscular, attentive, and other natural capacities. Our analysis focuses on the misuse of the cognitive enhancer piracetam. A literature review was carried out in PsychInfo and Pubmed database. Considering the absence of peer-reviewed data, review of additional sources of unstructured information from the Internet was carried out between February 2012 and July 2013. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), a secure Internet-based early warning system developed by Health Canada and the World Health Organization (WHO), which monitors media reports in six languages, Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Piracetam is sold via illicit online pharmacies with no need of prescription at low prices. Buyers, mainly healthy individuals, purchase the product to enhance study- and work-related performances as well as for recreational purposes. Its nonmedical use is often associated with the occurrence of side effects such as hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, dysphoria, tiredness, dizziness, memory loss, headache, and severe diarrhoea; moreover, several users declared to have neither felt any cognitive improvement nor psychedelic effects. This is a new and fast-growing trend of abuse that needs to be extensively monitored and studied also by using near real-time and unstructured sources of information such as Internet news and online reports in order to acquire rapid knowledge and understanding. Products sold online might be counterfeits and this enhances related health risks.

  9. Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow infiltration, and has therefore recently been included in the new diagnostic myeloma criteria, as proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Nevertheless, conventional MRI only provides anatomical information and is therefore only of limited use in the response assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. The additional information from functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration and the assessment of response. This can further enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the staging of multiple myeloma patients. This article provides an overview of the technical aspects of conventional and functional MRI techniques with practical recommendations. It reviews the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, and role in therapy assessment in multiple myeloma and its precursor stages. (orig.)

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma on MR diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Zuo Changjing; Tian Jianming; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Li; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Eighty one patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis underwent both DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI studies of the liver for HCC detection. MR data of were retrospectively analyzed. Two observers determined in consensus the location and the number of focal lesions. The signal manifestation of the lesions on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Results: DWI and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images detected 122 HCCs and 14 benign lesions. One hundred and sixteen HCCs (95.1%) showed hyperintensity on DWI and 6 HCCs in patients with severe cirrhosis showed isointensity. One hundred and five HCCs (86.1%) revealed hypointensity, 11 HCCs (9.0%) showed isointensity and 6 HCCs (4.9%) exhibited hyperintensity on T 1 weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, 101 HCCs(82.8%) were significantly enhanced on arterial phase and 99 HCCs showed hypointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Twenty HCCs (16.4%), 18 of 20 less than 20 mm in diameter, showed isointensity on arterial phase and hyperintensity on DWI. Eight of 14 benign lesions showed hyperintensity and 6 isointensity on DWI. Five benign lesions with hypointensity on T 1 weighted images without contrast and hyperintensity on DWI showed no enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images; 6 benign lesions with isointensity on both T 1 weighted imaging without contrast and DWI exhibited avid enhancement on arterial phase and isointensty on portal and equilibrium phases; one of the two benign lesions, with isointensity before and after contrast images and hyperintentiy on DWI, was a regenerative nodule; another regenerative nodule with hyperintensity on both T 1 weighted images without contrast and DWI was greatly enhanced on arterial phase and showed isointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Conclusions: Most of the HCCs were greatly enhanced on arterial phase on Gd-DTPA-enhanced

  11. Lymphoma and inflammation in the orbit: Diagnostic performance with diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Song, Liyuan; Wang, Xinyan; Li, Jing; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Feifei; Tan, Pan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the combination of both in the differential diagnosis of lymphoma and inflammation in the orbit. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and the informed consent requirement was waived. A total of 53 patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI. Parameters of DWI and DCE MRI were evaluated in these 30 patients with orbital lymphoma and 23 patients with orbital inflammation. The diagnostic performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and parameters derived from DCE MRI of orbital lymphoma and orbital inflammation differed significantly (ADC, T max , contrast index [CI], enhancement ratio [ER], and washout ratio [WR]: P inflammation (P = 0.016 for reviewer 1; P = 0.001 for reviewer 2). The combination of DWI and DCE MRI can improve diagnostic performance in differentiating lymphoma from inflammation in the orbit compared with DWI alone. 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1438-1445. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Evaluation of conventional, dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI for quantitative Crohn's disease assessment with histopathology of surgical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A.W.; Ziech, Manon L.W.; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap; Li, Zhang; Bemelman, Willem A.; Roelofs, Joris J.T.H.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Vos, Frans M.

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively compare conventional MRI sequences, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with histopathology of surgical specimens in Crohn's disease. 3-T MR enterography was performed in consecutive Crohn's disease patients scheduled for surgery within 4 weeks. One to four sections of interest per patient were chosen for analysis. Evaluated parameters included mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio; on DCE-MRI maximum enhancement (ME), initial slope of increase (ISI), time-to-peak (TTP); and on DWI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These were compared with location-matched histopathological grading of inflammation (AIS) and fibrosis (FS) using Spearman correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Twenty patients (mean age 38 years, 12 female) were included and 50 sections (35 terminal ileum, 11 ascending colon, 2 transverse colon, 2 descending colon) were matched to AIS and FS. Mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio, ME and ISI correlated significantly with AIS, with moderate correlation (r = 0.634, 0.392, 0.485, 0.509, 0.525, respectively; all P < 0.05). Mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio, ME, ISI and ADC correlated significantly with FS (all P < 0.05). Quantitative parameters from conventional, DCE-MRI and DWI sequences correlate with histopathological scores of surgical specimens. DCE-MRI and DWI parameters provide additional information. (orig.)

  13. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengqing; Liu Shaopu; Yin Pengfei; He Youqiu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu 2+ based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: ► Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. ► The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. ► A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. ► The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu 2+ determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core–shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu 2+ between 2.4 × 10 −2 μg mL −1 and 28 μg mL −1 , with a detection limit of 1.3 × 10 −3 μg mL −1 (3δ). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu 2+ . The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu 2+ in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhengqing; Liu Shaopu; Yin Pengfei [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); He Youqiu, E-mail: heyq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+} based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu{sup 2+} determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} between 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 28 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {mu}g mL{sup -1} (3{delta}). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+}. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

  15. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  16. Contrast-enhanced CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Performance as a prognostic factor in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukukura, Yoshihiko, E-mail: fukukura@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Takumi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Higashi, Michiyo [Department of Human Pathology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Shinchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Tateyama, Akihiro [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine whether contrast enhancement of CT and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted MR imaging are important parameters that can predict outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with histologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent quadriphasic CT (including unenhanced, pancreatic parenchymal, portal venous and delayed phases) and fat-suppressed single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T were retrospectively analyzed to investigate prognostic factors. Overall survival curves were drawn using the Kaplan–Meier method. Effects on survival of variables including age, sex, tumor location, tumor size, TNM stage, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, treatment, tumor contrast enhancement and apparent diffusion coefficient values were analyzed in univariate analysis using the log-rank test. Variables were analyzed in multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Median survival for the entire patient population was 18.2 months. Higher contrast enhancement during all phases was associated with significantly longer overall survival (P < 0.001 for all phases). The difference in overall survival between groups divided by median apparent diffusion coefficient value was not significant (P = 0.672). TNM stage (P = 0.026) and tumor contrast enhancement on CT (P = 0.027) were significantly related to survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Poor enhancement of pancreatic adenocarcinomas on enhanced CT is associated with reduced patient survival.

  17. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3); Construction and rescue of an infectious, recombinant virus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this protocol, the process of inserting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene into the human parainfluenza vi...

  18. Attomolar detection of proteins via cascade strand-displacement amplification and polystyrene nanoparticle enhancement in fluorescence polarization aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqian; Huang, Huakui; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Liangliang; Zhao, Shulin; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-08-18

    Extremely sensitive and accurate measurements of protein markers for early detection and monitoring of diseases pose a formidable challenge. Herein, we develop a new type of amplified fluorescence polarization (FP) aptasensor based on allostery-triggered cascade strand-displacement amplification (CSDA) and polystyrene nanoparticle (PS NP) enhancement for ultrasensitive detection of proteins. The assay system consists of a fluorescent dye-labeled aptamer hairpin probe and a PS NP-modified DNA duplex (assistant DNA/trigger DNA duplex) probe with a single-stranded part and DNA polymerase. Two probes coexist stably in the absence of target, and the dye exhibits relatively low FP background. Upon recognition and binding with a target protein, the stem of the aptamer hairpin probe is opened, after which the opened hairpin probe hybridizes with the single-stranded part in the PS NP-modified DNA duplex probe and triggers the CSDA reaction through the polymerase-catalyzed recycling of both target protein and trigger DNA. Throughout this CSDA process, numerous massive dyes are assembled onto PS NPs, which results in a substantial FP increase that provides a readout signal for the amplified sensing process. Our newly proposed amplified FP aptasensor enables the quantitative measurement of proteins with the detection limit in attomolar range, which is about 6 orders of magnitude lower than that of traditional homogeneous aptasensors. Moreover, this sensing method also exhibits high specificity for target proteins and can be performed in homogeneous solutions. In addition, the suitability of this method for the quantification of target protein in biological samples has also been shown. Considering these distinct advantages, the proposed sensing method can be expected to provide an ultrasensitive platform for the analysis of various types of target molecules.

  19. A Design Case: Developing an Enhanced Version of the Diffusion Simulation Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Myers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a design case describing the creation of a new online version of the Diffusion Simulation Game (DSG. The DSG is a serious game that teaches change management strategies aligned with Rogers’ (2003 diffusion of innovations theory. The goal of the game is to promote the understanding of strategies that result in the adoption of an instructional innovation by the staff members of a fictional junior high school. The original board version of the game was created in the 1970s (Molenda and Rice, 1979 and was played as part of a course in the School of Education of a large Midwestern university. With the opening of a distance master’s program, the first online version of the game was developed in 2002 (Frick, Ludwig, Kim, & Huang, 2003. In order to overcome some of the limitations of the first online version, a new online version of the DSG was developed. This new version was rapidly prototyped first on paper and then in Flex Builder, ActionScript, PHP and MySQL. A rapid prototype approach (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990 was utilized to iteratively design the user interface. In addition to describing the design process and rationale for design decisions, we also report results of play-tests and usability evaluations of seven recruited participants and how the information collected from these evaluations will help us to improve the current design.

  20. Combining evidence and diffusion of innovation theory to enhance influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Maria T; Pandzik, Geralyn M; Meeks, Connie S; Kotagal, Uma R

    2006-08-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and HIV are at high risk of influenza-related morbidity, and there are recommendations to immunize these populations annually. At Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, the influenza immunization rate increased to 90.4% (5% declined) among 200 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Diffusion of innovation theory was used to guide the design and implementation of spread to other clinics. The main intervention strategies were: (1) engagement of interested, nurse-led teams, (2) A collaborative learning session, (3) A tool kit including literature, sample goals, reminder postcards, communication strategies, and team member roles and processes, (4) open-access scheduling and standing orders (5) A simple Web-based registry, (6) facilitated vaccine ordering, (7) recall phone calls, and (8) weekly results posting. Clinic-specific immunization rates ranged from 32.7% to 92.8%, with the highest rate reported in the CF clinic. All teams used multiple strategies; with six of the seven using four or more. Overall, 60.0% (762/1,269) of the population was immunized. Barriers included vaccine shortages, lack of time for reminder calls, and lack of physician support in one clinic. A combination of interventions, guided by evidence and diffusion of innovation theory, led to immunization rates higher than those reported in the literature.

  1. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  2. Fabrication of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites with enhanced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiqin [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Baoji University of Arts & Sciences, Baoji, 721013 (China); Kang, Jianmiao [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Yang, Jianhui, E-mail: jianhui@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Wu, Biao, E-mail: wubiao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Herein, Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites are synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly technology. Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2} core–shell nanospheres were prepared at first in the presence of CTAB in aqueous solution system by the modified one-pot method. A chemical precipitation method and a succeeding calcination process were adopted to the growth of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shells on the surfaces of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2} core–shell nanospheres. The structure, morphology and composition of the nanocomposites were confirmed by XRD, TEM and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The prepared Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites have showed the emission intensity enhances to 6.23 times at 30 nm thickness of the silica spacer between the core of Au nanoparticle and the shell of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu. According to the observations of fluorescent lifetime and the modeling of local electric field, the metal-enhanced and quenched fluorescence is closely related with the enhancement of excitation and radiative decay rate and the quenching by NRET comes as a result of competition between the distance-dependent mechanisms. This kind of multifunctional inorganic material will be widely used in electronics, biology and medical drug loading, etc. - Highlights: • Fabrication of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites with core-spacer-shell structure. • The controllable fluorescence is achieved by adjusting the spacer thickness of silica. • The fluorescence enhancement is 6.23-fold at an optimal spacer thickness about 30 nm. • The metal-enhanced fluorescence mechanism is proposed.

  3. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bashir, S.M.; Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  4. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bashir, S.M., E-mail: elbashireg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  5. WaterControl: self-diffusion based solvent signal suppression enhanced by selective inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Torres, Allan M; Price, William S

    2017-05-01

    Selective inversion/excitation based solvent signal suppression techniques are widely used in various NMR experiments because of their high efficiency and general applicability. However, these techniques generate a 'null'/suppression region containing (non-quantitatively) degraded solvent and desired resonances because of their reliance on the rejection of the coherence transfer pathway corresponding to all the resonances within the suppression region. To address this issue, the WaterControl technique was developed by inserting a (pulsed gradient - selective inversion pulse - pulsed gradient) unit into each 'transverse' period of a standard stimulated echo pulse sequence so that the coherence transfer pathways corresponding to both the suppression and non-suppression regions can be selected in one transient. The new sequence affords a diffusion based and quantifiable solvent signal suppression with no or minimal loss of features of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Dislocation Enhancement of Seismic-Frequency Attenuation: Subgrain Boundary Diffusion and Triggered, Critical Emission of Dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. F.; McCarthy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Combined compressional creep and (Young's-modulus) attenuation experiments on polycrystalline ice-I (200 ≤ T[K] ≤ 260; 3 ≤ d[μm] ≤ 500; σmean = 1MPa and Δσ = 0.16MPa applied in a frequency range 10-4 ≤ ν[Hz] ≤ 10-1) demonstrate the attenuation behavior associated with the seismic attenuation band and the "high-temperature background," i.e., a power-law response Q-1 ∝ ν-m with m ~ 0.33. This response has, in general, been associated with grain boundary sliding rate-limited by atomic diffusion [e.g., 1-3], a mechanism that is very sensitive to grain size. In our experiments, however, with a grain size variation ~102, the attenuation response is independent of grain size, to first order. Scrutiny of the physics suggests that the attenuation is effected primarily by diffusive relaxation of subgrain boundaries [4, 5], the size of which, in materials deforming by a dislocation mechanism (as is the ice in our experiments), is set by the deviatoric stress [6, 7]. Applying the diffusion-effected physics to the subgrain size matches the universal scaling [e.g., 3] for materials that are linear-viscoelastic. Our ice specimens, however, demonstrate modest non-linearity, resulting in greater attenuation than that associated with the diffusion process [cf. 8] and yet retain the power-law form for attenuation, including the same slope m. The result is consistent with "self-organized critical" behavior in dislocation emission [9, 10] and the physics overall can be understood via models of self-similar scaling of crystalline (effective) viscosity [e.g., 11]. The potential application to seismic studies is profound: for example, if the upper mantle of Earth is convecting via a dislocation-creep or dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary-sliding mechanism, then the attenuation response is related not to the grain size, but rather to the subgrain structure associated with the creep of the rock. Thus, seismic attenuation measurements may well be useful for

  7. Diffusion at the Earth magnetopause: enhancement by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Smets

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Using hybrid simulations, we examine how particles can diffuse across the Earth's magnetopause because of finite Larmor radius effects. We focus on tangential discontinuities and consider a reversal of the magnetic field that closely models the magnetopause under southward interplanetary magnetic field. When the Larmor radius is on the order of the field reversal thickness, we show that particles can cross the discontinuity. We also show that with a realistic initial shear flow, a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develops that increases the efficiency of the crossing process. We investigate the distribution functions of the transmitted ions and demonstrate that they are structured according to a D-shape. It accordingly appears that magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause is not the only process that leads to such specific distribution functions. A simple analytical model that describes the built-up of these functions is proposed.

  8. An integrated enhancement and reconstruction strategy for the quantitative extraction of actin stress fibers from fluorescence micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xia, Shumin; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2017-05-22

    The stress fibers are prominent organization of actin filaments that perform important functions in cellular processes such as migration, polarization, and traction force generation, and whose collective organization reflects the physiological and mechanical activities of the cells. Easily visualized by fluorescence microscopy, the stress fibers are widely used as qualitative descriptors of cell phenotypes. However, due to the complexity of the stress fibers and the presence of other actin-containing cellular features, images of stress fibers are relatively challenging to quantitatively analyze using previously developed approaches, requiring significant user intervention. This poses a challenge for the automation of their detection, segmentation, and quantitative analysis. Here we describe an open-source software package, SFEX (Stress Fiber Extractor), which is geared for efficient enhancement, segmentation, and analysis of actin stress fibers in adherent tissue culture cells. Our method made use of a carefully chosen image filtering technique to enhance filamentous structures, effectively facilitating the detection and segmentation of stress fibers by binary thresholding. We subdivided the skeletons of stress fiber traces into piecewise-linear fragments, and used a set of geometric criteria to reconstruct the stress fiber networks by pairing appropriate fiber fragments. Our strategy enables the trajectory of a majority of stress fibers within the cells to be comprehensively extracted. We also present a method for quantifying the dimensions of the stress fibers using an image gradient-based approach. We determine the optimal parameter space using sensitivity analysis, and demonstrate the utility of our approach by analyzing actin stress fibers in cells cultured on various micropattern substrates. We present an open-source graphically-interfaced computational tool for the extraction and quantification of stress fibers in adherent cells with minimal user input. This

  9. Fluorescence enhancement and nonreciprocal transmission of light waves by nanomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M.; Shevchenko, A.; Kaivola, M.

    2017-11-01

    In an optically absorbing or amplifying linear medium, the energy flow density of interfering optical waves is in general periodically modulated in space. This makes the wave transmission through a material boundary, as described by the Fresnel transmission coefficients, nonreciprocal and apparently violating the energy conservation law. The modulation has been previously described in connection to ordinary homogeneous nonmagnetic materials. In this work, we extend the description to nanomaterials with designed structural units that can be magnetic at optical frequencies. We find that in such a "metamaterial" the modulation in energy flow can be used to enhance optical far-field emission in spite of the fact that the material is highly absorbing. We also demonstrate a nanomaterial design that absorbs light, but simultaneously eliminates the power flow modulation and returns the reciprocity, which is impossible to achieve with a nonmagnetic material. We anticipate that these unusual optical effects can be used to increase the efficiency of nanostructured light emitters and absorbers, such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  11. Microstructure evolution and coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B thin films diffusion-processed by R-Al alloys (R=Nd, Pr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yigao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Tongbo; Fu, Yanqing; Jiang, Qingzheng; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen; Cui, Weibin; Wang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion process by Nd-Al and Pr-Al alloys was compared and investigated in Nd-Fe-B thin films. Enhanced coercivity 2.06T and good squareness was obtained by using Pr85Al15 and Nd85Al15 alloys as diffusion sources. But the coercivity of diffusion-processed thin films by Pr70Al30 and Pr55Al45 alloys decreased to 2.04T and 1.82T. High ambient coercivity of 2.26T was achieved in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd70Al30 leading to an improved coercivity thermal stability because Nd2Fe14B grains were enveloped by Nd-rich phase as seen by transmission electron microscopy Nd-loss image. Meanwhile, microstructure-dependent parameters α and Neff were improved. However, high content of Al in diffusion-processed thin film by Nd55Al45 lead to degraded texture and coercivity.

  12. Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System on CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Dong Ik; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    To assess major imaging features of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) on contrast-enhanced CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and to estimate whether the combination of signal intensity favouring HCC on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) can act as a major feature in LI-RADS. Four hundred twenty one patients with 445 observations were included. Major features of LI-RADS on CT and MRI as well as HBP and DWI features were assessed. Diagnostic performances of LR-5 according to LI-RADS v2014 and modified LI-RADS which incorporate combination of HBP and DWI were assessed. Pairwise comparisons of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed. For HCCs, capsule appearance had the highest rate of discordance between CT and MRI (32.7%), followed by washout appearance (22.2%). Specificity (75%) of LR-5 of LI-RADS v2014 was lower than that (77.1-79.2%) of modified LI-RADS. Area under the ROC curve of modified LI-RADS (0.755-0.775) was not significantly different from that of LI-RADS v 2014 (0.709) (p > 0.05). There were substantial discordances between CT and MRI for capsule and washout appearances in hepatic observations, and combination of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI might be able to be incorporated as a major feature of LI-RADS. (orig.)

  13. Enhancing Hydrogen Diffusion in Silica Matrix by Using Metal Ion Implantation to Improve the Emission Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bornacelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient silicon-based light emitters continue to be a challenge. A great effort has been made in photonics to modify silicon in order to enhance its light emission properties. In this aspect silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs have become the main building block of silicon photonic (modulators, waveguide, source, and detectors. In this work, we present an approach based on implantation of Ag (or Au ions and a proper thermal annealing in order to improve the photoluminescence (PL emission of Si-NCs embedded in SiO2. The Si-NCs are obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy and nucleated at high depth into the silica matrix (1-2 μm under surface. Once Si-NCs are formed inside the SiO2 we implant metal ions at energies that do not damage the Si-NCs. We have observed by, PL and time-resolved PL, that ion metal implantation and a subsequent thermal annealing in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere could significantly increase the emission properties of Si-NCs. Elastic Recoil Detection measurements show that the samples with an enhanced luminescence emission present a higher hydrogen concentration. This suggests that ion metal implantation enhances the hydrogen diffusion into silica matrix allowing a better passivation of surface defects on Si NCs.

  14. Influence of thermal annealing and radiation enhanced diffusion processes on surface plasmon resonance of gold implanted dielectric matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ksh. Devarani; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2018-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in fused silica and sapphire dielectric matrices were synthesized by Au ion implantation. Systematic investigations were carried out to study the influence of implantation dose, post annealing temperature, swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation and radiation enhanced diffusion (RED). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements were carried out to quantify concentration and depth profile of Au present in the host matrices. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize AuNPs formation. As-implanted and post-annealed films were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions to investigate the effect of electronic energy deposition on size and shape of NPs, which is estimated indirectly by the peak shape analysis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effect of volume fraction of Au and their redistribution is also reported. A strong absorption in near infra red region is also noticed and understood by the formation of percolated NPs in dielectric matrices. It is quite clear from these results that the effect of RED assisted Oswald ripening is much more pronounced than the conventional Oswald ripening for the growth of NPs in the case of silica host matrices. However for sapphire matrices, it seems that growth of NPs already completed during implantation and it may be attributed to the high diffusivity of Au in sapphire matrices during implantation process.

  15. High-Throughput Single-Particle Analysis of Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence in Free Solution Using Ag@SiO2Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ya; Meng, Lingyan; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Ren, Bin; Yang, Zhilin; Yan, Xiaomei

    2017-09-22

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is an effective strategy to increase the detection sensitivity in biotechnology and biomedicine. Because plasmonic nanoparticles are intrinsically heterogeneous, high-throughput single-particle analysis of MEF in free solution are highly demanded for the mechanistic understanding and control of this nanoscale process. Here, we report the application of a laboratory-built high-sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) to investigate the fluorescence-enhancing effect of individual plasmonic nanoparticles on nearby fluorophore molecules. Ag@SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles were used as the model system which comprised a silver core, a silica shell, and an FITC-doped thin layer of silica shell. FITC-doped silica nanoparticles of the same particle size but without silver core were used as the counterparts. Both the side scattering and fluorescence signals of single nanoparticles in suspension were measured simultaneously by the HSFCM at a speed of thousands of particles per minute. The roles of silver core size (40-100 nm) and fluorophore-metal distance (5-30 nm) were systematically examined. Fluorescence enhancement factor exceeding 30 was observed at silver core size of 70 nm and silica shell thickness of 5 nm. Compared with ensemble-averaged spectrofluorometric measurements, our experimental observation at the single-particle level was well supported by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation. It allows us to achieve a fundamental understanding of MEF, which is important to the design and control of plasmonic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence enhancement.

  16. Enhancement of current diffusion in the presence of a kink mode or an Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.

    1991-08-01

    Many characteristic features of Alfven waves and related instabilities are strongly dependent on the inhomogeneity of the background density and the magnetic field. On the other hand, these waves also have an influence on the inhomogeneity, which is caused by the enhancement of the cross-field transport through wave- distortion of flux surfaces. This problem is addressed here within the framework of the single-fluid reduced MHD model and generalized Lagrangian representation of motion. The new effect of transport enhancement is identified as a consequence of the local squeezing of adjacent flux surfaces, which results in increased radial gradients and cross-field fluxes. This effect is found to be proportional to the second power of the ratio of the magnetic field perturbation to the normal field component. The result is applied to several problems related to m = 1 equilibrium relaxation and Alfven resonance broadening. 10 refs., 1 fig

  17. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon; Lee, Kwan Hong; Park, Hansoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell-cell communication and immune responses.

  18. Measurement of OH radical density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We examined OH density in DBD-enhanced premixed burner flame by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We ignited a premixed flame with CH4 /O2 / Ar mixture using a burner which worked as the ground electrode. The upper part of the flame was covered with a quartz tube, and we attached an aluminum electrode on the outside of the quartz tube. DBD inside the quartz tube was obtained between the aluminum electrode and the burner nozzle. The planar beam from a pulsed tunable laser excited OH in X2 Π (v'' = 0) to A2Σ+ (v' = 0) , and we captured two-dimensional distribution of the LIF intensity using an ICCD camera. We employed three pump lines of Q1(J=4, 8 and 10), and the rotational temperature of OH(X) was deduced from the ratio of the LIF intensities. The total density of OH was obtained from the LIF intensities and the rotational temperature. A principal experimental result was that no remarkable increase was observed in the OH density by the superposition of DBD. The correlation between the pulsed discharge current and the temporal variation of the OH density was not clear, suggesting that the oscillation of the OH density with a small amplitude is related to the transittion time constant between equilibrium and nonequilibrium combustion chemistries.

  19. REDUCING CSF PARTIAL VOLUME EFFECTS TO ENHANCE DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING METRICS OF BRAIN MICROSTRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Lauren E; Conturo, Thomas E; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Cabeen, Ryan P; Akbudak, Erbil; Paul, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan. Nevertheless, imaging artifact in DTI remains a significant limitation for identifying true neural signatures of disease and brain-behavior relationships. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contamination of brain voxels is a main source of error on DTI scans that causes partial volume effects and reduces the accuracy of tissue characterization. Several methods have been proposed to correct for CSF artifact though many of these methods introduce new limitations that may preclude certain applications. The purpose of this review is to discuss the complexity of signal acquisition as it relates to CSF artifact on DTI scans and review methods of CSF suppression in DTI. We will then discuss a technique that has been recently shown to effectively suppress the CSF signal in DTI data, resulting in fewer errors and improved measurement of brain tissue. This approach and related techniques have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of "normal" brain aging and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Considerations for next-level applications are discussed.

  20. Enhanced vibrational solvatochromism and spectral diffusion by electron rich substituents on small molecule silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Courtney M.; Grofe, Adam; Huber, Christopher J.; Spector, Ivan C.; Gao, Jiali; Massari, Aaron M.

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) spectroscopies were applied to two different silanes in three different solvents. The selected solutes exhibit different degrees of vibrational solvatochromism for the Si-H vibration. Density functional theory calculations confirm that this difference in sensitivity is the result of higher mode polarization with more electron withdrawing ligands. This mode sensitivity also affects the extent of spectral diffusion experienced by the silane vibration, offering a potential route to simultaneously optimize the sensitivity of vibrational probes in both steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Frequency-frequency correlation functions obtained by 2D-IR show that both solutes experience dynamics on similar time scales and are consistent with a picture in which weakly interacting solvents produce faster, more homogeneous fluctuations. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that the frequency-frequency correlation function obtained by 2D-IR is sensitive to the presence of hydrogen bonding dynamics in the surrounding solvation shell.

  1. Cold welding of gold nanoparticles on mica substrate: Self-adjustment and enhanced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Song-Hyun; Park, Youmie; Han, Jeong Woo; Kim, Kyeounghak; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jang, Hong-Lae; Cho, Seonho

    2016-09-06

    From the images of HR-TEM, FE-SEM, and AFM, the cold welding of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a mica substrate is observed. The cold-welded gold nanoparticles of 25 nm diameters are found on the mica substrate in AFM measurement whereas the size of cold welding is limited to 10 nm for nanowires and 2~3 nm for nanofilms. Contrary to the nanowires requiring pressure, the AuNPs are able to rotate freely due to the attractive forces from the mica substrate and thus the cold welding goes along by adjusting lattice structures. The gold nanoparticles on the mica substrate are numerically modeled and whose physical characteristics are obtained by the molecular dynamic simulations of LAMMPS. The potential and kinetic energies of AuNPs on the mica substrate provide sufficient energy to overcome the diffusion barrier of gold atoms. After the cold welding, the regularity of lattice structure is maintained since the rotation of AuNPs is allowed due to the presence of mica substrate. It turns out that the growth of AuNPs can be controlled arbitrarily and the welded region is nearly perfect and provides the same crystal orientation and strength as the rest of the nanostructures.

  2. Prediction of methylguanine methyltransferase promoter methylation in glioblastoma using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Shin, Na-Young; Chang, Jong Hee; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seung-Koo

    2014-08-01

    The methylation status of the methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter has been associated with treatment response in glioblastoma. The authors aimed to assess whether MGMT methylation status can be predicted by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This retrospective study included 43 patients with pathologically diagnosed glioblastoma who had undergone preoperative DCE-MRI and DTI and whose MGMT methylation status was available. The imaging features were qualitatively assessed using conventional MR images. Regions of interest analyses for DCE-MRI permeability parameters (transfer constant [Ktrans], rate transfer coefficient [Kep], and volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space [Ve]) and DTI parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and fractional anisotropy [FA]) were performed on the enhancing solid portion of the glioblastoma. Chi-square or Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate relationships between MGMT methylation and imaging parameters. The authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to find the optimal cutoff value for the presence of MGMT methylation. MGMT methylation was not significantly associated with any imaging features on conventional MR images. Ktrans values were significantly higher in the MGMT methylated group (median 0.091 vs 0.053 min(-1), p = 0.018). However, Kep, Ve, ADC, and FA were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The optimal cutoff value for the presence of MGMT methylation was Ktrans > 0.086 min(-1) with an area under the curve of 0.756, a sensitivity of 56.3%, and a specificity of 85.2%. Ktrans may serve as a potential imaging biomarker to predict MGMT methylation status preoperatively in glioblastoma; however, further investigation with a larger cohort is necessary.

  3. Real-Time Fluorescence Detection in Aqueous Systems by Combined and Enhanced Photonic and Surface Effects in Patterned Hollow Sphere Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kuo; Wang, Ling; Li, Jiaqi; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Bartic, Carmen; Song, Kai; Clays, Koen

    2017-05-16

    Hollow sphere colloidal photonic crystals (HSCPCs) exhibit the ability to maintain a high refractive index contrast after infiltration of water, leading to extremely high-quality photonic band gap effects, even in an aqueous (physiological) environment. Superhydrophilic pinning centers in a superhydrophobic environment can be used to strongly confine and concentrate water-soluble analytes. We report a strategy to realize real-time ultrasensitive fluorescence detection in patterned HSCPCs based on strongly enhanced fluorescence due to the photonic band-edge effect combined with wettability differentiation in the superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic pattern. The orthogonal nature of the two strategies allows for a multiplicative effect, resulting in an increase of two orders of magnitude in fluorescence.

  4. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Detection of Hg(II) in an Aqueous Solution: Fluorescence Quenching and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganbold, Erdene Ochir; Park, Jin Ho; Ock, Kwang Su; Joo, Sang Woo

    2011-01-01

    We studied the detection of the Hg(II) concentration in an aqueous solution using rhodamine dyes on citrate-reduced Au nanoparticles (NPs). The quenching effect from Au NPs was found to decrease as the Hg(II) concentration increased under our experimental conditions. As the fluorescence signals intensified, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensities reduced on the contrary due to less rhodamine dyes on Au NPs as the Hg(II) concentration increased. The rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) dyes were examined via fluorescence and SERS measurements depending on Hg(II) concentrations. Fast and easy fluorescence detection of an Hg (II) concentration as low as a few ppm could be achieved by naked eye using citrate-reduced Au NPs

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of experimental breast cancer bone metastases – A correlation study with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seyler, Lisa; Bretschi, Maren; Semmler, Wolfhard [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.baeuerle@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Radiology, University Medical Center Erlangen, Palmsanlage 5, 90154 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To validate imaging parameters from diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with immunohistology and to non-invasively assess microstructure of experimental breast cancer bone metastases. Materials and methods: Animals bearing breast cancer bone metastases were imaged in a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. HASTE sequences were performed to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients. Saturation recovery turbo FLASH sequences were conducted while infusing 0.1 mmol/l Gd–DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. After imaging, bone metastases were analyzed immunohistologically. Results: We found correlations of the apparent diffusion coefficients from diffusion-weighted imaging with tumor cellularity as assessed with cell nuclei staining. Histological vessel maturity was correlated negatively with parameters A and k{sub ep} from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Tumor size correlated inversely with cell density and vessel permeability as well as positively with mean vessel calibers. Parameters from the rim of bone metastases differed significantly from values of the center. Conclusion: In vivo diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in experimental bone metastases provide information about tumor cellularity and vascularity and correlate well with immunohistology.

  6. Enhancing Diffusion MRI Measures By Integrating Grey and White Matter Morphometry With Hyperbolic Wasserstein Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Shi, Jie; Yu, Jun; Zhan, Liang; Thompson, Paul M.; Wang, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the preclinical diagnose of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a great deal of interest in analyzing the AD related brain structural changes with magnetic resonance image (MRI) analyses. As the major features, variation of the structural connectivity and the cortical surface morphometry provide different views of structural changes to determine whether AD is present on presymptomatic patients. However, the large scale tensor-valued information and relatively low imaging resolution in diffusion MRI (dMRI) have created huge challenges for analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that improves dMRI analysis power by fusing cortical surface morphometry features from structural MRI (sMRI). We first compute the hyperbolic harmonic maps between cortical surfaces with the landmark constraints thus to precisely evaluate surface tensor-based morphometry. Meanwhile, the graph-based analysis of structural connectivity derived from dMRI is conducted. Next, we fuse these two features via the optimal mass transportation (OMT) and eventually the Wasserstein distance (WD) based single image index is computed as a potential clinical multimodality imaging score. We apply our framework to brain images of 20 AD patients and 20 matched healthy controls, randomly chosen from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (AD-NI2) dataset. Our preliminary experimental results of group classification outperformed those of some other single dMRI-based features, such as regional hippocampal volume, mean scores of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean axial (MD). The novel image fusion pipeline and simple imaging score of structural changes may benefit the preclinical AD and AD prevention research. PMID:28936280

  7. Fluorescence enhancement of glutathione capped CdTe/ZnS quantum dots by embedding into cationic starch for sensitive detection of rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, Zari; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of a new quantum dots (QDs) by embedding glutathione capped CdTe/ZnS QDs into cationic starch biopolymer (CS-GSH-CdTe/ZnS QDs). The fluorescence intensity of prepared QDs was significantly enhanced. When QDs interacted with rifampicin, the fluorescence intensity of the CS-GSH-CdTe/ZnS QDs was highly quenched compared with GSH-CdTe/ZnS QDs. Based on the above, a new fluorescent nanosensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of rifampicin was developed. The fluorescence quenching was well described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation. After optimization, the linear range of the as-prepared QDs fluorescence intensity versus the concentration of rifampicin was F 0 /F=0.0422Q+1.109 (R 2 =0.99). The detection limit was 0.06×10 -6 mol/L. The proposed method with satisfactory results was used to detect rifampicin in commercial capsules and tablets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Micellar Enhanced Three-Dimensional Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence for Rapid Determination of Antihypertensives in Human Plasma with Aid of Second-Order Calibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence method was proposed to determine antihypertensives including valsartan and amlodipine besylate in human plasma with the aid of second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD algorithms. Antihypertensives with weak fluorescent can be transformed into a strong fluorescent property by changing microenvironment in samples using micellar enhanced surfactant. Both the adopted algorithms with second-order advantage can improve the resolution and directly attain antihypertensives concentration even in the presence of potential strong intrinsic fluorescence from human plasma. The satisfactory results can be achieved for valsartan and amlodipine besylate in complicated human plasma. Furthermore, some statistical parameters and figures of merit were evaluated to investigate the performance of the proposed method, and the accuracy and precision of the proposed method were also validated by the elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR test and repeatability analysis of intraday and interday assay. The proposed method could not only light a new avenue to directly determine valsartan or amlodipine besylate in human plasma, but also hold great potential to be extended as a promising alternative for more practical applications in the determination of weak fluorescent drugs.

  9. Photoluminescence Enhancement in Nanotextured Fluorescent SiC Passivated by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    2016-01-01

    The influence of thickness of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films on nano-textured fluorescent 6H-SiC passivation is investigated. The passivation effect on the light emission has been characterized by photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence at room temperature. The results show...... as passivation in fluorescent SiC based white LEDs applications....

  10. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescence sensing of nanomolar Zn2+ions in aqueous medium using Calix[4]arene passivated Carbon Quantum Dots based on fluorescence enhancement: Real-time monitoring and intracellular investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Raj, Pushap; Sharma, Hemant; Verma, Meenakshi; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet

    2018-06-07

    Carbon Quantum Dots (CDs) owing to its unique photophysical properties have attracted immense consideration of the researchers in last decade to explore its applications in the fields of bio-imaging and sensing. In the present work, we have developed a novel CDs functionalized with Calix[4]arene derivative by hydrothermal route to detect biologically pertinent Zn 2+ ions. Surface modification of CDs enhances fluorescence efficiency apart from introducing active surface sites broadening its sensor capabilities. The obtained surface-functionalized CDs exhibits a strong blue fluorescence under UV light (365 nm) with a quantum yield (Φ) of 56% which is appreciably good. Zn 2+ ions get apprehended in the cavity formed due to passivation by Calix[4]arene moeity on the exterior of CDs having profuse -NH 2 groups. Addition of Zn 2+ ions into the solution of CDs results in remarkable enhancement in the fluorescence intensity attributed to Photo-induced Electron Transfer (PET) "OFF" phenomenon. The CDs based nanosensor exhibited a wide linear response with a detection limit of 7.34 nM. Significantly, CDs were shown to display insignificant cytotoxicity, decent biocompatibility, and virtuous resistance to photo-bleaching, good stability over a wide range of pH, insignificant variation in the emission intensity in the presence of high concentration of salt and excellent bio-labeling ability when tested on E. coli cell lines. Additionally, the detection results of Zn 2+ ions obtained in real samples were in complete agreement with that obtained by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), signifying the prospective application of the proposed probe as a selective and sensitive sensor for Zn 2+ ions. The proposed sensor was also applied for fluorescence imaging of intracellular Zn 2+ ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Paper-based diffusive gradients in thin films technique coupled to energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of labile Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgílio Franco do; Menegário, Amauri Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has shown enormous potential for labile metal monitoring in fresh water due to the preconcentration, time-integrated, matrix interference removal and speciation analytical features. In this work, the coupling of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with paper-based DGT devices was evaluated for the direct determination of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in fresh water. The DGT samplers were assembled with cellulose (Whatman 3 MM chromatography paper) as the diffusion layer and a cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane (Whatman P 81 paper) as the binding agent. The diffusion coefficients of the analytes on 3 MM chromatography paper were calculated by deploying the DGT samplers in synthetic solutions containing 500 μg L- 1 of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb (4 L at pH 5.5 and ionic strength at 0.05 mol L- 1). After retrieval, the DGT units were disassembled and the P 81 papers were dried and analysed by EDXRF directly. The 3 MM chromatographic paper diffusion coefficients of the analytes ranged from 1.67 to 1.87 × 10- 6 cm2 s- 1. The metal retention and phosphate group homogeneities on the P 81 membrane was studied by a spot analysis with a diameter of 1 mm. The proposed approach (DGT-EDXRF coupling) was applied to determine the analytes at five sampling sites (48 h in situ deployment) on the Piracicaba river basin, and the results (labile fraction) were compared with 0.45 μm dissolved fractions determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The limits of detection of DGT-EDXRF coupling for the analytes (from 7.5 to 26 μg L- 1) were similar to those obtained by the sensitive SR-TXRF technique (3.8 to 9.1 μg L- 1).

  12. Effect of enhanced Renilla luciferase and fluorescent protein variants on the Foerster distance of Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacres, Helen, E-mail: helen.dacres@csiro.au [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Michie, Michelle; Wang, Jian [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Pfleger, Kevin D.G. [Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology-GPCRs, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research (WAIMR) and Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Trowell, Stephen C. [CSIRO Food Futures Flagship and Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First experimental determination of Foerster distance (R{sub 0}) for enhanced BRET systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of brighter BRET components RLuc2, RLuc8 and Venus was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using brighter BRET components substantially increased (25%) R{sub 0} of the BRET{sup 1} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using brighter BRET components marginally increased (2-9%) R{sub 0} of the BRET{sup 2} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brighter BRET components improve the different weaknesses of BRET{sup 1} and BRET{sup 2} systems. -- Abstract: Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is an important tool for monitoring macromolecular interactions and is useful as a transduction technique for biosensor development. Foerster distance (R{sub 0}), the intermolecular separation characterized by 50% of the maximum possible energy transfer, is a critical BRET parameter. R{sub 0} provides a means of linking measured changes in BRET ratio to a physical dimension scale and allows estimation of the range of distances that can be measured by any donor-acceptor pair. The sensitivity of BRET assays has recently been improved by introduction of new BRET components, RLuc2, RLuc8 and Venus with improved quantum yields, stability and brightness. We determined R{sub 0} for BRET{sup 1} systems incorporating novel RLuc variants RLuc2 or RLuc8, in combination with Venus, as 5.68 or 5.55 nm respectively. These values were approximately 25% higher than the R{sub 0} of the original BRET{sup 1} system. R{sub 0} for BRET{sup 2} systems combining green fluorescent proteins (GFP{sup 2}) with RLuc2 or RLuc8 variants was 7.67 or 8.15 nm, i.e. only 2-9% greater than the original BRET{sup 2} system despite being {approx}30-fold brighter.

  13. Sensitive Pb(2+) probe based on the fluorescence quenching by graphene oxide and enhancement of the leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Peng, Weidong; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-02-26

    A novel strategy was developed for fluorescent detection of Pb(2+) in aqueous solution based on the fact that graphene oxide (GO) could quench the fluorescence of amino pyrene (AP)-grafted gold nanoparticles (AP-AuNPs) and Pb(2+) could accelerate the leaching rate of AuNPs in the presence of S2O3(2-). In this system, fluorescence reporter AP was grafted on AuNPs through the Au-N bond. In the presence of GO, the system shows fluorescence quenching because of π-π stacking between AP and GO. With the addition of Pb(2+) and S2O3(2-), the system displays fluorescence recovery, which is attributed to the fact that Pb(2+) could accelerate the leaching of the AuNPs from GO surfaces and release of AP into aqueous solution. Interestingly, the concentration of GO could control the fluorescence "turn-off" or "turn-on" for Pb(2+) detection. In addition, GO is also an excellent promoter for the acceleration of the leaching of AuNPs and shortening the analytical time to ∼15 min. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence Pb(2+) sensor shows a linear range from 2.0 × 10(-9) to 2.3 × 10(-7) mol/L, with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-10) mol/L.

  14. Ag@SiO2-entrapped hydrogel microarray: a new platform for a metal-enhanced fluorescence-based protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Minsu; Koh, Won-Gun

    2015-05-21

    We developed a novel protein-based bioassay platform utilizing metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), which is a hydrogel microarray entrapping silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2). As a model system, different concentrations of glucose were detected using a fluorescence method by sequential bienzymatic reaction of hydrogel-entrapped glucose oxidase (GOX) and peroxidase (POD) inside a hydrogel microarray. Microarrays based on poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogels were prepared by photopatterning a solution containing PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), photoinitiator, enzymes, and Ag@SiO2. The resulting hydrogel microarrays were able to entrap both enzymes and Ag@SiO2 without leaching and deactivation problems. The presence of Ag@SiO2 within the hydrogel microarray enhanced the fluorescence signal, and the extent of the enhancement was dependent on the thickness of silica shells and the amount of Ag@SiO2. Optimal MEF effects were achieved when the thickness of the silica shell was 17.5 nm, and 0.5 mg mL(-1) of Ag@SiO2 was incorporated into the assay systems. Compared with the standard hydrogel microarray-based assay performed without Ag@SiO2, more than a 4-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in a glucose concentration range between 10(-3) mM and 10.0 mM using hydrogel microarray entrapping Ag@SiO2, which led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD). The hydrogel microarray system presented in this study could be successfully combined with a microfluidic device as an initial step to create an MEF-based micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS).

  15. Diagnosis of breast masses from dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR: a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. RESULTS: Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION: Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological

  16. Diagnosis of breast masses from dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongmin; Peng, Yanxia; Ou, Caiwen; Chen, Minsheng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological properties and DWI measurement of ADC can dramatically improve the

  17. Combined diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging of patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Schmidt, Gerwin [Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Ingrisch, Michael [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology - Grosshadern, LMU Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the potential and to analyze parameter correlations of combined quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and high-temporal-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in vertebral bone marrow (vBM) of patients with osteoporosis and acute vertebral compression fractures, providing additional information for a better understanding of the physiological background of parameter changes. Materials and methods: 20 patients with acute osteoporotic fractures were examined with DWI and DCE-MRI at 1.5 T. DCE-MRI was performed with a 2D saturation-recovery turbo-FLASH sequence, acquiring 300 dynamics with a temporal resolution of 1 s. For DWI measurements, a DW HASTE sequence with b-values from 100 to 600 s/mm{sup 2} was applied. In each patient, ROIs were drawn manually in the fractures and in normal appearing vertebrae. For DCE-MRI, the concentration-time curves of these ROIs were analyzed using a two-compartment tracer-kinetic model in the lesions, providing separate estimates of perfusion and permeability, and a one-compartment model in normal vBM, providing only a mixed representation of perfusion and permeability in terms of a mixed flow parameter K{sup trans} and the extracellular volume (ECV). In the case of DWI, attenuation curves were fitted to a monoexponential decay model to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Results: Mean perfusion parameters and ADCs were significantly (p < 0.001) different in the fractures compared to adjacent normal appearing vertebrae (K{sup trans}: 7.81 mL/100 mL/min vs. 14.61 mL/100 mL/min, ECV: 52.84 mL/100 mL vs. 4.61 mL/100 mL, ADC: 1.71 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 0.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). ADCs showed a significant correlation with the ECV. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of DWI and DCE-MRI could distinguish osteoporotic fractures from normal appearing vertebrae. A significant correlation found between ECV and ADCs might be able to explain the cause for the increased

  18. Combined diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging of patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffar, Andreas; Sourbron, Steven; Dietrich, Olaf; Schmidt, Gerwin; Ingrisch, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the potential and to analyze parameter correlations of combined quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and high-temporal-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in vertebral bone marrow (vBM) of patients with osteoporosis and acute vertebral compression fractures, providing additional information for a better understanding of the physiological background of parameter changes. Materials and methods: 20 patients with acute osteoporotic fractures were examined with DWI and DCE-MRI at 1.5 T. DCE-MRI was performed with a 2D saturation-recovery turbo-FLASH sequence, acquiring 300 dynamics with a temporal resolution of 1 s. For DWI measurements, a DW HASTE sequence with b-values from 100 to 600 s/mm 2 was applied. In each patient, ROIs were drawn manually in the fractures and in normal appearing vertebrae. For DCE-MRI, the concentration-time curves of these ROIs were analyzed using a two-compartment tracer-kinetic model in the lesions, providing separate estimates of perfusion and permeability, and a one-compartment model in normal vBM, providing only a mixed representation of perfusion and permeability in terms of a mixed flow parameter K trans and the extracellular volume (ECV). In the case of DWI, attenuation curves were fitted to a monoexponential decay model to determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Results: Mean perfusion parameters and ADCs were significantly (p trans : 7.81 mL/100 mL/min vs. 14.61 mL/100 mL/min, ECV: 52.84 mL/100 mL vs. 4.61 mL/100 mL, ADC: 1.71 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s vs. 0.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s). ADCs showed a significant correlation with the ECV. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of DWI and DCE-MRI could distinguish osteoporotic fractures from normal appearing vertebrae. A significant correlation found between ECV and ADCs might be able to explain the cause for the increased diffusivity in osteoporotic fractures. Since the other perfusion parameters do not correlate with the ADC, they provide

  19. Improving malignancy prediction in breast lesions with the combination of apparent diffusion coefficient and dynamic contrast-enhanced kinetic descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luisa; Brandão, Sofia; Matos, Eduarda; Gouveia Nunes, Rita; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre; Loureiro, Joana; Ramos, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess how the joint use of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and kinetic parameters (uptake phase and delayed enhancement characteristics) from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) can boost the ability to predict breast lesion malignancy. Materials and methods: Breast magnetic resonance examinations including DCE and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 51 women. The association between kinetic parameters and ADC were evaluated and compared between lesion types. Models with binary outcome of malignancy were studied using generalized estimating equations (GEE), (GEE), and using kinetic parameters and ADC values as malignancy predictors. Model accuracy was assessed using the corrected maximum quasi-likelihood under the independence confidence criterion (QICC). Predicted probability of malignancy was estimated for the best model. Results: ADC values were significantly associated with kinetic parameters: medium and rapid uptake phase (p<0.001) and plateau and washout curve types (p=0.004). Comparison between lesion type showed significant differences for ADC (p=0.001), early phase (p<0.001), and curve type (p<0.001). The predicted probabilities of malignancy for the first ADC quartile (≤1.17×10 −3  mm 2 /s) and persistent, plateau and washout curves, were 54.6%, 86.9%, and 97.8%, respectively, and for the third ADC quartile (≥1.51×10 −3  mm 2 /s) were 3.2%, 15.5%, and 54.8%, respectively. The predicted probability of malignancy was less than 5% for 18.8% of the lesions and greater than 33% for 50.7% of the lesions (24/35 lesions, corresponding to a malignancy rate of 68.6%). Conclusion: The best malignancy predictors were low ADCs and washout curves. ADC and kinetic parameters provide differentiated information on the microenvironment of the lesion, with joint models displaying improved predictive performance. -- Highlights: •ADC and kinetic parameters provide diverse information regarding lesion environment. •The best predictors

  20. Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Imaging of Glioblastoma at 7 Tesla: Region Specific Correlation with Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschuh, Johannes; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Zaiss, Moritz; Eidel, Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Wiestler, Benedikt; Sahm, Felix; Floca, Ralf Omar; Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bachert, Peter; Radbruch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells. Patients and Methods For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 μT). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site. Results Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16≤rSp≤0.53, p0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp≈0 (p0.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, p<0.05), while the correlation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)). Discussion NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes cellularity more accurately than ADC, especially in the

  1. Aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics of quinoline based compound - A versatile fluorescent probe for pH, Fe(III) ion, BSA binding and optical cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Irulappan; Chang, Chien-Huei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Sathish, Veerasamy; Li, Wen-Shan; Malathi, Mahalingam

    2017-07-01

    Novel benzimidazoquinoline derivative (AVT) was synthesized through a substitution reaction and characterized by various spectral techniques. Analyzing the optical properties of AVT under absorption and emission spectral studies in different environments exclusively with respect to solvents and pH, intriguing characteristics viz. aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) in the THF solvent and 'On-Off' pH sensing were found at neutral pH. Sensing nature of AVT with diverse metal ions and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also studied. Among the metal ions, Fe3 + ion alone tunes the fluorescence intensity of AVT probe in aqueous medium from ;turn-on; to ;turn-off; through ligand (probe) to metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. The probe AVT in aqueous medium interacts strongly with BSA due to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and the conformational change in BSA was further analyzed using synchronous fluorescence techniques. Docking study of AVT with BSA reveals that the active site of binding is tryptophan residue which is also supported by the experimental results. Interestingly, fluorescent AVT probe in cells was examined through cellular imaging studies using BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, the single molecule probe based detection of multiple species and stimuli were described.

  2. Enhanced fluorescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) perchlorate by salicylic acid in bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide complexes and luminescence mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxian; Zheng Yushan; Sun Xiaojun; Chai Wenjuan; Ren Tie; Shi Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Two novel ternary rare earth perchlorate complexes had been synthesized by using bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide as first ligand (L=C 6 H 5 COCH 2 SOCH 2 COC 6 H 5 ), salicylic acid as second ligand (L ' =C 6 H 4 OHCOO - ). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DSC and molar conductivities in DMF solution. The composition was suggested as [REL 5 L'](ClO 4 ) 2 .nH 2 O (RE=Tb, Dy; n=6, 8 ). Based on IR, 1 HNMR and UV spectra, it showed that the first ligand, bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide (L), bonded with Tb(III), Dy(III) ions by the oxygen atom of sulfinyl group. The second ligand, salicylic acid group (L'), not only bonded with RE(III) ions by one oxygen atom of carboxyl group but also bonded with RE(III) ions by oxygen atom of phenolic hydroxyl group. In bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide system, fluorescent spectra of the complexes showed that the luminescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) ions was enhanced by the second ligand salicylic acid. The ternary complexes had stronger fluorescence than the binary ones where only bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide acted as ligand. Phosphorescent spectra of the two ligands indicated that the coordination of salicylic acid resulted in the matching extent increasing between the triplet state of ligand and excited state of the rare earths. The relationship between fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity was also discussed.

  3. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  4. Solute diffusion through stripped mouse duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Ham, M; Mizumori, M; Guth, P H; Engel, E; Kaunitz, J D; Akiba, Y

    2007-12-01

    We measured villous cell intracellular pH (pH(i)) and solute diffusion between the bathing media and the epithelial cells in stripped, chambered mouse duodenum. Apical perfusion of a high CO2 solution rapidly acidified the upper villous cells with recovery after its removal. Apical zoniporide (ZP) enhanced CO(2)-induced acidification. Serosal ZP, dimethylamiloride (DMA) or stilbene anion transport inhibitors failed to alter CO(2)-induced acidification, whereas serosal high CO(2) buffer acidified the upper villous cells. Serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine rapidly acidified the upper villous cells. All serosally-perfused fluorescent compounds stained the crypt area, but not the villi or villous cells. In contrast, intravenous carboxyfluorescein quickly diffused into the interstitial space of the entire mucosa, and mucosally perfused fluorescent compound rapidly penetrated the epithelial cell layer. In muscle-stripped duodenum mounted in a small-aperture perfusion chamber, serosal solutes can readily diffuse only to the crypt cell region, whereas access to the villous epithelial cells is diffusion-limited. In contrast, rapid villous cell responses to serosally applied solutes are best explained by neural reflexes. Limited viability of the villous cells and impaired structural stability of the villi further limit long-term, villous cell functional studies of mucosal preparations mounted in small aperture diffusion chambers.

  5. Enhanced hydroxyl radical generation in the combined ozonation and electrolysis process using carbon nanotubes containing gas diffusion cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Qiuhong; Yan, Zhenhua; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Combination of ozone together with electrolysis (ozone-electrolysis) is a promising wastewater treatment technology. This work investigated the potential use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based gas diffusion cathode (GDC) for ozone-electrolysis process employing hydroxyl radicals (·OH) production as an indicator. Compared with conventional active carbon (AC)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon black (CB)-PTFE cathodes, the production of ·OH in the coupled process was improved using CNTs-PTFE GDC. Appropriate addition of acetylene black (AB) and pore-forming agent Na2SO4 could enhance the efficiency of CNTs-PTFE GDC. The optimum GDC composition was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) analysis and was determined as CNTs 31.2 wt%, PTFE 60.6 wt%, AB 3.5 wt%, and Na2SO4 4.7 wt%. Moreover, the optimized CNT-based GDC exhibited much more effective than traditional Ti and graphite cathodes in Acid Orange 7 (AO7) mineralization and possessed the desirable stability without performance decay after ten times reaction. The comparison tests revealed that peroxone reaction was the main pathway of ·OH production in the present system, and cathodic reduction of ozone could significantly promote ·OH generation. These results suggested that application of CNT-based GDC offers considerable advantages in ozone-electrolysis of organic wastewater.

  6. Combined reading of contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging by using a simple sum score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Anja [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Dietzel, Matthias [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kaiser, Clemens G. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Baltzer, Pascal A. [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), General Hospital Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    To improve specificity of breast MRI by integrating Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values with contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) using a simple sum score. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients referred to breast MRI at 1.5 T for further workup of breast lesions. Reading results of CE-MRI were dichotomized into score 1 (suspicious) or 0 (benign). Lesion's ADC-values (in *10-3 mm2/s) were assigned two different scores: ADC{sub 2}: likely malignant (score +1, ADC ≤ 1), indeterminate (score 0, ADC >1- ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4) and ADC{sub 1}: indeterminate (score 0, ADC ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4). Final added CE-MRI and ADC scores >0 were considered suspicious. Reference standard was histology and imaging follow-up of >24 months. Diagnostic parameters were compared using McNemar tests. A total of 150 lesions (73 malignant) were investigated. Reading of CE-MRI showed a sensitivity of 100 % (73/73) and a specificity of 81.8 % (63/77). Additional integration of ADC scores increased specificity (ADC2/ADC1, P = 0.008/0.001) without causing false negative results. Using a simple sum score, ADC-values can be integrated with CE-MRI of the breast, improving specificity. The best approach is using one threshold to exclude cancer. (orig.)

  7. The role of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the female pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Evis, E-mail: es220@radiol.cam.ac.uk [University Department of Radiology, Box 218, Level 5, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Rockall, Andrea, E-mail: Andrea.Rockall@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7ED (United Kingdom); Rangarajan, Deepa, E-mail: rdrangarajan@googlemail.com [Department of Radiology, Box 218, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A., E-mail: rahel.kubik@ksb.ch [Institute of Radiology, Department of Medical Services, Kantonsspital Baden Im Ergel, CH-5404 Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    Functional imaging by means of dynamic multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is now part of the standard imaging protocols for evaluation of the female pelvis. DCE-MRI and DW-MRI are important MR imaging techniques which enable the radiologist to move from morphological to functional assessment of diseases of the female pelvis. This is mainly due to the limitations of morphologic imaging, particularly in lesion characterization, accurate lymph node staging, assessment of tumour response and inability to differentiate post-treatment changes from tumour recurrence. DCE-MRI improves the accuracy of T2WI in staging of endometrial cancer. It also helps differentiate tumour recurrence from radiation fibrosis in patients with cervical cancer. DCE-MRI improves characterization of cystic adnexal lesions and detection of small peritoneal implants in patients with ovarian cancer. DW-MRI is valuable in preoperative staging of patients with endometrial and cervical cancer, especially in detection of extra-uterine disease. It does increase reader's confidence for detection of recurrent disease in gynaecological malignancies and improves detection of small peritoneal implants in patients with ovarian cancer. In this review article we give an overview of both DCE-MRI and DW-MRI techniques, concentrating on their main clinical application in the female pelvis, and present a practical approach of the added value of these techniques according to the main pathological conditions, highlighting the pearls and pitfalls of each technique.

  8. Visualization of Hydrogen Diffusion in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Fatigue Crack Growth in Type 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hisao; Noda, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    To study the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue strength of AISI type 304 metastable austenitic stainless steel, specimens were cathodically charged with hydrogen. Using tension-compression fatigue tests, the behavior of fatigue crack growth from a small drill hole in the hydrogen-charged specimen was compared with that of noncharged specimen. Hydrogen charging led to a marked increase in the crack growth rate. Typical characteristics of hydrogen effect were observed in the slip band morphology and fatigue striation. To elucidate the behavior of hydrogen diffusion microscopically in the fatigue process, the hydrogen emission from the specimens was visualized using the hydrogen microprint technique (HMT). In the hydrogen-charged specimen, hydrogen emissions were mainly observed in the vicinity of the fatigue crack. Comparison between the HMT image and the etched microstructure image revealed that the slip bands worked as a pathway for hydrogen to move preferentially. Hydrogen-charging resulted in a significant change in the phase transformation behavior in the fatigue process. In the noncharged specimen, a massive type α' martensite was observed in the vicinity of the fatigue crack. On the other hand, in the hydrogen-charged specimen, large amounts of ɛ martensite and a smaller amount of α' martensite were observed along the slip bands. The results indicated that solute hydrogen facilitated the ɛ martensitic transformation in the fatigue process. Comparison between the results of HMT and EBSD inferred that martensitic transformations as well as plastic deformation itself can enhance the mobility of hydrogen.

  9. Metal–Organic Framework-Based Separators for Enhancing Li–S Battery Stability: Mechanism of Mitigating Polysulfide Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-09-13

    The shuttling effect of polysulfides severely hinders the cycle performance and commercialization of Li–S batteries, and significant efforts have been devoted to searching for feasible solutions to mitigate the effect in the past two decades. Recently, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with rich porosity, nanometer cavity sizes, and high surface areas have been claimed to be effective in suppressing polysulfide migration. However, the formation of large-scale and grain boundary-free MOFs is still very challenging, where a large number of grain boundaries of MOF particles may also allow the diffusion of polysulfides. Hence, it is still controversial whether the pores in MOFs or the grain boundaries play the critical role. In this study, we perform a comparative study for several commonly used MOFs, and our experimental results and analysis prove that a layer of MOFs on a separator did enhance the capacity stability. Our results suggest that the chemical stability and the aggregation (packing) morphology of MOF particles play more important roles than the internal cavity size in MOFs.

  10. Enhanced effect of diffused Ohmic contact metal atoms for device scaling in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Cheng, Aijie; Lin, Zhaojun; Cui, Peng; Liu, Yan; Fu, Chen; Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong; Luan, Chongbiao

    2017-03-01

    Using measured capacitance-voltage and current-voltage curves for the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with different source-drain spacing, the electron mobility under the gate region was obtained. By comparing mobility variation and analyzing polarization charge distribution, it is found that with device scaling, the effect of the diffused Ohmic contact metal atoms on the electron mobility is enhanced. Then, a theoretical calculation related to different scattering mechanisms was adopted and it was verified this enhanced effect is due to the enhanced polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering.

  11. Paper-based diffusive gradients in thin films technique coupled to energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of labile Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo de, E-mail: edualm@usp.br [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, USP - Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CEP 13416-903, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, USP - Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CEP 13416-903, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Menegario, Amauri Antonio [Centro de Estudos Ambientais, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has shown enormous potential for labile metal monitoring in fresh water due to the preconcentration, time-integrated, matrix interference removal and speciation analytical features. In this work, the coupling of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with paper-based DGT devices was evaluated for the direct determination of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in fresh water. The DGT samplers were assembled with cellulose (Whatman 3 MM chromatography paper) as the diffusion layer and a cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane (Whatman P 81 paper) as the binding agent. The diffusion coefficients of the analytes on 3 MM chromatography paper were calculated by deploying the DGT samplers in synthetic solutions containing 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb (4 L at pH 5.5 and ionic strength at 0.05 mol L{sup -1}). After retrieval, the DGT units were disassembled and the P 81 papers were dried and analysed by EDXRF directly. The 3 MM chromatographic paper diffusion coefficients of the analytes ranged from 1.67 to 1.87 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The metal retention and phosphate group homogeneities on the P 81 membrane was studied by a spot analysis with a diameter of 1 mm. The proposed approach (DGT-EDXRF coupling) was applied to determine the analytes at five sampling sites (48 h in situ deployment) on the Piracicaba river basin, and the results (labile fraction) were compared with 0.45 {mu}m dissolved fractions determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The limits of detection of DGT-EDXRF coupling for the analytes (from 7.5 to 26 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were similar to those obtained by the sensitive SR-TXRF technique (3.8 to 9.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DGT-EDXRF was coupled for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb determination in fresh water Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of metal diffusion

  12. Enhanced glutathione content allows the in vivo synthesis of fluorescent CdTe nanoparticles by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Monrás

    Full Text Available The vast application of fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs or quantum dots (QDs has prompted the development of new, cheap and safer methods that allow generating QDs with improved biocompatibility. In this context, green or biological QDs production represents a still unexplored area. This work reports the intracellular CdTe QDs biosynthesis in bacteria. Escherichia coli overexpressing the gshA gene, involved in glutathione (GSH biosynthesis, was used to produce CdTe QDs. Cells exhibited higher reduced thiols, GSH and Cd/Te contents that allow generating fluorescent intracellular NP-like structures when exposed to CdCl(2 and K(2TeO(3. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that QDs-producing cells accumulate defined structures of various colors, suggesting the production of differently-sized NPs. Purified fluorescent NPs exhibited structural and spectroscopic properties characteristic of CdTe QDs, as size and absorption/emission spectra. Elemental analysis confirmed that biosynthesized QDs were formed by Cd and Te with Cd/Te ratios expected for CdTe QDs. Finally, fluorescent properties of QDs-producing cells, such as color and intensity, were improved by temperature control and the use of reducing buffers.

  13. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the

  14. Enhancement and retardation of thermal boron diffusion in silicon from atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposited boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2014-03-01

    Thermal boron diffusion into silicon from boron silicate glass (BSG) prepared by atmospheric pressure CVD (AP-CVD) has been investigated in terms of the BSG boron concentration dependence on diffusion mechanism for N-type solar cell applications. With thermal diffusion at 950 °C in N2 for 20 min, the sheet resistance of the boron-diffused layer decreases with BSG boron concentration up to approximately 4 × 1021 cm-3 at which a boron-rich layer (BRL) is formed at the surface. However, the resistance increases with BSG boron concentration when the BSG boron concentration is higher than 4 × 1021 cm-3. It is also confirmed that the diffusion depth decreases with increasing BSG boron concentration within this BSG concentration region. To clarify this mechanism, the BSG boron concentration dependence on boron diffusivity has also been studied. From extracted diffusivities, the anomalous diffusion can be explained by silicon interstitials formed owing to kick-out by diffused boron atoms and by silicon interstitial generation-degradation due to BRL formation.

  15. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  16. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  17. Generation and characterization of a trackable plant-made influenza H5 virus-like particle (VLP) containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katie R; Arthus-Cartier, Guillaume; Yam, Karen K; Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier; Landry, Nathalie; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Couture, Manon M-J; Ward, Brian J

    2015-09-01

    Medicago, Inc. has developed an efficient virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine production platform using the Nicotiana benthamiana expression system, and currently has influenza-based products targeting seasonal/pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) proteins in advanced clinical trials. We wished to generate a trackable HA-based VLP that would allow us to study both particle assembly in plants and VLP interactions within the mammalian immune system. To this end, a fusion protein was designed, composed of H5 (from influenza A/Indonesia/05/2005 [H5N1]) with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Expression of H5-eGFP in N. benthamiana produced brightly fluorescent ∼160 nm particles resembling H5-VLPs. H5-eGFP-VLPs elicited anti-H5 serologic responses in mice comparable to those elicited by H5-VLPs in almost all assays tested (hemagglutination inhibition/IgG(total)/IgG1/IgG2b/IgG2a:IgG1 ratio), as well as a superior anti-GFP IgG response (mean optical density = 2.52 ± 0.16 sem) to that elicited by soluble GFP (mean optical density = 0.12 ± 0.06 sem). Confocal imaging of N. benthamiana cells expressing H5-eGFP displayed large fluorescent accumulations at the cell periphery, and draining lymph nodes from mice given H5-eGFP-VLPs via footpad injection demonstrated bright fluorescence shortly after administration (10 min), providing proof of concept that the H5-eGFP-protein/VLPs could be used to monitor both VLP assembly and immune trafficking. Given these findings, this novel fluorescent reagent will be a powerful tool to gain further fundamental insight into the biology of influenza VLP vaccines. © FASEB.

  18. Levy diffusion in a force field, huber relaxation kinetics, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics: H theorem for enhanced diffusion with Levy white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad; Ross; Schneider

    2000-08-01

    A characteristic functional approach is suggested for Levy diffusion in disordered systems with external force fields. We study the overdamped motion of an ensemble of independent particles and assume that the force acting upon one particle is made up of two additive components: a linear term generated by a harmonic potential and a second term generated by the interaction with the disordered system. The stochastic properties of the second term are evaluated by using Huber's approach to complex relaxation [Phys. Rev. B 31, 6070 (1985)]. We assume that the interaction between a moving particle and the environment can be expressed by the contribution of a large number of relaxation channels, each channel having a very small probability of being open and obeying Poisson statistics. Two types of processes are investigated: (a) Levy diffusion with static disorder for which the fluctuations of the random force are frozen and last forever and (b) diffusion with strong dynamic disorder and independent Levy fluctuations (Levy white noise). In both cases we show that the probability distribution of the position of a diffusing particle tends towards a stationary nonequilibrium form. The characteristic functional of concentration fluctuations is evaluated in both cases by using the theory of random point processes. For large times the fluctuations of the concentration field are stationary and the corresponding probability density functional can be evaluated analytically. In this limit the fluctuations depend on the distribution of the total number of particles but are independent of the initial positions of the particles. We show that the logarithm of the stationary probability functional plays the role of a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential, which has a structure similar to the Helmholtz free energy in equilibrium thermodynamics: it is made up of the sum of an energetic component, depending on the external mechanical potential, and of an entropic component, depending on

  19. Induction of the arginine vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat locus coeruleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Todoroki, M.; Ueta, Y.; Fujihara, H.; Otsubo, H.; Shibata, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kabayashi, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Kawata, M.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Murphy, D.; Hiro, H.; Takahashi, E.; Nagata, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 281-292 ISSN 1025-3890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : colchicine * green fluorescent protein * hypothalamus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2010

  20. Enhanced expression in tobacco of the gene encoding green fluorescent protein by modification of its codon usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, G.J.A.; Mendes, O.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Boer, de A.D.

    1997-01-01

    The gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria was resynthesized to adapt its codon usage for expression in plants by increasing the frequency of codons with a C or a G in the third position from 32 to 60%. The strategy for constructing the synthetic gfp gene was based on

  1. Fluorescent scattering by molecules embedded in small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Studies are reported in these areas: double resonance in fluorescent and Raman scattering; surface enhanced Raman scattering; fluorescence by molecules embedded in small particles; fluorescence by a liquid droplet; and fluorescence by conical pits in surfaces

  2. Surface-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of ultrathin layers of bichromophoric antenna systems adsorbed on silver nanoisland films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Rosso, Tommaso; Giorgetti, Emilia; Cicchi, Stefano; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Giusti, Anna; Rindi, Alessio; Ghini, Giacomo; Sottini, Stefano; Marcelli, Agnese; Foggi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a novel bichromophoric antenna system, characterized by energy transfer between a naphthalene group acting as the donor and a benzofurazane group acting as the acceptor. We studied the spectroscopic properties (infrared, Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence) of self-assembled monolayers of this molecular antenna on Ag nanoisland films and the energy-transfer process upon irradiation at 300 nm.

  3. Tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein as a scaffold to assemble an octavalent peptide nanoprobe for enhanced tumor targeting and intracellular uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiming; Yang, Jie; Jin, Honglin; Huang, Chuan; Fu, Jianwei; Yang, Fei; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    Relatively weak tumor affinities and short retention time in vivo hinder the application of targeting peptides in tumor molecular imaging. Multivalent strategies based on various scaffolds have been utilized to improve the ability of peptide-receptor binding or extend the clearance time of peptide-based probes. Here, we use a tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein (tfRFP) as a scaffold to create a self-assembled octavalent peptide fluorescent nanoprobe (Octa-FNP) using a genetic engineering approach. The multiligand connecting, fluorophore labeling and nanostructure formation of Octa-FNP were performed in one step. In vitro studies showed Octa-FNP is a 10-nm fluorescent probe with excellent serum stability. Cellular uptake of Octa-FNP by human nasopharyngeal cancer 5-8F cells is 15-fold of tetravalent probe, ∼80-fold of monovalent probe and ∼600-fold of nulvalent tfRFP. In vivo enhanced tumor targeting and intracellular uptake of Octa-FNP were confirmed using optical imaging and Western blot analysis. It achieved extremely high contrast of Octa-FNP signal between tumor tissue and normal organs, especially seldom Octa-FNP detected in liver and spleen. Owing to easy preparation, precise structural and functional control, and multivalent effect, Octa-FNP provides a powerful tool for tumor optical molecular imaging and evaluating the targeting ability of numerous peptides in vivo.

  4. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  5. Use of selenium to detect mercury in water and cells: an enhancement of the sensitivity and specificity of a seleno fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Ding, Baiyu; Xu, Kehua; Tong, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Seleno fluorescent probe: An organoselenium fluorescent probe (FSe-1) for mercury was designed based on the irreversible deselenation mechanism. FSe-1 exhibits an ultrahigh selectivity and sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection only for reactive selenium atom sites, due the strong affinity between Se and Hg. Furthermore, the new probe has been successfully used for imaging mercury ions in RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line; see figure).Inspired by the antitoxic function of selenium towards heavy-metal ions, we designed an organoselenium fluorescent probe (FSe-1) for mercury. The reaction of FSe-1 and Hg(2+) is an irreversible deselenation mechanism based on the selenophilic character of mercury. FSe-1 exhibits an ultrahigh selectivity and sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection only for reactive selenium atom sites due to the strong affinity between Se and Hg. The experimental results proved that FSe-1 was selective for Hg(2+) ions over other relevant metal ions and bioanalytes, and also showed an enhancement in sensitivity of up to 1.0 nM, which is lower than the current Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Furthermore, the new probe has been successfully applied to the imaging of mercury ions in RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line) with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  6. A recombinant, infectious human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein for use in high-throughput antiviral assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason P.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Smee, Donald F.; Morrey, John D.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, negative-stranded, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this study, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was inserted into the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) antigenome and a recombinant, infectious virus was rescued. Maximum EGFP expression levels, measured by fluorescence, were seen at day 3. Comparison of a three-day, viral expressed EGFP fluorescence assay to a seven-day, neutral red assay, based on complete cell destruction in virus infected MA-104 cells, yielded Z′-factor values of 0.83 and 0.70, respectively. A three-day, endpoint EGFP-based antiviral assay and a seven-day, endpoint neutral red based antiviral assay were run in parallel to establish antiviral sensitivity profiles of 23 compounds based on selective index (SI) values. Using an SI threshold of 10, the EGFP-based antiviral assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 54%. Thus, the use of an EGFP-based antiviral assay for testing potential antiviral compounds against HPIV-3 in a high-throughput format may be justified. PMID:19189850

  7. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Henning; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Beer, Meinrad; Pabst, Thomas; Machann, Wolfram; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert; Dick, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  8. Ag Nanoparticles-enhanced Fluorescence of Terbium-Deferasirox Complexes for the Highly Sensitive Determination of Deferasirox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Naderali, Roza; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    We describe the effect of different sized gold and silver nanoparticles on the terbium sensitized fluorescence of deferasirox. It is indicated that silver nanostructures, especially 18 nm Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), have a remarkable amplifying effect compared to Au nanoparticles. Based on this observation, a highly sensitive and selective method was developed for the determination of deferasirox. Effects of various parameters like AgNPs and Tb(3+) concentration and pH of media were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was plotted as the fluorescence intensities versus the concentration of deferasirox in the range of 0.1 to 200 nmol L(-1), and detection limit of 0.03 nmol L(-1) was obtained. The method has good linearity, recovery, reproducibility and sensitivity, and was satisfactorily applied for the determination of deferasirox in urine and pharmaceutical samples.

  9. The change of longitudinal relaxation rate in oxygen enhanced pulmonary MRI depends on age and BMI but not diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in healthy never-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sven Ivan Kindvall

    Full Text Available Oxygen enhanced pulmonary MRI is a promising modality for functional lung studies and has been applied to a wide range of pulmonary conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oxygen enhancement effect in the lungs of healthy, never-smokers, in light of a previously established relationship between oxygen enhancement and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in the lung (DL,CO in patients with lung disease.In 30 healthy never-smoking volunteers, an inversion recovery with gradient echo read-out (Snapshot-FLASH was used to quantify the difference in longitudinal relaxation rate, while breathing air and 100% oxygen, ΔR1, at 1.5 Tesla. Measurements were performed under multiple tidal inspiration breath-holds.In single parameter linear models, ΔR1 exhibit a significant correlation with age (p = 0.003 and BMI (p = 0.0004, but not DL,CO (p = 0.33. Stepwise linear regression of ΔR1 yields an optimized model including an age-BMI interaction term.In this healthy, never-smoking cohort, age and BMI are both predictors of the change in MRI longitudinal relaxation rate when breathing oxygen. However, DL,CO does not show a significant correlation with the oxygen enhancement. This is possibly because oxygen transfer in the lung is not diffusion limited at rest in healthy individuals. This work stresses the importance of using a physiological model to understand results from oxygen enhanced MRI.

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging versus contrast-enhanced MR imaging for the differentiation of renal oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yan; Wang, Haiyi; Shen, Yanguang; Ma, Lu; Pan, Jingjing; Ye, Huiyi [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Guo, Aitao [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); Wang, Jia [Handan Central Hosptical, Department of Radiology, Hebei (China); Kang, Suhai [264 Hospital of PLA, X-ray Department, Taiyuan (China)

    2017-12-15

    To compare the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with that of contrast-enhanced MRI in differentiating renal oncocytomas from chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). We recruited 48 patients with histopathologically confirmed renal oncocytomas (n=16) and chromophobe RCCs (n=32). All patients underwent preoperative DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and signal intensity were measured in each patient. ADC ratio and percentage of signal intensity change were calculated. Mean ADC values for renal oncocytomas were significantly higher than those for chromophobe RCCs (1.59±0.21 vs. 1.09±0.29 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity were 0.931, 87.5% and 84.4%, respectively, for ADC measurement of DW imaging; 0.825, 87.5% and 75%, respectively, for enhancement ratio (p > 0.05). Adding ADC values to the enhancement ratios in the ROC, analysis to differentiate renal oncocytoma from chromophobe RCCs increased specificity from 75 to 87.5% at 87.5% sensitivity without significantly increasing the AUC (0.930). Both DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI may assist in differentiating renal oncocytomas from chromophobe RCCs, with DWI showing higher diagnostic value. The combination of the two parameters could potentially provide better performance in distinguishing these two tumours. (orig.)

  11. Role of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma after chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebraheem Ebeed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic and diffusion MRI complete each other in assessment of HCC response to therapy, especially in those who cannot properly hold their breath that cause degradation of the dynamic MR quality.

  12. Enhanced Measurements of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) for Water Quality Analysis using a New Simultaneous Absorbance and Fluorescence Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality, with respect to suspended particles and dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, is now recognized as one of the top global environmental concerns. Contemporary research indicates fluorescence spectral analyses coupled with UV-VIS absorbance assays have the potential, especially when combined and coordinated, to facilitate rapid, robust quantification of a wide range of compounds, including interactions among them. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) collected over the UV-VIS region provide a wealth of information on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM includes humic and fulvic acid, chlorophyll, petroleum, protein, amino acid, quinone, fertilizer, pesticide, sewage and numerous other compound classes. Analysis of the EEMs using conventional and multivariate techniques, including primarily parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), provides information about many types of CDOM relevant to carbon cycling and pollution of fresh, marine and drinking water sources. Of critical concern also are the CDOM interactions with, and optical activities of, dissolved inorganic compounds. Many of the inorganic compounds and oxygen demand parameters can be analyzed with a wide range of UV-VIS absorbance assays. The instrument is designed and optimized for high UV throughput and low stray light performance. The sampling optics are optimized for both fluorescence and absorbance detection with the same sample. Both EEM and absorbance measurements implement NIST traceable instrument correction and calibration routines. The fluorescence detection utilizes a high dynamic range CCD coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph while absorbance utilizes diode based detection with a high dynamic range and extremely low-stray light specifications. The CDOM analysis is facilitated by a transfer of the data and model information with the PARAFAC routine. The EEM analysis software package facilitates coordinated correction of and correlation with the

  13. Two-dimensional imaging of molecular hydrogen in H2-air diffusion flames using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, W.; Kumar, V.; Glesk, I.; Miles, R.; Diskin, G.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a tunable ArF laser at 193.26 nm to record simultaneous single-laser-shot, planar images of molecular hydrogen and hot oxygen in a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame. Excitation spectra of fuel and oxidant-rich flame zones confirm a partial overlap of the two-photon H2 and single-photon O2 Schumann-Runge absorption bands. UV Rayleigh scattering images of flame structure and estimated detection limits for the H2 two-photon imaging are also presented.

  14. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  15. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging in the Head and Neck: Correlation with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao Quan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Choi, Young Jun; Sung, Yu Sub [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Department of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon 22711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Young Jin [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 47392 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the correlation between perfusion- and diffusion-related parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and those from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging in tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. We retrospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with head and neck tumors with MR imaging performed using a 3T MR scanner. Tissue diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D{sup *}), and perfusion fraction (f) were derived from bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data obtained with 14 different b-values in three orthogonal directions. We investigated the correlation between D, f, and D{sup *} and model-free parameters from the DCE-MRI (wash-in, T{sub max}, E{sub max}, initial AUC{sub 60}, whole AUC) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in the tumor and normal masseter muscle using a whole volume-of-interest approach. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis. No correlation was found between f or D{sup *} and any of the parameters from the DCE-MRI in all patients or in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p > 0.05). The ADC was significantly correlated with D values in the tumors (p < 0.001, r = 0.980) and muscles (p = 0.013, r = 0.542), despite its significantly higher value than D. The difference between ADC and D showed significant correlation with f values in the tumors (p = 0.017, r = 0.528) and muscles (p = 0.003, r = 0.630), but no correlation with D{sup *} (p > 0.05, respectively). Intravoxel incoherent motion shows no significant correlation with model-free perfusion parameters derived from the DCE-MRI but is feasible for the analysis of diffusivity in both tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck.

  16. Intravoxel incoehrent motion MR imaging in the head and neck: Correlation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Choi, Young Jun; Sung, Yu Sub; Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun; Heo, Young Jin; Beak, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate the correlation between perfusion- and diffusion-related parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and those from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging in tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. We retrospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with head and neck tumors with MR imaging performed using a 3T MR scanner. Tissue diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D{sup *}), and perfusion fraction (f) were derived from bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data obtained with 14 different b-values in three orthogonal directions. We investigated the correlation between D, f, and D{sup *} and model-free parameters from the DCE-MRI (wash-in, T{sub max}, E{sub max}, initial AUC{sub 60}, whole AUC) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in the tumor and normal masseter muscle using a whole volume-of-interest approach. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis. No correlation was found between f or D{sup *} and any of the parameters from the DCE-MRI in all patients or in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p > 0.05). The ADC was significantly correlated with D values in the tumors (p < 0.001, r = 0.980) and muscles (p = 0.013, r = 0.542), despite its significantly higher value than D. The difference between ADC and D showed significant correlation with f values in the tumors (p = 0.017, r = 0.528) and muscles (p = 0.003, r = 0.630), but no correlation with D{sup *} (p > 0.05, respectively). Intravoxel incoherent motion shows no significant correlation with model-free perfusion parameters derived from the DCE-MRI but is feasible for the analysis of diffusivity in both tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck.

  17. Extension of the diffusion controlled electron transfer theory for intermittent fluorescence of quantum dots: inclusion of biexcitons and the difference of "on" and "off" time distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyan; Marcus, R A

    2014-12-21

    The equations for the diffusion controlled electron transfer (DCET) theory of quantum dot blinking are extended to include biexcitons. In contrast to excitons, which undego resonant light to dark transitions, the biexcitons, having a much larger total energy, undergo a Fermi's Golden rule type transfer (many acceptance states). The latter immediately gives rise to an exponential tail for the light state, and it is explained why the dark state power law behavior is unaffected. Results are given for both continuous and pulsed excitation. The typical -3/2 power law for the light state at low light intensities, and for the dark state at all intensities, as well as dependence of the exponential tail on the square of the light intensity, and a decrease of the power in the power law for the light state from -3/2 to less negative values with increasing light intensity are all consistent with the theory. The desirability of measuring the dependence of the spectral diffusion coefficient on light intensity at room temperature as a test of several aspects of the theory is noted.

  18. Enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion in Ta2O5 resistive memory devices due to infinitely adaptive crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Stewart, Derek A.

    2016-04-01

    Metal oxide resistive memory devices based on Ta2O5 have demonstrated high switching speed, long endurance, and low set voltage. However, the physical origin of this improved performance is still unclear. Ta2O5 is an important archetype of a class of materials that possess an adaptive crystal structure that can respond easily to the presence of defects. Using first principles nudged elastic band calculations, we show that this adaptive crystal structure leads to low energy barriers for in-plane diffusion of oxygen vacancies in λ phase Ta2O5. Identified diffusion paths are associated with collective motion of neighboring atoms. The overall vacancy diffusion is anisotropic with higher diffusion barriers found for oxygen vacancy movement between Ta-O planes. Coupled with the fact that oxygen vacancy formation energy in Ta2O5 is relatively small, our calculated low diffusion barriers can help explain the low set voltage in Ta2O5 based resistive memory devices. Our work shows that other oxides with adaptive crystal structures could serve as potential candidates for resistive random access memory devices. We also discuss some general characteristics for ideal resistive RAM oxides that could be used in future computational material searches.

  19. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) phase inversion coating as a diffusion layer to enhance the cathode performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2014-12-01

    A low cost poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) phase inversion coating was developed as a cathode diffusion layer to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A maximum power density of 1430 ± 90 mW m-2 was achieved at a PVDF-HFP loading of 4.4 mg cm-2 (4:1 polymer:carbon black), with activated carbon as the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst. This power density was 31% higher than that obtained with a more conventional platinum (Pt) catalyst on carbon cloth (Pt/C) cathode with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) diffusion layer (1090 ± 30 mW m-2). The improved performance was due in part to a larger oxygen mass transfer coefficient of 3 × 10-3 cm s-1 for the PVDF-HFP coated cathode, compared to 1.7 × 10-3 cm s -1 for the carbon cloth/PTFE-based cathode. The diffusion layer was resistant to electrolyte leakage up to water column heights of 41 ± 0.5 cm (4.4 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black) to 70 ± 5 cm (8.8 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black). This new type of PVDF-HFP/carbon black diffusion layer could reduce the cost of manufacturing cathodes for MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recombinant subgroup B human respiratory syncytial virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein efficiently replicates in primary human cells and is virulent in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Ken; Nguyen, D Tien; Ludlow, Martin; Rennick, Linda J; Yüksel, Selma; van Amerongen, Geert; McQuaid, Stephen; Rima, Bert K; de Swart, Rik L; Duprex, W Paul

    2015-03-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most important viral cause of severe respiratory tract disease in infants. Two subgroups (A and B) have been identified, which cocirculate during, or alternate between, yearly epidemics and cause indistinguishable disease. Existing in vitro and in vivo models of HRSV focus almost exclusively on subgroup A viruses. Here, a recombinant (r) subgroup B virus (rHRSV(B05)) was generated based on a consensus genome sequence obtained directly from an unpassaged clinical specimen from a hospitalized infant. An additional transcription unit containing the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was introduced between the phosphoprotein and matrix genes (position 5) of the genome to generate rHRSV(B05)EGFP(5). The recombinant viruses replicated efficiently in both HEp-2 cells and in well-differentiated normal human bronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface. Intranasal infection of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) resulted in high numbers of EGFP(+) cells in epithelia of the nasal septum and conchae. When administered in a relatively large inoculum volume, the virus also replicated efficiently in bronchiolar epithelial cells and spread extensively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Virus replication was not observed in ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea. This is the first virulent rHRSV strain with the genetic composition of a currently circulating wild-type virus. In vivo tracking of infected cells by means of EGFP fluorescence in the absence of cytopathic changes increases the sensitivity of virus detection in HRSV pathogenesis studies. Virology as a discipline has depended on monitoring cytopathic effects following virus culture in vitro. However, wild-type viruses isolated from patients often do not cause significant changes to infected cells, necessitating blind passage. This can lead to genetic and phenotypic changes and the generation of high-titer, laboratory-adapted viruses with

  1. Sensitive optical detection of an early metastatic tumor using a new cell line with enhanced luminescent and fluorescent signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Joo Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models using cell lines that are dual-labeled with luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP are powerful tools for performing simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of metastatic tumors. However, the applications of such dual-labeled tumor models have been limited due to the technical challenges associated with low bioluminescent signaling from tumor cells. Here, we used lentiviral vector (LV encoding firefly luciferase and GFP and engineered a more sensitive and highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line (MLL-Luc/GFP cells, which allows simultaneous fluorescence and luminescence imaging. The light emission of MLL-Luc/GFP cells was 33.5 fold higher than that of PC-3-luc2-GFP prostate cancer cells which showed 750 p/s light emission per cell. Furthermore, the MLL-Luc/GFP cells showed 3.9 fold higher luciferase activities than did 4T1-luc2, which was previously recognized as exhibiting the highest luciferase activity. An in vivo evaluation with optical imaging showed pinpoint localization of GFP-positive cells in a metastatic lung as well as easy detection of early metastatic spreading. The newly engineered MLL-Luc/GFP cells provide an appropriate metastatic animal model system for future studies of metastasis and the testing of anti-metastatic therapies specifically aimed at prostatic cancer.

  2. PbCl2-tuned inorganic cubic CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cells with enhanced electron lifetime, diffusion length and photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yanan; Zhang, Luyuan; Yin, Longwei

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite is arousing great interest following after organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites, and is found as a good candidate for photovoltaic devices for its prominent photoelectric property and stability. Herein, we for the first time report on PbCl2-tuned inorganic Cl-doped CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cells with adjustable crystal structure and Cl doping for enhanced carrier lifetime, extraction rate and photovoltaic performance. The effect of PbCl2 on the morphologies, structures, optical, and photovoltaic performance of CsPbBr3 perovskite solar cells is investigated systemically. Compared with orthorhombic CsPbBr3, cubic CsPbBr3 demonstrates a significant improvement for electron lifetime (from 6.7 ns to 12.3 ns) and diffusion length (from 69 nm to 197 nm), as well as the enhanced electron extraction rate from CsPbBr3 to TiO2. More importantly, Cl doping benefits the further enhancement of carrier lifetime (14.3 ns) and diffusion length (208 nm). The Cl doped cubic CsPbBr3(Cl) perovskite solar cell exhibits a Jsc of 8.47 mA cm-2 and a PCE of 6.21%, superior to that of pure orthorhombic CsPbBr3 (6.22 mA cm-2 and 3.78%). The improvement of photovoltaic performance can be attributed to enhanced carrier lifetime, diffusion length and extraction rates, as well as suppressed nonradiative recombination.

  3. Multiparametric MR Imaging of Diffusion and Perfusion in Contrast-enhancing and Nonenhancing Components in Patients with Glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonzaier, Natalie R; Larkin, Timothy J; Matys, Tomasz; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Price, Stephen J

    Purpose To determine whether regions of low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with high relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) represented elevated choline (Cho)-to-N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratio (hereafter, Cho/NAA ratio) and whether their volumes correlated with progression-free survival (PFS)

  4. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe quantum dots by HBcAb-HRP for sensitive detection of H2O2in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tingting; Liu, Junfeng; Wu, Yiwei; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Xuehan; Yuan, Siqi

    2017-06-15

    A simple, high selective, ultra-sensitive and stable biosensor based on hepatitis B core antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HBcAb-HRP) induced fluorescent enhancement of CdTe QDs for recognition of H 2 O 2 have been constructed. In this assay, sulfurs in HBcAb-HRP, which possess a strong affinity towards Cd 2+ , can improve greatly the recombination fluorescence of CdTe QDs by creating more radiative centers at CdTe/Cd-SR complex. Then, H 2 O 2 oxidizes Cd-S bonds in CdTe QDs to organic disulfide product (RS-SR), causing thioglycolic acid (TGA) and HBcAb-HRP detach from surface of CdTe QDs and thus leading to fluorescence quenching. Just with the addition of HBcAb-HRP, sensitivity of the new biosensor has been improved by near one order of magnitude as compared with CdTe QDs probe. Detection limit of HBcAb-HRP-CdTe QDs biosensor for determination of H 2 O 2 was 6.9×10 -8 mol L -1 (3σ/slope), and the excellent linear range was 1.0×10 -7 ~1.5×10 -4 molL -1 . By using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and NH 4 OH as masking agents of Ag + , Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ , H 2 O 2 can be selectively detected in coexistence with Ag + , Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ , and the biosensor has been used to detect H 2 O 2 in human serum with satisfactory results. The superior properties of this biosensor showed great potential usage in more chemical and biological researches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3Dthree-dimensional) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCChepatocellular carcinoma) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACEtransarterial chemoembolization). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCChepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TACEtransarterial chemoembolization before surgery. Semiautomatic 3Dthree-dimensional volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCapparent diffusion coefficient) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual

  6. Infection of the upper respiratory tract of hamsters by the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-1 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Takashi; Minakuchi, Moeko; Sagai, Mami; Kokuho, Takehiro; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2015-02-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is an important pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). We have generated a recombinant BPIV3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rBPIV3-EGFP) based on the BN-1 strain isolated in Japan. After intranasal infection of hamsters with rBPIV3-EGFP, EGFP fluorescence was detected in the upper respiratory tract including the nasal turbinates, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. In the nasal turbinates, rBPIV3-EGFP attained high titers (>10(6) TCID50/g of tissue) 2-4 days after infection. Ciliated epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates and trachea were infected with rBPIV3-EGFP. Histopathological analysis indicated that mucosal epithelial cells in bronchi were shed by 6 days after infection, leaving non-ciliated cells, which may have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection leading to the development of BRDC. These data indicate that rBPIV3-EGFP infection of hamsters is a useful small animal model for studying the development of BPIV3-associated BRDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic expression of N-myc in mouse embryonic development using an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene in the N-myc locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Zhao, Kai; Wu, Wenting; Sun, Ruilin; Fei, Jian

    2014-02-01

    N-myc belongs to the Myc oncogene family and plays an essential role in mammalian embryonic development. The expression of N-myc is dynamically regulated during embryonic development; however, its expression pattern has not been well characterized due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this paper, a genetically modified mouse model was generated in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence was inserted into the N-myc locus, so that endogenous N-myc expression could be traced by the signal of EGFP. The EGFP signal in the transgenic mouse was confirmed to be consistent with the expression pattern of endogenous N-myc by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal expression of EGFP was observed in the central and peripheral nervous system, heart, lung and kidney, given the known indispensable role of N-myc in their formation. EGFP was also strongly detected in the liver, paranephros and the epithelium of the intestine. The EGFP signal can be used to trace N-myc expression in this transgenic mouse model. N-myc expression was observed in specific locations and cell lineages, and dynamically changed during embryonic development. The changing N-myc expression pattern seen in mouse embryonic development and the animal model described in this paper provide important insights and a new tool to research N-myc function. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Tip-enhanced fluorescence with radially polarized illumination for monitoring loop-mediated isothermal amplification on Hepatitis C virus cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shih-Chung; Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Wang, Da-Shin; Lu, Hui-Hsin; Gu, Frank X.; Sung, Kung-Bin; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2015-02-01

    A tip nanobiosensor for monitoring DNA replication was presented. The effects of excitation power and polarization on tip-enhanced fluorescence (TEF) were assessed with the tip immersed in fluorescein isothiocyanate solution first. The photon count rose on average fivefold with radially polarized illumination at 50 mW. We then used polymerase-functionalized tips for monitoring loop-mediated isothermal amplification on Hepatitis C virus cDNA. The amplicon-SYBR Green I complex was detected and compared to real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification. The signals of the reaction using 4 and 0.004 ng/μl templates were detected 10 and 30 min earlier, respectively. The results showed the potential of TEF in developing a nanobiosensor for real-time DNA amplification.

  9. Extraction and sensitive detection of toxins A and B from the human pathogen Clostridium difficile in 40 seconds using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovleen Tina Joshi

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea in humans and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus the rapid and accurate identification of this pathogen in clinical samples, such as feces, is a key step in reducing the devastating impact of this disease. The bacterium produces two toxins, A and B, which are thought to be responsible for the majority of the pathology associated with the disease, although the relative contribution of each is currently a subject of debate. For this reason we have developed a rapid detection assay based on microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence which is capable of detecting the presence of 10 bacteria in unprocessed human feces within 40 seconds. These promising results suggest that this prototype biosensor has the potential to be developed into a rapid, point of care, real time diagnostic assay for C. difficile.

  10. Magnetic/NIR-responsive drug carrier, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy of gold capped magnetite-fluorescent carbon hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; Hong, Kunlun; Banerjee, Probal; Zhou, Shuiqin

    2015-05-07

    This paper reports a type of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticle (NP) composed of gold nanocrystals coated on and/or embedded in a magnetite-fluorescent porous carbon core-shell NP template (Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au) for biomedical applications, including magnetic/NIR-responsive drug release, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy. The synthesis of the Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au NPs firstly involves the preparation of core-shell template NPs with magnetite nanocrystals clustered in the cores and fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) embedded in a porous carbon shell, followed by an in situ reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) loaded in the porous carbon shell and a subsequent replacement of Ag NPs with Au NPs through a galvanic replacement reaction using HAuCl4 as a precursor. The Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au NPs can enter the intracellular region and light up mouse melanoma B16F10 cells in multicolor mode. The porous carbon shell, anchored with hydrophilic hydroxyl/carboxyl groups, endows the Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with excellent stability in the aqueous phase and a high loading capacity (719 mg g(-1)) for the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The superparamagnetic Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with a saturation magnetization of 23.26 emu g(-1) produce localized heat under an alternating magnetic field, which triggers the release of the loaded drug. The combined photothermal effects of the Au nanocrystals and the CDs on/in the carbon shell can not only regulate the release rate of the loaded drug, but also efficiently kill tumor cells under NIR irradiation. Benefitting from their excellent optical properties, their magnetic field and NIR light-responsive drug release capabilities and their enhanced photothermal effect, such nanostructured Fe3O4@PC-CDs-Au hybrid NPs are very promising for simultaneous imaging diagnostics and high efficacy therapy.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity and characterization of magnetic Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 composites for Hg0 removal under fluorescent light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Song, Jun; Su, Sheng; Sun, Zhijun; Xiang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    A series of magnetic Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 hybrids synthesized via hydrothermal process, subsequent deposition-precipitation and photoreduction method were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg0) under fluorescent light irradiation. The effects of Ag content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature, pH value, flue gas composition, anions and photocatalyst dosage on Hg0 removal were investigated in detail. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, VSM, DRS, ESR, PL and photocurrent response. The results showed that the ternary Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 hybrids possessed enhanced visible-light-responsive photocatalytic performances for Hg0 removal. Ag/BiOI/ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst could be easily recovered from the reaction solution by an extra magnet and was stable in the process of Hg0 removal. Lower content of Ag was highly dispersed on the surface of BiOI/ZnFe2O4, while higher content of Ag would result in some aggregations and/or the blockages of micropore. In comparison to BiOI/ZnFe2O4, Ag deposited BiOI/ZnFe2O4 material showed lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. The superior Hg0 oxidation removal could correspond to good match of BiOI and ZnFe2O4, excellent fluidity and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag0 nanoparticles, which led to higher separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes, thereby enhancing the hybrids' photocatalytic activity.

  12. Enhanced iron gettering by short, optimized low-temperature annealing after phosphorus emitter diffusion for industrial silicon solar cell processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; Luque, Antonio; Canizo, Carlos del [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lelievre, Jean-Francois [Centro de Tecnologia del Silicio Solar, CENTESIL, Madrid (Spain); Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The introduction of a low-temperature (LT) tail after P emitter diffusion was shown to lead to considerable improvements in electron lifetime and solar cell performance by different researchers. So far, the drawback of the investigated extended gettering treatments has been the lack of knowledge about optimum annealing times and temperatures and the important increase in processing time. In this manuscript, we calculate optimum annealing temperatures of Fe-contaminated Si wafers for different annealing durations. Subsequently, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that a relatively short LT tail of 15 min can lead to a significant reduction of interstitial Fe and an increase in electron lifetime. Finally, we calculate the potential improvement of solar cell efficiency when such a short-tail extended P diffusion gettering is included in an industrial fabrication process. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Neural - levelset shape detection segmentation of brain tumors in dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, C.; Bhargava, Sunil; Gharpure, Damayanti Chandrashekhar

    2008-01-01

    A novel Neuro - level set shape detection algorithm is proposed and evaluated for segmentation and grading of brain tumours. The algorithm evaluates vascular and cellular information provided by dynamic contrast susceptibility magnetic resonance images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. The proposed neural shape detection algorithm is based on the levels at algorithm (shape detection algorithm) and utilizes a neural block to provide the speed image for the level set methods. In this study, two different architectures of level set method have been implemented and their results are compared. The results show that the proposed Neuro-shape detection performs better in differentiating the tumor, edema, necrosis in reconstructed images of perfusion and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images. (author)

  14. Coercivity Enhancement of Nd-Fe-B HDDR Powder by Grain Boundary Diffusion Process with Rare-Earth Hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Ryoung; Yoo, Jae-Gyeong; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kwon, Hae-Woong; Kim, Yang-Do; Lee, Dongyun; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2018-02-01

    The grain boundary diffusion (GBD) process with rare-earth hydride was performed to increase the coercivity of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) powder. Before the GBD process, we investigated the effect of post-annealing of the initial HDDR powder on its magnetic properties. Low-temperature annealing reduced the coercivity of the HDDR powder. However, the coercivity decline decreased with increasing annealing temperature, becoming similar to that of the initial powder at 900°C. After the GBD process at 850°C for 1 h, the coercivity increased by about 4 kOe with 4 wt.% NdH x -Cu, forming a thick and continuous grain boundary phase. In addition, the coercivity and remanence of the HDDR powder produced by the GBD process with NdH x -Cu were higher when using NdH x in spite of the same amount of diffusion as at 2 wt.%.

  15. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion inS. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  16. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes. PMID:29354649

  17. Enhancement of Thermal Diffusivity in Phase-Separated Bismaleimide/Poly(ether imide Composite Films Containing Needle-Shaped ZnO Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoya Uchida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phase-separated polymer blend composite films exhibiting high thermal diffusivity were prepared by blending a soluble polyimide (BPADA-MPD and a bismaleimide (BMI with needle-shaped zinc oxide (n-ZnO particles followed by high-temperature curing at 250 °C. Images recorded with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM equipped with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS demonstrated that the spontaneously separated phases in the composite films were aligned along the out-of-plane direction, and the n-ZnO particles were selectively incorporated into the BMI phase. The out-of-plane thermal diffusivity of the composite films was significantly higher than those of the previously reported composite films at lower filler contents. Based on wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD patterns and image analysis, the enhanced thermal diffusivity was attributed to the confinement of the anisotropically shaped particles and their nearly isotropic orientation in one phase of the composite films.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  19. Effect of mutations in a simian virus 40 PolyA signal enhancer on green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H G; Wang, X F; Jing, X Y; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; Lv, Z J

    2011-08-26

    Our previous studies have shown that tandem Alu repeats inhibit green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression when inserted downstream of the GFP gene in the pEGFP-C1 vector. We found that the 22R sequence (5'-GTGAAAAAAATGCTTTATTTGT-3') from the antisense PolyA (240 bp polyadenylation signal) of simian virus 40, eliminated repression of GFP gene expression when inserted between the GFP gene and the Alu repeats. The 22R sequence contains an imperfect palindrome; based on RNA structure software prediction, it forms an unstable stem-loop structure, including a loop, a first stem, a bulge, and a second stem. Analysis of mutations of the loop length of the 22R sequence showed that the three-nucleotide loop (wild-type, 22R) induced much stronger GFP expression than did other loop lengths. Two mutations, 4TMI (A7→T, A17→T) and 5AMI (A6→T, T18→A), which caused the base type changes in the bulge and in the second stem in the 22R sequence, induced stronger GFP gene expression than 22R itself. Mutation of the bulge base (A17→T), leading to complete complementation of the stem, caused weaker GFP gene expression. Sequences without a palindrome (7pieA, 5'-GTGAAAAAAATG CAAAAAAAGT-3', 7pieT, 5'-GTGTTTTTTTTGCTTTTTTTGT-3') did not activate GFP gene expression. We conclude that an imperfect palindrome affects and can increase GFP gene expression.

  20. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe MPA-capped quantum dots by glutathione for hydrogen peroxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Ribeiro, David S M; Molina-Garcia, L; Ruiz Medina, A; Prior, João A V; Santos, João L M

    2014-05-01

    The manipulation of the surface chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals has been exploited to implement distinct sensing strategies in many analytical applications. In this work, reduced glutathione (GSH) was added at reaction time, as an electron-donor ligand, to markedly increase the quantum yield and the emission efficiency of MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots. The developed approach was employed in the implementation of an automated flow methodology for hydrogen peroxide determination, as this can oxidize GSH preventing its surface passivating effect and producing a manifest fluorescence quenching. After optimization, linear working calibration curve for hydrogen peroxide concentrations between 0.0025% and 0.040% were obtained (n=6), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. The detection limit was approximately 0.0012%. The developed approach was employed in the determination of H₂O₂ in contact lens preservation solutions and the obtained results complied with those furnished by the reference method, with relative deviations comprised between -1.18 and 4.81%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Motile Microorganisms Leads to Enhanced Mass Transfer under Diffusive Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorthea; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Winding, Anne

    2014-01-01

    as sink and source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This resulted in stable concentration gradients in water (>24 h). Adding the model organism Tetrahymena pyriformis to the experimental system enhanced PAH mass transfer up to hundred-fold (benzo[a]pyrene). Increasing mass transfer enhancement...

  2. Quantification of synovitis in the cranio-cervical region: Dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis-A feasibility follow up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeromel, M., E-mail: miran.jeromel@gmail.com [Institute of Radiology, Department for Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jevtic, V., E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si [Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I., E-mail: igor.sersa@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ambrozic, A., E-mail: ales.ambrozic@mf.uni-lj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomsic, M., E-mail: matija.tomsic@kclj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.

  3. Quantification of synovitis in the cranio-cervical region: Dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis—A feasibility follow up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeromel, M.; Jevtič, V.; Serša, I.; Ambrožič, A.; Tomšič, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.

  4. Combination of Mn(2+)-enhanced and diffusion tensor MR imaging gives complementary information about injury and regeneration in the adult rat optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuen, Marte; Olsen, Oystein; Berry, Martin; Pedersen, Tina Bugge; Kristoffersen, Anders; Haraldseth, Olav; Sandvig, Axel; Brekken, Christian

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as tools for detection of axonal injury and regeneration after intravitreal peripheral nerve graft (PNG) implantation in the rat optic nerve (ON). In adult Fischer rats, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival was evaluated in Flurogold (FG) back-filled retinal whole mounts after ON crush (ONC), intravitreal PNG, and intravitreal MnCl(2) injection (150 nmol) at 0 and 20 days post lesion (dpl). MEMRI and echo-planar DTI (DTI-EPI) was obtained of noninjured ON one day after intravitreal MnCl(2) injection, and at 1 and 21 dpl after ONC, intravitreal PNG, and intravitreal MnCl(2) injections given at 0 and 20 dpl. GAP-43 immunohistochemistry was performed after the last MRI. ONC reduced RGC density in retina by 94% at 21 dpl compared to noninjured ON without MnCl(2) injections. Both intravitreal PNG and intravitreal MnCl(2) injections improved RGC survival in retina, which was reduced by 90% (ONC+MnCl(2)), 82% (ONC+PNG), and 74% (ONC+PNG+MnCl(2)) compared to noninjured ON. DTI-derived parameters (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity lambda( parallel), and radial diffusivity lambda( perpendicular)) were unaffected by the presence of Mn(2+) in the ON. At 1 dpl, CNR(MEMRI) and lambda( parallel) were reduced at the injury site, while at 21 dpl they were increased at the injury site compared to values measured at 1 dpl. GAP-43 immunoreactive axons were present in the ON distal to the ONC injury site. MEMRI and DTI enabled detection of functional and structural degradation after rat ON injury, and there was correlation between the MRI-derived and immunohistochemical measures of axon regeneration.

  5. Electrophysiological effects of kainic acid on vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein and oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 neurones isolated from the supraoptic nucleus in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, J; Ohbuchi, T; Yoshimura, M; Maruyama, T; Ishikura, T; Matsuura, T; Suzuki, H; Ueta, Y

    2014-01-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains two types of magnocellular neurosecretory cells: arginine vasopressin (AVP)-producing and oxytocin (OXT)-producing cells. We recently generated and characterised two transgenic rat lines: one expressing an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the other expressing an OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1). These transgenic rats enable the visualisation of AVP or OXT neurones in the SON. In the present study, we compared the electrophysiological responses of AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones to glutamic acid in SON primary cultures. Glutamate mediates fast synaptic transmission through three classes of ionotrophic receptors: the NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. We investigated the contributions of the three classes of ionotrophic receptors in glutamate-induced currents. Three different antagonists were used, each predominantly selective for one of the classes of ionotrophic receptor. Next, we focused on the kainate receptors (KARs). We examined the electrophysiological effects of kainic acid (KA) on AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones. In current clamp mode, KA induced depolarisation and increased firing rates. These KA-induced responses were inhibited by the non-NMDA ionotrophic receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H4H)-dione in both AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones. In voltage clamp mode, the application of KA evoked inward currents in a dose-dependent manner. The KA-induced currents were significantly larger in OXT-mRFP1 neurones than in AVP-eGFP neurones. This significant difference in KA-induced currents was abolished by the GluK1-containing KAR antagonist UBP302. At high concentrations (250-500 μm), the specific GluK1-containing KAR agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA) induced significantly larger currents in OXT-mRFP1 neurones than in AVP-eGFP neurones. Furthermore, the difference between the AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones in the ATPA currents

  6. A multifunctional magnetic nanocarrier bearing fluorescent dye for targeted drug delivery by enhanced two-photon triggered release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Chen, D-H

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel nanoformulation for targeted drug delivery which utilizes nanophotonics through the fusion of nanotechnology with biomedical application. The approach involves an energy-transferring magnetic nanoscopic co-assembly fabricated of rhodamine B (RDB) fluorescent dye grafted gum arabic modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticle and photosensitive linker by which dexamethasone drug is conjugated to the magnetic nano-assembly. The advantage offered by this nanoformulation is the indirect photo-triggered-on-demand drug release by efficient up-converting energy of the near-IR (NIR) light to higher energy and intraparticle energy transfer from the dye grafted magnetic nanoparticle to the linker for drug release by cleavage. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be of ultra-small size (13.33 nm) and are monodispersed in an aqueous suspension. Dexamethasone (Dexa) drug conjugated to RDB-GAMNP by photosensitive linker showed appreciable release of Dexa by photo-triggered response on exposure to radiation having a wavelength in the NIR region whereas no detectable release was observed in the dark. Photo-triggered response for the nanoformulation not bearing the rhodamine B dye was drastically less as less Dexa was released on exposure to NIR radiation which suggest that the photo-cleavage of linker and release of Dexa mainly originated from the indirect excitation through the uphill energy conversions based on donor-acceptor model FRET. The promising pathway of nanophotonics for the on-demand release of the drug makes this nanocarrier very promising for applications in nanomedicine.

  7. Gadoxetate-enhanced versus diffusion-weighted MRI for fused Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/MRI in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, PET/CT Center, Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Weber, Michael; Trattnig, Siegfried; Herneth, Andreas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus; Eidherr, Harald; Wadsak, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Vienna (Austria); Raderer, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    To compare fused gadoxetate-enhanced Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/MRI and Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) for the assessment of abdominal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Eighteen patients with suspected or histologically proven NETs of the abdomen were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/CT for a primary search, staging, or restaging, and received an additional MRI, including dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI (b-values 50, 300 and 600). Co-registered gadoxetate-enhanced PET/MRI and PET/DWI were separately analysed for NET lesions by a nuclear medicine physician and a radiologist in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated on a per-region, per-organ and per-patient basis. Eighty-seven out of 684 anatomical regions, and 23 out of 270 organs, were NET-positive in 14 out of 18 patients. Region-based sensitivities and specificities were 97.7 % and 99.7 % for gadoxetate-enhanced PET/MRI and 98.9 % and 99.7 % for PET/DWI. Organ-based sensitivities and specificities were 91.3 % and 99.6 % for gadoxetate-enhanced PET/MRI and 95.7 % and 99.6 % for PET/DWI. Finally, patient-based sensitivities and specificities were 100 % and 100 % for gadoxetate-enhanced PET/MRI and 100 % and 75 % for PET/DWI. Sensitivities and specificities of the two methods did not differ significantly. Gadoxetate-enhanced Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/MRI and Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/DWI are equally useful for the assessment of abdominal NETs. (orig.)

  8. Use of fluorescent Ca2+ dyes with green fluorescent protein and its variants: problems and solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsover, S; Ibrahim, O; O'luanaigh, N; Williams, H; Cockcroft, S

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the degree to which fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator dyes, and green fluorescent protein and its variants, can be used together. We find that the most commonly used fluorescent protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), seriously contaminates fura 2 signals. We suggest two alternative combinations for which there is no detectable contamination of the Ca(2+) indicator signal by the fluorescent protein. Blue fluorescent protein can be used with the Ca(2+) indicator Fura Red...

  9. [Evaluation of the enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for cases with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiko; Tamura, Hideto; Asayama, Toshio; Moriya, Keiichi; Okuyama, Namiko; Kondo-Onodera, Asaka; Hamada, Yasuko; Ishibashi, Mariko; Yokose, Norio; Tanosaki, Sakae; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2015-07-01

    The NCCN-International Prognostic Index (IPI) is reported to be more powerful than the former IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era. To evaluate the NCCN-IPI in our institutions, we analyzed 188 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus CHOP or THP-COP chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival rates of patients with low, low-intermediate, high-intermediate, and high risk were 90%, 76%, 64%, and 34%, respectively. Although there was no difference in overall survival between patients 61-75 and those >75 years of age, the NCCN-IPI is useful for classifying prognostically relevant subgroups of Japanese patients.

  10. Construction of a viral T2A-peptide based knock-in mouse model for enhanced Cre recombinase activity and fluorescent labeling of podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Sybille; Brähler, Sebastian; Braun, Fabian; Hagmann, Henning; Rinschen, Markus M; Späth, Martin R; Höhne, Martin; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Podocyte injury is a key event in glomerular disease leading to proteinuria and opening the path toward glomerular scarring. As a consequence, glomerular research strives to discover molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways affecting podocyte health. The hNphs2.Cre mouse model has been a valuable tool to manipulate podocyte-specific genes and to label podocytes for lineage tracing and purification. Here we designed a novel podocyte-specific tricistronic Cre mouse model combining codon improved Cre expression and fluorescent cell labeling with mTomato under the control of the endogenous Nphs2 promoter using viral T2A-peptides. Independent expression of endogenous podocin, codon improved Cre, and mTomato was confirmed by immunofluorescence, fluorescent activated cell sorting and protein analyses. Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type mice developed normally and did not show any signs of glomerular disease or off-target effects under basal conditions and in states of disease. Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type -mediated gene recombination was superior to conventional hNphs2.Cre mice-mediated gene recombination. Last, we compared Cre efficiency in a disease model by mating Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type and hNphs2.Cre mice to Phb2 fl/fl mice. The podocyte-specific Phb2 knockout by Nphs2 pod.T2A.ciCre.T2A.mTomato/wild-type mice resulted in an aggravated glomerular injury as compared to a podocyte-specific Phb2 gene deletion triggered by hNphs2.Cre. Thus, we generated the first tricistronic podocyte mouse model combining enhanced Cre recombinase efficiency and fluorescent labeling in podocytes without the need for additional matings with conventional reporter mouse lines. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A meta-analysis of diffusion-weighted and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging for the detection of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilgrain, Valerie; Ronot, Maxime [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche Biomedicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Esvan, Maxime; Caumont-Prim, Aurore [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Unite d' Epidemiologie et de Recherche Clinique, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique 1418, module Epidemiologie Clinique, Paris (France); Aube, Christophe [CHU d' Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France); Universite d' Angers, Laboratoire HIFIH, LUNAM, Angers (France); Chatellier, Gilles [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Unite d' Epidemiologie et de Recherche Clinique, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique 1418, module Epidemiologie Clinique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France)

    2016-12-15

    To obtain the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) and gadoxetic-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of liver metastases. A comprehensive search (EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane) was performed to identify relevant articles up to June 2015. Inclusion criteria were: liver metastases, DW-MR imaging and/or gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging, and per-lesion statistics. The reference standard was histopathology, intraoperative observation and/or follow-up. Sources of bias were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. A linear mixed-effect regression model was used to obtain sensitivity estimates. Thirty-nine articles were included (1,989 patients, 3,854 metastases). Sensitivity estimates for DW-MR imaging, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and the combined sequence for detecting liver metastases on a per-lesion basis was 87.1 %, 90.6 % and 95.5 %, respectively. Sensitivity estimates by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and the combined sequence were significantly better than DW-MR imaging (p = 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively), and the combined MR sequence was significantly more sensitive than gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging (p < 0.0001). Similar results were observed in articles that compared the three techniques simultaneously, with only colorectal liver metastases and in liver metastases smaller than 1 cm. In patients with liver metastases, combined DW-MR and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging has the highest sensitivity for detecting liver metastases on a per-lesion basis. (orig.)

  12. Protein diffusion in polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandai, Santripti; Jena, Sidhartha S.

    2012-06-01

    The diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in non-dilute polyelectrolyte solutions of Poly-L-lysine was studied using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The effect of background charges on probe diffusion of GFP was studied with varying ionic strength of the solution. With increase in polyelectrolyte concentration, increase in solution viscosity and decrease in probe diffusion coefficient was observed. At the same time, we observed the diffusion coefficient increased with increase in salt concentration, while solution viscosity decreased, indicating a competition between electrostatic force between background and probe and viscosity drag. When the probe diffusion coefficient was compared with the predicted Stokes-Einstein (S-E) relation, strong positive deviations were observed for all the solutions with highest deviation observed for solution with zero salt concentration.

  13. Multiparametric MRI With Dynamic Contrast Enhancement, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and 31-Phosphorus Spectroscopy at 7 T for Characterization of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; van der Kemp, Wybe J M; van der Velden, Tijl A; Kock, Marc C J M; Westenend, Pieter J; Klomp, Dennis W J; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2015-11-01

    To describe and to correlate tumor characteristics on multiparametric 7 tesla (T) breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with prognostic characteristics from postoperative histopathology in patients with breast cancer. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent of 15 women (46-70 years) with 17 malignant lesions were obtained. In this prospective study (March 2013 to March 2014), women were preoperatively scanned using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and 31-phosphorus spectroscopy (¹³P-MRS). The value of the protocol was assessed to quantify tumor differentiation and proliferation. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was assessed according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System-MRI lexicon. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from diffusion-weighted imaging. On ¹³P-MRS, at the location of the tumor, the amount of phosphorus components was obtained in a localized spectrum. In this spectrum, the height of phosphodiester (PDE) and phosphomonoester (PME) peaks was assessed to serve as a measure for metabolic activity, stratifying tumors into a PDE > PME, PDE = PME, or PDE PME group. Tumor grade and mitotic count from resection specimen were compared with the MRI characteristics using explorative analyses. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the mean tumor size was 24 mm (range, 6-55 mm). An inverse trend was seen between ADC and tumor grade (P = 0.083), with mean ADC of 867 × 10⁻⁶ mm²/s for grade 1 (N = 4), 751 × 10⁻⁶ mm²/s for grade 2 (N = 6), and 659 × 10⁻⁶ mm²/s for grade 3 (N = 2) tumors. Between P-MR spectra and mitotic count, a relative increase of PME over PDE showed significant association with increasing mitotic counts (P = 0.02); a mean mitotic count of 6 was found in the PDE greater than PME group (N = 7), 8 in the PDE = PME group (N = 1), and 17 in the PDE PME group (N = 3). Multiparametric 7 T breast MRI is feasible in clinical setting

  14. Naturally occurring fluorescence in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Carlos; Brunetti, Andrés E; Pedron, Federico N; Carnevale Neto, Fausto; Estrin, Darío A; Bari, Sara E; Chemes, Lucía B; Peporine Lopes, Norberto; Lagorio, María G; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-04-04

    Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins. We show that fluorescence contributes 18-29% of the total emerging light under twilight and nocturnal scenarios, largely enhancing brightness of the individuals and matching the sensitivity of night vision in amphibians. These results introduce an unprecedented source of pigmentation in amphibians and highlight the potential relevance of fluorescence in visual perception in terrestrial environments.

  15. Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

    2014-01-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions. PMID:24957323

  16. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  17. Enhancement Corrosion Resistance of (γ-Glycidyloxypropyl-Silsesquioxane-Titanium Dioxide Films and Its Validation by Gas Molecule Diffusion Coefficients Using Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on silsesquioxanes (SSO derived from the hydrolytic condensation of (γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS and titanium tetrabutoxide (TTB, hybrid films on aluminum alloy (AA, film-GPMS-SSO (f-GS and f-GS-TTBi% (f-GSTT5%–25%, i = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%, were prepared and tested by electrochemical measurements with typical potentiodynamic polarization curves. The Icorr values of the samples were significantly lower, comparing with the Icorr values of the f-GS, AA and f-GS modified tetraethoxysilane (TEOS in the previous study, which implies that the TTB5%–25% (TiO2 additions in the coatings indeed enhance the electrochemical corrosion resistance. Correlations between the film structures and anticorrosion properties were discussed. To validate the corresponding anticorrosion experiment results, different 3D-amorphous cubic unit cells were employed as models to investigate the self-diffusion coefficient (SDC for SO2, NO2 and H2O molecules by molecular dynamics (MD simulation. All of the SDCs calculated for SO2, NO2 and H2O diffusing in f-GSTT5%–25% cells were less than the SDCs in f-GS. These results validated the corresponding anticorrosion experiment results.

  18. Severe Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Small Pericardial Effusion, and Diffuse Late Gadolinium Enhancement by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Suspecting Cardiac Amyloidosis: Endomyocardial Biopsy Reveals an Unexpected Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. Hofmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy can be related to a multitude of cardiac disorders, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, cardiac amyloidosis, and hypertensive heart disease. Although the presence of LV hypertrophy is generally associated with poorer cardiac outcomes, the early differentiation between these pathologies is crucial due to the presence of specific treatment options. The diagnostic process with LV hypertrophy requires the integration of clinical evaluation, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, biochemical markers, and if required CMR and endomyocardial biopsy in order to reach the correct diagnosis. Here, we present a case of a patient with severe LV hypertrophy (septal wall thickness of 23 mm, LV mass of 264 g, and LV mass index of 147 g/m2, severely impaired longitudinal function, and preserved radial contractility (ejection fraction = 55%, accompanied by small pericardial effusion and diffuse late gadolinium enhancement (LGE by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR. Due to the imaging findings, an infiltrative cardiomyopathy, such as cardiac amyloidosis, was suspected. However, amyloid accumulation was excluded by endomyocardial biopsy, which revealed the presence of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in an advanced hypertensive heart disease.

  19. Multivariate modelling of prostate cancer combining magnetic resonance derived T2, diffusion, dynamic contrast-enhanced and spectroscopic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, S.F.; Payne, G.S.; Morgan, V.A.; DeSouza, N.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, D. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Urology and Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre and the University of Ottawa, Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Partridge, M. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Section of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, The Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Livni, N. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Chelsea, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Ogden, C. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Chelsea, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The objectives are determine the optimal combination of MR parameters for discriminating tumour within the prostate using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and to compare model accuracy with that of an experienced radiologist. Multiparameter MRIs in 24 patients before prostatectomy were acquired. Tumour outlines from whole-mount histology, T{sub 2}-defined peripheral zone (PZ), and central gland (CG) were superimposed onto slice-matched parametric maps. T{sub 2,} Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, initial area under the gadolinium curve, vascular parameters (K{sup trans},K{sub ep},V{sub e}), and (choline+polyamines+creatine)/citrate were compared between tumour and non-tumour tissues. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined sensitivity and specificity at spectroscopic voxel resolution and per lesion, and LDA determined the optimal multiparametric model for identifying tumours. Accuracy was compared with an expert observer. Tumours were significantly different from PZ and CG for all parameters (all p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve for discriminating tumour from non-tumour was significantly greater (p < 0.001) for the multiparametric model than for individual parameters; at 90 % specificity, sensitivity was 41 % (MRSI voxel resolution) and 59 % per lesion. At this specificity, an expert observer achieved 28 % and 49 % sensitivity, respectively. The model was more accurate when parameters from all techniques were included and performed better than an expert observer evaluating these data. (orig.)

  20. Influence of high-intensity turbulence on laminar boundary layer development on a cylindrical leading edge: Enhancement to eddy diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Juli K.

    The growing demand for increased efficiency in turbine engine designs has sparked a growing interest for research of air flow around curved surfaces. The turbine's operating conditions result in material property constraints, especially in the first stage turbine vanes and blades. These turbine vane components experience extreme loading conditions of both high temperature and high turbulence intensities exiting the combustor. The surface of the turbine blades has cylindrical leading edges that promote stabilizing flow accelerations. These convex surfaces can cause a reduced eddy diffusivity across the boundary layer. This thesis reviews measurements of velocity and turbulence intensities taken just shy of the thirty degrees offset from the stagnation line of a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge under a wide range of turbulence and flow conditions flow conditions. Flow conditions and velocity measurements were gathered with respect to the distance to the surface. The length of the measurements extended from the surface to beyond the boundary layer's edge. The instrumentation used to collect data was a single wire driven by a constant temperature anemometer bridge. The hot wire is specially modified to measure data near the cylindrical leading edges curved surface. The traversing system allowed the acquisition of high-resolution boundary layer data. The traversing system was installed internally to the cylindrical leading edge to reduce probe blockage.

  1. Demonstration of the reproducibility of free-breathing diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in children with solid tumours: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Keiko; Jerome, Neil P.; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London, England (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Clinical Research Programme, Madrid (Spain); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The objectives are to examine the reproducibility of functional MR imaging in children with solid tumours using quantitative parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW-) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Patients under 16-years-of age with confirmed diagnosis of solid tumours (n = 17) underwent free-breathing DW-MRI and DCE-MRI on a 1.5 T system, repeated 24 hours later. DW-MRI (6 b-values, 0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}) enabled monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient estimation using all (ADC{sub 0-1000}) and only ≥100 sec/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 100-1000}) b-values. DCE-MRI was used to derive the transfer constant (K{sup trans}), the efflux constant (k{sub ep}), the extracellular extravascular volume (v{sub e}), and the plasma fraction (v{sub p}), using a study cohort arterial input function (AIF) and the extended Tofts model. Initial area under the gadolinium enhancement curve and pre-contrast T{sub 1} were also calculated. Percentage coefficients of variation (CV) of all parameters were calculated. The most reproducible cohort parameters were ADC{sub 100-1000} (CV = 3.26 %), pre-contrast T{sub 1} (CV = 6.21 %), and K{sup trans} (CV = 15.23 %). The ADC{sub 100-1000} was more reproducible than ADC{sub 0-1000}, especially extracranially (CV = 2.40 % vs. 2.78 %). The AIF (n = 9) derived from this paediatric population exhibited sharper and earlier first-pass and recirculation peaks compared with the literature's adult population average. Free-breathing functional imaging protocols including DW-MRI and DCE-MRI are well-tolerated in children aged 6 - 15 with good to moderate measurement reproducibility. (orig.)

  2. Demonstration of the reproducibility of free-breathing diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in children with solid tumours: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiko; Jerome, Neil P.; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D'Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O.; Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu; Moreno, Lucas; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the reproducibility of functional MR imaging in children with solid tumours using quantitative parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW-) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Patients under 16-years-of age with confirmed diagnosis of solid tumours (n = 17) underwent free-breathing DW-MRI and DCE-MRI on a 1.5 T system, repeated 24 hours later. DW-MRI (6 b-values, 0-1000 sec/mm 2 ) enabled monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient estimation using all (ADC 0-1000 ) and only ≥100 sec/mm 2 (ADC 100-1000 ) b-values. DCE-MRI was used to derive the transfer constant (K trans ), the efflux constant (k ep ), the extracellular extravascular volume (v e ), and the plasma fraction (v p ), using a study cohort arterial input function (AIF) and the extended Tofts model. Initial area under the gadolinium enhancement curve and pre-contrast T 1 were also calculated. Percentage coefficients of variation (CV) of all parameters were calculated. The most reproducible cohort parameters were ADC 100-1000 (CV = 3.26 %), pre-contrast T 1 (CV = 6.21 %), and K trans (CV = 15.23 %). The ADC 100-1000 was more reproducible than ADC 0-1000 , especially extracranially (CV = 2.40 % vs. 2.78 %). The AIF (n = 9) derived from this paediatric population exhibited sharper and earlier first-pass and recirculation peaks compared with the literature's adult population average. Free-breathing functional imaging protocols including DW-MRI and DCE-MRI are well-tolerated in children aged 6 - 15 with good to moderate measurement reproducibility. (orig.)

  3. Coupling of light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S.; Yılmaz, Hasan; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P.; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion equation describes the energy density inside a scattering medium such as biological tissues and paint [1]. The solution of the diffusion equation is a sum over a complete set of eigensolutions that shows a characteristic linear decrease with depth in the medium. It is of particular interest if one could launch energy in the fundamental eigensolution, as this opens the opportunity to achieve a much greater internal energy density. For applications in optics, an enhanced energy density is vital for solid-state lighting, light harvesting in solar cells, low-threshold random lasers, and biomedical optics. Here we demonstrate the first ever selective coupling of optical energy into a diffusion eigensolution of a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) paint. To this end, we exploit wavefront shaping to selectively couple energy into the fundamental diffusion mode, employing fluorescence of nanoparticles randomly positioned inside the medium as a probe of the energy density. We observe an enhanced fluorescence in case of optimized incident wavefronts, and the enhancement increases with sample thickness, a typical mesoscopic control parameter. We interpret successfully our result by invoking the fundamental eigensolution of the diffusion equation, and we obtain excellent agreement with our observations, even in absence of adjustable parameters [2]. References [1] R. Pierrat, P. Ambichl, S. Gigan, A. Haber, R. Carminati, and R. Rotter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 17765 (2014). [2] O. S. Ojambati, H. Yilmaz, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, and W. L. Vos, arXiv:1505.08103.

  4. Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Gene into Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5′ arm and 3′ arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.

  5. Generation of knock-in mice that express nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein and tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in the notochord from Foxa2 and T loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Yu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Behringer, Richard R; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The node and the notochord are important embryonic signaling centers that control embryonic pattern formation. Notochord progenitor cells present in the node and later in the posterior end of the notochord move anteriorly to generate the notochord. To understand the dynamics of cell movement during notochord development and the molecular mechanisms controlling this event, analyses of cell movements using time-lapse imaging and conditional manipulation of gene activities are required. To achieve this goal, we generated two knock-in mouse lines that simultaneously express nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and tamoxifen-inducible Cre, CreER(T2) , from two notochord gene loci, Foxa2 and T (Brachury). In Foxa2(nEGFP-CreERT2/+) and T(nEGFP-CreERT2/+) embryos, nuclei of the Foxa2 or T-expressing cells, which include the node, notochord, and endoderm (Foxa2) or wide range of posterior mesoderm (T), were labeled with EGFP at intensities that can be used for live imaging. Cre activity was also induced in cells expressing Foxa2 and T 1 day after tamoxifen administration. These mice are expected to be useful tools for analyzing the mechanisms of notochord development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitors Based on Tissue-Specific Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Péntek, Adrienn; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Várady, György; Orbán, Tamás I.; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are committed to the cardiac lineage but retain their proliferative capacity before becoming quiescent mature cardiomyocytes (CMs). In medical therapy and research, the use of human pluripotent stem cell-derived CPCs would have several advantages compared with mature CMs, as the progenitors show better engraftment into existing heart tissues, and provide unique potential for cardiovascular developmental as well as for pharmacological studies. Here, we demonstrate that the CAG promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter system enables the identification and isolation of embryonic stem cell-derived CPCs. Tracing of CPCs during differentiation confirmed up-regulation of surface markers, previously described to identify cardiac precursors and early CMs. Isolated CPCs express cardiac lineage-specific transcripts, still have proliferating capacity, and can be re-aggregated into embryoid body-like structures (CAG-EGFPhigh rEBs). Expression of troponin T and NKX2.5 mRNA is up-regulated in long-term cultured CAG-EGFPhigh rEBs, in which more than 90% of the cells become Troponin I positive mature CMs. Moreover, about one third of the CAG-EGFPhigh rEBs show spontaneous contractions. The method described here provides a powerful tool to generate expandable cultures of pure human CPCs that can be used for exploring early markers of the cardiac lineage, as well as for drug screening or tissue engineering applications. PMID:24734786

  7. Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Choe, Chun-Sik; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Meinke, Martina C; Alexiev, Ulrike; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the penetration depth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inside the skin, porcine ears treated with Ag NPs are measured by two-photon tomography with a fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPT-FLIM) technique, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy. Ag NPs are coated with poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone and dispersed in pure water solutions. After the application of Ag NPs, porcine ears are stored in the incubator for 24 h at a temperature of 37°C. The TPT-FLIM measurement results show a dramatic decrease of the Ag NPs' signal intensity from the skin surface to a depth of 4 μm. Below 4 μm, the Ag NPs' signal continues to decline, having completely disappeared at 12 to 14 μm depth. CRM shows that the penetration depth of Ag NPs is 11.1 ± 2.1 μm. The penetration depth measured with a highly sensitive SERS microscopy reaches 15.6 ± 8.3 μm. Several results obtained with SERS show that the penetration depth of Ag NPs can exceed the stratum corneum (SC) thickness, which can be explained by both penetration of trace amounts of Ag NPs through the SC barrier and by the measurements inside the hair follicle, which cannot be excluded in the experiment.

  8. Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Choe, Chun-Sik; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Meinke, Martina C.; Alexiev, Ulrike; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the penetration depth of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inside the skin, porcine ears treated with Ag NPs are measured by two-photon tomography with a fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPT-FLIM) technique, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy. Ag NPs are coated with poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone and dispersed in pure water solutions. After the application of Ag NPs, porcine ears are stored in the incubator for 24 h at a temperature of 37°C. The TPT-FLIM measurement results show a dramatic decrease of the Ag NPs' signal intensity from the skin surface to a depth of 4 μm. Below 4 μm, the Ag NPs' signal continues to decline, having completely disappeared at 12 to 14 μm depth. CRM shows that the penetration depth of Ag NPs is 11.1±2.1 μm. The penetration depth measured with a highly sensitive SERS microscopy reaches 15.6±8.3 μm. Several results obtained with SERS show that the penetration depth of Ag NPs can exceed the stratum corneum (SC) thickness, which can be explained by both penetration of trace amounts of Ag NPs through the SC barrier and by the measurements inside the hair follicle, which cannot be excluded in the experiment.

  9. Stable enhanced green fluorescent protein expression after differentiation and transplantation of reporter human induced pluripotent stem cells generated by AAVS1 transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongquan; Liu, Chengyu; Cerbini, Trevor; San, Hong; Lin, Yongshun; Chen, Guokai; Rao, Mahendra S; Zou, Jizhong

    2014-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines with tissue-specific or ubiquitous reporter genes are extremely useful for optimizing in vitro differentiation conditions as well as for monitoring transplanted cells in vivo. The adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) locus has been used as a "safe harbor" locus for inserting transgenes because of its open chromatin structure, which permits transgene expression without insertional mutagenesis. However, it is not clear whether targeted transgene expression at the AAVS1 locus is always protected from silencing when driven by various promoters, especially after differentiation and transplantation from hiPS cells. In this paper, we describe a pair of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that enable more efficient genome editing than the commercially available zinc finger nuclease at the AAVS1 site. Using these TALENs for targeted gene addition, we find that the cytomegalovirus-immediate early enhancer/chicken β-actin/rabbit β-globin (CAG) promoter is better than cytomegalovirus 7 and elongation factor 1α short promoters in driving strong expression of the transgene. The two independent AAVS1, CAG, and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) hiPS cell reporter lines that we have developed do not show silencing of EGFP either in undifferentiated hiPS cells or in randomly and lineage-specifically differentiated cells or in teratomas. Transplanting cardiomyocytes from an engineered AAVS1-CAG-EGFP hiPS cell line in a myocardial infarcted mouse model showed persistent expression of the transgene for at least 7 weeks in vivo. Our results show that high-efficiency targeting can be obtained with open-source TALENs and that careful optimization of the reporter and transgene constructs results in stable and persistent expression in vitro and in vivo. ©AlphaMed Press.

  10. Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy in Breast Cancer: Association of Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging Findings, Diffusion-weighted Imaging Findings, and Tumor Subtype with Tumor Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Gorane; Bargalló, Xavier; Fernández, Pedro Luis; Farrús, Blanca; Caparrós, Xavier; Velasco, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of tumor subtype and various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters in the assessment of tumor response to neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) in patients with breast cancer and to outline a model of pathologic response, considering pathologic complete response (pCR) as the complete absence of any residual invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Materials and Methods This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study, with waiver of the need to obtain informed consent. From November 2009 to December 2014, 111 patients with histopathologically confirmed invasive breast cancer who were undergoing NST were included (mean age, 54 years; range, 27-84 years). Breast MR imaging was performed before and after treatment. Presence of late enhancement was assessed. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were obtained by using two different methods. ADC ratio (mean posttreatment ADC/mean pretreatment ADC) was calculated. pCR was defined as absence of any residual invasive cancer or DCIS. Multivariate regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed. Results According to their immunohistochemical (IHC) profile, tumors were classified as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (n = 51), estrogen receptor (ER) positive/HER2 negative (n = 40), and triple negative (n = 20). pCR was achieved in 19% (21 of 111) of cases; 86% of them were triple-negative or HER2-positive subtypes. Absence of late enhancement at posttreatment MR imaging was significantly associated with pCR (area under the curve [AUC], 0.85). Mean ADC ratio significantly increased when pCR was achieved (P ratio, and late enhancement had the highest association with pathologic response, achieving an AUC of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.97). Conclusion Triple-negative or HER2-positive tumors showing absence of late enhancement and high ADC ratio after NST are associated with pCR. © RSNA, 2016

  11. Work function tuning and fluorescence enhancement of hydrogen annealed Ag-doped Al-rich zinc oxide nanostructures using a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [School of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, 558 Handong-Ro, Heunghae-Eub, Buk-Ku, Pohang, Gyung-Buk 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hyun, E-mail: jaehyun@dgist.ac.kr [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-25

    Effect of incorporation of Ag on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% from its initial value of 3.72 eV (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0%). The WF sudden increased to a maximal value of 5.12 eV with Ag doping (for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) from its initial value of 4.73 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0% due to substitution of Ag into Zn sites until saturation was achieved (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%). After more Ag doping, WF started to decrease and finally, reached a value of 4.81 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% because of the formation of an impurity-defect energy level below the intrinsic Fermi level of ZnO. With Ag-doping, the current increased up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% due to the increase in carrier density. For R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% doping, the current density started to increase due to the influence of metallic Ag. The defective peak position was blue shifted, with increased Ag-doping, from 536 nm (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) to 527 nm for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% due to the sizes of the Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions. The FL defective peak intensity (I{sub D}) in the green region increased with the concentration of Ag used for doping, up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2%. The enhancement in the I{sub D} may be due to charge difference between the Zn{sup 2+} ions, caused by Ag{sup +} ions. - Graphical abstract: The effect of incorporation of Ag doping on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. By Ag-doping, the lowest R{sub λ} is blue shifted to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% and finally red shifted for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% due to variation of optical thickness of the film. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag

  12. Plasmon enhancement of Raman scattering and fluorescence for rhodamine 6G molecules in the porous glass and PVA films with nanoparticles of silver citrate hydrosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, E I; Zyubin, A U; Samusev, I G; Slezhkin, V A; Bryukhanov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The study of Raman and fluorescence spectra for Rhodamine 6G molecules in a film of polyvinyl alcohol on the modified by silver nanoparticles (NPs) porous glass and without the porous glass has been done. The gain of the scattering intensity and fluorescence emission has been obtained in the presence of silver nanoparticles. The gain order was obtained as ∼ 10 11 (paper)

  13. An enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Sehn, Laurie H; Rademaker, Alfred W; Gordon, Leo I; Lacasce, Ann S; Crosby-Thompson, Allison; Vanderplas, Ann; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Abel, Gregory A; Rodriguez, Maria A; Nademanee, Auayporn; Kaminski, Mark S; Czuczman, Myron S; Millenson, Michael; Niland, Joyce; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Winter, Jane N

    2014-02-06

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been the basis for determining prognosis in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for the past 20 years. Using raw clinical data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) database collected during the rituximab era, we built an enhanced IPI with the goal of improving risk stratification. Clinical features from 1650 adults with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed from 2000-2010 at 7 NCCN cancer centers were assessed for their prognostic significance, with statistical efforts to further refine the categorization of age and normalized LDH. Five predictors (age, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sites of involvement, Ann Arbor stage, ECOG performance status) were identified and a maximum of 8 points assigned. Four risk groups were formed: low (0-1), low-intermediate (2-3), high-intermediate (4-5), and high (6-8). Compared with the IPI, the NCCN-IPI better discriminated low- and high-risk subgroups (5-year overall survival [OS]: 96% vs 33%) than the IPI (5 year OS: 90% vs 54%), respectively. When validated using an independent cohort from the British Columbia Cancer Agency (n = 1138), it also demonstrated enhanced discrimination for both low- and high-risk patients. The NCCN-IPI is easy to apply and more powerful than the IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era.

  14. Primary central nervous system lymphoma and atypical glioblastoma: differentiation using the initial area under the curve derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR and the apparent diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Lee, Ho-Joon; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo; Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kim, Se Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of the initial area under the curve (IAUC) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and atypical glioblastoma (GBM). We retrospectively identified 19 patients with atypical GBM (less than 13 % necrosis of the enhancing tumour), and 23 patients with PCNSL. The histogram parameters of IAUC at 30, 60, 90 s (IAUC30, IAUC60, and IAUC90), and ADC were compared between PCNSL and GBM. The diagnostic performances and added values of the IAUC and ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and GBM were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The IAUC and ADC parameters were higher in GBM than in PCNSL. The 90th percentile (p90) of IAUC30 and 10th percentile (p10) of ADC showed the best diagnostic performance. Adding p90 of IAUC30 to p10 of ADC improved the differentiation between PCNSL and GBM (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.886), compared to IAUC30 or ADC alone (AUC = 0.789 and 0.744; P < 0.05 for all). The ICC was 0.96 for p90 of IAUC30. The IAUC may be a useful parameter together with ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and atypical GBM. (orig.)

  15. Primary central nervous system lymphoma and atypical glioblastoma: differentiation using the initial area under the curve derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR and the apparent diffusion coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Lee, Ho-Joon; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Eui Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the ability of the initial area under the curve (IAUC) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and atypical glioblastoma (GBM). We retrospectively identified 19 patients with atypical GBM (less than 13 % necrosis of the enhancing tumour), and 23 patients with PCNSL. The histogram parameters of IAUC at 30, 60, 90 s (IAUC30, IAUC60, and IAUC90), and ADC were compared between PCNSL and GBM. The diagnostic performances and added values of the IAUC and ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and GBM were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The IAUC and ADC parameters were higher in GBM than in PCNSL. The 90th percentile (p90) of IAUC30 and 10th percentile (p10) of ADC showed the best diagnostic performance. Adding p90 of IAUC30 to p10 of ADC improved the differentiation between PCNSL and GBM (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.886), compared to IAUC30 or ADC alone (AUC = 0.789 and 0.744; P < 0.05 for all). The ICC was 0.96 for p90 of IAUC30. The IAUC may be a useful parameter together with ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and atypical GBM. (orig.)

  16. Incremental value of diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation treatment: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, Oguz; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gultekin, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Pei, Xin; Sperling, Dahlia; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Schwartz, Lawrence H. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the incremental value of diffusion-weighted (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Twenty-four patients (median age, 70 years) with a history of radiotherapy-treated prostate cancer underwent multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) and transrectal prostate biopsy. Two readers independently scored the likelihood of cancer on a 1-5 scale, using T2WI alone and then adding DW-MRI and DCE-MRI. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were estimated at the patient and prostate-side levels. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DW-MRI and the K{sup trans}, k{sub ep}, v{sub e}, AUGC90 and AUGC180 from DCE-MRI were recorded. Biopsy was positive in 16/24 (67%) and negative in 8/24 (33%) patients. AUCs for readers 1 and 2 increased from 0.64 and 0.53 to 0.95 and 0.86 with MP-MRI, at the patient level, and from 0.73 and 0.66 to 0.90 and 0.79 with MP-MRI, at the prostate-side level (p values < 0.05). Biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative prostate sides differed significantly in median ADC [1.44 vs. 1.68 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s)], median K{sup trans} [1.07 vs. 0.34 (1/min)], and k{sub ep} [2.06 vs 1.0 (1/min)] (p values < 0.05). MP-MRI was significantly more accurate than T2WI alone in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  17. Incremental value of diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation treatment: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, Oguz; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Hricak, Hedvig; Gultekin, David H.; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya; Pei, Xin; Sperling, Dahlia; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the incremental value of diffusion-weighted (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Twenty-four patients (median age, 70 years) with a history of radiotherapy-treated prostate cancer underwent multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) and transrectal prostate biopsy. Two readers independently scored the likelihood of cancer on a 1-5 scale, using T2WI alone and then adding DW-MRI and DCE-MRI. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were estimated at the patient and prostate-side levels. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DW-MRI and the K trans , k ep , v e , AUGC90 and AUGC180 from DCE-MRI were recorded. Biopsy was positive in 16/24 (67%) and negative in 8/24 (33%) patients. AUCs for readers 1 and 2 increased from 0.64 and 0.53 to 0.95 and 0.86 with MP-MRI, at the patient level, and from 0.73 and 0.66 to 0.90 and 0.79 with MP-MRI, at the prostate-side level (p values -3 mm 2 /s)], median K trans [1.07 vs. 0.34 (1/min)], and k ep [2.06 vs 1.0 (1/min)] (p values < 0.05). MP-MRI was significantly more accurate than T2WI alone in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Anterior mediastinal solid tumours in adults: characterisation using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Abe, K.; Baba, S.; Sunami, S.; Kamitani, T.; Yonezawa, M.; Yamasaki, Y.; Kawanami, S.; Nagao, M.; Okamoto, T.; Nakamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Sasaki, M.; Honda, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To find significant parameters to characterise anterior mediastinal solid tumours in adults using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and combined 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Materials and methods: Forty-eight histologically confirmed anterior mediastinal solid tumours in 48 patients (24 men, 24 women; age range 21–83 years, mean 50.7 years) were examined. The parameters analysed were maximal diameter, presence of capsule/septa on T2-weighted images, time–signal intensity curves (TICs), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and maximum standardised uptake value (SUV max ). Also examined was whether any differences between histological types could be seen in these parameters. In a validation study, 42 anterior mediastinal solid tumours in 42 patients were examined consecutively. Results: The washout pattern on TIC was seen only in thymic epithelial tumours (20/32). SUV max of lymphoma (mean, 17.9), malignant germ cell tumours (14.2), and thymic carcinomas (15.6) were significantly higher than that of thymomas (6.1). The mean maximal diameter of thymic epithelial tumours was significantly smaller than that of lymphomas (p<0.01) and malignant germ cell tumours (p<0.05). The validation study also yielded high accuracy (38/42, 91%) in differentiation among the anterior mediastinal solid tumours. Conclusion: The SUV max , TIC pattern on DCE-MRI, and maximal diameter might be useful to differentiate anterior mediastinal solid tumours in adults. - Highlights: • The washout pattern on DCE-MRI was seen only in thymic epithelial tumors. • ADC was not a significant parameter to characterize anterior mediastinal solid tumors. • Combination of maximal diameter, SUVmax, and time-intensity curve pattern might be useful. • Preoperative accurate discrimination of anterior mediastinal solid tumors may avoid unnecessary thoracotomy.

  19. Assessment of brain maturation in the preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xueying, E-mail: lingxuey@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Wen [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guosheng [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Bingxiao [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Sirun [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jing [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the brain maturation of preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN). Materials and methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI and ESWAN were performed in 60 preterm infants and 21 term controls. 60 preterm infants were subgrouped to two groups according to the age at imaging: before and at term-equivalent age (TEA). Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from DTI, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* maps from ESWAN were post-processed at an off-line workstation. The values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* from the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM) and lentiform nuclei (LN) were determined. These parameters were compared between preterm and term infants. Correlations of DTI and ESWAN parameters with the gestational age, postmenstrual age and postnatal age were analyzed. Results: ADCs of FWM, OWM and LN, and T{sub 2}* values of the PLIC and LN were higher in the preterm infants at TEA compared with the term controls. The correlations were existed between the postmenstrual age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the PLIC, values of ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the LN, T{sub 2}* value from the OWM. The correlations were also found between the postnatal age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* from the PLIC, and T{sub 2}* value from the LN. Conclusion: The maturity of preterm brain around TEA was different from that of term controls and appeared to be independent of the prematurity at birth. T{sub 2}* was one of valuable indices to evaluate brain maturation in preterm infants.

  20. Astrocytic tumour grading: a comparative study of three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hua-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Lou, Xin; Gui, Qiu-Ping; Shi, Kai-Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Dan-Dan

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) may have similar efficacy in astrocytic tumour grading as dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI), and the grading accuracy may be further improved when combined with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Forty-three patients with astrocytic tumours were studied using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), pCASL, and DSC-PWI. Histograms of ADC and normalized tumour cerebral blood flow values (nCBF on pCASL and nrCBF on DSC-PWI) were measured and analyzed. The mean 10 % ADC value was the DWI parameter that provided the best differentiation between low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) and high-grade astrocytoma (HGA). The nCBF and nrCBF (1.810 ± 0.979 and 2.070 ± 1.048) in LGA were significantly lower than those (4.505 ± 2.270 and 5.922 ± 2.630) in HGA. For differentiation between LGA and HGA, the cutoff values of 0.764 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for mean 10 % ADC, 2.374 for nCBF, and 3.464 for nrCBF provided the optimal accuracy (74.4 %, 86.1 %, and 88.6 %, respectively). Combining the ADC values with nCBF or nrCBF could further improve the grading accuracy to 97.7 % or 95.3 %, respectively. pCASL is an alternative to DSC-PWI for astrocytic tumour grading. The combination of DWI and contrast-free pCASL offers a valuable choice in patients with risk factors. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of brain maturation in the preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Xueying; Tang, Wen; Liu, Guosheng; Huang, Li; Li, Bingxiao; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Sirun; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the brain maturation of preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN). Materials and methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI and ESWAN were performed in 60 preterm infants and 21 term controls. 60 preterm infants were subgrouped to two groups according to the age at imaging: before and at term-equivalent age (TEA). Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from DTI, T 2 * and R 2 * maps from ESWAN were post-processed at an off-line workstation. The values of FA, ADC, T 2 * and R 2 * from the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM) and lentiform nuclei (LN) were determined. These parameters were compared between preterm and term infants. Correlations of DTI and ESWAN parameters with the gestational age, postmenstrual age and postnatal age were analyzed. Results: ADCs of FWM, OWM and LN, and T 2 * values of the PLIC and LN were higher in the preterm infants at TEA compared with the term controls. The correlations were existed between the postmenstrual age and the values of FA, ADC, T 2 *, R 2 * from the PLIC, values of ADC, T 2 *, R 2 * from the LN, T 2 * value from the OWM. The correlations were also found between the postnatal age and the values of FA, ADC, T 2 * from the PLIC, and T 2 * value from the LN. Conclusion: The maturity of preterm brain around TEA was different from that of term controls and appeared to be independent of the prematurity at birth. T 2 * was one of valuable indices to evaluate brain maturation in preterm infants

  2. Functional evaluation of therapeutic response of HCC827 lung cancer to bevacizumab and erlotinib targeted therapy using dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Yuan, Ang; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Lu, Yi-Chien; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chang, Yeun-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic responses of lung cancer mice models with adenocarcinoma HCC827 (gefitinib sensitive) and HCC827R (gefitinib resistant) to the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib alone and in combination with the anti-angiogenesis agent bevacizumab using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted MRI. In the HCC827 model, temporal changes in DCE-MRI derived parameters (Ktrans, kep, and iAUC90) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were significantly correlated with tumor size. Ktrans and iAUC90 significantly decreased at week 2 in the groups receiving erlotinib alone and in combination with bevacizumab, whereas kep decreased at week 1 and 2 in both treatment groups. In addition, there was a significant difference in iAUC90 between the treatment groups at week 1. Compared to the control group of HCC827, there was a significant reduction in microvessel density and increased tumor apoptosis in the two treatment group. ADC value increased in the erlotinib alone group at week 1 and week 2, and in the erlotinib combined with bevacizumab group at week 2. Enlarged areas of central tumor necrosis were associated with a higher ADC value. However, progressive enlargement of the tumors but no significant differences in DCE parameters or ADC were noted in the HCC827R model. These results showed that both erlotinib alone and in combination with bevacizumab could effectively inhibit tumor growth in the gefitinib-sensitive lung cancer mice model, and that this was associated with decreased vascular perfusion, increased ADC percentage, decreased microvessel density, and increased tumor apoptosis with a two-week treatment cycle.

  3. Functional evaluation of therapeutic response of HCC827 lung cancer to bevacizumab and erlotinib targeted therapy using dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic responses of lung cancer mice models with adenocarcinoma HCC827 (gefitinib sensitive and HCC827R (gefitinib resistant to the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib alone and in combination with the anti-angiogenesis agent bevacizumab using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted MRI. In the HCC827 model, temporal changes in DCE-MRI derived parameters (Ktrans, kep, and iAUC90 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were significantly correlated with tumor size. Ktrans and iAUC90 significantly decreased at week 2 in the groups receiving erlotinib alone and in combination with bevacizumab, whereas kep decreased at week 1 and 2 in both treatment groups. In addition, there was a significant difference in iAUC90 between the treatment groups at week 1. Compared to the control group of HCC827, there was a significant reduction in microvessel density and increased tumor apoptosis in the two treatment group. ADC value increased in the erlotinib alone group at week 1 and week 2, and in the erlotinib combined with bevacizumab group at week 2. Enlarged areas of central tumor necrosis were associated with a higher ADC value. However, progressive enlargement of the tumors but no significant differences in DCE parameters or ADC were noted in the HCC827R model. These results showed that both erlotinib alone and in combination with bevacizumab could effectively inhibit tumor growth in the gefitinib-sensitive lung cancer mice model, and that this was associated with decreased vascular perfusion, increased ADC percentage, decreased microvessel density, and increased tumor apoptosis with a two-week treatment cycle.

  4. Astrocytic tumour grading: a comparative study of three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hua-Feng [302 Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Lou, Xin [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); University of California, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gui, Qiu-Ping [People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); Shi, Kai-Ning; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Zheng, Dan-Dan [General Electric Healthcare (China) Co., Ltd., Beijing; Wang, Danny J.J. [University of California, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We hypothesized that three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) may have similar efficacy in astrocytic tumour grading as dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI), and the grading accuracy may be further improved when combined with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Forty-three patients with astrocytic tumours were studied using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), pCASL, and DSC-PWI. Histograms of ADC and normalized tumour cerebral blood flow values (nCBF on pCASL and nrCBF on DSC-PWI) were measured and analyzed. The mean 10 % ADC value was the DWI parameter that provided the best differentiation between low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) and high-grade astrocytoma (HGA). The nCBF and nrCBF (1.810 ± 0.979 and 2.070 ± 1.048) in LGA were significantly lower than those (4.505 ± 2.270 and 5.922 ± 2.630) in HGA. For differentiation between LGA and HGA, the cutoff values of 0.764 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for mean 10 % ADC, 2.374 for nCBF, and 3.464 for nrCBF provided the optimal accuracy (74.4 %, 86.1 %, and 88.6 %, respectively). Combining the ADC values with nCBF or nrCBF could further improve the grading accuracy to 97.7 % or 95.3 %, respectively. pCASL is an alternative to DSC-PWI for astrocytic tumour grading. The combination of DWI and contrast-free pCASL offers a valuable choice in patients with risk factors. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced Emission from Single Isolated Gold Quantum Dots Investigated Using Two-Photon-Excited Fluorescence Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyasinghe, Neranga; Kumar, Santosh; Sun, Kai; Mansfield, John F; Jin, Rongchao; Goodson, Theodore

    2016-12-21

    New approaches in molecular nanoscopy are greatly desired for interrogation of biological, organic, and inorganic objects with sizes below the diffraction limit. Our current work investigates emergent monolayer-protected gold quantum dots (nanoclusters, NCs) composed of 25 Au atoms by utilizing two-photon-excited fluorescence (TPEF) near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) at single NC concentrations. Here, we demonstrate an approach to synthesize and isolate single NCs on solid glass substrates. Subsequent investigation of the NCs using TPEF NSOM reveals that, even when they are separated by distances of several tens of nanometers, we can excite and interrogate single NCs individually. Interestingly, we observe an enhanced two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section for single Au 25 NCs that can be attributed to few-atom local field effects and to local field-induced microscopic cascading, indicating their potential for use in ultrasensitive sensing, disease diagnostics, cancer cell therapy, and molecular computers. Finally, we report room-temperature aperture-based TPEF NSOM imaging of these NCs for the first time at 30 nm point resolution, which is a ∼5-fold improvement compared to the previous best result for the same technique. This report unveils the unique combination of an unusually large TPA cross section and the high photostability of Au NCs to (non-destructively) investigate stable isolated single NCs using TPEF NSOM. This is the first reported optical study of monolayer-protected single quantum clusters, opening some very promising opportunities in spectroscopy of nanosized objects, bioimaging, ultrasensitive sensing, molecular computers, and high-density data storage.

  6. Morphological analysis of the early development of telencephalic and diencephalic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal systems in enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic medaka lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Islam, M Sadiqul; Abe, Hideki; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Kaneko, Takeshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-01

    Teleosts possess two or three paralogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes: gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Some species have lost the gnrh1 and/or gnrh3 genes, whereas gnrh2 has been completely conserved in the teleost species analyzed to date. In most teleosts that possess gnrh1, GnRH1 peptide is the authentic GnRH that stimulates gonadotropin release, whereas GnRH2 and GnRH3, if present, are neuromodulatory. Progenitors of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons originate from olfactory placodes and migrate to their destination during early development. However, because of the relatively low affinity/specificity of generally available antibodies that recognize GnRH1 or GnRH3, labeling of these neurons has only been possible using genetic manipulation. We used a model teleost, medaka, which possesses all three paralogous gnrh genes, to analyze development of forebrain GnRH neurons composed of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons. Here, we newly generated transgenic medaka lines that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of promoters for gnrh1 or gnrh3, to detect GnRH neurons and facilitate immunohistochemical analysis of the neuronal morphology. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional confocal microscopy image reconstructions to improve identification of neurites from GnRH1 or GnRH3 neuronal populations with greater precision. This led us to clearly identify the hypophysiotropic innervation of GnRH1 neurons residing in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA) from as early as 10 days post hatching. Furthermore, these analyses also revealed retinopetal projections of nonhypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons in vPOA, prominent during early developmental stages, and multiple populations of GnRH3 neurons with different origins and migratory pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enhancement of fluorescence, photo-physical parameters and laser performance of pyrromethene (PM597) laser dye by Ag nanoparticles in different media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhijry, Ibraheem A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Faculty of Education, Department of Physics, Hajjah University, Hajjah (Yemen); Gadallah, A.-S. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt); Abdelkader, H.I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Abou Kana, Maram T.H., E-mail: mabou202@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt)

    2016-03-15

    The effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), exposure to radiation, on the optical and photo-physical properties of pyrromethene (PM597) laser dye in liquid and solid media was assessed. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was used as homo-monomer and homo-polymer, while 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate / methyl methacrylate were used as co-monomer and co-polymer hosts. Ag NPs was prepared and confirmed its size by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV/vis absorption spectroscopy and also, theoretically by using Mie theory. The molar concentration of prepared NPs was C=3.39×10{sup −9} mol/L. 40% C (1.356×10{sup −9} mol/L) Ag NPs was found to have the optimum distance with (1×10{sup −4} mol/L PM597 in liquid medium and 1×10{sup −3} mol/L PM597 in solid medium) dye molecules according to Metal Enhancement Fluorescence (MEF) model. [40% C Ag NPs: 1×10{sup −3} mol/L PM597] complex samples had 3.12 cm{sup −1} and 3.89 cm{sup −1} gain values in homo-and co-polymer media, while parent PM597 dye had 2.5 cm{sup −1} and 3.45 cm{sup −1} gain values. Also, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) value of complex samples was 0.455% and 0.538% in case of homo- and co-polymer respectively. While it was 0.4% and 0.457% in case of parent PM597 dye in the same sequent media. Finally, photo-stabilities of complex samples had higher values in co-monomer and co-polymer hosts compared with respect to their stabilities in homo-monomer and homo-polymer hosts.

  8. Enhancement of fluorescence, photo-physical parameters and laser performance of pyrromethene (PM597) laser dye by Ag nanoparticles in different media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhijry, Ibraheem A.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Abdelkader, H.I.; Abou Kana, Maram T.H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), exposure to radiation, on the optical and photo-physical properties of pyrromethene (PM597) laser dye in liquid and solid media was assessed. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was used as homo-monomer and homo-polymer, while 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate / methyl methacrylate were used as co-monomer and co-polymer hosts. Ag NPs was prepared and confirmed its size by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV/vis absorption spectroscopy and also, theoretically by using Mie theory. The molar concentration of prepared NPs was C=3.39×10 −9 mol/L. 40% C (1.356×10 −9 mol/L) Ag NPs was found to have the optimum distance with (1×10 −4 mol/L PM597 in liquid medium and 1×10 −3 mol/L PM597 in solid medium) dye molecules according to Metal Enhancement Fluorescence (MEF) model. [40% C Ag NPs: 1×10 −3 mol/L PM597] complex samples had 3.12 cm −1 and 3.89 cm −1 gain values in homo-and co-polymer media, while parent PM597 dye had 2.5 cm −1 and 3.45 cm −1 gain values. Also, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) value of complex samples was 0.455% and 0.538% in case of homo- and co-polymer respectively. While it was 0.4% and 0.457% in case of parent PM597 dye in the same sequent media. Finally, photo-stabilities of complex samples had higher values in co-monomer and co-polymer hosts compared with respect to their stabilities in homo-monomer and homo-polymer hosts.

  9. Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Min Jung; Hwang, Jiyoung; Lee, Mi Hee; Lee, Jae Won

    2012-01-01

    Background As gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been widely used for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is clinically relevant to determine the diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Material and Methods A total of 189 patients with 240 HCCs (≤3.0 cm) (Child-Pugh A, 81 patients with 90 HCCs; Child-Pugh B, 65 patients with 85 HCCs; Child-Pugh C, 43 patients with 65 HCCs) underwent DWI and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T. A gadoxetic acid set (dynamic and hepatobiliary phase plus T2-weighted image) and DWI set (DWI plus unenhanced MRIs) for each Child-Pugh class were analyzed independently by two observers for detecting HCCs using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were calculated. Results There was a trend toward decreased diagnostic accuracy for gadoxetic acid and DWI set with respect to the severity of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A [mean 0.974, 0.961], B [mean 0.904, 0.863], C [mean 0.779, 0.760]). For both observers, the sensitivities of both image sets were highest in Child-Pugh class A (mean 95.6%, 93.9%), followed by class B (mean 83.0%, 77.1%), and class C (mean 60.6%, 60.0%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion In HCC detection, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI were highest in Child-Pugh class A, followed by Child-Pugh class B, and Child-Pugh class C, indicating a tendency toward decreased diagnostic capability with the severity of cirrhosis

  10. Upper abdominal gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI for the detection of gastric cancer: Comparison with two-dimensional multidetector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Lee, M.W.; Choi, D.; Kim, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of gastric cancer in comparison with that of two-dimensional (2D) multidetector row computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: The study included 189 patients with 170 surgically confirmed gastric cancers and 19 patients without gastric cancer, all of whom underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and multidetector contrast-enhanced abdominal CT imaging. Two observers independently analysed three sets of images (CT set, conventional MRI set, and combined conventional and DW MRI set). A five-point scale for likelihood of gastric cancer was used. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were evaluated. Quantitative [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analyses with Mann–Whitney U-test were conducted for gastric cancers and the nearby normal gastric wall. Results: The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer were significantly higher on combined conventional and DW MRI set (77.8–78.3%; 75.3–75.9%) than the CT imaging set (67.7–71.4%; 64.1–68.2%) or the conventional MRI set (72–73%; 68.8–70%; p < 0.01). In particular, for gastric cancers with pT2 and pT3, the combined conventional and DW MRI set (91.6–92.6%) yielded significantly higher sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer than did the CT imaging set (76.8–81.1%) by both observers (p < 0.01). The mean ADC of gastric cancer lesions (1 ± 0.23 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) differed significantly from that of normal gastric wall (1.77 ± 0.25 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Abdominal MRI with DW imaging was more sensitive for the detection of gastric cancer than 2D-multidetector row CT or conventional MRI alone. - Highlights: • The sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer is high on abdominal MR imaging. • DW imaging is helpful for

  11. Diffusion of Macromolecules in Model Oral Biofilms▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Pitts, Betsey; Trivedi, Harsh M.; Stewart, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive penetration of fluorescently tagged macromolecular solutes into model oral biofilms was visualized by time-lapse microscopy. All of the solutes tested, including dextrans, proteases, green fluorescent protein, and immunoglobulin G, accessed the interior of cell clusters 100 to 200 μm in diameter within 3 min or less. PMID:19168660

  12. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  13. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guoxing, E-mail: sheasthospital@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Chen, Xiao, E-mail: chx_win@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [Department of Radiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Zhu, Jingqi, E-mail: zjh1830@easthospital.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Zong, Genlin, E-mail: zgl0577@easthospital.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Wang, Zhongqiu, E-mail: zhq2001us@163.com [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wash out rate is associated with the aggressiveness of bladder cancer (BC). • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could be used to assess the aggressiveness of BC. • The diagnostic accuracy of aggressiveness of BC using ADC was better than semi-quantitative parameters. • Our data showed a good diagnostic performance of ADC and wash-out together in assessing BC aggressiveness. - Abstract: Background: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been considered useful for pathological staging and histological grading in bladder cancer. To our knowledge, no study has combined the two imaging modalities together to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer. Objective: To assess the clinical aggressiveness of bladder cancer with DCE MRI and DWI at 3.0 T. Materials and methods: A total of 59 patients with 69 pathologically confirmed tumor lesions were included in this study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T basing on DWI and DCE imaging. Tumor staging and histological grade were evaluated. The aggressiveness of bladder cancer was classified as low-, intermediate-, or high-aggressiveness according to its pathological phenotype. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and semi-quantitative parameters (wash-in rate and wash-out rate) were determined. The correlation between clinical aggressiveness and ADC value, wash-in rate and wash-out rate were analyzed. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of the diffusion and semi-quantitative parameters were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results: Aggressiveness of bladder cancer is negatively correlated with ADC value (r = −0.705, p < 0.0001) and wash-out rate (r = −0.719, p < 0.0001). The tumor ADC value is positively correlated with wash-out rate (r = 0.555, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic specificity and accuracy using tumor ADC value and wash-out for the tumor with size <24 mm were better than that

  14. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guoxing; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Jingqi; Zong, Genlin; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wash out rate is associated with the aggressiveness of bladder cancer (BC). • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could be used to assess the aggressiveness of BC. • The diagnostic accuracy of aggressiveness of BC using ADC was better than semi-quantitative parameters. • Our data showed a good diagnostic performance of ADC and wash-out together in assessing BC aggressiveness. - Abstract: Background: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI have been considered useful for pathological staging and histological grading in bladder cancer. To our knowledge, no study has combined the two imaging modalities together to assess aggressiveness of bladder cancer. Objective: To assess the clinical aggressiveness of bladder cancer with DCE MRI and DWI at 3.0 T. Materials and methods: A total of 59 patients with 69 pathologically confirmed tumor lesions were included in this study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T basing on DWI and DCE imaging. Tumor staging and histological grade were evaluated. The aggressiveness of bladder cancer was classified as low-, intermediate-, or high-aggressiveness according to its pathological phenotype. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and semi-quantitative parameters (wash-in rate and wash-out rate) were determined. The correlation between clinical aggressiveness and ADC value, wash-in rate and wash-out rate were analyzed. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of the diffusion and semi-quantitative parameters were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results: Aggressiveness of bladder cancer is negatively correlated with ADC value (r = −0.705, p < 0.0001) and wash-out rate (r = −0.719, p < 0.0001). The tumor ADC value is positively correlated with wash-out rate (r = 0.555, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic specificity and accuracy using tumor ADC value and wash-out for the tumor with size <24 mm were better than that

  15. Endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion: diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gigin; Lu, Hsin-Ying [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Institute for Radiological Research, Guishan, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Clinical Phenome Center, Guishan, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Chun; Ng, Shu-Hang; Ng, Koon-Kwan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Institute for Radiological Research, Guishan, Taoyuan (China); Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University, Clinical Trial Center, Guishan, Taoyuan (China); Wu, Ren-Chin [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University, Department of Pathology, Guishan, Taoyuan (China)

    2017-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for detecting cervical stromal invasion in endometrial cancer. Eighty-three consecutive women with endometrial cancer underwent preoperative evaluation in a 3-T unit, including T2-weighted, DW (b = 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}), and DCE MR imaging. Two radiologists independently assessed presence of cervical stromal invasion, with histopathological reference as gold standard. For assessing cervical stromal invasion, the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively for Reader 1/Reader 2, were as follows: DW MR imaging - 95.2 %/91.6 %, 91.7 %/100 %, and 95.8 %/90.1 %; DCE MR imaging - 91.6 %/88 %, 58.3 %/50 %, and 97.2 %/94.4 %. The diagnostic performance of DW MR imaging (Reader 1: areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.98; Reader 2: AUC = 0.97) was significantly higher than that of DCE MR imaging (p = 0.009 for Reader 2) or T2-weighted MR imaging (Reader 1: p = 0.006; Reader 2: p = 0.013). Patients with cervical stromal invasion showed a significantly greater canal width (p < 0.0001) and myometrial invasion extent (p = 0.006). DW MR imaging has superior diagnostic performance compared with DCE MR imaging in the detection of cervical stromal invasion. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging of bone marrow in healthy individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, Jens (Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)), e-mail: j.hillengass@dkfz.de; Stieltjes, Bram (Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)); Baeuerle, Tobias (Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)) (and others)

    2011-04-15

    Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) displays microcirculation and permeability by application of contrast-media and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a tool for quantification of cellularity in the investigated area. Recently published examples cover breast cancer, CNS tumors, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, prostate cancer as well as hematologic malignancies. Purpose: To investigated the influence of age, sex, and localization of the investigated region on findings of DCE-MRI and DWI. Material and Methods: DCE-MRI-parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant kep as well as the DWI-parameter ADC of the bone marrow of the lumbar vertebral column of 30 healthy individuals covering the typical range of age of tumor patients were evaluated. ADC was calculated using b=0 and a maximal b value of either 400 or 750 s/mm2. Results: Amplitude A of DCE-MRI decreased with age (P = 0.01) and amplitude A, exchange rate constant kep as well as ADC based on b = 400 s/mm2 and b = 750 s/mm2, respectively, decreased significantly from the first to the fifth lumbar vertebra with P = 0.02, P = 0.05, P = 0.003, and P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters of functional imaging techniques in bone marrow are influenced by the age of the examined individual and the anatomical location of the investigated region

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging of bone marrow in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillengass, Jens; Stieltjes, Bram; Baeuerle, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) displays microcirculation and permeability by application of contrast-media and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a tool for quantification of cellularity in the investigated area. Recently published examples cover breast cancer, CNS tumors, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, prostate cancer as well as hematologic malignancies. Purpose: To investigated the influence of age, sex, and localization of the investigated region on findings of DCE-MRI and DWI. Material and Methods: DCE-MRI-parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant kep as well as the DWI-parameter ADC of the bone marrow of the lumbar vertebral column of 30 healthy individuals covering the typical range of age of tumor patients were evaluated. ADC was calculated using b=0 and a maximal b value of either 400 or 750 s/mm2. Results: Amplitude A of DCE-MRI decreased with age (P = 0.01) and amplitude A, exchange rate constant kep as well as ADC based on b = 400 s/mm 2 and b = 750 s/mm 2 , respectively, decreased significantly from the first to the fifth lumbar vertebra with P = 0.02, P = 0.05, P = 0.003, and P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters of functional imaging techniques in bone marrow are influenced by the age of the examined individual and the anatomical location of the investigated region

  18. The truncate mutation of Notch2 enhances cell proliferation through activating the NF-κB signal pathway in the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Zhang

    Full Text Available The Notch2 is a critical membrane receptor for B-cell functions, and also displays various biological roles in lymphoma pathogenesis. In this article, we reported that 3 of 69 (4.3% diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs exhibited a truncate NOTCH2 mutation at the nucleotide 7605 (G/A in the cDNA sequence, which led to partial deletion of the C-terminal of PEST (proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich domain. The truncate Notch2 activated both the Notch2 and the NF-κB signals and promoted the proliferation of B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including DLBCL and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, the ectopic proliferation was completely inhibited by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor. Simultaneously, PDTC also reduced the expression level of Notch2. Based on these results, we conclude that the Notch2 receptor with PEST domain truncation enhances cell proliferation which may be associated with the activation of the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling. Our results are expected to provide a possible target for new DLBCL therapies by suppressing the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling.

  19. Subcategorization of Suspicious Breast Lesions (BI-RADS Category 4) According to MRI Criteria: Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez de Almeida, João Ricardo; Gomes, André Boechat; Barros, Thomas Pitangueira; Fahel, Paulo Eduardo; de Seixas Rocha, Mário

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is adequate for subcategorization of suspicious lesions (BI-RADS category 4) and to evaluate whether use of DWI improves diagnostic performance. The study group was composed of 103 suspicious lesions found in 83 subjects. Patient ages and lesion sizes were compiled, and two radiologists reanalyzed the images; subcategorized the findings as BI-RADS 4A, 4B, or 4C; and calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The stratified variables were tested by univariate analysis and inserted in two multivariate predictive models, which were used to generate ROC curves and compare AUCs. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for each subcategory and ADC level were calculated, and interobserver agreement was tested. Forty-four (42.7%) suspicious findings proved malignant. Except for age (p = 0.08), all stratified predictor variables were significant in univariate analyses (p BI-RADS 4 subcategory (4A, 0.15; 4B, 0.37; 4C, 0.84). ADC values of 1.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s or less had the second highest PPV (0.77). Interobserver agreement was substantial at a kappa value of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.90; p BI-RADS category 4) can be satisfactorily performed with DCE-MRI and slightly improved when DWI is introduced.

  20. Mapping of single-copy DNA sequences on human chromosomes by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes: Enhancement of detection sensitivity by intensified-fluorescence digital-imaging microscopy

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    Viegas-Pequignot, E.; Dutrillaux, B.; Magdelenat, H. (Institut Curie, Paris (France)); Coppey-Moisan, M. (Institut Curie, Paris (France) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Orsay (France))

    1989-01-01

    Two single-copy DNA segments of 6 kilobases (kb) and 2.3 kb were labeled with biotin-labeled dUTP (Bio-11-dUTP) and hybridized to human chromosomes. These probes were detected by immunofluorescence and directly mapped on chromosomes by using classical fluorescence microscopy and a microchannel-plate-intensified video camera. By a subsequent R-banding, the 6-kb and 2.3-kb fragments were precisely localized to the 18p11.3 band and to the 22q11.2 band, respectively, in agreement with previous results obtained with radioactive probes. The adaptation of fluorescence intensification and digital image processing (frame integration to enhance signal-to-noise ratio and linear contrast stretching) to microscopy makes it possible to detect very weak fluorescent spots on chromosomes. This system allows a high spatial resolution, even at very low fluorescence levels. The efficiency and the specificity of the hybridization and detection methodology give a direct and precise localization of the short single-copy sequences on human chromosomes.

  1. A Generalization of Theory for Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Applicable to Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minchul; Day, Charles A.; Drake, Kimberly; Kenworthy, Anne K.; DiBenedetto, Emmanuele

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using confocal laser scanning microscopes (confocal FRAP) has become a valuable technique for studying the diffusion of biomolecules in cells. However, two-dimensional confocal FRAP sometimes yields results that vary with experimental setups, such as different bleaching protocols and bleaching spot sizes. In addition, when confocal FRAP is used to measure diffusion coefficients (D) for fast diffusing molecules, it often yields D-values that are one or two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that predicted theoretically or measured by alternative methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Recently, it was demonstrated that this underestimation of D can be corrected by taking diffusion during photobleaching into consideration. However, there is currently no consensus on confocal FRAP theory, and no efforts have been made to unify theories on conventional and confocal FRAP. To this end, we generalized conventional FRAP theory to incorporate diffusion during photobleaching so that analysis by conventional FRAP theory for a circular region of interest is easily applicable to confocal FRAP. Finally, we demonstrate the accuracy of these new (to our knowledge) formulae by measuring D for soluble enhanced green fluorescent protein in aqueous glycerol solution and in the cytoplasm and nucleus of COS7 cells. PMID:19720039

  2. Generation of chimeric minipigs by aggregating 4- to 8-cell-stage blastomeres from somatic cell nuclear transfer with the tracing of enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huili; Long, Chuan; Feng, Chong; Shi, Ningning; Jiang, Yingdi; Zeng, Guomin; Li, Xirui; Wu, Jingjing; Lu, Lin; Lu, Shengsheng; Pan, Dengke

    2017-05-01

    Blastocyst complementation is an important technique for generating chimeric organs in organ-deficient pigs, which holds great promise for solving the problem of a shortage of organs for human transplantation procedures. Porcine chimeras have been generated using embryonic germ cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells; however, there are no authentic pluripotent stem cells for pigs. In previous studies, blastomeres from 4- to 8-cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos were able to generate chimeric fetuses efficiently, but the resulting fetuses did not produce live-born young. Here, we used early-stage embryos from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to generate chimeric piglets by the aggregation method. Then, the distribution of chimerism in various tissues and organs was observed through the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Initially, we determined whether 4- to 8- or 8- to 16-cell-stage embryos were more suitable to generate chimeric piglets. Chimeras were produced by aggregating two EGFP-tagged Wuzhishan minipig (WZSP) SCNT embryos and two Bama minipig (BMP) SCNT embryos. The chimeric piglets were identified by coat color and microsatellite and swine leukocyte antigen analyses. Moreover, the distribution of chimerism in various tissues and organs of the piglets was evaluated by EGFP expression. We found that more aggregated embryos were produced using 4- to 8-cell-stage embryos (157/657, 23.9%) than 8- to 16-cell-stage embryos (100/499, 20.0%). Thus, 4- to 8-cell-stage embryos were used for the generation of chimeras. The rate of blastocysts development after aggregating WZSP with BMP embryos was 50.6%. Transfer of 391 blastocysts developed from 4- to 8-cell-stage embryos to five recipients gave rise to 18 piglets, of which two (11.1%) were confirmed to be chimeric by their coat color and microsatellite examination of the skin. One of the chimeric piglets died at 35 days and was subsequently autopsied, whereas the

  3. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surfac