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Sample records for flunixin meglumina disminuye

  1. Ativação de plaquetas de eqüinos com laminite induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina Platelets activation in equine with induced laminitis and treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

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    F.O. Paes Leme

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ativação de plaquetas em 20 eqüinos com laminite induzida, tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina. As alterações de plaquetas incluíram mudança de forma, alteração da relação entre os eixos maior e menor, aumento de perímetro, emissão de pseudópodes, aumento no número dealfa-grânulos e de grânulos de glicogênio e redução no número degama-grânulos. As plaquetas de eqüinos, quando ativadas, apresentaram perfil de organela diferente de plaquetas normais, e as drogas antiinflamatórias, não-esteroidais, demonstraram atividade na ativação plaquetária de eqüinos in vivo. O flunixin meglumina apresentou melhor atividade em modular a ativação plaquetária de eqüinos in vivo do que a fenilbutazona e o ketoprofeno.The platelets activation from 20 equines submitted to laminitis induction and treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin, was evaluated. The platelets changes included shape change, altered relations between axis, increased perimeter, pseudopodia, increased alpha-granules and glycogen-granules, and decreased in gamma-granules. Platelets when activated present a different organelle profile than normal ones. Equine activated platelets had different organelles profile than normal ones, and anti-inflammatory drugs can modulate the platelet activation, being the flunixin meglumin better than phenylbutazone and ketoprophen.

  2. Ativação de plaquetas de eqüinos com laminite induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina

    OpenAIRE

    Paes Leme,F.O.; L.J. Wurzinger; A.C. Vasconcelos; G.E.S. Alves

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ativação de plaquetas em 20 eqüinos com laminite induzida, tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina. As alterações de plaquetas incluíram mudança de forma, alteração da relação entre os eixos maior e menor, aumento de perímetro, emissão de pseudópodes, aumento no número dealfa-grânulos e de grânulos de glicogênio e redução no número degama-grânulos. As plaquetas de eqüinos, quando ativadas, apresentaram perfil de organela diferente de plaquetas normais, e as d...

  3. Ativação de plaquetas de eqüinos com laminite induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina Platelets activation in equine with induced laminitis and treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

    OpenAIRE

    Paes Leme,F.O.; L.J. Wurzinger; A.C. Vasconcelos; G.E.S. Alves

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ativação de plaquetas em 20 eqüinos com laminite induzida, tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumina. As alterações de plaquetas incluíram mudança de forma, alteração da relação entre os eixos maior e menor, aumento de perímetro, emissão de pseudópodes, aumento no número dealfa-grânulos e de grânulos de glicogênio e redução no número degama-grânulos. As plaquetas de eqüinos, quando ativadas, apresentaram perfil de organela diferente de plaquetas normais, e as d...

  4. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  5. 21 CFR 556.286 - Flunixin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flunixin. 556.286 Section 556.286 Food and Drugs... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.286 Flunixin. (a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total residues of flunixin is 0.72 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day. (b) Tolerances—(1) Cattle....

  6. 21 CFR 522.970 - Flunixin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flunixin. 522.970 Section 522.970 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.970 Flunixin. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to 50 milligrams (mg)...

  7. 21 CFR 522.956 - Florfenicol and flunixin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Florfenicol and flunixin. 522.956 Section 522.956... Florfenicol and flunixin. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 300 milligrams (mg) florfenicol and 16.5 mg flunixin (27.37 mg flunixin meglumine). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c)...

  8. Miltefosina versus antimoniato de meglumina en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis mucosa

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    María F García Bustos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento convencional para la leishmaniasis tegumentaria es el antimoniato de meglumina, el cual presenta falla terapéutica creciente, producción de efectos adversos graves, y necesidad de administración parenteral, justificando la búsqueda de alternativas terapéuticas. Presentamos aquí los resultados preliminares de un ensayo clínico de fase II en pacientes con leishmaniasis mucosa, en el que se comparó la eficacia de miltefosina por vía oral con respecto a la del compuesto antimonial. La evaluación de la respuesta a los tratamientos se realizó mediante un seguimiento con videofibroscopia nasofaríngea, utilizándose un score de gravedad de lesiones mucosas para aplicar en cada momento del seguimiento de los pacientes. No se encontraron hasta ahora diferencias significativas entre el número de pacientes curados con miltefosina o con la quimioterapia convencional. Los resultados favorables de este trabajo sugieren que miltefosina podría constituir una alternativa terapéutica efectiva y segura en la región.

  9. 21 CFR 520.970b - Flunixin meglumine paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flunixin meglumine paste. 520.970b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.970b Flunixin meglumine paste. (a) Specifications. Each 30-gram syringe contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to...

  10. 21 CFR 520.970a - Flunixin meglumine granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flunixin meglumine granules. 520.970a Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.970a Flunixin meglumine granules. (a) Specifications. Each 10-gram packet contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to 250...

  11. Uso da flunixina meglumina tópica no tratamento de uveítes em cães

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    Andrade A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o efeito (uso tópico da flunixina meglumina e da dexametasona no controle da uveíte anterior em cães, por meio de avaliação clínica e pela dosagem de proteínas no humor aquoso. Foram utilizados 17 cães portadores de uveíte anterior de diversas etiologias. Os animais, divididos em dois grupos, foram tratados durante 15 dias. Observou-se maior eficácia da flunixina meglumina na cura clínica das uveítes e na redução significativa da concentração de proteínas no humor aquoso em relação à dexametasona. Concluiu-se que a preparação comercial de uso parenteral pode ser utilizada como colírio no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias da úvea.

  12. Identification of flunixin glucuronide and depletion of flunixin and its marker residue in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedziniak, P; Olejnik, M; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, T; Smulski, S; Kaczmarowski, M; Żmudzki, J

    2013-12-01

    Residues of flunixin [and its marker residue 5-hydroxyflunixin (5OHFLU)] were determined in milk from cows that intravenously received therapeutic doses of the drug. The samples were collected during each milking (every 12 h) for six consecutive days, and concentrations of flunixin and its metabolites were determined by the method with and without enzymatic hydrolysis (beta-glucuronidase). The highest flunixin concentration in milk was observed 12 h after dosing (2.4 ± 1.42 μg/kg, mean ± SD). Flunixin concentrations in the samples determined with enzymatic hydrolysis were significantly higher (P flunixin glucuronide to the milk. Additionally, unambiguous identification of flunixin glucuronide in the bovine milk was performed with linear ion-trap mass spectrometry. The 5OHFLU concentrations analyzed without enzymatic hydrolysis (22.3 ± 16.04 μg/kg) were similar to this obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis. Flunixin and 5OHFLU concentrations dropped below the limits of detection at 48 h after last dosing.

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions of flunixin meglumine and enrofloxacin in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tomoe; Arai, Toshiro

    2007-04-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetic interactions of enrofloxacin and flunixin in male ICR mice that were subcutaneously (SC) administered with both or either one of the drugs. The experiments were performed on the following three groups: flunixin alone (2 mg/kg, SC), combination of flunixin (2 mg/kg, SC) and enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg, SC), and enrofloxacin alone (10 mg/kg, SC). Blood samples were collected at 5, 15 and 30 min, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after the drug administration, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of flunixin and enrofloxacin were evaluated from the plasma drug concentrations. Significant changes were detected in the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following its coadministration with enrofloxacin. Coadministration of flunixin and enrofloxacin resulted in a 41% increase of the area under the curve (AUC) and a 53% extension of the terminal half-life of flunixin; moreover, flunixin attained the maximum plasma drug concentration 2.75 times faster than when administered alone. The terminal rate constant and the maximum plasma drug concentration showed significant decreases of 34% and 33%, respectively, following the coadministration of enrofloxacin and flunixin as compared to those following the administration of flunixin alone. In contrast, no significant difference in the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin was detected following its coadministration with flunixin, as compared to those following the administration of enrofloxacin alone. Following the administration of enrofloxacin alone or its coadministration with flunixin, the plasma level of ciprofloxacin, the metabolite of enrofloxacin, was very low or undetectable. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in ICR mice are altered by the coadministration of flunixin and enrofloxacin.

  14. Pharmacokinetic interactions of flunixin meglumine and enrofloxacin in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tomoe; Mizuno, Yasuharu; Ogata, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2005-07-01

    To examine pharmacokinetic interactions of flunixin meglumine and enrofloxacin in dogs following simultaneously administered SC injections of these drugs. 10 Beagles (4 males and 6 females). All dogs underwent the following 3 drug administration protocols with a 4-week washout period between treatments: flunixin administration alone (1 mg/kg, SC); simultaneous administration of flunixin (1 mg/kg, SC) and enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, SC); and enrofloxacin administration alone (5 mg/kg, SC). Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 hours following SC injections, and pharmacokinetic parameters of flunixin and enrofloxacin were calculated from plasma drug concentrations. Significant increases in the area under the curve (32%) and in the elimination half-life (29%) and a significant decrease (23%) in the elimination rate constant from the central compartment of flunixin were found following coadministration with enrofloxacin, compared with administration of flunixin alone. A significant increase (50%) in the elimination half-life and a significant decrease (21%) in the maximum plasma drug concentration of enrofloxacin were found following coadministration with flunixin, compared with administration of enrofloxacin alone. The observed decrease in drug clearances as a result of coadministration of flunixin and enrofloxacin indicates that these drugs interact during the elimination phase. Consequently, care should be taken during the concomitant use of flunixin and enrofloxacin in dogs to avoid adverse drug reactions.

  15. Pain management with flunixin meglumine at dehorning of calves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, J; Arnholdt, T; Möstl, E; Gelfert, C-C; Drillich, M

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of this controlled, randomized, and blinded clinical trial was to determine the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug flunixin meglumine before DH on cortisol concentrations...

  16. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin, Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog-Diphtheria.... Revise Sec. 520.970 to read as follows: Sec. 520.970 Flunixin. (a) Specifications. (1) Each 10-gram (g) packet of granules contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to 250 milligrams (mg) of flunixin. (2) Each...

  17. Flunixin residues in milk after intravenous treatment of dairy cattle with (14)C-flunixin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, William F; Chester-Yansen, Cheryl; Thompson, Kenneth; Campbell, John W; Boner, Pamela L; Liu, David D W; Crouch, Louis S

    2002-12-04

    Flunixin meglumine is used in veterinary medicine as an alternative to narcotic analgesics and as an antiinflammatory agent. Eight Holstein dairy cows were dosed intravenously once daily on three consecutive days with (14)C-flunixin meglumine at approximately 2.2 mg of flunixin free acid/kg of body weight. Milk was collected twice daily to determine the decline of the total radioactive residues (TRR) in milk and to identify or characterize residue components. TRR in milk declined rapidly and averaged 66, 20, and 14 ppb, respectively, for the first, second, and third milkings after administration of the last dose. Milk was extracted, and the extracts were examined for radioactive residues. Mean extractability of milk TRR was always greater than 80%. Flunixin and 5-hydroxyflunixin were identified by coelution with analytical standards using reverse phase HPLC. These two residues were the main radioactive residues found in milk and together accounted for 64, 37, and 44% of the extractable residues, for the first, second, and third milkings, respectively, after administration of the last dose. The presence of 5-OH flunixin in milk was confirmed by HPLC/MS/MS.

  18. 21 CFR 520.970 - Flunixin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flunixin oral dosage forms. 520.970 Section 520.970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.970 Flunixin...

  19. [Flunixin and its use in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaussaud, P

    1986-01-01

    Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, with a potent analgesic activity and a slight toxicity. It is largely used in horses, in the form of meglumine salt, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases or colics, and often identified in dopage cases. Physical and chemical properties of the drug, its pharmacological and toxicological properties, and its use in equine species are depicted.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  1. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  2. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The Cmax following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration.

  3. Pharmacokinetic interactions between flunixin and sulphadimidine in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Banna, H A

    1999-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of sulphadimidine were studied in clinically healthy (control) and Flunixin-medicated horses after a single intravenous and oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight. Plasma sulphadimidine concentration were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Following the intravenous injection, all plasma sulphadimidine data were best approximated by a two-compartment open model using sequential, weight non-linear regression. Flunixin induced a 67% increase in the rate of sulphadimidine return to the central compartment from peripheral tissues (K21) and there were a trend to a 30% increase in K12. The sulphadimidine elimination half-life was decreased 21%, the Vdss was reduced by 18% and MRT was decreased by 20%. Following the oral administration, sulphadimidine was rapidly absorbed in control and Flunixin-medicated horses with absorption half-lives (t1/2 ab) of 0.5 and 0.43 hours respectively. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were 93.7 and 109 micrograms/ml attained at (tmax) 2.36 and 1.9 hours respectively. The elimination half-life after oral administration (t1/2 ab) was shorter in flunixin pre-medicated horses than in control ones. The systemic bioavalability percentages (F%) of sulphadimidine after oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight was 79.3 and 71.2% in control and flunixin medicated horses, respectively. Therefore care should be exercised in the use of sulphadimidine in equine patients concurrently treated with flunixin.

  4. 75 FR 13225 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Animal Drugs; Flunixin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food... provides for the use of flunixin meglumine injectable solution in swine. DATES: This rule is effective..., Dublin 24, Ireland, filed ANADA 200-489 that provides for use of FLUNAZINE-S (flunixin...

  5. Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Schneider, Marilyn J; Smith, David J

    2016-12-28

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P flunixin residues, with no interaction (P > 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P flunixin residues in muscle than the IV (label) administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.

  6. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  7. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor Flunixin Meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) approximately 13 d after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Te...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin in mature heifers following multiple intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, J; Jedziniak, P; Markiewicz, W; Grabowski, T; Chrostowska, M; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, T

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine was determined after its multiple (altogether 4 doses at 24-hours intervals) intravenous administration at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg body weight in six mature clinically healthy heifers. Plasma flunixin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyflunixin concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography using an assay with a lower limit detection of 0.03 microg/ml for both substances. Plasma concentrations versus time curves were described by a two compartment open model. Mean plasma flunixin concentrations were similar on day 1 and 4, and than rapidly decreased (within 2 hours) from initial concentrations higher than 10 microg/ml to the concentrations lower than 1 microg/ml. The distribution phase of flunixin was short (t0.5 alpha = 0.29 +/- 0.16 and 0.18 +/- 0.04 on day 1 and 4, respectively) and the elimination phase was more prolonged (t0.5 beta = 3.30 +/- 0.60 and 3.26 +/- 0.22 on day 1 and 4, respectively). The mean residence time of flunixin was similar on day 1 (1.83 +/- 0.83) and 4 (1.88 +/- 0.46), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin this parameter was insignificantly (P > 0.05) higher on day 1 (5.49 +/- 2.22) as compared to that found on day 4 (3.99 +/- 2.17). The clearance of flunixin was similar on both examined days (0.23 +/- 0.12 on day 1 and 0.31 +/- 0.15 on day 4), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin was insignificantly (P > 0.05) lower on day 1 (2.37 +/- 1.21) as compared to that determined on day 4 (3.23 +/- 1.06). Our data indicate that multiple administration of flunixin did not alter significantly the parent drug and its metabolite concentrations in plasma, however may cause some small changes in pharmacokinetic parameters.

  9. Características físico-químicas do antimoniato de meglumina em diferentes condições de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1992 a julho de 1995, realizaram-se medições da osmolaridade e pH de ampolas pertencentes a um único lote de meglumina antimoniato (Rhodia Farma Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Lote 9206L-004 mantidos em três condições de temperatura (4ºC, 37oC e temperatura ambiente. Embora fossem observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na osmolaridade média das ampolas submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos, o número limitado de medições e a varíabilidade desta característica entre ampolas mantidas na mesma condição de temperatura, avaliadas no mesmo momento, não permitiram obter conclusões definitivas. Não foi demonstrada variação significativa do pH nas mesmas condições. Assumindo que a alteração nestes parâmetros poderia refletir mudanças na estrutura do antímonial pentavalente está indicada a realização de esperimentos melhor controlados que possam definir a relação existente entre as variáveis estudadas.During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumina antimoniato (glucantime® from lot 9206L-004 (matiufacturated by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil mantained in three temperature conditions namely 4ºC, 37ºC and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoles mantained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  10. Screening and Confirmatory Analyses of Flunixin in Tissues and Bodily Fluids after Intravenous or Intramuscular Administration to Cull Dairy Cows with or without Lipopolysaccharide Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Smith, David J; Tell, Lisa A; Baynes, Ronald E; Schroeder, J W; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-01-13

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a variety of easily accessible ante-mortem fluids in cattle was explored. Two animals with violative flunixin liver residue and/or violative 5-hydroxy flunixin milk residues were correctly identified by a flunixin liver ELISA screen. Oral fluid did not produce anticipated flunixin concentration profiles using ELISA determination. One cow that had liver and milk violative residues, and one cow that had a milk violation at the prescribed withdrawal period were correctly identified by flunixin milk lateral flow analyses. The ratio of urinary flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin may be useful for predicting disruption of metabolism caused by disease or other factors potentially leading to violative liver flunixin residues.

  11. Pain management with flunixin meglumine at dehorning of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J; Arnholdt, T; Möstl, E; Gelfert, C-C; Drillich, M

    2013-01-01

    Dehorning (DH) of calves is a common procedure on commercial dairy farms. Pain management of calves has been investigated in several studies. It is generally accepted that the use of local anesthesia before DH is essential for pain management. Postoperative inflammatory pain should be treated by using a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. The objective of this controlled, randomized, and blinded clinical trial was to determine the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug flunixin meglumine before DH on cortisol concentrations in sera of 5- to 9-wk old calves. Furthermore, selected behavioral characteristics and heart and respiratory rate were examined to assess pain in the hours after dehorning. A total of 80 calves were allocated to 4 groups. In each of 20 replicates, 4 calves were randomly assigned to the following groups: in 3 treatment groups, calves received a local anesthetic (10 mL of procain hydrochloride) and a first treatment (i.v.) with flunixin meglumine or a placebo 20 min before hot-iron dehorning, and a second treatment with flunixin meglumine or a placebo (0.9% saline) 3 h after DH. Calves in the control (CON) group were not dehorned and did not receive any treatment. Groups received 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg followed by a placebo (FP), 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg for both treatments (FF), or a placebo for both treatments (PP). Blood samples were collected from all calves, including CON calves, 20 min before restraint in a headlock for DH, 2 min after DH, as well as 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after DH. Samples were analyzed for concentration of cortisol by enzyme immunoassay. It was found that concentration of cortisol, calculated as area under the curve, was greater in PP compared with FF and tended to be greater compared with FP. Significant differences between PP and FF were detected at 30 min and 2 h after DH. Throughout the observation period, cortisol concentrations were in both flunixin meglumine-treated groups at a

  12. Características físico-químicas do antimoniato de meglumina em diferentes condições de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1992 a julho de 1995, realizaram-se medições da osmolaridade e pH de ampolas pertencentes a um único lote de meglumina antimoniato (Rhodia Farma Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Lote 9206L-004 mantidos em três condições de temperatura (4ºC, 37oC e temperatura ambiente. Embora fossem observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na osmolaridade média das ampolas submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos, o número limitado de medições e a varíabilidade desta característica entre ampolas mantidas na mesma condição de temperatura, avaliadas no mesmo momento, não permitiram obter conclusões definitivas. Não foi demonstrada variação significativa do pH nas mesmas condições. Assumindo que a alteração nestes parâmetros poderia refletir mudanças na estrutura do antímonial pentavalente está indicada a realização de esperimentos melhor controlados que possam definir a relação existente entre as variáveis estudadas.

  13. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  14. 75 FR 76260 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Animal Drugs; Flunixin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food... ANADA provides for use of flunixin meglumine solution by intravenous injection in lactating dairy cows..., filed a supplement to ANADA 200-061 that provides for veterinary prescription use of FLU-NIX...

  15. Evaluation of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Staci C; Sischo, William M; Moore, Dale A; Reynolds, James P

    2003-11-01

    To assess the use of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in calves. Clinical trial. 115 calves with diarrhea that were 1 to 21 days old at enrollment. Calves that developed diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive no flunixin meglumine (controls), a single dose of flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb]), or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine administered 24 hours apart. Serum IgG concentration and PCV were measured prior to enrollment in the trial. Calves were evaluated daily to determine rectal temperature, fecal consistency, demeanor, and skin elasticity score. The primary analytic outcome was days of sickness (morbid-days). Calves with fecal blood and treated with a single dose of flunixin meglumine had fewer morbid-days and antimicrobial treatments, compared with controls. Although not significant, calves given 2 doses of flunixin meglumine in 24 hours had fewer morbid-days than untreated control calves. Regardless of severity of diarrhea, calves without fecal blood did not benefit from the use of flunixin. For calves with fecal blood, failure of passive transfer (low serum IgG concentration) was an independent risk factor for increased morbid-days. Treatment with a single dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in fewer antimicrobial treatments and morbid-days in calves with fecal blood. As observed in other studies, calves with failure of passive transfer were at high risk for poor outcomes. This emphasizes the importance of developing and implementing effective colostrum delivery programs on dairy farms.

  16. Prediction of flunixin tissue residue concentrations in livers from diseased cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Baynes, R E; Tell, L A; Riviere, J E

    2013-12-01

    Flunixin, a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was a leading cause of violative residues in cattle. The objective of this analysis was to explore how the changes in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that may be associated with diseased animals affect the predicted liver residue of flunixin in cattle. Monte Carlo simulations for liver residues of flunixin were performed using the PK model structure and relevant PK parameter estimates from a previously published population PK model for flunixin in cattle. The magnitude of a change in the PK parameter value that resulted in a violative residue issue in more than one percent of a cattle population was compared. In this regard, elimination clearance and volume of distribution affected withdrawal times. Pathophysiological factors that can change these parameters may contribute to the occurrence of violative residues of flunixin.

  17. Palatability and pharmacokinetics of flunixin when administered to sheep through feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Pippia, Joe; Colditz, Ian G; Hinch, Geoff N; Petherick, Carol J; Lee, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Applying analgesics to feed is a potentially easy method of providing pain-relief to sheep and lambs that undergo painful husbandry procedures. To be effective, the medicated feed needs to be readily accepted by sheep and its consumption needs to result in therapeutic concentrations of the drug. In the present experiment, pelleted feed was supplemented with flunixin (4.0 mg/kg live weight) and offered to eight sheep. To test the palatability of flunixin, the individually penned sheep were offered normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin in separate troughs for two consecutive days. A trend for a day by feed-type (control versus flunixin supplemented) interaction suggested that sheep may have had an initial mild aversion to pellets supplemented with flunixin on the first day of exposure, however, by on the second day there was no difference in consumption of normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin. To test pharmacokinetics, sheep were offered 800 g of flunixin supplemented feed for a 12 h period. Blood samples were taken over 48 h and plasma drug concentrations were determined using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, negative electrospray ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± S.D. time required to reach maximum concentration was 6.00 ± 4.14 h and ranged from 1 to 12 h. Average maximum plasma concentration was 1.78 ± 0.48 µg/mL and ranged from 1.61 to 2.80 µg/mL. The average half-life of flunixin was 7.95 ± 0.77 h and there was a mean residence time of 13.62 ± 1.17 h. Free access to flunixin supplemented feed enabled all sheep to obtain inferred therapeutic concentrations of flunixin in plasma within 6 h of starting to consume the feed. Provision of an analgesic in feed may be an alternative practical method for providing pain relief to sheep.

  18. Palatability and pharmacokinetics of flunixin when administered to sheep through feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Marini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying analgesics to feed is a potentially easy method of providing pain-relief to sheep and lambs that undergo painful husbandry procedures. To be effective, the medicated feed needs to be readily accepted by sheep and its consumption needs to result in therapeutic concentrations of the drug. In the present experiment, pelleted feed was supplemented with flunixin (4.0 mg/kg live weight and offered to eight sheep. To test the palatability of flunixin, the individually penned sheep were offered normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin in separate troughs for two consecutive days. A trend for a day by feed-type (control versus flunixin supplemented interaction suggested that sheep may have had an initial mild aversion to pellets supplemented with flunixin on the first day of exposure, however, by on the second day there was no difference in consumption of normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin. To test pharmacokinetics, sheep were offered 800 g of flunixin supplemented feed for a 12 h period. Blood samples were taken over 48 h and plasma drug concentrations were determined using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, negative electrospray ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± S.D. time required to reach maximum concentration was 6.00 ± 4.14 h and ranged from 1 to 12 h. Average maximum plasma concentration was 1.78 ± 0.48 µg/mL and ranged from 1.61 to 2.80 µg/mL. The average half-life of flunixin was 7.95 ± 0.77 h and there was a mean residence time of 13.62 ± 1.17 h. Free access to flunixin supplemented feed enabled all sheep to obtain inferred therapeutic concentrations of flunixin in plasma within 6 h of starting to consume the feed. Provision of an analgesic in feed may be an alternative practical method for providing pain relief to sheep.

  19. Avaliação do efeito cumulativo do antimoniato de meglumina sobre a prole de camundongos swiss: ensaio biológico Evaluate the cumulative effect of meglumine antimoniate on the progeny of swiss mice: biologic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rodrigues dos Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito do antimoniato de meglumina na transferência materno-fetal na geração F1 (prole de matrizes expostas ao composto, e conseqüências em progênies F2. MÉTODOS: Camundongos fêmeas Swiss foram tratados com antimoniato de meglumina, via subcutânea, com administração diária, do sétimo ao 12º dia de gestação (ddg, na dose equivalente a 100mgSb v/kg peso/dia. O grupo controle recebeu apenas o veículo (água destilada. Após o nascimento da prole (geração F1, 59 fêmeas foram examinadas diariamente para determinação do ciclo estral. Quando determinado o ciclo estro, acasalou-se 18 fêmeas com machos da mesma linhagem. No 18º ddg, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas por câmara de CO2, o abdômen incisado e o útero exposto, quando avaliou-se os sítios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal quanto ao número de reabsorções, fetos vivos e mortos. Todos os fetos e placentas foram pesados para calcular o índice placentário. Três placentas de cada ninhada foram separadas para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A exposição ao antimoniato de meglumina não interferiu no ciclo estral dos animais tratados, pelo fato de não alterar o intervalo precoital e o índice de fertilidade. Não foram observadas alterações placentárias em progênies F2. CONCLUSÃO: O antimoniato de meglumina não altera a performance reprodutiva das mães expostas cronicamente. Estes dados sugerem que ocorre uma gradual eliminação do antimoniato de meglumina no organismo materno, sem acarretar danos a proles futuras.OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effect of Meglumine Antimoniate on maternal-fetal transference in F1 generations (offspring of dams exposed to the drug, and embryotoxicity in F2 generations. METHODS: Female Swiss mice were treated with daily s.c. injection of Meglumine Antimoniate (100mgSb v/kg bw/day from day 7 until day 12 of pregnancy. The control group received only the vehicle (distilled water. After birth of offspring (F1

  20. Identification of a flunixin metabolite in camel by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, I A; Hadi, A A; Alkatheeri, N A; Barezaiq, I M; ElGhazali, M; Boni, N S; Zorob, O

    1998-05-29

    A flunixin metabolite, a hydroxylated product, has been identified in camel urine and plasma samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS-MS in the electron impact and chemical ionization modes. Its major fragmentation pattern has been verified by GC-MS-MS in daughter ion and parent ion scan modes. The method could detect flunixin and its metabolite in camel urine after a single intravenous dose of 2.2 mg of flunixin/kg body weight for 96 and 48 h, respectively, which increases the reliability of antidoping control analysis.

  1. Effects of acute hepatic and renal failure on pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (Pflunixin.

  2. Disposition of flunixin meglumine injectable preparation administered orally to healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini-Masini, A; Poppenga, R H; Sweeney, R W

    2004-06-01

    An injectable preparation of flunixin meglumine was administered orally and intravenously at a dose of 1.1 mg/kg to six healthy adult horses in a cross-over design. Flunixin meglumine was detected in plasma within 15 min of administration and peak plasma concentrations were observed 45-60 min after oral administration. Mean bioavailability of the oral drug was 71.9 +/- 26.0%, with an absorption half-life of 0.76 h. The apparent elimination half-life after oral administration was 2.4 h. The injectable preparation of flunixin meglumine is suitable for oral administration to horses.

  3. Experimental uses of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, M; Ahl, A S

    1989-01-01

    Presently, in the United States, there are no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, except aspirin, that are approved for use in animals intended for food production. Use of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and dipyrone for treatment of food animals may be considered in special circumstances. Such use requires strict adherence to FDA guidelines for extra-label use of drugs. Flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone have been shown to have a favorable influence on the course and outcome of certain diseases. This report reviews information concerning the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and therapeutics of phenylbutazone and flunixin as they have been used on an experimental basis in food animals.

  4. Determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X; Meleka-Boules, M; Chen, C L; Ceska, D M; Tiffany, D M

    1997-04-25

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a solid-phase extraction method was developed for the determination of flunixin in equine urine and serum. The suitable CE run conditions were described. The factors affecting flunixin recovery rates were investigated and optimum solid-phase extraction conditions for flunixin in equine urine and serum were established. Limits of detection and quantitation were 3.4 and 5.6 ng/ml for serum and 16.9 and 33.1 ng/ml for urine, respectively. The recoveries exceeded 96% for urine and 79% for serum. Urine samples from race horses and urine and serum samples from a mare administrated with flunixin were analyzed with this procedure.

  5. Nephrotoxicity in dogs associated with methoxyflurane anesthesia and flunixin meglumine analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Karol A.; Doherty, Thomas; Dyson, Doris H.; Wilcock, Brian; Valliant, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Uremia unexpectedly developed in five dogs 24 hours after undergoing thoracotomy in a student laboratory. In all dogs general anesthesia had been maintained with methoxyflurane, muscle relaxation had been induced with gallamine, and each dog received a single intravenous dose of 1.0 mg/kg flunixin meglumine for analgesia upon termination of anesthesia. In a subsequent group of dogs undergoing an orthopedic procedure, we assessed the effects on renal function of methoxyflurane anesthesia plus oxymorphone, or of methoxyflurane or halothane anesthesia in combination with a single IM 1.0 mg/kg dose of flunixin meglumine. Significant elevations in serum urea and creatinine values, and necrosis of collecting ducts and loops of Henle, were noted only in the dogs receiving methoxyflurane and flunixin meglumine. We conclude that the use of combination of methoxyflurane and flunixin meglumine is contraindicated in dogs. PMID:17423691

  6. Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate in lethal endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Er A.; Uney K.; Altan F.; Cetin G.; Yazar E.; Elmas M.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of different doses of dexamethasone plus flunixin meglumine on survival rate were investigated in lethal endotoxemia. A total of 60 Balb/C female mice were divided into 4 equal groups. Lethal endotoxemia (80-100%) was induced by lipopolysaccharide injection (Group 1, 1 mg, intraperinoneally). At 4 hours after the lipopolysaccharide injection; low-dose dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, intramuscularly) + flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg, SID, 5 days, subcutaneously), normal-dose dexame...

  7. Effect of firocoxib or flunixin meglumine on recovery of ischemic-injured equine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vanessa L; Meyer, Colleen T; Campbell, Nigel B; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether treatment of horses with firocoxib affects recovery of ischemic-injured jejunum, while providing effective analgesia. 18 horses. Horses (n = 6 horses/group) received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/50 kg, IV), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) before 2 hours of jejunal ischemia. Horses were monitored via pain scores and received butorphanol for analgesia. After 18 hours, ischemic-injured and control mucosa were placed in Ussing chambers for measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeability to lipopolysaccharide. Histomorphometry was used to determine denuded villus surface area. Western blots for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were performed. Plasma thromboxane B(2) and prostaglandin E(2) metabolite (PGEM) concentrations were determined. Pain scores did not significantly increase after surgery in horses receiving flunixin meglumine or firocoxib. Transepithelial resistance of ischemic-injured jejunum from horses treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than in saline- or firocoxib-treated horses. Lipopolysaccharide permeability across ischemic-injured mucosa was significantly increased in horses treated with flunixin meglumine. Treatment did not affect epithelial restitution. Cyclooxygenase-1 was constitutively expressed and COX-2 was upregulated after 2 hours of ischemia. Thromboxane B(2) concentration decreased with flunixin meglumine treatment but increased with firocoxib or saline treatment. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib prevented an increase in PGEM concentration after surgery. Flunixin meglumine retarded mucosal recovery in ischemic-injured jejunum, whereas firocoxib did not. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib were effective visceral analgesics. Firocoxib may be advantageous in horses recovering from ischemic intestinal injury.

  8. Effect of flunixin meglumine on cytokine levels in experimental endotoxemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, E; Er, A; Uney, K; Altunok, V; Elmas, M

    2007-09-01

    In this study, effect of flunixin meglumine on serum tumour necrosis factor alpha, (TNFalpha) interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels was investigated in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic mice. Healthy 273 Balb/C mice were used and divided into three equal groups. Group 1 was injected lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli 0111:B4, 250 microg/mouse, intraperitoneally), Group 2 was injected flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and Group 3 was injected lipopolysaccharide + flunixin meglumine. After the treatments, at 0., 1., 2., 3., 6., 12., 24th hours and 3., 5., 7., 14., 21., 28th days blood samples were taken from seven mice in each group. Serum TNFalpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels were measured using commercially available kits by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Flunixin meglumine did not affect the cytokine levels in healthy animals. While lipopolysaccharide increased serum TNFalpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels, flunixin meglumine inhibited increases at levels of all cytokines. As result, flunixin meglumine showed depressor effect on cytokine levels in endotoxemia and the effect may be a reason for the first chosen member of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug in endotoxemia.

  9. Influence of Flunixin on the Disposition Kinetic of Cefepime in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Hewaity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of cefepime (10 mg/kg b.w. was studied following intravenous and intramuscular administration of cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w. in goats. Cefepime concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Escherichia coli (MTCC 443 as test organism. Following intravenous injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, there are no significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Following intramuscular injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, the maximum serum concentration was significantly increased in flunixin coadministered group compared with cefepime alone. However, no significant changes were reported in other pharmacokinetic parameters. The result of in vitro protein binding study indicated that 15.62% of cefepime was bound to goat’s serum protein. The mean bioavailability was 92.66% and 95.27% in cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin, respectively. The results generated from the present study suggest that cefepime may be coadministered with flunixin without change in dose regimen. Cefepime may be given intramuscularly at 12 h intervals to combat susceptible bacterial infections.

  10. Occurrence of flunixin residues in bovine milk samples from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, L W; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Smith, G W

    2013-01-01

    5-Hydroxy-flunixin concentrations in milk samples were quantified by two commercially available screening assays--CHARM® and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)--to determine whether any concentrations could be detected above the tolerance limit of 2 ng g⁻¹ from different regions in the United States. Milk samples came from large tanker trucks hauling milk to processing plants, and had already been screened for antibiotics. Positive results for flunixin residues based on a screening assay were confirmed by ultra-HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. Of the 500 milk samples analysed in this study, one sample was found to have a 5-hydroxy-flunixin concentration greater than the tolerance limit. The results of this study indicate that flunixin residues in milk are possible. Regulatory agencies should be aware that such residues can occur, and should consider incorporating or expanding flunixin screening tests as part of routine drug monitoring in milk. Larger studies are needed to determine the true prevalence of flunixin residues in milk from other regions in the United States as well as different countries.

  11. Influence of flunixin on the disposition kinetic of cefepime in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hewaity, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of cefepime (10 mg/kg b.w.) was studied following intravenous and intramuscular administration of cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w.) in goats. Cefepime concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) as test organism. Following intravenous injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, there are no significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters. Following intramuscular injection of cefepime alone and in combination with flunixin, the maximum serum concentration was significantly increased in flunixin coadministered group compared with cefepime alone. However, no significant changes were reported in other pharmacokinetic parameters. The result of in vitro protein binding study indicated that 15.62% of cefepime was bound to goat's serum protein. The mean bioavailability was 92.66% and 95.27% in cefepime alone and coadministered with flunixin, respectively. The results generated from the present study suggest that cefepime may be coadministered with flunixin without change in dose regimen. Cefepime may be given intramuscularly at 12 h intervals to combat susceptible bacterial infections.

  12. Effects of flunixin on movement and performance of standardbred trotters on the track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallings, P; Johnston, C; Drevemo, S

    1999-07-01

    An often discussed and controversial issue is the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the NSAID flunixin on the movement pattern and performance capacity of Standardbred trotters using a standardised track model. Five adult Standardbred horses in training trotted at 2 occasions with a 2 week interval on the same oval dirt track. Before each occasion the horses were either injected with flunixin meglumine (Finadyne) or normal saline solution i.m. 4 h before the performance test (double blind crossover study). The kinematics for 5 consecutive strides were filmed. There was no significant difference in maximal speed between the saline and flunixin treatment sessions. Significant changes in the movement pattern were observed as an effect of the flunixin treatment. The horses maintained the same stride duration while significantly decreasing stance time and increasing swing time in the forelimbs. The horses' range of limb angle decreased significantly. Heart rates were monitored and plasma lactate and flunixin concentrations were measured. No significant differences were found in heart rate and plasma lactate. The results indicate that flunixin had a significant effect on locomotor pattern while it did not effect metabolic response in these horses (considered to represent a normal race track population). The overall effect on performance in racing horses may therefore be related to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of NSAIDs by masking pain and lameness.

  13. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows.

  14. Distribution of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into aqueous humor of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, H G; Magdesian, K G; Groth, A D; Knych, H; Stanley, S D; Hollingsworth, S R

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used systemically for the treatment of inflammatory ocular disease in horses. However, little information exists regarding the ocular penetration of this class of drugs in the horse. To determine the distribution of orally administered flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into the aqueous humor of horses. Fifteen healthy adult horses with no evidence of ophthalmic disease. Horses were randomly assigned to a control group and 2 treatment groups of equal sizes (n = 5). Horses assigned to the treatment groups received an NSAID (flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg PO q24h or firocoxib, 0.1 mg/kg PO q24h for 7 days). Horses in the control group received no medications. Concentrations of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib in serum and aqueous humor and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in aqueous humor were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 and aqueous : serum ratios were calculated. Firocoxib penetrated the aqueous humor to a significantly greater extent than did flunixin meglumine at days 3 and 5. Aqueous : serum ratios were 3.59 ± 3.32 and 11.99 ± 4.62% for flunixin meglumine and firocoxib, respectively. Ocular PGE(2) concentrations showed no differences at any time point among study groups. Both flunixin meglumine and firocoxib penetrated into the aqueous humor of horses. This study suggests that orally administered firocoxib penetrates the aqueous humor better than orally administered flunixin meglumine at label dosages in the absence of ocular inflammation. Firocoxib should be considered for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic lesions in horses at risk for the development of adverse effects associated with nonselective NSAID administration. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Dosis única de ciclofosfamida disminuye la calidad espermática y el epitelio germinal masculino en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láyonal Acosta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciclofosfamida (CP es un agente alquilante comúnmente utilizado como fármaco antineoplásico e inmunosupresor. El uso de CP, en el tratamiento de cáncer es limitado debido a su severa toxicidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto de una única dosis de CP (220 mg/kg peso corporal administrada intraperitonealmente después de 7 días, sobre parámetros espermáticos y el epitelio germinal masculino en ratones. Se utilizó machos maduros de la cepa C57BL divididos en 2 grupos (n= 10, Grupo Control (C: NaCl 0,9 % y Grupo Tratamiento (T: CP a 220 mg/kg pc en dosis única y después de 8 días fueron eutanizados. Se registró el peso corporal y de órganos reproductivos: testículos, epidídimos y conducto deferente, se evaluaron la concentración, movilidad y morfología espermática e histología testicular. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (Prueba t- student p<0,05 en el peso corporal (T: 20,18±1,9 g vs C: 23,35±1,2 g; peso testicular (T: 59,71±5,40 mg vs C: 72,90±2,8 mg, cola del epidídimo (T: 9,83±1,54 mg vs C: 14,30±2,20mg, conducto deferente (T: 8,27±0,80 mg vs C: 10,61±0,76 mg respectivamente, concentración (T: 9,2±1,9 vs C: 14,4±3,3 x 106 espermatozoides/mL, Movilidad progresiva (T: 25,98±6,4% vs C: 42,96±5,2%. En la morfología espermática no se observó diferencias significativas (Prueba t- student p<0,05, sin embargo en anomalías de la cola y espermatozoides inmaduros se observó un aumento significativo (T vs. C: 36,24±7,8% vs 31.73±9,1%; 27,44±2,1% vs 18,51±8,6%; respectivamente y a su vez se observó severos daños en los túbulos seminíferos. Concluimos que una dosis única de CP (220mg/kg pc disminuye la calidad reproductiva de ratones macho.

  16. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

    2014-02-01

    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses.

  17. The effects of periparturient administration of flunixin meglumine on the health and production of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, N C; Leslie, K E; Dingwell, H D Putnam; Kelton, D F; Weary, D M; Neuder, L; Millman, S T; Duffield, T F

    2017-01-01

    Research on the assessment and management of pain in cows following difficult or assisted calving is still limited, especially on the effects of analgesics intended to mitigate this pain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flunixin meglumine on the health and production of Holstein cows after calving. In total, 34 flunixin-treated and 38 placebo-treated animals were enrolled in a precalving treatment trial. A total of 633 animals given flunixin and 632 animals administered a placebo were enrolled in a postcalving treatment trial. In both cases, animals were randomly assigned to treatment, and researchers were blind to treatment condition until after analysis. A total of 1,265 animal records were analyzed for milk production for the first 14d in milk and health outcomes for the first 30d in milk. Animals treated with flunixin meglumine before calving had a significantly increased risk of stillbirth. Animals treated immediately after calving had increased odds of having a retained placenta and, in turn, increased risk of a high temperature, decreased milk production, and an increased risk of developing metritis. The administration of flunixin meglumine within 24h of parturition is not recommended in dairy cattle.

  18. Short communication: Behavioral evaluation of the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S A; Young, J M; Tena, J K; Manning, B H

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2.2 mg/kg body weight flunixin meglumine (2 mL/45 kg) or an equivalent volume of isotonic sterile saline solution. Weight-bearing data were collected from each cow at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after a single intravenous drug treatment. Mean locomotion scores over the 2 d before treatment were 2.38/5 in the flunixin-treated group and 2.43/5 in the saline-treated control group; these values were not significantly different. Weight-shifting values were also not significantly different on either pretreatment day. Cows treated with flunixin meglumine showed significantly less weight-shifting between the rear limbs at 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment compared with saline-treated controls, providing evidence that flunixin meglumine alleviates lameness-associated pain. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jeffrey M B; Heatley, J Jill; Phalen, David N

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the disposition kinetics of flunixin meglumine when administered IV to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus). Prospective cohort study. 8 adult Patagonian conures and 24 adult budgerigars. Injectable flunixin meglumine (50 mg/mL) was diluted to 10 and 1. 0 mg/mL and administered IV at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) to Patagonian conures and budgerigars, respectively. In budgerigars, the elimination half-life was 0.72 hours and the mean residence time was 0.73 hours. In Patagonian conures, the elimination half-life was 0.91 hours and the mean residence time was 1.20 hours. The concentration of flunixin was below the assay's limit of quantification (0.5 μg/mL) at 3 and 6 hours in budgerigars and Patagonian conures, respectively. A single budgerigar developed adverse effects (lethargy and signs of depression) for approximately 15 minutes following drug administration. The half-life of flunixin in Patagonian conures and budgerigars was short following IV administration; however, results of this study suggested that IV administration of injectable flunixin meglumine at 5.0 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations that could potentially be anti-inflammatory and analgesic in budgerigars and Patagonian conures.

  20. Clinical and pathological effects of flunixin meglumine administration to neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, J B; Papich, M G; Middleton, D M; Naylor, J M; Townsend, H G

    1989-01-01

    The effects of daily intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine at dosages of 0.55, 1.1, 2.2 and 6.6 mg/kg for five days were examined in neonatal foals. Six two day old foals were used to evaluate the effect of each dosage. Foals were examined every day and blood samples collected on days 1, 3 and 6. All foals were euthanized after six days, necropsied and examined for lesions. The major clinical abnormality was diarrhea, but the incidence was not related to the dosage of flunixin meglumine administered. The foals receiving 6.6 mg/kg of flunixin meglumine had significantly more gastrointestinal ulceration and greater cecal pathology and cecal petechiation scores than those foals treated with saline. The foals in the 6.6 mg/kg treatment group had a greater loss of total protein during the study, but the difference was not significant. There were no statistically significant blood cellular or biochemical alterations associated with the administration of flunixin meglumine. There were no significant clinicopathological differences between healthy foals treated with the recommended dosage of flunixin meglumine and those treated with physiological saline. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2713784

  1. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ngaio; Hall, Sarah; Scott, Karen; Harrison, Nancy

    2011-05-01

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures.

  2. Effects of flunixin meglumine or etodolac treatment on mucosal recovery of equine jejunum after ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Julia E; Wilder, B Osbone; Young, Karen M; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2004-06-01

    To examine the effects of flunixin meglumine and etodolac treatment on recovery of ischemic-injured equine jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion. 24 horses. Jejunum was exposed to 2 hours of ischemia during anesthesia. Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (12 mL, i.v., q 12 h), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, i.v., q 12 h), or etodolac (23 mg/kg, i.v., q 12 h). Tissue specimens were obtained from ischemic-injured and nonischemic jejunum immediately after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery from ischemia. Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of tritium-labeled mannitol measured mucosal permeability. Denuded villous surface area and mean epithelial neutrophil count per mm2 were calculated. Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 was performed. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin and etodolac and eicosanoid concentrations were determined. Ischemic-injured tissue from horses treated with flunixin and etodolac had significantly lower TER and increased permeability to mannitol, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution. Epithelial denudation after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery was not significantly different among treatments. Both COX-1 and -2 were expressed in ischemic-injured and nonischemic tissues. Ischemia caused significant upregulation of both COX isoforms. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in tissues from flunixin and etodolac-treated horses, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution. Flunixin and etodolac treatment retarded recovery of intestinal barrier function in jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion, whereas tissues from horses treated with saline solution recovered baseline values of TER and permeability to mannitol.

  3. Clinical and pathological effects of flunixin meglumine administration to neonatal foals.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrick, J B; Papich, M. G.; Middleton, D M; Naylor, J M; Townsend, H G

    1989-01-01

    The effects of daily intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine at dosages of 0.55, 1.1, 2.2 and 6.6 mg/kg for five days were examined in neonatal foals. Six two day old foals were used to evaluate the effect of each dosage. Foals were examined every day and blood samples collected on days 1, 3 and 6. All foals were euthanized after six days, necropsied and examined for lesions. The major clinical abnormality was diarrhea, but the incidence was not related to the dosage of flunixin megl...

  4. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and flunixin meglumine for treatment of cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, M; Kaartinen, L; Välimäki, E; Stryrman, M; Hiekkaranta, M; Niemi, A; Saari, L; Pyörälä, S

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of flunixin alone and together with enrofloxacin in treatment of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis was compared using six cows. The cross-over study design was used. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin and enrofloxacin were also studied in these diseased cows. The response of each cow was similar after the first and second challenge and the individual reaction seemed to explain the severity of clinical signs. The most important predictive factor for outcome of E. coli mastitis was a heavy drop in milk yield. Treatment with enrofloxacin and flunixin enhanced elimination of bacteria, but the difference from those receiving flunixin alone was not significant. Two cows, which had received no antimicrobial treatment (Group 1), were killed on day 4 postchallenge. One cow was killed after the first and the other after the second challenge. Cows receiving combination therapy produced 0.9 L more milk per day during the study period than cows which had only received flunixin (P flunixin between treatment groups: mean elimination half-life was 5.7-6.2 h, volume of distribution 0.43-0.49 L/kg and clearance 0.13-0.14 L h/kg. No flunixin or merely traces were detected in milk: one of the three cows had a concentration of 0.019 mg/L 8 h after administration.

  5. Plasma pharmacokinetics and milk residues of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin following different routes of administration in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, L W; Smith, G W; Leavens, T L; Baynes, R E; Wu, H; Riviere, J E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the plasma pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin (FLU) and 5-hydroxy flunixin (5OH) differ following intramuscular and subcutaneous injection of FLU compared with intravenous injection. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a randomized crossover design study. Cows were organized into 2 groups based on milk production (30 kg of milk/d). All cattle were administered 2 doses of 1.1mg of FLU/kg at 12-h intervals by intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injections. The washout period between routes of administration was 7d. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before FLU administration and at various time points up to 36 h after the first dose of FLU. Composite milk samples were collected before FLU administration and twice daily for 5d after the first dose of FLU. Samples were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. For FLU plasma samples, a difference in terminal half-life was observed among routes of administration. Harmonic mean terminal half-lives for FLU were 3.42, 4.48, and 5.39 h for intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection, respectively. The mean bioavailability following intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing was 84.5 and 104.2%, respectively. The decrease in 5OH milk concentration versus time after last dose was analyzed with the nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach and indicated that both the route of administration and rate of milk production were significant covariates. The number of milk samples greater than the tolerance limit for each route of administration was also compared at each time point for statistical significance. Forty-eight hours after the first dose, 5OH milk concentrations were undetectable in all intravenously injected cows; however, one intramuscularly injected and one subcutaneously injected cow had measurable concentrations. These cows had 5OH concentrations above the tolerance limit at the 36-h withdrawal time

  6. Effects of phenylbutazone alone or in combination with flunixin meglumine on blood protein concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shannon K; Messer, Nathaniel T; Tessman, Ronald K; Keegan, Kevin G

    2006-03-01

    To assess effects of treatment with phenylbutazone (PBZ) or a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine in horses. 24 adult horses. 13 horses received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in a crossover design. Eleven control horses were exposed to similar environmental conditions. Treated horses received PBZ (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days) and a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine (PBZ, 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days; flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h, for 5 days). Serum samples were obtained on day 0 (first day of treatment) and day 5, and total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured. 1 horse was euthanatized with severe hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and colitis during the combination treatment. Comparisons revealed no significant difference between control horses and horses treated with PBZ alone. There was a significant difference between control and treated horses when administered a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine. Correction for horses with values >2 SDs from the mean revealed a significant difference between control horses and horses administered the combination treatment, between control horses and horses administered PBZ alone, and between horses receiving the combination treatment and PBZ alone. Gastroscopy of 4 horses revealed substantial gastric ulcers when receiving the combination NSAID treatment. Analysis of results of the study indicates the need for caution when administering a combination NSAID treatment to horses because the detrimental effects may outweigh any potential benefits.

  7. First detection of an NSAID, flunixin, in sheep's wool using GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Ngaio, E-mail: ngaio.richards@anglia.ac.uk [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Hall, Sarah [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Scott, Karen [Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Harrison, Nancy [Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 1PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC-MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep's wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC-MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures. - Highlights: > In this study we qualitatively detected the NSAID flunixin in sheep's wool using GC-MS. > Potential applications of this technique to the conservation of avian scavengers are outlined. > The quantitative and confirmatory steps required to fully validate the method are also provided. - This is the first time that an NSAID has been investigated or detected in sheep's wool. As such, it details a novel exposure pathway for scavenging species in the environment and offers a potential tool for future monitoring effort in vulture conservation.

  8. Effects of Firocoxib, Flunixin Meglumine, and Phenylbutazone on Platelet Function and Thromboxane Synthesis in Healthy Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Brenna N; Thomason, John M; Hurdle, Holly M; Wills, Robert W; Fontenot, Robin L

    2016-11-01

    Determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis immediately after drug administration and following 5 days of NSAID administration in healthy horses. Randomized cross-over study. Healthy adult horses (n=9; 6 geldings and 3 mares). Horses received either flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), or firocoxib (loading dose of 0.27 mg/kg IV on day 1, then 0.09 mg/kg IV every 24 hours for 4 days) for a total of 5 days. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration (day 0), 1 hour after initial NSAID administration (day 1), and then 1 hour post-NSAID administration on day 5. Platelet function was assessed using turbidimetric aggregometry and a platelet function analyzer. Serum thromboxane B2 concentrations were determined by commercial ELISA kit. A minimum 14 day washout period occurred between trials. At 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, or phenylbutazone, there was no significant effect on platelet aggregation or function using turbidimetric aggregometry or a platelet function analyzer. There was, however, a significant decrease in thromboxane synthesis at 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone that was not seen with firocoxib. Preoperative administration of flunixin meglumine, phenylbutazone, or firocoxib should not inhibit platelet function based on our model. The clinical implications of decreased thromboxane B2 synthesis following flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administration are undetermined. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Effect of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib on ex vivo cyclooxygenase activity in horses undergoing elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duz, Marco; Parkin, Tim D; Cullander, Rose M; Marshall, John F

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate ex vivo cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and compare in vitro and ex vivo COX-1 inhibition by flunixin meglumine and firocoxib in horses. 4 healthy horses for in vitro experiments and 12 healthy horses (6 males and 6 females; 5 Thoroughbreds, 5 Warmbloods, and 2 ponies) undergoing elective surgery for ex vivo experiments. 12 horses received flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h) or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h). Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and 2 and 24 hours after NSAID administration. Prostanoids (thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin E metabolites) served as indicators of COX activity, and serum drug concentrations were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. An in vitro coagulation-induced thromboxane B2 assay was used to calculate drug concentration-COX-1 inhibition curves. Effect of time and treatment on COX activity was determined. Agreement between in vitro and ex vivo measurement of COX activity was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. At 2 and 24 hours after NSAID administration, COX-1 activity was reduced, compared with baseline activity, for the flunixin meglumine group only and relative COX-1 activity was significantly greater for the firocoxib group, compared with that for the flunixin meglumine group. There was no significant change in COX-2 activity after surgery for either group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed poor agreement between in vitro and ex vivo measurement of COX-1 activity. Compared with flunixin meglumine, firocoxib had COX-1-sparing effects ex vivo in equine patients that underwent elective surgery.

  10. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted

  11. Quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Rudy, Jeffrey A; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; Guan, Fuyu; Enright, James M; Tsang, Deborah S

    2004-03-05

    The method describes quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS/MS). Samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and only those samples presumptively declared positive were subjected to quantification and confirmation for the presence of flunixin by this method. The method is also readily adaptable to instrumental screening for the analyte. Flunixin was recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The sample was diluted with 2 ml saturated phosphate buffer (pH 3.10) prior to LLE. The dried extract was reconstituted in acetonitrile:water:formic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v/v) and subsequently analyzed on a Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometer (Micromass) operated under electrospray ionization positive ion mode. The concentration of flunixin was determined by the internal standard (IS) calibration method using the peak area ratio with clonixin as the IS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for flunixin in equine plasma were 0.1 and 1 ng/ml, respectively, whereas the limit of confirmation (LOC) was 2.5 ng/ml. The qualifying ions for the identification of flunixin were m/z 297 [M+H](+), 279 (BP), 264, 259, 239 and those for clonixin (IS) were m/z 263 [M+H](+), 245 (BP) and 210. The measurement uncertainty about the result was 8.7%. The method is simple, sensitive, robust and reliably fast in the quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma. Application of this method will assist racing authorities in the enforcement of tolerance plasma concentration of flunixin in the racehorse on race day.

  12. Evaluation of the ability of carprofen and flunixin meglumine to inhibit activation of nuclear factor kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Clare E; Farnfield, Belinda A; Janicke, Heidi J

    2003-02-01

    To determine whether the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) carprofen, flunixin meglumine, and phenylbutazone have cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent effects that specifically inhibit activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NfkappaB). Purified ovine COX-1 and -2 and cultures of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The COX-1 and -2 inhibitory effects of the NSAIDs were tested in assays that used purified ovine COX-1 and -2. Prostaglandin production was analyzed by use of a radioimmunoassay. Inhibitory effects of these drugs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and LPS-stimulated translocation of NficB were determined by use of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone were selective inhibitors of COX-1. Carprofen and flunixin meglumine, but not phenylbutazone, inhibited LPS-induction of iNOS. Carprofen and, to a lesser degree, flunixin meglumine had inhibitory effects on NFkappaB activation. The ability of drugs such as carprofen and flunixin meglumine to inhibit activation of NfkappaB-dependent genes such as iNOS, in addition to their effects on COX, suggests an additional mechanism for their anti-inflammatory effects and may explain the ability of flunixin meglumine to be an effective inhibitor of the effects of endotoxin in horses with endotoxemia.

  13. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  14. Effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, plasma lactate and stride length responses to intense treadmill exercise in Standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallings, P; Persson, S G B; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-11-01

    Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, on account of their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, are used in both racing and equestrian sport horses, the question has been raised as to whether these drugs affect the physiological responses to exercise and thus performance potential. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and locomotor parameters in horses during intense treadmill exercise. Six Standardbred trotters underwent an incremental treadmill exercise test to fatigue, without drug and then after administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.m.). Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake and stride length were measured and venous blood samples drawn repeatedly during the test. Heart rates were found to be significantly higher at submaximal speeds, while the velocity causing a HR of 200 beats/min was significantly decreased after treatment with flunixin. Maximal HR and plasma lactate concentration 5 min after exercise were unchanged after medication. Flunixin caused higher plasma lactate concentrations at all speeds and the lactate threshold was decreased, compared with baseline values. Oxygen uptake levelled off at the highest velocities and did not change after flunixin treatment. Stride length was increased after treatment, although not at the highest velocities. The increased HR and lactate responses to exercise after flunixin treatment indicate that it does influence physiological responses, but does not improve the performance potential of clinically healthy horses. However, the lengthened stride during submaximal exercise after medication could imply undetected subclinical lameness, masked in some of the horses, i.e. they have performed with a longer stride at the cost of a higher heart rate and an increased lactate concentration. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Estudo comparativo entre antlmoniato de meglumina, isotianato de pentamidina e sulfato de aminosidine, no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

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    Dalmo Correia

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia, a tolerabilidade e a toxicidade do antimoniato de meglumina, do sulfato de aminosidine e do isotianato depentamidine no tratamento de lesões cutâneas primárias causadas por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis foi realizado um estudo de campo, aberto, randomizado, na área endêmica de Cone de Pedra-Bahia. De outubro de 1992 a janeiro de 1993, foram tratados 46 pacientes, distribuídos em três grupos dois de 15 e um de 16 pacientes. Todos os pacientes realizaram exames clínico, parasitológico, histopatológico e imunológico, como critério diagnóstico. Todos os pacientes foram tratados pela via intramuscular. O Grupo 1 recebeu pentamidina na dose de 4mg/k.g/dia, em dias alternados, no total de 8 aplicações; o Grupo 2 aminosidine na dose de 20mg/k.g/dia, por 20 dias; o Grupo 3, meglumina na dose de 10mg/kg/dia, por 20 dias. Definiu-se como falha terapêutica a permanência de lesões ulceradas, após quatro meses de tratamento. Ocorreram cinco casos de falha terapêutica assim distribuídos: dois casos no Grupo 1, um caso no Grupo 2 e dois no Grupo 3, ao final do primeiro ano de seguimento. Na avaliação após 3 anos foram revistos 15 pacientes, 5 em cada Grupo; exceto um do Grupo 3, todos continuaram curados. Não houve diferença estatística entre os resultados dos três esquemas utilizados.With the aim of comparing the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of meglumine antimoniate, aminosidine sulphate andpentamidine isethionate, a field study was conducted on randomized treatment of patients with primary cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, in Cone de Pedra, BA, from October 1992 up to January 1993- Forty six patients were treated and distributed into three groups, two with 15 and one with 16 subjects. All patients were submitted to clinical examination, histopatological and immunological investigations, as diagnostic criterium. All patients were

  16. Excretory, Secretory, and Tissue Residues after Label and Extra-label Administration of Flunixin Meglumine to Saline- or Lipopolysaccharide-Exposed Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J; Shelver, Weilin L; Baynes, Ronald E; Tell, Lisa; Gehring, Ronette; Li, Mengjie; Dutko, Terry; Schroeder, J W; Herges, Grant; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-05-20

    Twenty lactating dairy cattle were intravenously infused with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 10) or sterile saline (n = 10). Five cattle in each group received three doses of flunixin meglumine administered by either intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection at 24 h intervals. Milk, urine, and tissues were collected. Thirty-six hours after the last flunixin administration, milk from six cows contained 5-hydroxyflunixin (5OHF) levels greater than the milk tolerance of 2 ng/mL; by 48 h, milk from two cows, a saline and a LPS-treated animal, had violative milk concentrations of 5OHF. A single animal treated with LPS and intramuscular flunixin contained violative flunixin residues in liver. The ratio of urinary flunixin/5OHF was correlated (P flunixin residues in LPS-treated animals, but not (P = 0.96; R(2) = 0.003) in cows treated with saline in lieu of LPS. Violative residues of flunixin in dairy cattle may be related to LPS inhibition of flunixin metabolism.

  17. Effect of Flunixin on Ovarian Cancer Induced by DMBA in Female Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kayvan Keramati; mehri mehran poor; Abolfazl Babakhani; Gholam Hasan Vaezi; Fahimeh Habibi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ovary cancer is one of the commonest cancers among the women. With regard to role of cyclooxygnase(COX) enzyme and production of prostaglandin type E2 in causing tumor damages in ovary cancer, application of compounds to inhibit cyclooxygnase can be effective in preventing ovary cancer. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate flunixin as nonselective inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase enzymes in developing ovary cancer in female Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental re...

  18. Comparing the Effect of Myristica fragrans and Flunixin on Adjuvant-Induced

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    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Houtt, has shown anti-inflammatory properties in some studies. At present experimental study, we evaluated the effect of seed extract of nutmeg on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats in comparison with flunixin meglumine. Materials and Methods: Experimental study was done in six groups of Wistar rats (each group 8 rats as following: Group 1 was kept as control under similar conditions to other groups. All other rats received complete Freund's adjuvant at dose 0.1 ml which injected under skin of foot. Group 2 was received vehicle (normal saline. Group 3 received flunixin intraperitonealy at dose of 2 mg/kg body weight of rats daily for 12 days. Group4 to 6 received extract of nutmeg at dose 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg intraperitonealy and daily for 12 days. Four rats in each group were anesthetized and blood collected for serum analysis on 12th day. The ankle joint prepared for histopathological examination. The remained rats were kept until 21th day. Levels of the cytokine TNF-α in serum was measured using ELISA kit. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α in the group 2 were significantly increased; while nutmeg decreased the elevated TNF-α level in a dose-dependent manner but significantly with 300 mg/kg. The flunixin did not significantly decrease the levels of TNF-α. Nutmeg treated rats manifested pathological events in the ankle joints to a markedly lesser degree. Flunixin prevented pannus formation but it was ineffective in other lesions. Conclusion: Thus, nutmeg protected the joints against cartilage destruction and bone erosion in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: immunoglobulins, phagocytosis, and effect of flunixin meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K L; Smith, A R; Shanks, R D; Whitmore, H L; Davis, L E; Gustafsson, B K

    1986-11-01

    Milk whey immunoglobulins (Ig) and phagocytosis of staphylococci by milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) were measured in 12 cows (allotted to 6 pairs) during acute bovine mastitis induced by intramammary inoculation of endotoxin. Six of these cows (or 1 in each pair) were treated with flunixin meglumine and were compared with the others (given only saline solution). The endotoxin inoculation comprised 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide injected into one of the rear quarters (mammae). Flunixin meglumine was administered parenterally at a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg every 8 hours (total of 7 doses) beginning at 2 hours after endotoxin was injected. Milk samples were obtained, and whey samples were prepared from each quarter of each cow 3 times before inoculation and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 336 hours after endotoxin was inoculated. Significant increases (P less than 0.05) in milk whey IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations were observed in whey samples from endotoxin-inoculated quarters. Greatest relative increase was seen for IgG2. Increased whey Ig concentrations were not observed in quarters which were not inoculated with endotoxin. Concentrations of whey IgG1 and IgM in endotoxin-inoculated quarters were significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased in flunixin meglumine-treated cows, compared with those in saline solution-treated cows. Significant increases in phagocytosis of staphylococci by milk PMN were observed in whey samples from endotoxin-inoculated quarters. Significant differences in PMN phagocytosis were not found in whey samples from cows given flunixin meglumine when compared with whey samples from cows given saline solution.

  20. Effect of morphine and flunixin meglumine on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tom J; Will, Whitney A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Geiser, Dennis R

    2004-04-01

    To determine the effect of morphine and flunixin meglumine on isoflurane (ISO) minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in goats. Prospective, randomized experimental study. Five adult, wether goats from 1 to 3 years in age, and weighing 24-65 kg. Anesthesia was induced using ISO, which was delivered via a mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain an end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration between 25 and 30 mm Hg (3.3-4 kPa). End-tidal ISO concentration was measured using an infrared analyzer. The baseline ISO MAC that prevented purposeful movement in response to clamping a claw was determined. Following baseline MAC determination, each goat received one of the following four treatments intravenously (IV): morphine (2 mg kg(-1)), flunixin (1.5 mg kg(-1)), flunixin (1.5 mg kg(-1)) plus morphine (2 mg kg(-1)) or saline, and the MAC was re-determined. Goats were studied at weekly intervals, and each goat received each treatment in a randomized fashion. The baseline ISO MAC for the control treatment was 1.43%. Morphine reduced the MAC by 29.7%. Flunixin did not significantly decrease the MAC nor did it potentiate the effect of morphine on MAC. The quality of recovery was good in all cases. Morphine (2 mg kg(-1), IV) significantly reduced the ISO MAC in goats and did not adversely affect the quality of recovery. The use of morphine, at the dose studied, in association with ISO anesthesia, will allow a clinically significant reduction in the concentration of ISO required to maintain general anesthesia in goats.

  1. Nephrotoxicity in dogs associated with methoxyflurane anesthesia and flunixin meglumine analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Karol A.; Doherty, Thomas; Dyson, Doris H.; Wilcock, Brian; Valliant, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Uremia unexpectedly developed in five dogs 24 hours after undergoing thoracotomy in a student laboratory. In all dogs general anesthesia had been maintained with methoxyflurane, muscle relaxation had been induced with gallamine, and each dog received a single intravenous dose of 1.0 mg/kg flunixin meglumine for analgesia upon termination of anesthesia. In a subsequent group of dogs undergoing an orthopedic procedure, we assessed the effects on renal function of methoxyflurane anesthesia plus ...

  2. In vitro effects of reactive oxygen metabolites, with and without flunixin meglumine, on equine colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Olivia J; Freeman, David E; Wallig, Matthew A; Clarkson, Robert B

    2007-03-01

    To determine effects of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), with and without flunixin meglumine, on equine right ventral colon (RVC) in vitro. 18 healthy horses and ponies. In 3 groups of 6 animals each, short-circuit current and conductance were measured in RVC mucosa in Ussing chambers. The 3 groups received physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, IV, 10 minutes before euthanasia and tissue incubation in Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate (KRB) solution; flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV) 10 minutes before euthanasia and tissue incubation in KRB solution; or physiologic saline solution, IV, 10 minutes before euthanasia and incubation in KRB solution with 2.7 x 10(5)M flunixin meglumine. Incubation conditions included control (no addition) and ROM systems, including addition of 1 mM xanthine and 80 mU of xanthine oxidase (to produce the superoxide radical), 1 mM H(2)O(2), and 1 mM H(2)O(2) and 0.5 mM ferrous sulfate (to produce the hydroxyl radical). All ROMs that were added or generated significantly increased the short-circuit current except in tissues coincubated with flunixin meglumine, and they induced mild epithelial vacuolation and apoptosis, but did not disrupt the epithelium nor change conductance, lactate dehydrogenase release, or [(3)H]mannitol flux. Responses to ROMs could be attributed to increased chloride secretion and inhibited neutral NaCl absorption in equine RVC, possibly by stimulating prostaglandin production. The ROMs examined under conditions of this study could play a role in prostaglandin-mediated colonic secretion in horses with enterocolitis without causing direct mucosal injury.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and urinary detection time of flunixin after intravenous administration in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, I A; Boni, N S; Abdel Hadi, A; Elghazali, M; Zorob, O; Alkatheeri, N A; Barezaiq, I M

    1998-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flunixin were determined after an intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg body weight in six camels and 2.2 mg/kg body weight in four camels. The data obtained (mean +/- SEM) for the low and high dose, respectively, were as follows: The elimination half-lives (t1/2 beta) were 3.76 +/- 0.24 and 4.08 +/- 0.49 h, the steady state volumes of distribution (Vdss) were 320.61 +/- 38.53 and 348.84 +/- 35.36 mL/kg body weight, total body clearances (ClT) were 88.96 +/- 6.63 and 84.86 +/- 4.95 mL/h/kg body weight and renal clearances (Clr) were 0.52 +/- 0.09 and 0.62 +/- 0.18 mL/h/kg body weight. A hydroxylated metabolite of flunixin was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) under electron and chemical ionization and its major fragmentation pattern was verified by tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) using neutral loss, daughter and parent scan modes. The detection times for flunixin and its hydroxylated metabolite in urine after an intravenous (i.v.) dose of 2.2 mg/kg body weight were 96 and 48 h, respectively.

  4. Efficacy of ceftiofur and flunixin in the early treatment of bronchopneumonia in weaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloy, D J; Cambier, C; Gustin, P G

    2006-03-04

    Three groups of five pigs were inoculated intratracheally with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides, and 24 hours later with 10 x 10(9) colony-forming units of a non-toxigenic strain of Pasteurella multocida type A; a fourth group was left uninoculated as controls. The three inoculated groups received either no treatment (positive controls), or were treated with 3 mg/kg ceftiofur intramuscularly once a day for five consecutive days, either alone or combined with 2 mg/kg flunixin intramuscularly once a day for three consecutive days. The sustained coughing and hyperthermia recorded in the positive controls disappeared after two days and three days of treatments, respectively, in the treated animals, and the reductions in daily weight gain and changes in breathing pattern observed in the controls were not observed in the treated animals. There were no significant differences between the pigs treated with ceftiofur alone or ceftiofur combined with flunixin. In the positive controls, the number of inflammatory cells in samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid continued to increase up to 15 days after inoculation, whereas in the treated animals there were similar increases at six days but the numbers had decreased to baseline levels after 15 days. Similarly, in the treated animals the volume of the lung lesions was significantly less than in the control animals, but the inclusion of flunixin in the treatment regimen had no significant additional effect.

  5. Comparison of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam influence on postoperative and oxidative stress in ovariohysterectomized bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, O; Korkmaz, M; Jaroszewski, J J; Yazici, E; Ulutas, E; Saritas, Z K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM) and meloxicam (M) on postoperative and oxidative stress in ovariohysterectomized bitches. Twenty four bitches were divided into three groups (n = 8 in each) and treated during premedication as follows: FM (2.2 mg/kg, iv, Fluvil, Vilsan, Turkey), M (0.2 mg/kg, sc, Maxicam, Sanovel, Turkey) or 0.9% saline (1 ml, iv, IE, Turkey)--control (C) group. The concentrations of serum cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant potential (AOP) and glutation (GSH) were measured in blood samples collected during incision (0 h), closure of incision line (0.5 h) and 1, 2.5, 12 and 24 hours after incision. It was observed that cortisol level was higher at 0.5, 1 and 2.5 h in group C (p flunixin meglumine decreases cortisol and NO levels more efficiently than meloxicam. Therefore, it is suggested that postoperative stress following ovariohysterectomy may be prevented by flunixin meglumine in bitches.

  6. Use of flunixin meglumine in Santa Inês ewes submitted to laparoscopic and transcervical insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of flunixim meglumine in Santa Ines ewes submitted to artificial insemination (AI. Forty-four Santa Inês ewes were synchronized and inseminated at fixed times, by the transcervical or laparoscopic route, between 52 and 58 hours after sponge removal. The ewes were split into two treatment groups, to receive intramuscular injections of 2 mL of saline (control treatment or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine (FM treatment, twice a day between days 9 and 19 after AI. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound 30 days after the AI. The chi-square test was used to compare the pregnancy rate between the control and flunixin meglumine treatment and between type of insemination, while the t-test, at 5% probability was used to compare the average weight and body condition, using the SAS statistical software. Flunixin meglumine was not effect in increasing the pregnancy rate in Santa Ines ewes undergoing laparoscopic and transcervical insemination.

  7. Effects of flunixin meglumine on recovery of colonic mucosa from ischemia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszek, Sarah A; Morton, Alison J; Freeman, David E; Grosche, Astrid; Polyak, Maximilian M R; Kuck, Hilken

    2009-02-01

    To examine the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) on recovery of colonic mucosa from experimentally induced ischemia in horses. 14 research horses. Ischemia was induced in the colons of anesthetized horses for 2 hours. Afterward, horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (12 mL, IV, q 12 h; n = 7) or FM (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h; 7) and were allowed to recover for 18 hours after termination of the ischemic event. Postoperative pain scores were recorded every 4 hours throughout the recovery period. At the end of the recovery period, horses were anesthetized, and ischemic and nonischemic segments of colonic mucosa were harvested for histologic evaluation, western blot analysis, and in vitro assessment of transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and transmucosal flux of tritium-labeled (3H-) mannitol. Horses were then euthanatized. Flunixin meglumine significantly lowered pain scores at the first postoperative recording. There were no significant differences between treatment with saline solution and FM in any of the measurements for TER, 3H-mannitol flux, histomorphometric variables, neutrophil infiltration (detected via calprotectin immunostaining), and expressions of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. After both treatments, TER declined significantly in nonischemic tissues in vitro, whereas it increased significantly in ischemic-injured tissues. Flunixin meglumine did not affect recovery of equine colonic mucosa from ischemic injury, and continued use in horses with colonic ischemia is therefore justified.

  8. Effects of flunixin meglumine on the recovery of ischaemic equine colonic mucosa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A J; Grosche, A; Matyjaszek, S A; Polyak, M M R; Freeman, D E

    2011-08-01

    The effects of prostaglandins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on repair of equine intestinal mucosa are important since most horses with gastrointestinal diseases are routinely treated with NSAIDs, such as flunixin meglumine (FM), and these drugs can be toxic to equine gastrointestinal mucosa. Flunixin meglumine would not affect recovery of equine colonic mucosa in vitro, 18 h after a reversible ischaemic injury. In 14 anaesthetised horses, a segment of pelvic flexure was subjected to 2 h of ischaemia and the horses were allowed to recover for 18 h. Seven horses received normal saline and 7 received FM, 1.1 mg/kg bwt i.v., at the end of ischaemia and 12 h later. Colonic mucosa was harvested during a second anaesthesia, 18 h after recovery from ischaemia and then horses were subjected to euthanasia. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of tritiated mannitol were used to measure mucosal permeability during 4 h of incubation in Ussing chambers, with the following in vitro treatments: 1) no addition, 2) FM 14 µmol/l as powder, 3) FM 14 µmol/l in injectable form and 4) diluent for injectable FM. Histomorphological changes were assessed by light microscopy. There were no significant differences in any of the measurements between saline and FM treated horses. The mucosal height of the ischaemic FM tissues incubated in diluent was significantly decreased compared to the nonischaemic tissues. Flunixin meglumine did not adversely affect barrier integrity in ischaemic equine colonic mucosa. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  9. The effects of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flunixin and phenylbutazone on bovine natural-killer-cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M A; Duffus, W P

    1990-09-01

    A series of in-vitro experiments was performed utilizing the ability of bovine peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to induce lysis of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), in an antibody-independent natural-killer(NK)-cell cytotoxic assay. The effects of dexamethasone (dexamethasone sodium phosphate), betamethasone (betamethasone sodium phosphate), flunixin (flunixin meglumine) and phenylbutazone on this NK cytolysis were studied using concentrations of the drugs ranging from well below to well above those normally attained in plasma at recommended therapeutic doses. All four drugs inhibited NK activity. For each agent a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) required to inhibit NK activity by approximately 50% was calculated. For dexamethasone, betamethasone and flunixin the MIC50 was lower after a 24-h pre-incubation of PBMC with each drug, although a marked inhibition was seen when the drug was only present during the 5-h NK assay itself. In contrast the MIC50 for phenylbutazone rose after a 24-h pre-incubation with PBMC.

  10. Effects of transdermal flunixin meglumine on pain biomarkers at dehorning in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; Ji, J; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic properties of transdermal flunixin meglumine when given at the time of dehorning on pain biomarkers. Twenty-four weaned male Holstein calves, 6 to 8 wk of age were enrolled into the study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) transdermal flunixin and dehorn (DH-FLU); 2) transdermal flunixin and sham dehorn (SHAM-FLU); and 3) placebo and dehorn (DH-PLBO). Transdermal flunixin at a label dose of 3.33 mg/kg (or placebo at an equivalent volume) was administered as a pour-on along the top-line of the calves in each treatment group concurrently with electrocautery dehorning or sham dehorning. Biomarker parameters collected and analyzed included: infrared thermography (IRT), mechanical nociception threshold (MNT), plasma cortisol, and substance P (SP). There were no differences in maximal temperatures detected for the IRT measurements of the medial canthus of the eye for the DH groups. Mean control point MNT measurements at 48 h were 3.14 kgF, 3.46 kgF, and 1.43 kgF for the DH-FLU, Sham-FLU, and DH-PLBO groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). No other differences of MNT were detected between the dehorned groups for the other test sites and time points. Plasma cortisol reached peak concentration at 20 min postdehorning for the DH-FLU and DH-PLBO groups and 10 min for SHAM-FLU group. Peak plasma cortisol concentrations were 32.0 ng/mL, 12.7 ng/mL, and 28.8 ng/mL for the DH-FLU, SHAM-FLU, and DH-PLBO groups, respectively. Cortisol concentrations were lower for the DH-FLU group at 90 min postdehorning compared to the SHAM-FLU and DH-PLBO groups ( = 0.04). Area under the effect curve (AUEC) were similar for all groups ( = 0.93). No statistical differences in SP concentrations between groups were detected for any of the time points. In conclusion, transdermal flunixin meglumine given at the time of dehorning did not provide substantial analgesia based on the pain biomarkers investigated. Further

  11. El 17β-estradiol disminuye la expresión y asociación de quinasas responsables de la hiperfosforilación de Tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Cepeda-Prado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un componente molecular predominante en el estudio de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas es la presencia del complejo Tau-GSK3β y su asociación con agregados proteicos al interior de la célula. Evidencias considerables muestran que GSK3β es el principal causante de la hiperfosforilación de Tau. Sin embargo, son poco claros los eventos moleculares que gobiernan este complejo.Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 17 β-estradiol en la expresión y asociación de las quinasas responsables de la hiperfosforilación de Tau.Métodos: Se realizaron tratamientos con 17 β-estradiol en hipocampo de rata Wistar adulta ovariectomizada y en cultivos primarios de hipocampo de rata tratados con b-amiloide. Se evaluó la asociación de complejos proteicos por co-inmunoprecipitación, ensayo de toxicidad por liberación LDH y cambios morfológicos celulares por microscopía confocal.Resultados: Este estudio mostró evidencias de que el estradiol disocia complejos macromoleculares como Tau/GSK3β, Tau/GluR2/3, Tau/FAK, Tau/Fyn en hipocampo de rata adulta. Además, disminuyó la expresión de GSK3β-ptyr por el tratamiento hormonal y éste reguló la defosforilación de Tau en un modelo de excitoxicidad por β-amiloide.Conclusiones: Lo anterior sugiere, nuevos blancos que contribuyen al estudio de la neuroprotección y plasticidad neuronal mediada por el estrógeno.

  12. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Tell, Lisa A; Wagner, Sarah; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, David J

    2013-03-20

    Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg of body weight of flunixin free acid in a crossover design by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) administration. After a minimum 1:10 dilution with 50 mM phosphate buffer, a commercial immunoassay was adapted to determine plasma concentrations of flunixin. The limit of detection was 0.42 ng/mL and the working range was 0.76-66.4 ng/mL when adjusted with the dilution factor. Plasma samples were extracted using mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction prior to the LC-MS/MS analyses. The linear calibration curve for LC-MS/MS was 0.5-2000 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL for flunixin and 0.3 ng/mL for 5-hydroxy flunixin. Flunixin concentrations determined using the ELISAs were compared to concentrations derived from the same samples using LC-MS/MS analyses. Pharmacokinetic parameters of time versus concentration data from each analysis were estimated and compared. Differences (P flunixin analysis and that it would be difficult to differentiate routes of administration in healthy beef cattle based on the plasma elimination profile of flunixin after IV or SC administration.

  13. Estudo comparativo entre estibogluconato de sódio BP 88R e antimoniato de meglumina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea: I. Eficácia e segurança Comparative study between sodium stibogluconate BP 88R and meglumine antimoniate for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment: I. Efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina R. Saldanha

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia e segurança do antimoniato de meglumina e do estibogluconato de sódio BP 88R foram comparadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em Corte de Pedra, Bahia, área endêmica de leishmaniose causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Realizou-se um estudo quase-experimental que incluiu 127 pacientes cujo diagnóstico baseou-se na observação clínica e a intradermorreação de Montenegro. Cinqüenta e oito pacientes receberam antimoniato de meglumina e 69 estibogluconato de sódio. Utilizou-se a dose de 20 mg/Sb v/kg/dia por 20 dias, em ambos os grupos. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a cada dez dias durante o tratamento e mensalmente por três meses. Observou-se a cura em 62% dos pacientes tratados com antimoniato de meglumina e em 55% daqueles tratados com estibogluconato de sódio (p = 0,42. A cefaléia foi mais freqüente na primeira metade do tratamento no grupo tratado com estibogluconato de sódio (p = 0,026. Na segunda metade do tratamento, os pacientes tratados com estibogluconato de sódio apresentaram maior freqüencia de mialgia/artralgia (p = 0,004 e dor abdominal/anorexia (p = 0,004. Três pacientes tratados com o estibogluconato de sódio apresentaram efeitos colaterais graves.Efficacy and safety of meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate BP88R were compared in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, an endemic area of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. An open trial was developed with one hundred twenty seven patients who were diagnosed based on clinical criteria and Montenegro´s skin test. Fifty eight patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and 69 received sodium stibogluconate. Both groups received 20 mg/Sb v/kg/day for 20 days. Patients were followed every ten days during treatment and every month thereafter for three months. Sixty two percent patients cured with meglumine antimoniate and 55% cured with sodium stibogluconate (p = 0,42. Headache was

  14. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  15. Healing of surgical castration wounds: a description and an evaluation of flunixin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintline, E M; Varga, A; Banuelos, J; Walker, K A; Hoar, B; Drake, Daniel; Weary, D M; Coetzee, J F; Stock, M L; Tucker, C B

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that surgical castration wounds take between 10 and 61 d to heal. The objectives of this work were to describe healing, inflammation, lying behavior, and serum concentration of substance P after surgical castration in beef calves and to evaluate the effect of a possible intervention, a single injection of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV, a NSAID), on the healing process. Calves (mean±SE: 25±2.0 d of age; 54±1.4 kg BW) were surgically castrated with or without an injection of flunixin immediately before the procedure (n=24/treatment). Healing was measured with a 5-point scale (1=fresh wound, 5=no visible incision or inflammation) as well as weight gain, scrotal size, and scrotal surface temperature, on d 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, and 63 after castration. Serum concentration of substance P was recorded on all d, including d 0, but not d 63. Lying behavior was recorded with loggers from 2 d before to 29 d after castration. Inflammation, as measured by scrotal size, peaked on d 2 and 3 after the procedure (e.g., 51±1.0 mm on d 2 versus 28±1.3 mm before castration) and then declined with time (Pflunixin had more lying bouts than those that received saline (flunixin by time interaction; P=0.052), but this pattern emerged on and after d 8, well after the 3 to 8 h half-life of this NSAID. In conclusion, castration caused inflammation in the days that followed, and the wounds required a minimum of 4 wk to heal. Provision of an NSAID had no effect on these outcomes.

  16. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huilian

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Flunixin after Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administration to Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odensvik K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics and the prostaglandin (PG synthesis inhibiting effect of flunixin were determined in 6 Norwegian dairy goats. The dose was 2.2 mg/kg body weight administered by intravenous (i.v., intramuscular (i.m. and oral (p.o. routes using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin content was analysed by use of liquid chromatography and the PG synthesis was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α by a radioimmuno-assay. Results are presented as median (range. The elimination half-lives (t1/2·λ were 3.6 (2.0–5.0, 3.4 (2.6–6.8 and 4.3 (3.4–6.1 h for i.v., i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss was 0.35 (0.23–0.41 L/kg and clearance (CL, 110 (60–160 mL/h/kg. The plasma concentrations after oral administration showed a double-peak phenomenon with the two peaks occurring at 0.37 (0.25–1 and 3.5 (2.5–5.0 h, respectively. Both peaks were in the same order of magnitude. Bioavailability was 79 (53–112 and 58 (35%–120% for i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. 15-Ketodihydro-PGF2α plasma concentrations decreased after flunixin administration independent of the route of administration.

  18. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; O’Nan, Audrey T.; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E.; Ashwell, Melissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007) basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038) transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038) transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and

  19. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  20. In vivo characterization of inflammatory biomarkers in swine and the impact of flunixin meglumine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sharla M; Yancy, Haile; Deaver, Christine; Jones, Yolanda L; Kenyon, Elizabeth; Chiesa, Oscar A; Esparza, Juan; Screven, Rudell; Lancaster, Vicki; Stubbs, John T; Yang, Maocheng; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Myers, Michael J

    2012-08-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are a family of chemicals that function to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation, and they are commonly used in people and animals for this purpose. Currently there are no NSAIDs approved for the management of inflammation in swine due to a lack of validated animal models and suitable biomarkers to assess efficacy. A previous in vitro study examining biomarkers of inflammation identified fourteen genes that were significantly altered in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. In the present study, five of those fourteen genes were tested in vivo to determine if the same effects observed in vitro were also observed in vivo. Plasma levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), an essential mediator of fever and inflammation, were also determined. Two groups of swine were stimulated with LPS with the second group also treated with flunixin meglumine. Blood was collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 8, 24, and 48 h post LPS-stimulation. The RNA was extracted from the blood and quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was utilized to determine the expression patterns of CD1, CD4, serum amyloid A2 (SAA2), Caspase 1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). The LPS-stimulated animals demonstrated a statistically significant alteration in expression of SAA2 and CD1 at 3h post-stimulation. Flunixin meglumine treated animals' demonstrated reduced expression of CD1 in comparison to the LPS-stimulated swine at 24 and 48 h post LPS-stimulation. Flunixin meglumine treated animals exhibited reduced expression of SAA2 at 48 h post-stimulation compared to LPS-stimulated swine. Swine treated with LPS demonstrated statistically significant increases in plasma PGE(2) at 1h post-stimulation. Swine treated with flunixin meglumine had no increase in plasma PGE(2) levels at any time. These results demonstrate that PGE(2) production, along with two out of five genes (SAA2 and CD1) have the potential to serve as early biomarkers

  1. Analgesic effects of meloxicam, morphine sulfate, flunixin meglumine, and xylazine hydrochloride in African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we discontinued use of this assay and chose the Hargreaves test as an alternative method of measuring nociception in Xenopus. This assay is commonly performed in rodents, but its efficacy in an aquatic species such as Xenopus was unknown prior to this study. We found that the Hargreaves test was an effective measure of nociception in Xenopus, and we used it to evaluate the effectiveness of the nonopiod agents xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine both in the absence of surgery and after surgical oocyte harvest. Similar to findings from the AAT, flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia in the Hargreaves test than did the other agents when analyzed in the absence of surgical intervention. Results were equivocal after oocyte harvest. Although surgical oocyte harvest is a common procedure in Xenopus, and currently there are no published recommendations for analgesia after this invasive surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for that purpose.

  2. Experimental determination of the solid-liquid equilibrium, metastable zone, and nucleation parameters of the flunixin meglumine-ethanol system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songgu; Feng, Fei; Zhou, Lina; Gong, Junbo

    2012-09-01

    Measurements of the metastable zone and solubility for flunixin meglumine-ethanol system were obtained. The solubility was measured within the temperature range from 288.15 to 328.15 K. The mole fraction solubility was correlated satisfactorily with the temperature by the equation: xeq=2.35×10-12e0.07121T. The value of enthalpy of dissolution, enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of mixing were determined to be 49.04, 64.03 and -14.99 kJ mol-1 respectively. The metastable zone width of flunixin meglumine was measured by an electric conductivity method. A comparison of the nucleation temperatures from electric conductivity measurement and from focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) shows that both detection techniques give almost the same results for flunixin meglumine. The nucleation parameters of flunixin meglumine in ethanol were determined from the metastable zone data. Over the equilibrium temperature range from 312.28 to 325.55 K, the nucleation rate constant was varied from 0.00001 to 0.00120 #/m2 min, whereas the nucleation order was varied from 2.23022 to 3.39299. The obtained high values of nucleation order indicated a high rate of nucleation.

  3. Results of anti-mortem screening methodology to predict prescribed drug withholding periods for flunixin and ceftiofur in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A simple, cow-side test for the presence of drug residues in live animals would be useful for drug residue avoidance programs. Simple inhibition tests used at slaughter do not detect some drug tolerance concentrations such as those for flunixin and ceftiofur-metabolites. This experim...

  4. Structural aspects, thermal behavior, and stability of a self-assembled supramolecular polymer derived from flunixin-meglumine supramolecular adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassimiro, Douglas L.; Kobelnik, Marcelo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, Clovis A., E-mail: ribeiroc@iq.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Crespi, Marisa S.; Boralle, Nivaldo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of flunixin-meglumine, a potent NSAID, was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This supramolecular adduct self-assembled resulting in a polymer-like material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular polymer showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR and FT-IR showed that hydrogen bonding can be responsible for the self-assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability of the supramolecular polymer was also studied and presented here. - Abstract: Flunixin-meglumine, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor for Veterinary use, is a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular adduct. Two monotropically related crystalline modifications (Forms I and II) were observed for a flunixin-meglumine sample. During the melt of form I, flunixin-meglumine adducts self-assembled by hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups from meglumine, resulting in an amorphous rigid glassy supramolecular polymer, which showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa and a glass transition around 49.5 Degree-Sign C. Both the adduct and the resulting supramolecular polymer were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and weight-average molecular weight determination by light scattering. The chemical stability and morphological changes of the depolymerization process were also investigated for the supramolecular polymer, by DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

  5. Clinical efficacy of diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, M; Karakurum, M C; Durgut, R; Mamak, N

    2010-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to the antibiotic treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). We randomly allocated 80 Holstein calves with BRD to three groups. All the calves received a dose of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin by single subcutaneous injection and two of the groups received, in addition, either 2.5 mg/kg diclofenac sodium as a single intramuscular injection (diclofenac group, n = 30) or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine as an intravenous injection on the first three consecutive days after tulathromycin administration (flunixin group, n = 30). All calves were given a clinical score prior to initial treatment (day 0) and after treatment (days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14) by observing appetite, demeanour, rectal temperature, the rate and type of respiration, presence or absence of coughing, and nasal discharge. During the first 48 h, improvement of adverse signs of respiratory disease, such as pyrexia and elevated respiratory rate, and of a high clinical index score was significant in the two adjunct groups compared with the calves receiving antibiotic alone. The reduction in pyrexia was greatest in the diclofenac group. There were no statically significant differences between treatment groups with regard to eventual perceived recovery from respiratory disease in 14 days. In this trial, a single intramuscular dose of diclofenac sodium was equally effective as three intravenous injections of flunixin meglumine given on consecutive days as adjunctive therapy for BRD.

  6. Analgesic Effects of Meloxicam, Morphine Sulfate, Flunixin Meglumine, and Xylazine Hydrochloride in African-Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we discontinued use of this assay and chose the Hargreaves test as an alternative method of measuring nociception in Xenopus. This assay is commonly performed in rodents, but its efficacy in an aquatic species such as Xenopus was unknown prior to this study. We found that the Hargreaves test was an effective measure of nociception in Xenopus, and we used it to evaluate the effectiveness of the nonopiod agents xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine both in the absence of surgery and after surgical oocyte harvest. Similar to findings from the AAT, flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia in the Hargreaves test than did the other agents when analyzed in the absence of surgical intervention. Results were equivocal after oocyte harvest. Although surgical oocyte harvest is a common procedure in Xenopus, and currently there are no published recommendations for analgesia after this invasive surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for that purpose. PMID:21640031

  7. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-01-01

    .... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective...

  8. Evaluation of adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Stelio P L; Basílio, Ana C; Steagall, Paulo V M; Machado, Luciana P; Moutinho, Flávia Q; Takahira, Regina K; Brandão, Cláudia V S

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs. 36 adult dogs. Values for CBC, urinalysis, serum biochemical urinalyses, and occult blood in feces were investigated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after daily oral administration (n = 6 dogs/group) of lactose (1 mg/kg, control treatment), etodolac (15 mg/kg), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg), carprofen (4 mg/kg), and ketoprofen (2 mg/kg for 4 days, followed by 1 mg/kg daily thereafter) or flunixin (1 mg/kg for 3 days, with 4-day intervals). Gastroscopy was performed before and after the end of treatment. For serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity, values were significantly increased at day 30 in dogs treated with lactose, etodolac, and meloxicam within groups. Bleeding time was significantly increased in dogs treated with carprofen at 30 and 90 days, compared with baseline. At 7 days, bleeding time was significantly longer in dogs treated with meloxicam, ketoprofen, and flunixin, compared with control dogs. Clotting time increased significantly in all groups except those treated with etodolac. At day 90, clotting time was significantly shorter in flunixin-treated dogs, compared with lactose-treated dogs. Gastric lesions were detected in all dogs treated with etodolac, ketoprofen, and flunixin, and 1 of 6 treated with carprofen. Carprofen induced the lowest frequency of gastrointestinal adverse effects, followed by meloxicam. Monitoring for adverse effects should be considered when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat dogs with chronic pain.

  9. Validation of a rapid lateral flow test for the simultaneous determination of β-lactam drugs and flunixin in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David; Banaszewski, Katie; Juskelis, Rima; Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Cappozzo, Jack; McRobbie, Lindsay; Salter, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs on dairy farms. β-Lactam residues in milk are kept out of the human milk supply with good agricultural practices and mandatory truck screening performed by the dairy industry under Appendix N of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Flunixin, a nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drug, appears in dairy cattle tissue residues with a frequency similar to the occurrence of penicillin G. This creates concern that flunixin residues could be in milk and would go undetected under current milk screening programs. A single test that combines mandatory β-lactam screening with voluntary flunixin screening is an economical approach for monitoring and controlling for potential flunixin or 5-hydroxyflunixin, the primary flunixin metabolite marker in milk. The objective of this study was to validate a β-lactam and flunixin rapid lateral flow test (LFT) and compare the results obtained with a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of flunixin and 5-hydroxyflunixin in raw milk with a limit of detection of , 1 ppb, equivalent to 1 ng/ml. Using the LFT, three combined manufactured lots of test strips detected penicillin G at 2.0 ppb, ampicillin at 6.8 ppb, amoxicillin at 5.9 ppb, cephapirin at 13.4 ppb, ceftiofur (total metabolites) at 63 ppb, and 5-hydroxyflunixin at 1.9 ppb at least 90% of the time with 95% confidence. The LFT also detected incurred flunixin milk samples that were analyzed with the LC-MS/MS and diluted to tolerance in raw milk. The detection levels for the LFT are lower than the U.S. safe levels or tolerances and qualify the test to be used in compliance with U.S. milk screening programs.

  10. Effects of buprenorphine, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine as postoperative analgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Jacquelyn T; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Greg S; Goulding, David R; Clark, James A; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry L

    2011-03-01

    C57BL/6NCrl male mice (n = 60; age, 6 to 7 wk) underwent partial hepatectomy or no surgery and were given 1 of 3 analgesics pre- and postoperatively. Food and water consumption, body weight, running wheel activity, locomotor activity, and serum corticosterone concentrations were measured before and after surgery. Mice that were surgically manipulated weighed significantly less on days 1 through 3 after surgery than did mice not manipulated surgically. On the day of surgery, the surgery groups consumed significantly less feed (-1.5±0.35 g) than did nonsurgery groups. There were no differences in water consumption on any day between surgery and nonsurgery groups or among the 3 analgesic groups. For running wheel activity, significant decreases in the surgery groups were seen at day 1 after surgery compared with baseline. Surgery groups that received buprenorphine and meloxicam returned to baseline activity levels on day 2 after surgery. Open-field testing revealed no significant differences in locomotor activity in any groups; however, posttreatment locomotor activity in the buprenorphine nonsurgery group was increased compared with baseline, and posttreatment locomotor activity in the flunixin meglumine surgery group was decreased compared with baseline. Serum corticosterone concentrations were within normal limits regardless of treatment in all groups. Comparison of the overall results indicated that meloxicam and buprenorphine, at the dose given, appear to be suitable postoperative analgesics for partial hepatectomy in mice. Flunixin meglumine at the given dosage (2.5 mg/kg) may not provide adequate analgesia for partial hepatectomy.

  11. Clinical efficacy of meloxicam (Metacam) and flunixin (Finadyne) as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease in fattening cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friton, Gabriele M; Cajal, Carlos; Ramirez Romero, Rafael; Kleemann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), meloxicam (Metacam 20 mg/ml) and flunixin meglumine (Finadyne), as adjuncts to antibacterial therapy in the treatment of acute febrile respiratory disease in cattle was compared. The randomised blind, positive controlled study was conducted under feedlot conditions in Mexico. Overall, 201 female cattle (weighing 220-250 kg) diagnosed with bronchopneumonia at the feedlot were recruited into the study. On Day 0 all animals were treated with 20 mg oxytetracycline/kg body-weight (Bivatop 200) by subcutaneous injection, in conjunction with either meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously, Metacam 20 mg/ml, n = 100), or flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intravenously, Finadyne, n = 101). According to label instructions, meloxicam was administered as a single dose, whereas flunixin meglumine could be administered daily for up to 3 consecutive days depending on the rectal temperature (with re-administration, if rectal temperature > or = 40.0 degrees C). Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, appetite, dyspnoea, coughing, nasal discharge and general condition were recorded on Days 0 (prior to treatment), 1, 2, 3 and 7 using a weighted numerical score. Scores were summed to generate a 'Clinical Sum Score' (CSS, range 7 to 24 points). Individual animal body weights were measured on Days 0 and 7. Nasal swabs were collected from 10 animals per treatment group on Day 0 for microbiological culture. Clinical parameters and the mean CSS showed no significant differences between treatment groups with mean CSS on Days 0 and 7 of 16.18 and 10.55 in the meloxicam group and 16.41 and 10.88 in the flunixin meglumine group. However, a significantly lower mean rectal temperature was measured in the meloxicam group on Day 2 (p flunixin meglumine was performed in 45% of the animals. No suspected adverse drug events related to treatments were reported. It is concluded that a single subcutaneous dose of meloxicam was as

  12. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in mature swine after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, Monique D; Karriker, Locke A; Johnson, Anna K; Kukanich, Butch; Wulf, Larry; Sander, Suzanne; Millman, Suzanne T; Stalder, Kenneth J; Coetzee, Johann F

    2013-08-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) FM PK in mature swine. Appropriate pain management for lameness in swine is a critical control point for veterinarians and producers, but science-based guidance on optimal housing, management and treatment of lameness is deficient. Six mature swine (121-168 kg) were administered an IV, IM, or PO dose of flunixin meglumine at a target dose of 2.2 mg/kg in a cross-over design with a 10 day washout period between treatments. Plasma samples collected up to 48 hours post-administration were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. No adverse effects were observed with flunixin meglumine administration for all routes. Flunixin meglumine was administered at an actual mean dose of 2.21 mg/kg (range: 2.05-2.48 mg/kg) IV, IM and PO. A mean peak plasma concentration (CMAX) for IM and PO administration was 3748 ng/ml (range: 2749-6004 ng/ml) and 946 ng/ml (range: 554-1593 ng/ml), respectively. TMAX was recorded at 1.00 hour (range: 0.50-2.00 hours) and 0.61 hours (range: 0.17-2.00 hours) after PO and IM administration. Half-life (T ½ λz) for IV, IM and PO administration was 6.29 hours (range: 4.84-8.34 hours), 7.49 hours (range: 5.55-12.98 hours) and 7.08 hours (range: 5.29-9.15 hours) respectively. In comparison, bioavailability (F) for PO administration was 22% (range: 11-44%) compared to IM F at 76% (range: 54-92%). The results of the present study suggest that FM oral administration is not the most effective administration route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM. Lower F and Cmax of PO-FM in comparison to IM-FM suggest that PO-FM is less likely to be an effective therapeutic administration route.

  13. Use of force plate analysis to compare the analgesic effects of intravenous administration of phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine in horses with navicular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkert, Ronald S; MacAllister, Charles G; Payton, Mark E; Clarke, Cyril R

    2005-02-01

    To use force plate analysis to evaluate the analgesic efficacies of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administered i.v. at typical clinical doses in horses with navicular syndrome. 12 horses with navicular syndrome that were otherwise clinically normal. Horses received flunixin (1.1 mg/kg), phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCI; 1 mL/45 kg) solution administered IV once daily for 4 days with a 14-day washout period between treatments (3 treatments/horse). Before beginning treatment (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 30 hours after the fourth dose of each treatment, horses were evaluated by use of the American Association of Equine Practitioners lameness scoring system (half scores permitted) and peak vertical force of the forelimbs was measured via a force plate. At 6, 12, and 24 hours after the fourth treatment, subjective lameness evaluations and force plate data indicated significant improvement in lameness from baseline values in horses treated with flunixin or phenylbutazone, compared with control horses; at those time points, the assessed variables in flunixin- or phenylbutazone-treated horses were not significantly different. In horses with navicular syndrome treated once daily for 4 days, typical clinical doses of flunixin and phenylbutazone resulted in similar significant improvement in lameness at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the final dose, compared with findings in horses treated with saline solution. The effect of flunixin or phenylbutazone was maintained for at least 24 hours. Flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone appear to have similar analgesic effects in horses with navicular syndrome.

  14. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elgawad Radi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN. The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV square wave voltammetry (SWV. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  15. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Abd-Elgawad; Abd El-Ghany, Nadia; Wahdan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy) film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN). The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV) square wave voltammetry (SWV). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  16. Suspected flunixin poisoning of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Irene; Martinez, Rosa; Taggart, Mark A; Richards, Ngaio

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac.

  17. Effect of the administration of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy rates in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu, A; Erdem, H; Saribay, M K; Thatcher, W W; Tekeli, T

    2007-03-24

    Fifty-two 15-month-old Holstein heifers were synchronised with single or double injections of prostaglandin F(2alpha), followed by an injection of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) 48 hours later, and inseminated 12 to 14 hours after the injection of gnrh (day 0). Half of them were then injected twice intramuscularly with 1.1 mg/kg flunixin meglumine 12 hours apart, on the evening of day 15 and the morning of day 16, and the other 26 were not treated. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 29 and 65 days after they were inseminated. On day 29, 20 of the treated heifers were pregnant compared with 13 of the control heifers (P<0.05); on day 65, 18 of the treated heifers were still pregnant compared with 12 of the control heifers (P<0.10).

  18. Effects of flunixin meglumine administration on physiological and performance responses of transported feeder cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Bohnert, D W

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine administration on physiological and performance responses of transported cattle during feedlot receiving. Forty-five Angus × Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d 0 and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) transport for 1,280 km in a commercial livestock trailer and administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg BW; intravenous) at loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1; FM), 2) transport for 1,280 km in a commercial livestock trailer and administration of 0.9% saline (0.022 mL/kg BW; intravenous) at loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1; TRANS), or 3) no transport and administration of 0.9% saline (0.022 mL/kg BW; intravenous) concurrently with loading (d 0) and unloading (d 1) of FM and TRANS cohorts (CON). Upon arrival and processing for treatment administration on d 1, steers within each treatment were ranked by BW and assigned to 15 feedlot pens (5 pens/treatment, 3 steers/pen). Full BW was recorded before (d -1 and 0) treatment application and at the end of experiment (d 28 and 29) for ADG calculation. Total DMI was evaluated daily from d 1 to 28. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before treatment administration), 1 (after unloading but before treatment administration), 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Body weight shrink from d 0 to 1 was less (Pflunixin meglumine reduced the cortisol and acute-phase protein responses elicited by road transport but did not improve receiving performance of feeder cattle.

  19. Pharmacokinetic study of flunixin and its interaction with enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abo-EL-Sooud

    Full Text Available The Pharmacokinetic aspects of flunixin (FL administered alone and in combination with enrofloxacin (EN, were studied in clinically healthy calves. The experiments were performed on two groups: FL alone {2.2 mg/kg,intramuscular (IM}, and combination of FL (2.2 mg/kg, IM and EN {2.5 mg/kg, IM}. Plasma concentrations of FL were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. Moreover, the effects of FL alone or in combination on liver and kidney functions were also assessed. Flunixin was rapidly absorbed intramuscularly with a half-life of absorption (t of 0.094 h and the peak plasma concentration (C was 1.27 g/mL was attained after 1/2ab max 0.49 h (T . Enrofloxacin significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of FL by delaying its absorption and accelerate its max elimination from body. Significant increases (32% in the area under the curve (AUC and (37% in the elimination rate constant (K from the central compartment and a significant decrease (27% in the elimination half-life (t of FL el 1/2el were found following coadministration with EN, compared with administration of FL alone. The maximum plasma drug concentration (C showed significant increase (28% following the coadministration of EN with FL as max compared to that following the administration of FL alone. It was concluded that the combination of FL and EN negatively altered the kinetics of FL and exaggerated the adverse effect on hepato-renal function in calves consequently; the concomitant use of FL and EN should be avoided in calves. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 449-454

  20. Pharmacokinetics and effects on thromboxane B2 production following intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine to exercised thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S; Chapman, N

    2015-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine is commonly used in horses for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The current ARCI threshold recommendation is 20 ng/mL when administered at least 24 h prior to race time. In light of samples exceeding the regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration, the primary goal of the study reported here was to update the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following intravenous administration, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An additional objective was to characterize the effects of flunixin on COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition when drug concentrations reached the recommended regulatory threshold. Sixteen exercised adult horses received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postadministration and analyzed using LC-MS. Blood samples were collected from 8 horses for determination of TxB(2) and PGE(2) concentrations prior to and up to 96 h postflunixin administration. Mean systemic clearance, steady-state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life was 0.767 ± 0.098 mL/min/kg, 0.137 ± 0.12 L/kg, and 4.8 ± 1.59 h, respectively. Four of the 16 horses had serum concentrations in excess of the current ARCI recommended regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration. TxB(2) suppression was significant for up to 24 h postadministration.

  1. Effects of flunixin, tolfenamic acid, R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen on the response of equine synoviocytes to lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M F; Foot, R; Frean, S; Lees, P

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the production of beta-glucuronidase (beta-glu), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine synoviocytes. The agents studied were flunixin, tolfenamic acid, S(+)ketoprofen (KTP) and R(-)ketoprofen. LPS-induced release of beta-glu from synoviocytes was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by all 4 compounds, tolfenamic acid being the most potent. Of the 2 KTP enantiomers, S(+)KTP exerted the greatest inhibitory effect. Tolfenamic acid and flunixin increased the production of IL-6-like activity by LPS-stimulated synoviocytes only at the highest concentration studied (1000 mumol/l). Lower concentrations produced no effect on IL-6. Flunixin, tolfenamic acid and S(+)KTP produced statistically significant and concentration related increases in the release of IL-1-like activity by LPS-stimulated synoviocytes. Prostaglandin E2 synthesis was markedly inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by the 4 NSAIDs. However, R(-)KTP was effective only at the highest concentrations investigated (1000 and 100 mumol/l). The present findings are compatible with the possibility that longterm use of NSAIDs in arthropathies, by removing the regulator role of PGE2 on IL-1 synthesis, might enhance the pathological process of cartilage degeneration.

  2. Treatment of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in juvenile calves with a single administration of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, J; González-Martín, J V; Elvira, L; Pagot, E; Voisin, F; Lequeux, G; Weingarten, A; de Haas, V

    2014-04-26

    The efficacy and safety of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation in the treatment of respiratory disease was evaluated in calves less than six weeks of age, compared with a positive control group treated with a well-established florfenicol formulation. A total of 210 calves, selected from nine sites in Belgium, France and Spain, showing severe signs of respiratory disease, were randomly assigned to treatment with either florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine (Resflor; MSD Animal Health) or florfenicol (Nuflor; MSD Animal Health), both administered subcutaneously once. Animals were clinically observed daily for 10 days following treatment initiation. The predominant respiratory pathogens were Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni. All isolates were subject to in vitro sensitivity testing and found susceptible to florfenicol. In both groups, rectal temperature dropped and clinical index (depression and respiratory signs) significantly improved after treatment. Specifically, for the change in rectal temperature from pretreatment to six hours post-treatment, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation was found significantly superior to florfenicol. Moreover, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation alleviated the clinical signs of disease more rapidly, and was demonstrated to be non-inferior to florfenicol on days 4 and 10. The use of the product combining florfenicol and flunixin in calves is safe and efficacious in the treatment of outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.

  3. Protective Role of Curcumin and Flunixin Against Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease via Modulating Inflammatory Mediators and Cytokine Profile in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Boobalan; Dileep, Rasakatla; Rani, Matukumalli Usha; Kumar, C S V Satish; Kumar, Matham Vijay; Reddy, Alla Gopala

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. The present study is to evaluate the effect of flunixin and curcumin in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 animals: normal control group, acetic acid group, curcumin-treated group, and flunixin-treated group. Induction of colitis by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid produced severe macroscopic inflammation in the colon, 14 days after acetic acid administration as assessed by the colonic damage score. Microscopically, colonic tissues showed ulceration, edema, and inflammatory cells infiltration. Biochemical studies revealed increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Oxidative stress was indicated by elevated lipid peroxide formation and depleted reduced glutathione concentrations in colonic tissues. After induction of colitis, treatment with curcumin (50 mg/kg daily, p.o.) and flunixin (2.5 mg/kg daily, s.c.) decreased serum LDH, ALP, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as colonic MPO and lipid peroxide levels, whereas increased colonic prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 concentrations were observed. Moreover, effective doses of curcumin and flunixin were effective in restoring the histopathological changes induced by acetic acid administration. The findings of the present study provide evidence that flunixin may be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Use of population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to capture individual animal variability in the prediction of flunixin withdrawal times in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Baynes, R E; Leavens, T; Tell, L A; Riviere, J E

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and predict tissue residues and the withdrawal interval (WDI) of flunixin in cattle. Data were pooled from published PK studies in which flunixin was administered through various dosage regimens to diverse populations of cattle. A set of liver data used to establish the regulatory label withdrawal time (WDT) also were used in this study. Compartmental models with first-order absorption and elimination were fitted to plasma and liver concentrations by a population PK modeling approach. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the population mean and variabilities of PK parameters to predict liver concentrations of flunixin. The PK of flunixin was described best by a 3-compartment model with an extra liver compartment. The WDI estimated in this study with liver data only was the same as the label WDT. However, a longer WDI was estimated when both plasma and liver data were included in the population PK model. This study questions the use of small groups of healthy animals to determine WDTs for drugs intended for administration to large diverse populations. This may warrant a reevaluation of the current procedure for establishing WDT to prevent violative residues of flunixin.

  5. Comparative Effects of Phenylbutazone, Naproxen and Flunixin Meglumine on Equine Platelet Aggregation and Platelet Factor 3 Availability in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I.B.

    1983-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, and have potential value in the treatment of thrombotic disease in the horse. This study compares the potency of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs phenylbutazone, naproxen (equiproxen) and flunixin meglumine (banamine) with respect to their effects on equine platelets. Two functional responses of horse platelets were evaluated in vitro: their ability to aggregate and their ability to make available platelet factor 3 procoagulant activity. Flunixin at a concentration of 10-6 M significantly depressed the maximum degree of adenosine diphosphate-induced (10-6M) aggregation while much higher concentrations of phenylbutazone and naproxen (5 X 105M) were required to produce similar effects. None of the non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs significantly affected the duration of the lag phase or the initial velocity of adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation within the range of drug concentrations used (10-6-10-3M). The lag phase and initial velocity of acid-soluble collagen-induced aggregation were significantly affected by 10-6 M flunixin and 10-4 M phenylbutazone or naproxen was required to produce equivalent effects. Concentrations of 5 X 10-6 M flunixin and 5 X 10-4 M phenylbutazone or naproxen were required to significantly depress the degree of collaen-induced aggregation of horse platelets. Although the effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were qualitatively similar, flunixin was a much more potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation than either of the other two drugs (which were equipotent). At very high drug concentrations (5 X 10-4 M and greater), all three drugs produced the same degree of inhibition of equine platelet aggregation. Platelet factor 3 activity was made available by exposing horse platelets to 10-5 M adenosine diphosphate or 1:800 acid-soluble collagen; but not by exposure to a suspension of kaolin particles. Only a small

  6. A comparison of florfenicol-flunixin meglumine versus tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in fall-placed feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Berg, Janice; Hendrick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new combination drug, florfenicol-flunixin meglumine, with tulathromycin for initial treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in fall-placed calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin on arrival at the feedlot. No significant differences were observed in UF relapses between the two drugs. Calves treated with florfenicol-flunixin had a lower crude case fatality rate (P = .0447) than calves treated with tulathromycin but did not have a significantly lower respiratory disease and histophilosis case fatality rate (P = .12). Whether the new florfenicol-flunixin product is more cost-effective than tulathromycin for the treatment of UF in fall-placed feedlot calves will depend on how the new product is priced in the marketplace relative to tulathromycin.

  7. Effect of flunixin meglumine and carprofen on pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates. Between d 8 and 17 after breeding, the conceptus secretes interferon-τ as a mechanism for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2α) by suppressing the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Flunixin meglumine (FM) has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of 391 heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Heifers in the treatment group (n=197) received 2.2 mg of FM i.m./kg of body weight twice on d 14/15 and 15/16 after insemination, whereas heifers in the control group (n=194) remained untreated. Blood samples from 388 heifers were taken on d 14/15 and 21/22 after artificial insemination and analyzed for progesterone. Pregnancy rates were 58.2 and 54.8% for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Mean progesterone concentrations were not affected by treatment and number of artificial insemination service (first or second artificial insemination service), but were affected by time and time × pregnancy status. In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows. A total of 380 cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows in the treatment group (n=194) received 1.4 mg of carprofen s.c./kg of body weight on d 15 after insemination, whereas cows in the control group (n=186) remained untreated. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were 35.5 and 33.0% in the control and treatment groups

  8. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pyrexia and bioenergetic variables in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, G; Hill, K L; VanBaale, M J; Baumgard, L H

    2009-05-01

    Study objectives were to determine whether a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug would reduce parturition-induced inflammation and fever and consequently improve appetite, bioenergetic parameters, and production variables in transitioning dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n = 26) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments beginning at parturition: 1) flunixin meglumine (FM; 2.2 mg/kg of BW; Banamine, 50 mg/mL, Schering-Plough Animal Health, Kenilworth, NJ), or 2) saline (control) at 2.0 mL/45.5 kg of BW. All treatments were administrated i.v. daily for the first 3 d in milk (DIM). Individual milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily for the first 35 DIM. Rectal temperature was measured daily at 0700 and 1600 h for the first 7 DIM. Milk composition was determined on 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 DIM and blood plasma was collected on 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 DIM. Body weight and body condition score were determined on -7, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 DIM. Flunixin meglumine treatment slightly increased rectal temperature (38.99 vs. 38.76 degrees C) during the first 7 DIM and reduced overall DMI (22.04 vs. 19.48 kg/d), but there were no treatment differences in overall milk yield (35.2 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (37.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (37.7 kg/d), DMI (2.97% of BW), or overall energy balance (-2.32 Mcal/d). There were no treatment differences in milk fat (3.91%), protein (3.32%), or lactose (4.57%). Treatment had no effect on plasma glucose (66.5 mg/dL) or nonesterified fatty acids (553 microEq/L), but plasma urea nitrogen tended to be less in FM-treated cows (16.4 vs. 14.5 mg/dL). Daily FM administration to cows for the first 3 d after parturition slightly increased rectal temperatures by 0.23 degrees C, reduced feed intake, and did not improve production or energetic variables during the first 35 DIM in transition dairy cows.

  9. Effects of flunixin meglumine and transportation on establishment of pregnancy in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M L; Ansotegui, R P; Burns, P D; MacNeil, M D; Geary, T W

    2007-06-01

    Objectives of these studies were to determine the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) administration on early embryonic mortality and circulating PG and cortisol concentrations in transported and non-transported cows. Cows (n = 483) from 3 locations were used to evaluate the effects of transportation and FM approximately 14 d after AI on the establishment of pregnancy and serum concentrations of progesterone, PGF metabolite (PGFM), and cortisol. Treatments were transport (n = 129), transport + FM (n = 128), no transport (n = 130), and no transport + FM (n = 96). Multiparous cows (n = 224) were used at 2 locations, and nulliparous cows (n = 259) were used at 1 location. The no transport + FM treatment was used at only 2 locations. Flunixin meglumine (approximately 1.1 mg/kg of BW; i.m.) was administered before the cows were separated into transportation groups. Transportation included 4 to 6 h of transportation, without calves, via semitractor trailer. Nontransported cows remained penned, with their calves in adjacent pens, during the same period as the transported cows. Blood samples were collected from all cows before and after treatment and, at 2 locations, approximately 3 h after the onset of treatment. Location affected AI pregnancy rate (P < 0.01). Treatment effects, although not significant (P = 0.16), were of a magnitude to be considered practically important. Cows that received transportation + FM tended (P = 0.07) to have greater AI pregnancy rates (74%) than those that did not receive FM (66%), irrespective of transportation. Cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for transported cows than for nontransported cows. Cows receiving FM had greater (P < 0.05) AI pregnancy rates than non-FM cows (71 vs. 61%, respectively). Cows receiving transportation had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than nontransported cows (45.4 vs. 54.6 pg/mL, respectively), and cows receiving FM had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than non-FM cows (39.4 vs. 60

  10. Avaliação biológica e econômica do uso de flunixin meglumine em vacas e novilhas de corte inseminadas em tempo fixo Biological and economic evaluation of flunixin meglumine in postpartum beef cows and heifers inseminated at fixed time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a redução de perdas embrionárias por meio do bloqueio da secreção de prostaglandina com a utilização de flunixin meglumine (FM e avaliar o retorno econômico desta técnica. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se vacas de corte no pós-parto e, no experimento 2, somente novilhas. Todas as fêmeas foram sincronizadas e inseminadas em tempo fixo (IATF e, após 14 dias da IATF, foram distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo flunixin meglumine (GFM, composto de 59 vacas no experimento 1 e 23 novilhas no experimento 2; e grupo controle (GC, de 56 vacas no experimento 2 e 20 novilhas no experimento 1, que receberam ou não flunixin no dia 14, respectivamente. O tratamento com flunixin não influenciou a taxa de prenhez, que, no experimento 1, foi de 42,4% no grupo flunixin e 42,8% no grupo controle e, no experimento 2, de 39,1% no grupo flunixin e 25,0% no grupo controle. Verificou-se rentabilidade de 21,62; 9,24; 14,36 e 12,06% para os protocolos dos grupos controle e flunixin dos experimentos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez não foi influenciada pelo uso de flunixin meglumine no dia 14 após inseminação artificial em vacas no pós-parto e novilhas inseminadas em tempo fixo.This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the economical advantage of using flunixin meglumine (FM to block uterine secretion of prostaglandin in order to reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle females. Postpartum cows (E1 and heifers (E2 were submitted to estrus synchronization and inseminated at fixed time. Fourteen days after the insemination the animals were assigned to the FM treatment group (FMG, including 59 cows and 23 heifers and to the control group (CG, including 56 cows and 20 heifers. Pregnancy rates (42.4% for FMG and 42.8% for CG in E1 and (39.1% for FMG and 25.0% for CG in E2 did not differ between groups. Estimates of net income were 21.62, 9.24, 14.36 and 12.06% for the CG e FMG protocols in cows and in heifers, respectively

  11. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits

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    Mehdi Behfar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05. Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05. The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration.

  12. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Mehdi; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05). Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05). The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration.

  13. A quick LC-MS-MS method for the determination of flunixin in bovine muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugoboni, B; Barbarossa, A; Gazzotti, T; Zironi, E; Farabegoli, F; Pagliuca, G

    2014-03-01

    A simple, fast and cost-effective liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantitative determination of flunixin (FLU) in bovine muscle was developed and validated. The sample preparation procedure involved an extraction with acetonitrile, followed by evaporation and reconstitution. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse-phase column under programmed conditions. FLU detection was performed with positive electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoringmode, monitoring one precursor and two products ions. For quantification purposes, FLU-d3 was used as an internal standard. The matrix effect on the analysis of FLU in bovine muscle was evaluated by comparison between calibration curves prepared with standard solution and in blank matrix extracts. The equivalent responses obtained confirmed the absence of signal suppression or/and enhancement. The method was extensively validated according to the parameters requested by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in terms of specificity, limit of detection, linearity, trueness, precision, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ). FLU stability was also investigated in matrix and in sample extracts at different times and storage conditions.

  14. In vitro enantioselective pharmacodynamics of Carprofen and Flunixin-meglumine in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciletta, M; Cuniberti, B; Barbero, R; Re, G

    2014-02-01

    The activity of the anti-inflammatory agents Flunixin-meglumine (FLU), RS (±) Carprofen (CPF) and S (+) CPF on bovine cyclooxygenases (COXs) has been characterized in feedlot calves using an in vitro whole blood model. The drugs showed equivalent efficacy in their inhibitory activity on COXs, and the rank order of potency for both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition was FLU > S (+) CPF > RS (±) CPF. Our results indicated that FLU is a nonselective inhibitor of bovine COXs, whereas RS (±) CPF and S (+) CPF exhibited different degrees of preferential inhibition of COX-2 isoenzyme. The rank order of IC50 COX-1: IC50 COX-2 potency ratios was in fact S (+) CPF (51.882) > RS (±) CPF (13.964) > FLU (0.606), and the calculated percentage inhibition of COX-1 corresponding to COX-2 inhibition values comprised between 80% and 95% was comprised between 57.697 and 79.865 for FLU, 33.373 and 51.319 for RS (±) CPF, and 0.230 and 4.622 for S (+) CPF, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the prediction of the clinical relevance of COX inhibition by the test drugs in cattle.

  15. Effect of flunixin meglumine or prostaglandin E2 treatment 15 days after breeding on fertility in Saanen does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yunus; Kocamuftuoglu, Mesih; Ozyurtlu, Nihat; Kucukaslan, Ibrahim; Sendag, Sait; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of timely injections of flunixin meglumine (FM) or vaginal application of prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) on pregnancy, fertility, fecundity, and prolificacy rates in Saanen goats. One hundred and sixty-three nonlactating Saanen does were treated with a flugestone acetate (20 mg)-containing intravaginal sponge for 12 days. They also received eCG (400 IU) and a PGF2α analogue (50 μg) 10 days after progestagen priming. Does detected in estrus were mated and assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups. The PgE2 group (N = 40) received PgE2 (2.5 mg) intravaginally 15 days after mating. The FM group (N = 54) received flunixin meglumine (total dose, 100 mg) intramuscularly 15 days after mating. Flunixin meglumine was administered at 9:00 AM. Animals in the control group (N = 69) received no treatment. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography (B-mode at 8 MHz) 30 days after mating. The pregnancy rate was significantly greater (P < 0.01) after 30 days in goats treated with PgE2 and also in the control group than in those treated with FM (67.5%, 59.4%, and 42.5%, respectively). The pregnancy rate did not differ between the PgE2 and the control group. The pregnancy and fertility rate were lowest in the FM group compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in the prolificacy rate among experimental groups. In conclusion, our results showed that FM administration during a late luteal phase is detrimental to early pregnancy in goats.

  16. Excretory, secretory, and tissue residues after label and extra-label administration of flunixin meglumine to saline or lipopolysaccharide-exposed dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty lactating dairy cattle were intravenously infused with either lipopolysaccharide (n = 10) or sterile saline (n = 10). Five cattle in each group received 3 doses of flunixin meglumine administered by either IV infusion or IM injection at 24 h intervals. Milk, urine, and tissues were collected....

  17. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination and depletion profile of flunixin residues in tissues after single oral administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ai-Ling; Peng, Tao; Liu, Liang; Xia, Xi; Hu, Ting; Tao, Xiao-Qi; Wen, Kai; Cheng, Lin-Li; Li, Jian-Cheng; Ding, Shuang-Yang; Cao, Xing-Yuan; Jiang, Hai-Yang

    2013-09-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection of flunixin residues in rabbit tissues. The samples were extracted with acidic acetonitrile, defatted with n-hexane, and then purified by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge. Analysis was carried out on UPLC-ESI-MS/MS working with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.3-0.8μgkg(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.0-3.0μgkg(-1) in rabbit tissues, respectively. In all fortified samples at a concentration range of 1.0-300.0μgkg(-1), mean recoveries were 61.7-115.7% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 16%. Residue depletion of flunixin in rabbit was conducted after oral administration at a dose of 5mgkg(-1) of body weight. The average concentrations for flunixin measured 2h post-administration in kidney and intestine were significantly higher than in liver, heart and muscle. The concentrations for flunixin in all rabbit tissues were below the LOD or not detected in all tissues after 96h administration of drug. A minimum withdrawal time of 21h was indicated for residue levels in heart, liver, kidney, intestine and muscle below the maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  18. Comparison of the effects of ketoprofen and flunixin meglumine on the in vitro response of equine peripheral blood monocytes to bacterial endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, B R; Moore, J N; Barton, M H; Morris, D D

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of flunixin meglumine, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and ketoprofen, a reported cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on the synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase end-products thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2, lipoxygenase derived 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor. Six adult horses were each randomly administered flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg) or ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg) intravenously every 12 hours with the drug treatments separated by two weeks. Blood samples were obtained prior to initiating treatment, the last day of treatment and for two consecutive days after the termination of treatment for measurement of serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 as well as isolation of peripheral blood monocytes. Quantitation of unstimulated, endotoxin- and calcium ionophore-induced synthesis of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor by peripheral blood monocytes was performed in vitro. Both flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen significantly decreased serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 demonstrating in vivo cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. There were no significant differences between drug treatment groups in the in vitro production of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor or tissue factor. This study does not identify significant differences between the effects of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen.

  19. Comparison of the effects of ketoprofen and flunixin meglumine on the in vitro response of equine peripheral blood monocytes to bacterial endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, B R; Moore, J N; Barton, M H; Morris, D D

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of flunixin meglumine, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and ketoprofen, a reported cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on the synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase end-products thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2, lipoxygenase derived 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor. Six adult horses were each randomly administered flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg) or ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg) intravenously every 12 hours with the drug treatments separated by two weeks. Blood samples were obtained prior to initiating treatment, the last day of treatment and for two consecutive days after the termination of treatment for measurement of serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 as well as isolation of peripheral blood monocytes. Quantitation of unstimulated, endotoxin- and calcium ionophore-induced synthesis of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor by peripheral blood monocytes was performed in vitro. Both flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen significantly decreased serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 demonstrating in vivo cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. There were no significant differences between drug treatment groups in the in vitro production of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid, tumor necrosis factor or tissue factor. This study does not identify significant differences between the effects of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen. PMID:8004539

  20. Impact of tyloxapol to combat acute phase response in comparison with betamethasone and flunixin meglumine following an ovine experimentally induced endotoxemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Heidari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory responses to circulating lipopolysaccharide lead to high mortality rates in affected animals and thus effective treatments of this situation are crucial. However, despite different endotoxemia therapeutic regimens, the lack of an effective treatment still remains a clinical problem in sheep. Tyloxapol is a potential pro- and anti-inflammatory molecule to treat endotoxemia in farm animals. Hence, the present study was an attempt to clarify the antiendotoxic effects of tyloxapol in comparison with betamethasone and flunixin meglumine in experimentally induced endotoxemia in sheep. Thirty clinically healthy 1-year old Iranian fat-tailed ewes were randomly divided into 6 equal experimental (n=5 groups, comprising Negative and Positive control, Flunixin meglumine, Betamethasone, Tyloxapol 1 and Tyloxapol 2. Phenol extracted lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli serotype O55:B5 was infused at 2 μg/kg intravenously. Ninety min after endotoxemia induction, Flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg, betamethasone (1 mg/kg and tyloxapol (200 and 400 mg/kg were injected to respective groups, over 60 min along with intravenous fluids. Blood samples were collected from all ewes prior and 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 24 and 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection and sera and plasmas were separated, subsequently. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in all samples. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferongamma in Flunixin meglumine group were found to be lower than other experimental ones after hour 3. Serum levels of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma in Tyloxapol groups were significantly lower and higher than Betamethasone and Flunixin meglumine ones, respectively. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in Flunixin meglumine group were

  1. Evaluation of the influence of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine on the apoptosis of peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, T; Jaroszewski, J J; Markiewicz, W; Jakubowski, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether treatment with recommended doses of meloxicam or flunixin had an effect on the apoptosis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in calves. The study was carried out on 4-5 months old calves (n = 24, 8 per group). Experimental animals were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of 0.5 mg x kg(-1) of meloxicam or intravenously with 3 doses of 2.2 mg x kg(-1) day(-1) of flunixin. The non-treatment animals served as control. Blood samples were taken at day 0 and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after the first NSAIDs injection. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining. The kinetic analysis of apoptosis in the total lymphocyte population, as well as in the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets did not reveal significant differences in the frequency of early apoptotic cells between control and experimental groups throughout the period studied. Although, 24 h after administration of the first dose of NSAIDs, late-stage apoptosis/necrosis was significantly increased in the total lymphocyte population (the meloxicam group), as well as in the CD4+ (the meloxicam group and the flunixin group) and CD8+ (the flunixin group) subsets of T cells. However, this disturbance was transient, relatively poorly expressed and, thus, unlikely to be of clinical significance. Our results indicate that the use of meloxicam or flunixin in accordance with the recommended dosage regimen in cattle do not have a clinically significant influence on apoptosis of peripheral blood T cells.

  2. A comparative study of the effects of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine (NSAIDs) as adjunctive therapy on interferon and tumor necrosis factor production in calves suffering from enzootic bronchopneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, D; Zdzisińska, B; Kondracki, M; Rzeski, W; Paduch, R; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M

    2003-01-01

    The study was performed on 18 Black-and-White Lowland Breed calves with clinical signs of enzootic bronchopneumonia divided into three groups and respectively treated with oxytetracycline and meloxicam--Group I (9 animals); oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine--Group II (3 animals); and oxytetracycline only--Group III (6 animals--control). The following observations were recorded before treatment (1st day) and two days later (3rd day): body temperature, the serum level of interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as well as cytokine production by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. The treatment of calves with a combination of oxytetracycline and meloxicam (Group I) and especially with oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine (Group II) caused a significantly faster, in comparison to the control group, normalization of body temperature. Both drugs, meloxicam and especially flunixin meglumine, inhibited excessive TNF production in the organism (measured as the serum level of cytokine). Moreover, BAL cells isolated from calves treated with both NSAIDs were still able, ex vivo, to release TNF, in contrast to the control group (treated only with tetracycline) which lost the ability to produce TNF. The treatment of the calves with meloxicam and flunixin meglumine did not significantly influence the levels of IFN in sera but normalized ex vivo IFN production in BAL cells. These results suggest that the combination of meloxicam with an antibiotic or flunixin meglumine with an antibiotic which does not exert an immunosuppressive influence on the organism of calves suffering from enzootic bronchopneumonia is equally effective in the treatment of calves and superior to the antibiotic alone.

  3. Effects of flunixin and florfenicol combined with vitamins E and/or C on selected immune mechanisms in cattle under conditions of adaptive stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Chmiel Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin and florfenicol administered in combination with vitamin E or C on selected leukocyte immune mechanisms and on the inflammatory process during the first few weeks in the feedlot. Fifty calves divided into 5 groups (n = 10 received florfenicol and flunixin with vitamin E or C. Blood was collected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th d of the experiment. Intracellular metabolism (NBT, apoptosis, chemotaxis, susceptibility to M. haemolytica leukotoxin, and expression of β2-integrins were determined in leukocytes. The symptoms of respiratory tract infection were observed in 40% of calves in control group, while in the other groups the morbidity rate ranged from 10% to 20%. Leukocytes showed decreased NBT, and the mean values for apoptosis ranged from 14% to 24%. The lowest percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in the calves that received florfenicol with flunixin and vitamins E and C. The chemotactic activity confirmed the significant inhibitory effect of the preparations on migration of the cells. A significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in the susceptibility of leukocytes to leukotoxin was noted in the group that received florfenicol and flunixin with vitamin E. Expression of β2-integrin receptors was the lowest in calves receiving florfenicol with flunixin and vitamin E or C. The application of an antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antioxidants protected the leukocytes involved in defence against M. haemolytica virulence factors and effectively limited oxidative stress in the calves.

  4. The effect of breed and sex on sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine pharmacokinetic parameters in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J T; Baynes, R E; Brooks, J D; Yeatts, J L; Bellis, B; Ashwell, M S; Routh, P; O'Nan, A T; Maltecca, C

    2014-12-01

    Drug use in livestock has received increased attention due to welfare concerns and food safety. Characterizing heterogeneity in the way swine populations respond to drugs could allow for group-specific dose or drug recommendations. Our objective was to determine whether drug clearance differs across genetic backgrounds and sex for sulfamethazine, enrofloxacin, fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine. Two sires from each of four breeds were mated to a common sow population. The nursery pigs generated (n = 114) were utilized in a random crossover design. Drugs were administered intravenously and blood collected a minimum of 10 times over 48 h. A non-compartmental analysis of drug and metabolite plasma concentration vs. time profiles was performed. Within-drug and metabolite analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters included fixed effects of drug administration date, sex and breed of sire. Breed differences existed for flunixin meglumine (P-value<0.05; Cl, Vdss ) and oxfendazole (P-value<0.05, AUC0→∞ ). Sex differences existed for oxfendazole (P-value < 0.05; Tmax ) and sulfamethazine (P-value < 0.05, Cl). Differences in drug clearance were seen, and future work will determine the degree of additive genetic variation utilizing a larger population.

  5. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration.

  6. A study to compare circulating flunixin, meloxicam and gabapentin concentrations with prostaglandin E₂ levels in calves undergoing dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, E; Coetzee, J F; Odore, R; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Kukanich, B; Badino, P; Bertolotti, L; Glynn, H; Dockweiler, J; Allen, K; Bergamasco, L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous flunixin (2.2 mg/kg b.w.), oral meloxicam (1mg/kg b.w.), oral gabapentin (15 mg/kg b.w.) alone or co-administrated with meloxicam as well as the effects of these compounds on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in calves subjected to surgical dehorning. Plasma samples collected up to 24h after drug administration were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, whereas blood PGE2 levels were measured by immunoenzymatic assay. In plasma, the terminal half-live of flunixin, meloxicam and gabapentin were 6.0 h (range, 3.4-11.0 h), 16.7h (range, 13.7-21.3h) and 15.3h (range, 11-32.9h), respectively. The co-administration of single doses of gabapentin and meloxicam did not seem to affect the pharmacokinetic profile of the two drugs except for gabapentin that reached significantly (Pmeloxicam, than when administered alone. At 5, 360 and 720 min after dehorning, a significant (Pmeloxicam and gabapentin in established pain models is required to formulate science based analgesic recommendations to enhance animal well-being after dehorning.

  7. Effectiveness of administration of phenylbutazone alone or concurrent administration of phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine to alleviate lameness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Kevin G; Messer, Nat T; Reed, Shannon K; Wilson, David A; Kramer, Joanne

    2008-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of administering multiple doses of phenylbutazone alone or a combination of phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine to alleviate lameness in horses. 29 adult horses with naturally occurring forelimb and hind limb lameness. Lameness evaluations were performed by use of kinematic evaluation while horses were trotting on a treadmill. Lameness evaluations were performed before and 12 hours after administration of 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment regimens. Phenylbutazone paste was administered at approximately 2.2 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days, or phenylbutazone paste was administered at approximately 2.2 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days in combination with flunixin meglumine administered at 1.1 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours for 5 days. Alleviation of lameness was greater after administration of the combination of NSAIDs than after oral administration of phenylbutazone alone. Improvement in horses after a combination of NSAIDs did not completely mask lameness. Five horses did not improve after either NSAID treatment regimen. All posttreatment plasma concentrations of NSAIDs were less than those currently allowed by the United States Equestrian Federation Inc for a single NSAID. One horse administered the combination NSAID regimen died of acute necrotizing colitis during the study. Administration of a combination of NSAIDs at the dosages and intervals used in the study reported here alleviated the lameness condition more effectively than did oral administration of phenylbutazone alone. This may attract use of combinations of NSAIDs to increase performance despite potential toxic adverse effects.

  8. Acute encephalopathy with concurrent respiratory and metabolic disturbances in first known parenteral human administration of flunixin meglumine and acepromazine maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Michael F; Wilson, Anwar C; Acquisto, Nicole M; Spillane, Linda; Schneider, Sandra M

    2013-08-01

    Flunexin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for veterinary use in horses and cattle. Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative used in horses, dogs, and cats. Human exposure to these substances is rare. We report a case of a human injection of two equine medications, flunixin and acepromazine, which resulted in altered mental status, respiratory alkalosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and elevation of liver transaminases in a 43-year-old woman who worked as a horse trainer. The patient intentionally self-injected these medications and subsequently presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status and lethargy. The patient required hospitalization for metabolic abnormalities, including respiratory alkalosis, and suffered a gastrointestinal bleed requiring blood transfusion. The patient ultimately recovered with supportive measures. We believe this to be the first case of concomitant injection of flunixin and acepromazine in a human. This report explains a case of parenteral administration of two equine medications and the subsequent complications in a patient that presented to the Emergency Department. Human exposure to veterinary medications cannot be predicted by their effect in animals due to variations in absorption, distribution, and metabolism. Physicians should be aware that individuals who work with animals may have access to large quantities of veterinary medicine. This case also exemplifies the challenges that Emergency Physicians face on a daily basis, and generates additional consideration for overdoses and intoxications from medications that are not considered commonplace in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose titration of the clinical efficacy of intravenously administered flunixin meglumine in a reversible model of equine foot lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H; Bergstrom, B E; Golden, K S; Roark, J J; Coren, D S; Foreman, C R; Schumacher, S A

    2012-12-01

    There are no refereed controlled documentations of the skeletal analgesic efficacy of different dosages of flunixin meglumine (FM). The objective of this experiment was to compare the efficacy of various dosages of FM with a negative control. The hypothesis was that higher doses would result in improved efficacy in a dose-dependent manner when tested in a reversible model of foot lameness. Ten horses shod with adjustable heart bar shoes had weekly modified AAEP grade 4.0/5.0 lameness induced by tightening a set screw against the heart bar. Heart rate (HR) and lameness score (LS) were monitored by one double-blinded investigator at rest; every 20 min after lameness induction for 5 h and hourly for another 8 h. One hour after lameness induction, treatments were administered i.v. in a randomised order: negative control (isotonic saline: SAL) or FM at 0.55 (half-dose), 1.1 (single-dose) or 2.2 (double-dose) mg/kg bwt. Results were compared using RM ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test with the level of significance set at P Flunixin meglumine administration affected dependent variables in a dose-dependent manner with half-dose FM clinically effective for a shorter period. Higher dosages did not perform differently from one another. Practitioners must be aware that half-doses of FM are less efficacious than single doses but double doses are not more efficacious and yet are potentially more toxic.

  10. Micellar high performance liquid chromatographic determination of flunixin meglumine in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathalla F. Belal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of flunixin meglumine (flunixin-M in bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms, bovine liver and kidney. Analytical separation was performed in less than 4 min using a C18 column with UV detection at 284 nm. A micellar solution composed of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 8% n-butanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.06 μg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries obtained were in range of 95.58–106.94% for bovine liver and kidney. High extraction efficiency was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. The method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity according to the evaluation of the validation parameters.

  11. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline HCl and Flunixin Meglumine in Their Veterinary Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Hanan A; Abd-Elmonem, Mahmmoud S; Nazlawy, Hagar N; Zaazaa, Hala E

    2017-01-01

    Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY) and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU). The first method, dual wavelength (DW), depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4-327 nm) for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7-275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D), depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5-324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6-286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD), depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.

  12. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation.

  13. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Oxytetracycline HCl and Flunixin Meglumine in Their Veterinary Pharmaceutical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Merey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four precise, accurate, selective, and sensitive UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of Oxytetracycline HCl (OXY and Flunixin Meglumine (FLU. The first method, dual wavelength (DW, depends on measuring the difference in absorbance (ΔA 273.4–327 nm for the determination of OXY where FLU is zero while FLU is determined at ΔA 251.7–275.7 nm. The second method, first-derivative spectrophotometric method (1D, depends on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative selectively at 377 and 266.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The third method, ratio difference method, depends on the difference in amplitudes of the ratio spectra at ΔP 286.5–324.8 nm and ΔP 249.6–286.3 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. The fourth method, first derivative of ratio spectra method (1DD, depends on measuring the amplitude peak to peak of the first derivative of ratio spectra at 296.7 to 369 nm and 259.1 to 304.7 nm for the determination of OXY and FLU, respectively. Different factors affecting the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixture and pharmaceutical dosage form. The developed methods are compared favourably with the official ones.

  14. The prevalence of anemia decreased in Mexican preschool and school-age children from 1999 to 2006 La prevalencia de anemia disminuyó en niños prescolares y escolares mexicanos entre 1999 y 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99, and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1 and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002. In school-age children, age (OR=0.98, affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42 and living in the central region (OR=0.56 were protective factors for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.OBJETIVO: Comparar la distribución de la anemia en niños con base en la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 y la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN99. Asimismo, examinar la asociación de la anemia con variables potencialmente explicativas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon las prevalencias y las medias ajustadas, así como las asociaciones mediante modelos de regresión múltiple lineal y logística para muestras complejas. RESULTADOS: Entre 1999 y 2006 la anemia disminuyó 13.8 puntos porcentuales (pp en lactantes de 12-23 meses de edad y 7.8 pp en los de 24-35; 0.7 pp/año en prescolares

  15. LA SUBALIMENTACIÓN DE LAS CABRAS ALPINO-FRANCÉS NO DISMINUYE SUS PARÁMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS PERO SÍ LA DINÁMICA DE CRECIMIENTO DE SUS CRÍAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Rivas-Muñoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la subalimentación disminuye la respuesta sexual de las hembras de la raza Alpino-Francés y caracterizar el tamaño de la camada y la dinámica de crecimiento al destete de sus crías. A partir del 1 de abril de 2007, un grupo de cabras (n=10 fue subalimentado con una dieta que les proporcionó el 70 % de sus necesidades de mantenimiento (T-70 en base a materia seca, mientras al otro grupo (n=10 se le proporcionó el 100 % de sus necesidades de mantenimiento (T-100. Para el 1 de octubre, el peso (42.4 ± 1.6 y la condición corporal (3.6 ± 0.1 del T-100 fue mayor con respecto al T-70 (28.7 ± 1.1 y 1.8 ± 0.2, respectivamente; P0.05. La mayoría de las hembras de ambos grupos parieron (100 y 90 %, T-100 y T-70, respectivamente; P>0.05. Sin embargo, la prolificidad fue mayor en el grupo T-100 con respecto al grupo T-70 (1.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1, respectivamente; P0.05, mientras que el peso al destete fue diferente (T100 y T70: 7.6 ± 0.4 vs 5.3 ± 0.8; P<0.05. Los resultados anteriores sugieren que los parámetros reproductivos de las cabras de la raza Alpino-Francés subalimentadas, son similares a los que presentan las hembras bien alimentadas pero es diferente en el tamaño de la camada y la dinámica del crecimiento del nacimiento al destete de sus crías.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Flunixin Meglumine After Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated in 14 healthy pigs following single intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of the drug at the dosage of 2.2 and 1.1 mg kg-1. Blood samples were collected at different intervals after administration, and concentrations of FM were determined by HPLC method with a limit of detection of 0.1 μg mL-1. The FM concentration-time data were fitted to a two-compartment open model after single i.v.dosing in pigs. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2α, 0.49 ±0.03 and 0.58 ±0.07 h; t1.2β, 6.28±0.13 and 7.37 ±0.59 h; V/F, 0.01 ±0.001 and 0.01±0.002 L kg-1; CL, 0.01 ±0.002 and 0.01±0.002 L h-1; AUC, 237.73 ±52.46 and 147.71±36.76 μg h-1 mL-1. The drug concentration-time data were fitted to a two-compartment model with first-order absorption after single i.m. administration in pigs. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2α, 0.90±0.07 and 0.86±0.10 h;t1/2β, 8.79±0.85 and 9.60±0.10 h; V/F, 0.02±0.004 and 0.02±0.003 L kg-1; CL, 0.01±0.002 and 0.01 ±0.003 L h-1; AUC, 174.63± 45.84 and 112.42 ±31.19 μg h-1 mL-1. The results of the present study showed that FM was rapidly absorbed, extensively distributed, and slowly eliminated in pigs. The drug was completely absorbed after single i.m. administration and a good bioavailability in pigs.

  17. Phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine used singly or in combination in experimental lameness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H; Ruemmler, R

    2011-11-01

    Using an adjustable heart bar shoe model of foot pain, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the combined use of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and flunixin meglumine (FM) would prove more efficacious in alleviating lameness than either drug alone. One hour after induction of lameness at weekly intervals, 8 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses randomly underwent one of 4 i.v. treatments: saline (SAL) placebo (1 ml/45 kg bwt), PBZ (4.4 mg/kg bwt), FM (1.1 mg/kg bwt) or PBZ+FM (at the same dosages as given individually). Heart rate (HR) and lameness score (LS) responses were assessed in a blinded manner every 20 min for 5 h after lameness induction and then hourly for 12 h after treatment. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 0.05, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h and subsequently analysed for drug concentrations. Repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to identify analgesic effects at a significance level of P<0.05. Heart rate was lower in all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-treated trials from 2 h to 10 h post treatment (P<0.05). Analgesic effects of FM and PBZ+FM, as evidenced by decreases in HR, lasted for 12 h post treatment (P<0.05). Lameness score decreased earlier in PBZ and PBZ+FM trials than in FM trials (P<0.05) and the analgesic effect on LS lasted for 12 h post treatment for all NSAID trials (P<0.05). Peak PBZ plasma concentration was 73.7 ± 6.0 and 77.9 ± 5.5 µg/ml. Peak FM concentration was 12.0 ± 0.8 and 13.7 ± 1.0 µg/ml. It was concluded that the combination of PBZ+FM was not more effective than either PBZ or FM alone. These data do not support the hypothesis that the combination is more efficacious at these dosages than either drug alone in this model of acute foot pain. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Effects of flunixin meglumine on selected clinicopathologic variables, and serum testosterone concentration in stallions after endotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, J

    2006-09-01

    Four clinically normal stallions were infused intravenously with endotoxin (LPS) from Escherichia coli 055:B5 at a dose of 0.3 microg/kg b.w. and four stallions were treated with flunixin meglumine (FM) as a single intravenous injection at a dose of 1.1 mg/kg b.w., 5 min after the infusion of LPS. In response to endotoxin infusion, stallions' reaction was fever (increased rectal and scrotal skin temperature), increased heart rate (HR) and leucopenia. Administration of endotoxin also influenced the level of testosterone (decrease at 3-24 h and increase at 48-72 h after LPS administration) in the blood serum. FM treatment prevented an endotoxin-induced increase in rectal and scrotal skin temperature, HR, with no influence on the decrease of leucocytes. Administration of FM only had a significant effect on the latter changes (at 24-72 h) of serum testosterone concentration after addition of endotoxin.

  19. Função renal de cães tratados com doses terapêuticas de flunixin meglumine e ketoprofen durante o trans e pós-operatório Renal function in dogs treated with therapeutic dosages of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen during the trans and pos-operatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deila Schossler

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Baseando-se em relatos de casos de falência renal após a administração de flunixin meglumine em animais saudáveis, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando avaliar a função renal através da medição sérica de uréia e creatinina de quatro grupos de cinco caninos submetidos a um procedimento cirúrgico, sendo os dois primeiros tratados com flunixin meglumine e os dois seguintes tratados com ketoprofen, ambos em doses terapêuticas. Os valores séricos de uréia e creatinina mantiveram-se dentro dos limites fisiológicos, permitindo concluir que não há lesão renal em consequência da utilização tanto no trans quanto no pós-operatório de animais clinicamente sadios.It has been reported in the literature several clinical cases of renal failure after the use of flunixin meglumine in normal healthy dogs. Based on these reports this study was developed to evaluate the renal function of normal healthy dogs. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine were measured in four groups of 5 dogs submitted to a single surgical procedure. Two groups received flunixin meglumine and the other two ketoprofen, both in therapeutic dosages. The results showed values of BUN and serum creatinine within normal range for dogs. It is fair to conclude that flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen do not produce renal failure when administered during the peri-operative period in normal healthy dogs.

  20. ENFEKSİYÖZ OLMAYAN TRAVMATİK AKUT KERATOKONJUNKTİVİTİS VAKALARINDA FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE VE DEXAMETHASONE KULLANIMININ MUKAYESESİ

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Yılmaz; Kul, Mustafa; Alkan, Fahrettin

    1995-01-01

    Çalışmada ot başakcıkları taralnıdan gözde oluşturulan enfeksiyöz olmayan akut keratokonjunktivitis vakalarındanonspesifik tedavi olacak nonsteroid (flunixin meglumine) ve steroid (dexamethasone) antienflamatuvarlarınkullanımı amaçlandı. Çalışma, 34 klinik; 30 kuzu, 2 buzağı , 1 keçi, 1 köpek ve 8 deneysel köpek, toplam 42 hayvandan23'ünde flunixin meglumine (0,05 mg/kg göz) ve 19'unda dexamethasone (2.5 mg/göz) günde bir uygulama ile üç günsubkonjunktival olarak uygulandı. Tedavi s...

  1. Effect of preoperative administration of erythromycin or flunixin meglumine on postoperative abomasal emptying rate in dairy cows undergoing surgical correction of left displacement of the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Thomas; Tischer, Katja; Gieseler, Tobias; Fürll, Manfred; Constable, Peter D

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether preoperative administration of erythromycin or flunixin meglumine altered postoperative abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, or milk production in dairy cattle undergoing surgical correction of left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Nonrandomized, controlled clinical trial. 45 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with LDA. Cows were alternately assigned to an erythromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], IM), flunixin (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], IV), or control group (n = 15/group). Treatments were administered once 1 hour before surgical correction of LDA. D-Xylose solution (50%; 0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb]) was injected into the abomasal lumen during surgery, and venous blood samples were periodically obtained to determine time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration. Abomasal emptying rate was significantly faster in cows treated with erythromycin (mean +/- SD time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration, 149 +/- 48 minutes) than in control cows (277 +/- 95 minutes) but was not significantly different between cows treated with flunixin (230 +/- 49 minutes) and control cows. Cows treated with erythromycin had significantly greater milk production, relative to production before surgery, on postoperative days 1 and 2 than did control cows. Cows in the erythromycin and flunixin groups had a significantly higher rumen contraction rate on the first postoperative day than did control cows. Results suggested that preoperative administration of a single dose of erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, and milk production in the immediate postoperative period in cows undergoing surgical correction of LDA.

  2. Evaluation of flunixin meglumine pour-on administration on prostaglandin E2 concentration in inflammatory exudate after induction of inflammation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Julien; Fournier, René; Roy, Olivier; Catala, Mathias

    2017-04-20

    The effect of flunixin transdermal pour-on solution (Finadyne® Transdermal; MSD Animal Health) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in bovine inflammatory exudate was evaluated in a tissue cage model of acute inflammation. Twelve calves were randomly allocated to two-treatment groups over two sequences. Three weeks prior to the first period, sterile hollow perforated polyethylene balls were surgically embedded in the subcutis at four distinct sites in each animal. On the first day of each period, an aseptic inflammation was induced by injecting 0.5mL of a 2% carrageenan solution into the lumen of each tissue cage. Treatment with either flunixin transdermal or negative control (NaCl) immediately followed. 0.5mL of exudate was collected prior to challenge, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after challenge. Exudate PGE2 concentrations were analyzed using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method. Mean PGE2 concentrations were consistently lower in calves treated with flunixin transdermal than those measured in calves treated with negative control, indicating an inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenase. Inhibition was the highest at 8h after treatment, and differences with the negative control were significant at +8, 24, 36 and 48h. The flunixin transdermal formulation was effective in reducing PGE2 concentrations in bovine exudate following an induced inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory action started in the first hours after treatment and lasted up to 48h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currah, Jan M; Hendrick, Steven H; Stookey, Joseph M

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves' postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration.

  4. Effects of various drugs (flunixin, pentoxifylline, enoxaparin) modulating micro-rheological changes in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Kotan, Robert; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Posan, Janos; Furka, Istvan; Sapy, Peter; Miko, Iren; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have investigated the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and provided data on its micro-rheological impact in the rat. We hypothesized that non-steroid anti-inflammatory agent flunixin, the xanthine-derivate pentoxifylline and the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin may have various beneficial effects improving microcirculatory and rheological parameters. In female rats, under general anesthesia, 10 μg/kg cerulein s.c. was administered and 2 hours afterwards microcirculation was tested by laser Doppler flowmetry on the tongue and after performing laparotomy on the small intestine, liver and pancreas prior to terminal blood sampling. From blood samples hematological parameters, blood pH, lactate concentration, erythrocyte deformability, osmoscan parameters and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Compared to normal control in acute pancreatitis group we found severe deterioration in tissue microcirculation together with impaired erythrocyte deformability and enhanced aggregation, accompanied by acidic pH and increasing lactate concentration. Improvement was found when using flunixin (s.c.), pentoxifylline (i.p.) or enoxaparin (s.c.). These drugs could partly improve the blood flux on the surface of the investigated organs, and the flunixin had the most expressed improving effects on micro-rheological parameters. Surprisingly, the improving effect of pentoxifylline on micro-rheological parameters was not obvious (red blood cell deformability did not improved better than in the other treated groups), however, microcirculatory parameters improved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin regular and flunixin meglumine on endotoxemia experimentally induced by Escherichia coli serotype O55:B5 in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeh, Aliasghar; Badiei, Khalil; Pourjafar, Mehrdad; Nazifi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a major cause of mortality in large animals and there are several therapeutic regimens for the treatment of endotoxemia. Recent studies have suggested the anti-inflammatory effects of insulin in endotoxemic human and laboratory animal models but to the best of our knowledge there is no report on the possible therapeutic effect of insulin in large animal endotoxemia. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of insulin regular compared with flunixin meglumine on the treatment of endotoxemia in sheep. Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli was administered intravenously to ewes. Anti-inflammatory effects of flunixin meglumine (at 2.2 mg/kg) and insulin regular (at 1.5 and 3 IU/kg) were evaluated by determination of serum concentrations of acute phase proteins, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress biomarkers. Insulin regular at 3 IU/kg controlled the acute phase response following endotoxemia induction. The anti-inflammatory potency of insulin regular at 3 IU/kg was significantly higher than at 1.5 IU/kg and of flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Insulin regular induces its anti-inflammatory effects in a dose-dependent manner. Intravenous use of insulin regular can be a potential new therapeutic regimen for endotoxemia in large animal medicine.

  6. Evaluation of the brain, renal, and hepatic effects of flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and phenylbutazone administration in Iranian fat-tailed sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ali Asghar; Derakhshanfar, Amin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain, renal, and hepatic effects of three NSAIDs (flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and phenylbutazone) when administered IV to clinically normal Iranian fat-tailed sheep. The experiments were conducted on twenty clinically normal adult female sheep. Sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: saline (n = 5), flunixin meglumine (n = 5), ketoprofen (n = 5), and phenylbutazone (n = 5). Drug administration was initiated at 8 AM: on day 1 and continued every 12 h for 12 days. Flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and phenylbutazone were administered at dose rate of 2.2, 4, and 4 mg/kg, respectively. Daily blood and urine samples were collected from all sheep for hematologic, enzymes activity, and urinalysis. Immediately after euthanasia, complete necropsy was performed on all sheep and gross lesions were recorded. Clinical, hematological, serum, and urine analysis and histopatholgical findings were described. When the use of these compounds is contemplated in clinical cases, the risk of adverse effects and the comparative toxic potential should be considered, along with the efficacy of the compound for the condition being treated.

  7. Effect of flunixin meglumine on the amelioration of lameness in dairy steers with amphotericin B-induced transient synovitis-arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kara L; Anderson, David E; Coetzee, Johann F; White, Brad J; Miesner, Matt D

    2011-11-01

    To characterize amphotericin B-induced lameness in cattle and to ascertain the analgesic effects of flunixin meglumine by use of multimodal assessment. 10 healthy Holstein steers free from musculoskeletal disease. Steers were randomly allocated to a treatment or negative control group. Amphotericin B was injected into the distal interphalangeal joint of the lateral claw of the left hind limb of all steers. Treatment steers received flunixin meglumine at the time of synovitis-arthritis induction and at 12 hours after induction. Control steers received no medication. Multimodal analysis included vital parameters, visual lameness score, behavioral monitoring with accelerometers, pressure mat analysis, and plasma cortisol determination before and after induction. Data were analyzed by use of linear mixed models with treatment and time designated as fixed effects, accounting for repeated measures on individual calves. Amphotericin B injection induced moderate, transient lameness. Control steers were more than twice as likely to be lame as treatment steers (mean ± SD lameness score, 92.2 ± 8.1 % vs 40.7 ± 2.5%). Treatment steers placed significantly greater force and contact area on the affected foot and greater force, impulse, and contact area on the paired claw, compared with control steers. Furthermore, treatment steers spent considerably less time in recumbency than controls. Amphotericin B successfully induced synovitis-arthritis in dairy steers that was transient in nature. Flunixin meglumine was efficacious in providing analgesia for these steers.

  8. The physical activity level of Mexican children decreases upon entry to elementary school El nivel de actividad física disminuye en niños mexicanos al ingresar a la escuela primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Jáuregui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the physical activity patterns of a cohort of Mexican children in kindergarten (K, first (1ES and second grade (2ES of elementary school. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The physical activity of 217 children (123 girls and 94 boys aged 5-6 years was measured (five full-day triaxial accelerometry annually.Weekday and weekend moderate/ vigorous physical activity (MVPA and school and off-school MVPA was calculated. Comparisons between surveys were made using longitudinal multilevel generalized linear models. RESULTS: Weekday MVPA was 22 and 37 min/d lower for 1ES (p=0.06 and 2ES (p0.5. CONCLUSION: MVPA was significantly reduced from K to ES,in part because of a decline in MVPA during school activities. Interventions targeted to school environment modifications should be promoted.OBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de actividad física (AF en una cohorte de niños mexicanos en el jardín de niños, primer y segundo grado de primaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se midió anualmente la AF (acelerometría triaxial de cinco días completos en 217 niños (123 niñas y 94 niños de 5 a 6 años de edad. Se calculó la AF moderada/vigorosa (AFMV entre semana y de fin de semana, dentro y fuera del horario escolar. Se realizaron comparaciones mediante modelos lineales generalizados multinivel longitudinales. RESULTADOS: La AFMV entre semana fue 22 (p=0.06 y 37 min/d (p0.05. CONCLUSIONES: La AFMV disminuyó de manera significativa del jardín de niños a 2º de primaria en parte debido a una reducción de AFMV durante las actividades escolares. Es necesaria la promoción de intervenciones enfocadas a la modificación del ambiente escolar.

  9. Treatment of acute puerperal metritis with flunixin meglumine in addition to antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillich, M; Voigt, D; Forderung, D; Heuwieser, W

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this field trial was to evaluate effects of a single administration of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of flunixin meglumine (FM) in addition to a systemic antibiotic treatment in cows with acute puerperal metritis (APM). Outcome variables tested were proportion of cows with a fever, prevalence of chronic endometritis 18 to 22 and 32 to 35 d in milk (DIM), and reproductive performance measures in the current lactation. In addition, serum concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen were analyzed. Daily milk yield within 6 d after the first treatment was recorded. Cows were examined 4 to 5 DIM by rectal palpation and vaginoscopy, and rectal temperature was measured. Fetid vulvar discharge and a body temperature > or = 39.5 degrees C were signs of APM. Cows with APM were treated in the reference group with 1.0 mg/kg of BW of ceftiofur on 3 to 5 consecutive days (CEF, n = 119). In the study group, cows received the same antibiotic treatment as in CEF and 2.2 mg/kg of BW of FM on treatment d 1 (CEF + FM, n = 119). Blood samples were collected 4, 6, and 10 DIM and analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen. A group of cows without APM remained untreated and served as controls (n = 9). There were no significant differences between CEF and CEF + FM in the proportion of cows with fever 1 d after the first treatment (33.6 vs. 46.2%), milk yield per milking 10 DIM (7.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.3 kg in primiparous, 9.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.6 +/- 0.4 kg in multiparous cows), prevalence of chronic endometritis 32 to 35 DIM (64.3 vs. 52.2%), and in reproductive performance (31.5 vs. 34.3% conception to first AI, 58.0 vs. 54.6% pregnancy rate, 107.8 +/- 36.9 vs. 101.6 +/- 41.4 d open). Compared with the control, CEF and CEF + FM had significantly greater concentrations of haptoglobin (1.1 +/- 0.28 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.06 and 1.8 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 4 DIM; 0.3 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.06 and 1.2 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 10 DIM) and fibrinogen (2.2 +/- 0.17 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.14 and

  10. Interactions between erythromycin, flunixin meglumine, levamisole and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility-in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2017-09-14

    Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows. The obtained results confirmed the contractile effect of all three drugs used solely. Hederagenin and medicagenic acid (0.001 μM) enhanced the contractile effect of levamisole. Hederagenin additionally increased the impact of erythromycin. Both saponins (100 μM) showed synergistic effects with all tested pharmaceuticals. Apigenin and quercetin (0.001 μM) intensified the contractile response induced by erythromycin and levamisole. Moreover, both flavonoids (100 μM) showed an antagonistic interaction with all tested drugs which in that situation were devoid of the prokinetic effect. To conclude, plant metabolic metabolites such as saponins and flavonoids are potent modifiers of the effect of drugs towards gut motility. The synergy observed between phytocompounds and selected medicines can be beneficial in the treatment of cows with hypomotility disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of the use of atropine sulfate, a combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Alfaqeeh, Sameh M; Mustafa, Ghazi; Qura'n, Lara; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of atropine sulfate, butylscopolammonium bromide combined with metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate the clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. 28 horses with piroplasmosis. 28 horses were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups according to the pretreatment administered. Fifteen minutes before administration of 2.4 mg of imidocarb dipropionate/kg IM, horses in the first group were pretreated with 0.02 mg of atropine sulfate/kg IV, the second group with a combination of 0.2 mg of butylscopolammonium bromide/kg IV and 25 mg of metamizole sodium/kg IV, the third group with 1.1 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg IV, and the fourth (control) group with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/50 kg IV. Physical examination, including evaluation of rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status, abdominal sounds, signs of abdominal pain, salivation, diarrhea, and number of defecations, was performed. Imidocarb dipropionate use in the control group was associated with serious adverse effects including signs of abdominal pain (4/7 horses) and diarrhea (2/7). Horses pretreated with atropine had no diarrhea, but 6 had signs of abdominal pain. Only 1 horse that received butylscopolammonium-metamizole pretreatment had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea, which was numerically but not significantly different than the control group. Of horses pretreated with flunixin, 3 had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea. A combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium may be useful to ameliorate the adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses, although group size was small and significant differences from the control group were not found.

  12. Measuring the efficacy of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for lame sows using a GAITFour pressure mat and an embedded microcomputer-based force plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M D; Johnson, A K; Abell, C A; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Millman, S T; Stalder, K J

    2015-05-01

    Pain associated with lameness on farm is a negative affective state and has a detrimental impact on individual farm animal welfare. Animal pain can be managed utilizing husbandry tools and through pharmacological approaches. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including meloxicam and flunixin meglumine are compounds used in many species for pain management because they are easy to administer, long lasting, and cost-effective. Assessing an animal's biomechanical parameters using such tools as the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system provides an objective, sensitive, and precise means to detect animals in lame states. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine for pain mitigation in lame sows using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system and GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Lameness was induced in 24 mature mixed-parity sows using a chemical synovitis model and compared 3 treatments: meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg per os), flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intramuscular) and sterile saline (intramuscular). Weight distribution (kg) for each foot was collected twice per second for a total of 5 min for each time point using the embedded microcomputer-based force plate system. Stride time, stride length, maximum pressure, activated sensors, and stance time were collected using 3 quality walks (readings) for each time point using the GAITFour pressure mat gait analysis walkway system. Sows administered flunixin meglumine or meloxicam tolerated more weight on their lame leg compared with saline sows (P meloxicam had smaller differences in stance time, maximum pressure, and activated sensors between the sound and lame legs compared with saline-treated sows between 37 and 60 h after lameness induction (P meloxicam administration mitigated pain sensitivity in sows after lameness induction when pain sensitivity was evaluated with the embedded

  13. Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis

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    Leandro Ourives Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respostas terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857. O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7% pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40% pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%, para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1% ou enduração (10,8% no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade.FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been

  14. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  15. Quantitative Gait Analysis Detects Significant Differences in Movement between Osteoarthritic and Nonosteoarthritic Guinea Pig Strains before and after Treatment with Flunixin Meglumine

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    K. S. Santangelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided gait analysis system was used to contrast two guinea pig strains with differing propensity for osteoarthritis (OA, with/without administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Walking speed and static/dynamic gait parameters were determined at baseline. Flunixin meglumine was given and animals were evaluated 4, 24, and 72 hours after treatment. Body weight was compared using unpaired t-tests. Knee joints were histologically evaluated using species-specific criteria; indices were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s multiple comparisons. A generalized linear model followed by Tukey’s posttests juxtaposed gait parameters; walking speed was a covariate for other outcome measures. Body weight was not different between strains; OA-prone animals demonstrated more progressive chondropathy. At baseline, OA-prone animals had slower walking speeds, narrower hind limb bases of support, shorter stride lengths, and slower limb swing speeds relative to OA-resistant animals. These differences were not detected 4 or 24 hours after treatment. By 72 hours, OA-prone animals had returned to baseline values. These findings indicate a distinct voluntary gait pattern in a rodent model of bilateral primary OA, modification of which may allow rapid screening of novel therapies. Flunixin meglumine temporarily permitted OA-prone animals to move in a manner that was analogous to OA-resistant animals.

  16. Quantitative Gait Analysis Detects Significant Differences in Movement between Osteoarthritic and Nonosteoarthritic Guinea Pig Strains before and after Treatment with Flunixin Meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, K S; Kaeding, A C; Baker, S A; Bertone, A L

    2014-01-01

    A computer-aided gait analysis system was used to contrast two guinea pig strains with differing propensity for osteoarthritis (OA), with/without administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Walking speed and static/dynamic gait parameters were determined at baseline. Flunixin meglumine was given and animals were evaluated 4, 24, and 72 hours after treatment. Body weight was compared using unpaired t-tests. Knee joints were histologically evaluated using species-specific criteria; indices were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons. A generalized linear model followed by Tukey's posttests juxtaposed gait parameters; walking speed was a covariate for other outcome measures. Body weight was not different between strains; OA-prone animals demonstrated more progressive chondropathy. At baseline, OA-prone animals had slower walking speeds, narrower hind limb bases of support, shorter stride lengths, and slower limb swing speeds relative to OA-resistant animals. These differences were not detected 4 or 24 hours after treatment. By 72 hours, OA-prone animals had returned to baseline values. These findings indicate a distinct voluntary gait pattern in a rodent model of bilateral primary OA, modification of which may allow rapid screening of novel therapies. Flunixin meglumine temporarily permitted OA-prone animals to move in a manner that was analogous to OA-resistant animals.

  17. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Flunixin Meglumine Combination in an Injectable Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrawi, Nidal; Naseef, Hani; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the powerful antimicrobial agent florfenicol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory flunixin meglumine is used for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and control of BRD-associated pyrexia, in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. This study describes the development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and flunixin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of excipients. The proposed RP-HPLC method was developed by a reversed phase- (RP-) C18e (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at room temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water mixture, and pH was adjusted to 2.8 using diluted phosphoric acid, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. The stability-indicating method was developed by exposing the drugs to stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and thermal degradation; the obtained degraded products were successfully separated from the APIs. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria.

  18. Comparative plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine and ceftiofur hydrochloride following individual and co-administration in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, P J; Kleinhenz, M D; Wulf, L W; Rajewski, S J; Wang, C; Gehring, R; Coetzee, J F

    2017-07-21

    Ceftiofur (CEF) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) are two drugs approved for use in beef and dairy cattle that are frequently used in combination for many diseases. These two drugs are the most commonly used drugs in dairy cattle in their respective drug classes. Two research groups have recently published manuscripts demonstrating altered pharmacokinetics of FLU and CEF in cows affected with naturally occurring mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine administered intravenously or intramuscularly administered ceftiofur hydrochloride would be altered when co-administered versus individual administration to healthy dairy cattle. Ten cows were utilized in a three-period, three-treatment crossover design, with all cows receiving each treatment one time with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Following treatment, plasma and interstitial fluid samples were collected and stored for later analysis. Additionally, plasma ultrafiltrate was collected using microcentrifugation to determine plasma protein binding of each drug. Drug concentrations in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, and interstitial fluid were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The results of this trial indicate that drug interactions between FLU and CEF do not occur when the two drugs are administered simultaneously in healthy cattle. Further work is needed to determine whether this relationship is maintained in the presence of severe disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Flunixin Meglumine Combination in an Injectable Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the powerful antimicrobial agent florfenicol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory flunixin meglumine is used for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD and control of BRD-associated pyrexia, in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. This study describes the development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and flunixin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of excipients. The proposed RP-HPLC method was developed by a reversed phase- (RP- C18e (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm column at room temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water mixture, and pH was adjusted to 2.8 using diluted phosphoric acid, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. The stability-indicating method was developed by exposing the drugs to stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and thermal degradation; the obtained degraded products were successfully separated from the APIs. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria.

  20. Effects of meloxicam and flunixin on pain, stress and discomfort in male piglets during and after surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Gerald; Schollasch, Frauke; Hillen, Sonja; Willems, Hermann; Piechotta, Marion; Failing, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Surgical castration of young male piglets is now a generally accepted cause of serious distress and impairment of animal welfare. Awareness of this problem has created the moral commitment to seek for practical and more humane alternatives. As one possible alternative, the application of analgesics has been installed in Germany as an interim solution by the QS system, thus mandatory for the majority of German pig producers.Two analgesics have been authorised for this purpose. Both have been shown a significant positive impact on cortisol levels if administered pre-operatively. However, their effects on pain, stress and discomfort during castration, and on the post-castration period are conflicting. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Meloxicam and Flunixin on cortisol levels, behavioural indices, vocalisation, and wound healing of surgical castrated piglets in the field. There was no difference in vocalisation during castration in analgesic treated and untreated piglets. Piglets castrated under analgesia still had significantly elevated serum cortisol levels 30 min post castration, when compared to the sham castrated group. Both analgesics led to a significant impairment of behavioural indices and wound healing. It is concluded that analgesics can improve the welfare of piglets during the first part of the post-castration period. However, the benefits may be considered small and may not meet the requirements of the EU. Hence it is of high importance to prevent the interim practice of surgical castration of male piglets under analgesics from becoming implemented as a permanent condition in pig production.

  1. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres following Oral Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsyn Fourie

    Full Text Available The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP, flunixin (FXN and phenylbutazone (PBZ in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg, FXN (1 mg/kg,PBZ (1.7 mg/kg or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2, as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern.

  2. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Carprofen, Flunixin and Phenylbutazone in the Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) following Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Tamsyn; Cromarty, Duncan; Duncan, Neil; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2015-01-01

    The following study evaluates the overt toxic potential of carprofen (CRP), flunixin (FXN) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) in Old world vultures in relation to historic toxicity data for diclofenac and ketoprofen, with the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) being the indicator species. The toxic potential of a single oral dose of CRP (11.5 mg/kg), FXN (1 mg/kg),PBZ (1.7 mg/kg) or water was evaluated by means of a four-way parallel study (n = 2), as means of ascertaining if these drugs were as toxic as diclofenac in the vulture. No unscheduled deaths or pathological lesions were noted following exposure. Clinical signs of lethargy and depression were, however, noted in one CRP, two FXN and one PBZ treated birds. Mild reversible inhibition of UA excretion was evident in all three groups, although UA remained within the population reference interval in contrast to the effects previously described for diclofenac and ketoprofen. All treatment groups had a drug concentration responsive increase in alanine transferase activity. CRP, FXN and PBZ were characterised by a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1051.8 ± 620.7 ng/ml, 335.9 ± 36.3 ng/ml and 11150 ± 2474.9 ng/ml at 4 ± 4.3, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 5.3 ± 5.2 hours (Tmax) respectively and a half-life of elimination of 13.3 ±5, 1.8±1 and 18.7 ±11.4 hours respectively. While we could not demonstrate a lethal effect of the tested substances, the presence of toxic clinical signs, clinical pathological changes and/or long half-lives of elimination suggests that all three drugs have a potential for toxicity in a larger population or on repeat administration. In conclusion while the studied substances were not as overtly toxic as diclofenac, they are of safety concern.

  3. La toxicidad por exceso de Mn y Zn disminuye la producción de materia seca, los pigmentos foliares y la calidad del fruto en fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa

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    Casierra-Posada Fanor

    2005-12-01

    estudiar la respuesta de plantas de fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa a niveles elevados de Zn y Mn en el suelo. Las plantas de fresa crecieron en materas llenas con suelo en un invernadero en Tunja (Colombia. Se le adicionó gradualmente 350 mg de Zn ó 150 mg de Mn, como ZnSO4.7H2O y MnSO4. H2O, respectivamente, por kilogramo de suelo secado al aire. Las plantas se cosecharon 16 semanas luego de empezados los tratamientos. Se determinó: área foliar total; producción de materia seca; contenido de clorofila a, clorofila b y carotenos en hojas; contenido de sólidos solubles totales y diámetro longitudinal en frutos. Los resultados indicaron que altas concentraciones de Zn y Mn reducen el área foliar y la producción de materia seca. La calidad de la fruta se afectó por estos metales en el suelo: en plantas tratadas con altas concentraciones, los sólidos solubles totales de los frutos fueron menores que en los testigos, se les redujo el diámetro y disminuyó el contenido de clorofila y carotenos en las hojas. Se evidenció una mayor toxicidad del Zn para las plantas que del Mn.

  4. Flunixin meglumine ou bupivacaína como técnicas analgésicas pós-toracotomia lateral intercostal em cães Flunixin meglumine or bupivacaine as postoperative analgesic techniques for lateral intercostal thoracotomy in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Dal Pai

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Dezesseis cães, adultos, sem raça definida, foram submetidos à toracotomia lateral intercostal e separados em dois grupos para estudo de diferentes protocolos analgésicos. Os animais receberam como terapia analgésica flunixin meglumine no período pré-operatório (grupo I ou bupivacaína intratorácica (grupo II. Todos os crães estiveram sob cuidados intensivos em sala de recuperação durante quatro horas de período pós-operatório quando foram monitorados o volume corrente pulmonar, a gasometria arterial, o tempo de reperfusão capilar, a coloração das mucosas ocular e oral, as freqüências respiratória e cardíaca e a temperatura retal. Uma ficha de escores para avaliação de dor pós-operatória foi elaborada para o acompanhamento dos animais de ambos os grupos. Os resultados demonstraram a ocorrência de diminuição dos valores de pressão parcial arterial de oxigênio abaixo dos índices fisiológicos após a toracotomia. A análise estatística de comparação entre os valores meédios calculados, não revelou diferença significativa entre os cães do grupo I e os do grupo II. No presente estudo, tanto a utilização intravenosa do flunixin meglumine quanto a administração intratorácica de bupivacaína foram efetivas na analgesia pós-operatória.Lateral intercostal thoracotomy was performed in sixteen mongrel adult dogs divided in two groups for diferent analgesic treatments. The dogs of group I received intravenous flunixin meglumine before surgery as an analgesic protocol, and those of group II received interpleural bupivacaine for the same purpose of pain control. All animals were maintained in a recovery room during four hours in which were monitored the pulmonary tidal volume, blood gas, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, respiratory and heart rates and rectal temperature. Pain scores were used to evaluate the effect of the analgesic technics in groups I and II. The results showed a reduction on the

  5. Effects of flunixin meglumine and prostaglandin F2 α treatments on the development and quality of bovine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Bang, J-I; Fakruzzaman, M; Lee, K-L; Ko, D-H; Ghanem, N; Wang, Z; Kong, I-K

    2014-12-01

    Assisted reproduction procedures, such as embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI), in cattle could induce the secretion of prostaglandin F2 -alpha (PGF2 α) from uterine horns which may in turn interrupt embryo development and implantation. This study investigated the effect of flunixin meglumine (FM), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α) and FM combined with PGF2α supplementation in culture medium (IVC-II) on the development and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos. The development rate of embryos was significantly higher in the FM group (33.3%) than in control (24.3%), PGF2 α (23.9%) and FM + PGF2 α groups (24.5%). The percentage of hatched blastocysts was also higher (p < 0.05) in the FM group (41.2%) than in the control (27.8%) and PGF2 α groups (19.8%). While, there was no significant difference in total cell number in all experimental groups, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the PGF2 α group (8.2 ± 6.6) than in the control (4.7 ± 3.2), FM (4.7 ± 2.5) and FM + PGF2 α (4.9 ± 3.4) groups. Detected by real-time PCR, secreted vesicle seminal protein 1 (SSLP1) and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression decreased (p < 0.05) in the PGF2 α group. However, SSLP1 and PTGS2 gene expression in the FM + PGF2 α group returned to their baseline levels, similar to the control and FM groups. Caspase 3 (CAPS3) gene expression increased in the PGF2 α group compared with other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of FM in vitro culture significantly improved embryo development as well as alleviated the negative impact of PGF2 α.

  6. The effects of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis and flunixin meglumine administration on activity measures, feed intake, and milk parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeiser, E E; Leslie, K E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S

    2012-09-01

    The use of flunixin meglumine (FM), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis was evaluated. Twenty-four primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows were challenged with 1×10(2) cfu of E. coli 727 in 1 uninfected quarter. Of the 24 E. coli-challenged animals, 12 were administered FM [ECF; 100mg (2 cc)/45.5 kg of body weight) at the onset of clinical mastitis signs. The remaining 12 challenged cows were untreated (EC). An additional 11 cows were infused with 1 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline and served as the nonchallenged control (CTL) group. Activity measures, dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk bacterial counts from challenged mammary glands, and somatic cell score (SCS) were collected on all animals. Activity measurements were collected using both a behavior-monitoring system and data loggers. Activity was summarized by day (behavior-monitoring system) and in 3-h time periods (data loggers). An examination of animal activity indicated that EC and ECF cows stood more and lay less as compared with the CTL animals in the first 6h after FM administration. When DMI was analyzed, CTL and ECF animals had greater DMI than the EC animals on d 1 postchallenge. However, by d 2 postchallenge, DMI for ECF and EC cows was significantly less than for the CTL cows. The ECF cows had greater milk yield than did EC animals by d 3 and 4 postchallenge, and no significant difference in yield was observed between the ECF and CTL animals. No differences in SCS were observed between the parity groups. Yet, bacterial counts in milk were greater in multiparous animals compared with the primiparous cows. Therefore, it can be concluded that E. coli mastitis does alter animal activity and may have a negative effect on animal well-being. However, the improvement in DMI and milk production for ECF animals provides evidence for using a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug as supportive therapy in alleviating the adverse

  7. Effects of flunixin meglumine, recombinant bovine somatotropin and/or human chorionic gonadotropin on pregnancy rates in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R C; Perdigão, A; Mesquita, F S; Sá Filho, M; Nogueira, G P; Machado, R; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to compare pharmacological strategies aiming to inhibit prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2α)) synthesis (flunixin meglumine; FM), stimulate growth of the conceptus (recombinant bovine somatotropin; bST) and progesterone (P(4)) synthesis (human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), as well as their combinations, regarding their ability to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Lactating Nelore cows (N = 975), 35 to 70 days postpartum, were synchronized and inseminated by timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 0. On Day 7, cattle were allocated into eight groups and received one of the following treatments: saline (S) on Days 7 and 16 (Group Control); S on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group FM); bST on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST); bST on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + FM); hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group hCG); hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group hCG + FM); bST and hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG), or bST and hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG + FM). The aforementioned treatments were administered at the following doses: 2.2 mg/kg FM (Banamine®; Intervet Schering-Plough, Cotia, SP, Brazil), 500 mg bST (Boostin®; Intervet Schering-Plough), and 2500 IU hCG (Chorulon®; Intervet Schering-Plough). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 40 days after TAI by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different among treatments. However, there was a main effect of hCG treatment to increase pregnancy rates (63.0 vs. 55.4%; P = 0.001). Concentrations of P(4) did not differ significantly among groups on Day 7 or on Day 16. However, consistent with the higher pregnancy rates, hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 16 (10.6 vs. 9.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.05). We concluded that hCG treatment 7 days after TAI improved pregnancy rates of lactating Nelore cows, possibly via a mechanism leading to induction of higher P(4) concentrations, or by reducing the luteolytic stimulus during maternal recognition of

  8. Comparison of flunixin meglumine and meloxicam for post operative management of horses with strangulating small intestinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R J; Taylor, A H; Knowles, E J; Wilford, S; Linnenkohl, W; Mair, T S; Johns, I C

    2014-07-01

    Ex vivo evidence suggests that cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2-preferential inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as meloxicam, have a less detrimental effect on intestinal healing than flunixin meglumine (FM). Whether this translates to a beneficial effect in horses with naturally occurring strangulating small intestinal (SSI) lesions is unknown. To compare the clinical outcome of horses with naturally occurring SSI lesions treated with meloxicam or FM. Randomised prospective study. Cases presenting to the Royal Veterinary College Equine Referral Hospital and Bell Equine Veterinary Clinic during 2010 and 2011 in which an SSI lesion was identified at exploratory laparotomy were eligible for inclusion. Horses received either 1.1 mg/kg bwt FM or 0.6 mg/kg bwt meloxicam i.v. q. 12 h. Clinical outcomes and clinical and laboratory parameters associated with endotoxaemia were compared between groups. Sixty cases were enrolled, 32 horses received FM and 28 received meloxicam. There was no difference in signalment, physical examination or surgical factors between groups. The overall survival to discharge was 81%; there was no difference in survival (P = 0.14) or incidence of post operative ileus (P = 0.25) between groups. There was no significant difference between the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations at 0 h (P = 0.18) or 48 h (P = 0.60); however, there was a significant difference between neutrophil count at 48 h (P<0.05) and at 96 h (P<0.01) with significantly greater cell numbers in horses receiving meloxicam compared with FM. Blinded pain score evaluation showed that more horses receiving meloxicam showed gross signs of pain than those treated with FM (P = 0.04). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug choice did not affect major clinical outcomes in horses with SSI lesions but had some effects on signs of pain. This study provides no evidence to recommend one NSAID treatment above another based on survival or the incidence of

  9. Detection of flunixin in equine urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S M; Owens, N A; Rodgers, J P

    1995-05-05

    A normal-phase HPLC method combined with particle-beam mass spectrometry (PB-MS) was developed for the analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The forty one NSAIDs analysed responded in one or more (electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionisation) modes and highly characteristic spectra were produced. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for isolating acidic NSAIDs was developed using the Bond Elut Certify II cartridge. The average recovery was 88.5%. Flunixin, extracted by SPE from urine of a mare to which the meglumine salt had been administered was positively identified by HPLC-PB-MS and HPLC-atmospheric pressure ionization (API) MS methods.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and flunixin meglumine and interactions between both drugs after intravenous co-administration in healthy and endotoxaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Muammer; Yazar, Enver; Uney, Kamil; Er Karabacak, Ayşe; Traş, Bünyamin

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and possible interactions of enrofloxacin (ENR) and flunixin meglumine (FM) in healthy rabbits and in rabbits where endotoxaemia had been induced by administering Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six male adult New Zealand White rabbits were used for the study. In Phase I, FM (2.2 mg/kg) and ENR (5 mg/kg) were given simultaneously as a bolus intravenous (IV) injection to each healthy rabbit. After a washout period, Phase II consisted of purified LPS administered as an IV bolus injection, then FM and ENR. LPS produced statistically significant increases in some serum biochemical concentrations. After the drugs were co-administered, the kinetic parameters of FM were not significantly different in healthy compared to endotoxaemic rabbits. It is concluded that ENR and FM could be co-administered to rabbits to treat endotoxaemia as no negative interaction was observed between the pharmacokinetics of both drugs.

  11. Comparison of the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone, flunixin meglumine and meloxicam on the in vitro response of calf peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yousuke; Tanaka, Rie; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Keiici; Tanabe, Taishi; Oikawa, Masaaki

    2011-07-01

    This study compared the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone (DEX), flunixin meglumine (FLU) and meloxicam (MEL) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of seven healthy Holstein calves in vitro. DEX significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in comparison with FLU and MEL. FLU and MEL dose-dependently inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, but did not significantly reduce mRNA expression. Our in vitro study indicates that steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have immunosuppressive effects on calf PBMCs. These findings are important for assessing the indications and complications of NSAIDs in calves.

  12. Função renal de cães tratados com doses terapêuticas de flunixin meglumine e ketoprofen durante o trans e pós-operatório

    OpenAIRE

    Deila Schossler; Marcelo Meller Alievi; Mauren Picada Emanuelli; João Eduardo Schossler

    2001-01-01

    Baseando-se em relatos de casos de falência renal após a administração de flunixin meglumine em animais saudáveis, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando avaliar a função renal através da medição sérica de uréia e creatinina de quatro grupos de cinco caninos submetidos a um procedimento cirúrgico, sendo os dois primeiros tratados com flunixin meglumine e os dois seguintes tratados com ketoprofen, ambos em doses terapêuticas. Os valores séricos de uréia e creatinina mantiveram-se dentro ...

  13. Optimization for pretreatment condition of flunixin meglumine in meat by LC-MS/MS%液质联用测定肉制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺前处理方法的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金翠; 杨成; 刘艳荣

    2014-01-01

    The pretreatment condition of flunixin meglumine was optimized. The content of flunixin meglumine was determined by LC-MS/MS, the recovery of flunixin meglumine as a main index. The pretreatment method was as follows:flunixin meglumine was extracted with acetonitrile and ethyl acetate (1:1, V/V) , purified by PCX column, washed with Hexane - ethyl acetate (9:1,V/V),eluted with methanol-aminomethanol (5:95, V/V) and diluted with 0.1%formic acid(containing 0.5mmol/L ammonium acetate). The recovery was 85.0%~110.0%and RSD was below 6.0%.%以液相色谱-四级杆串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)为检测手段,通过考察回收率大小测定肉制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺的残留量,并对其的前处理条件进行了优化,最终确定了肉制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺前处理方法:采用乙腈-乙酸乙酯(1∶1, V/V)提取, PCX固相萃取小柱净化,用正己烷-乙酸乙酯(9∶1, V/V)淋洗,甲醇和氨化甲醇(5∶95, V/V)洗脱,再用体积浓度0.1%甲酸(含0.5 mmol/L乙酸铵)定容,待测。方法回收率为85.0%~110.0%,相对标准偏差(RSD)<6.0%。

  14. Histopatologia das lâminas do casco de equinos com laminite aguda induzida e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumine Histopathology of the digital laminae from horses with acute induced laminitis treated with ketoprophen, phenylbutazone, and flunixin meglumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Paes Leme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações histológicas do tecido laminar, obtido por biopsia, em 20 equinos portadores de laminite induzida por sobrecarga de carboidratos e tratados com ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona ou flunixin meglumine. A biopsia foi colhida dos dígitos torácicos 72 horas após a indução. Os achados histológicos foram comparados com os achados de amostras de equinos isentos de laminite. Infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico foi observado em 80%, congestão em 50%, hemorragia em 35% e hiperplasia na túnica íntima das arteríolas das lâminas dérmicas primárias em 15% das amostras. As taxas de microtrombos e coágulos foram 15% e 20%, respectivamente. Estes achados parecem decorrer dos distúrbios circulatórios que ocasionaram edema, congestão e hiperemia, seguidos de degeneração. Em 70% das análises realizadas nos animais tratados, as lesões histológicas foram inferiores aos graus de claudicação observados. Conclui-se que a biopsia de tecido laminar digital de equinos é viável, os artefatos decorrentes da técnica de biopsia não prejudicam a análise histológica das amostras e os anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais não são capazes de evitar as lesões laminares quando administrados após o início da sintomatologia clínica de laminite.Experimental laminitis caused by carbohydrate overload was induced in 20 healthy horses. Seventy two hours after induction, samples of the laminar tissue were obtained by biopsy from the thoracic limbs digits for histopathology. The histological findings were compared to samples from horses without laminitis. Neutrophilic infiltrate was observed in 80% of the samples, congestion in 50%, hemorrhage in 35%, and hyperplasia of the arteriolar intima layer of the primary dermal lamina in 15%. Thrombi and intravascular blood clots were observed in 15% and 20% of the samples, respectively. Apparently, these findings were due to circulatory changes that resulted in edema, congestion, and

  15. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory actions of flunixin and ketoprofen in horses applying PK/PD modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M F; Lees, P

    1995-07-01

    A comparative study in horses of the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 2 extensively used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), flunixin (FXN) and ketoprofen (KTP), was carried out applying PK/PD modelling. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of these drugs a model of acute inflammation, comprising surgically implanted subcutaneous tissue cages stimulated by intracaveal injection of carrageenan, was used. FXN elimination half-life (T1/2 beta) in plasma was 3.37 +/- 1.09 h. However, in exudate a much longer T1/2 beta was obtained (15.99 +/- 3.80 h). Apparent volume of distribution (Vdarea) for FXN was 0.317 +/- 0.126 l/kg and body clearance (ClB) was 0.058 +/- 0.004 l/kg/h. KTP displayed enantioselective pharmacokinetics, the S(+) enantiomer being predominant in plasma, exudate and transudate. T1/2 beta values for R(-) and S(+)KTP were, respectively, 1.09 +/- 0.19 h and 1.51 +/- 0.45 h (plasma) and 19.73 +/- 2.72 h and 22.64 +/- 4.34 h (exudate), respectively. R(-)KTP was cleared more rapidly than the S(+) enantiomer. ClB values were 0.277 +/- 0.035 l/kg/h and 0.202 +/- 0.022 l/kg/h, respectively. FXN and KTP pharmacodynamics was evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on serum thromboxane (Tx)B2, exudate prostaglandin (PG)E2, leukotriene (LT)B4 and beta-glucuronidase (beta-glu) and intradermal bradykinin-induced swelling. Both drugs produced marked inhibition of serum TxB2 synthesis for up to 24 h, with no significant differences between the drugs. FXN was a more potent inhibitor of exudate PGE2, the EC50 for FXN being lower (P < 0.01) than that for KTP (0.019 +/- 0.010 microgram/ml and 0.057 +/- 0.009 microgram/ml, respectively). Neither drug had any effect on exudate LTB4 concentration. Differences between the 2 drugs were observed for the inhibition of beta-glu, the Emax for KTP being higher (P < 0.01) than for FXN. However, no differences were observed in other PD parameters. Both FXN and KTP inhibited bradykinin

  16. Gene co-expression network analysis identifies porcine genes associated with variation in metabolizing fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; Ashwell, Melissa S; Baynes, Ronald E; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Maltecca, Christian

    2017-05-02

    Identifying individual genetic variation in drug metabolism pathways is of importance not only in livestock, but also in humans in order to provide the ultimate goal of giving the right drug at the right dose at the right time. Our objective was to identify individual genes and gene networks involved in metabolizing fenbendazole (FBZ) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) in swine liver. The population consisted of female and castrated male pigs that were sired by boars represented by 4 breeds. Progeny were randomly placed into groups: no drug (UNT), FLU or FBZ administered. Liver transcriptome profiles from 60 animals with extreme (i.e. fast or slow drug metabolism) pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles were generated from RNA sequencing. Multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP2A19 and CYP2C36) genes displayed different transcript levels across treated versus UNT. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 5 and 3 modules of genes correlated with PK parameters and a portion of these were enriched for biological processes relevant to drug metabolism for FBZ and FLU, respectively. Genes within identified modules were shown to have a higher transcript level relationship (i.e. connectivity) in treated versus UNT animals. Investigation into the identified genes would allow for greater insight into FBZ and FLU metabolism.

  17. Effects of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen on mediator production in ex vivo and in vitro models of inflammation in healthy dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, C; Barbero, R; Cuniberti, B; Vercelli, C; Casalone, M; Re, G

    2013-04-01

    In this study, ex vivo assays were carried out in dairy cows to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: ketoprofen (KETO) and flunixin meglumine (FM). Twelve healthy Holstein dairy cattle were randomly allocated to two groups (n=6): group 1 received FM and group 2 received KETO at recommended therapeutic dosages. The anti-inflammatory effects of both drugs were determined by measuring the production of coagulation-induced thromboxane B2 (TXB2 ), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (10 μg/mL)-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and calcium ionophore (60 μm)-induced leukotrien B4 (LTB4 ). Cytokine production was assessed by measuring tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) concentrations after incubation in the presence of 10 μg/mL LPS. The IC50 of FM and KETO was determined in vitro by determining the concentration of TXB2 and PGE2 in the presence of scalar drug concentrations (10(-9) -10(-3) m). Both FM and KETO inhibited the two COX isoforms in vitro, but showed a preference for COX-1. FM and KETO showed similar anti-inflammatory effects in the cow.

  18. Studies on the new animal drug-flunixin meglumine%新兽药氟尼辛葡甲胺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文学; 王中杰; 李金祥

    2006-01-01

    氟尼辛葡甲胺(Flunixin meglumine),是美国先灵葆雅公司于20世纪90年代开发的业经批准的少数兽用非甾体类药物之一,主要通过抑制环氧化酶、减少前列腺素等炎性介质的生成而发挥解热、抗炎和镇痛作用。该药最早用于缓解马的炎症和肌肉,骨骼紊乱及绞痛等相关疼痛,随后被批准用于牛传染病引起的急性炎症、母猪无乳综合征的辅助治疗和犬的内毒素血症等,现已在英国、法国、瑞士、德国、美国等许多国家广泛应用。

  19. Efficacy of a florfenicol-flunixin meglumine combination product versus tulathromycin or ceftiofur crystalline free acid for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Sherry J; Perrett, Tye; Wildman, Brian K; Schunicht, Oliver C; Vogstad, Amanda R; Fenton, R Kent; Borciaga-Robles, Luis O; Pollock, Colleen M; Jim, G Kee; Berg, Janice; Booker, Calvin W

    2009-01-01

    In this field trial, a new combination product containing florfenicol and flunixin meglumine (FLOR-FM) was compared with commercially available products that contained only tulathromycin (TULA) or ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF; rectal temperature >/=105.0 degrees F) in beef calves that received long-acting oxytetracycline at feedlot arrival. The overall mortality rate of the FLOR FM group (2.0%) was significantly (P less than .050) lower than the rates in the TULA and CCFA groups (10.0% and 20.0%, respectively; 50 animals/group), even though the first UF relapse rate of the FLOR FM group was significantly (P less than .050) higher than that of the TULA group. In the FLOR FM group, this resulted in per-animal economic advantages of Can$46.23 (versus TULA) and Can$108.77 (versus CCFA) based on equal costs for initial UF therapy. These results demonstrate that it is more cost-effective to administer FLOR FM than TULA or CCFA for initial UF therapy in feedlot calves at high risk for bovine respiratory disease that receive metaphylactic long-acting oxytetracycline at feedlot arrival.

  20. Effects of enrofloxacin, flunixin meglumine and dexamethasone on disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytokine levels and adenosine deaminase activity in endotoxaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Enver; Bulbul, Aziz; Avci, Gulcan Erbil; Er, Ayse; Uney, Kamil; Elmas, Muammer; Tras, Bunyamin

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drugs used in the treatment of endotoxaemia on disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytokine levels and adenosine deaminase activities in endotoxaemic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into all groups, including the positive control group. The other six groups received the following drugs: enrofloxacin (ENR), flunixin meglumine (FM), low-dose dexamethasone (DEX), high-dose DEX, ENR + FM + low-dose DEX, and ENR + FM + high-dose DEX. After the treatments, serum and plasma samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours (h). A coagulometer was used to determine the levels of coagulation values, while ELISA was used to assay serum cytokines and adenosine deaminase (ADA). Low-dose DEX alone and combined treatments depressed the levels of cytokines and ADA (from 371 to 70 IU/L at 6 h) significantly and inhibited the decrease of coagulation values (antithrombin from 67 to 140% at 6 h, fibrinogen from 54 to 252 mg/dL at 6 h). In summary, FM + high-dose DEX may be the preferred treatment of endotoxaemia because of its highest effectiveness. FM plus high-dose DEX may be a new therapy for endotoxaemic domestic animals.

  1. Effect of a CIDR insert and flunixin meglumine, administered at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rate and resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, S H; Beal, W E; Gray, K R

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM), an inhibitor of PGF(2alpha) synthesis, and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR), on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer (ET) recipients, and to examine the effect of a CIDR after embryo transfer on the synchrony of the return to estrus in non-pregnant recipients. Cows (n=622) and heifers (n=90) at three locations were assigned randomly to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with FM administration (500 mg i.m.) 2-12 min prior to ET, and insertion of a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) immediately following ET as main effects. Fresh or frozen embryos (Stage=4 or 5; Grade=1 or 2) were transferred on Days 6-9 of the estrous cycle and CIDR devices were removed 13 days after ET. Recipients at Location 2 only were observed for signs of return to estrus. Recipients that returned to estrus at Location 2 were either bred by AI or received an embryo 7 days after estrus. Following the initial ET, there was an FMxlocation interaction on pregnancy rate (P0.05; 65% with CIDR, 70% without CIDR), however, the timing of the return to estrus was more synchronous (P0.13). Effects of FM on pregnancy rate were location dependent and CIDR insertion at ET improved synchrony of the return to estrus.

  2. The effect of treatment with flunixin meglumine at different times relative to hCG administration on ovulation failure and luteal function in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Arango, J

    2011-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine (FM), a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, causes ovulatory failure in the mare. However, the effect of the FM treatment relative to the time of hCG administration on the ovulation failure has not been determined nor has its effect on the luteal function of treated mares. Estrous mares with a follicle ≥32 mm (range of 32-38 mm) were treated with 1.7 mg/kg b.w. of FM iv at zero, 12, 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 28 and 36 h (n=6), at 24h (n=6) or at 30 h (n=6) after treatment with 1500 IU hCG. One group received no FM (control, n=6). Progesterone concentrations were determined using RIA. Mares treated with FM 0-36 h and 24-36 h had higher (P2 ng/ml). The progesterone concentration was lower in mares treated with FM at zero to 36 h and at 24-36 h after hCG than in the other groups. In conclusion, the FM administration was effective in blocking ovulation only when the treatment began ≤24 h after hCG and was continued every 12 h until ≥36 h. In addition, the FM-induced anovulatory follicles underwent luteinization of follicular cells with active production of progesterone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 液质联用测定氟尼辛葡甲胺的条件优化%Optimization for determination condition of flunixin meglumine by LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金翠; 杨成; 刘艳荣

    2014-01-01

    The determination method of Flunixin meglumine by LC-MS/MS was established and the determination con-dition was optimized. Flunixin meglumine was separated with C18 (2.1 mm ×100 mm, 3.5 μm) column using 0.1%formic acid aqueous solution 、 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution as a gradient elution mobile phase. It was ionized under positive ion pattern by Electrospray Ionization Source (ESI+), detected by Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) and quantified by external standard method.%建立了液相色谱-四级杆串联质谱法测定氟尼辛葡甲胺含量的方法,对其检验条件进行了优化。采用 Agilent eclipse plus C18色谱柱分离,用体积浓度0.1%甲酸溶液、0.1%甲酸乙腈溶液作为流动相梯度洗脱,电喷雾正离子(ESI+)模式电离,多反应监测(MRM)模式检测,外标法定量。该方法操作灵敏度高,重复性好。

  4. Intrafollicular treatment with prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α inhibits the formation of luteinised unruptured follicles and restores normal ovulation in mares treated with flunixin-meglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-03-01

    Haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle is the most common pathological anovulatory condition in the mare, but its cause remains unknown. An experimental model to induce luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with flunixin-meglumine (FM) has been developed. Luteinised unruptured follicles share similar morphological and hormonal characteristics with haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles. To test the effect of intrafollicular administration of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α during the periovulatory period on ovulation and pregnancy in FM-treated mares. In vivo experiment in a crossover design. Five mares were followed during 2 oestrous cycles each. All mares were given FM at 1.7 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 12 h from Hour 0 (Hour 0 = human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment) to Hour 36. In treatment cycles (n = 5), at Hour 32 the preovulatory follicle was punctured and 0.5 ml of a solution containing 500 μg of PGE2 and 125 μg of PGF2α was deposited within the follicle. In control cycles, water for injection was administered into the follicle at the same time. In 3 control and 3 treatment cycles, mares were also inseminated at Hour 24. Diagnosis of ovulation/LUF formation and pregnancy was performed by ultrasound examination between Hours 36 and 72 and 14 days after ovulation/LUF formation, respectively. During the treatment cycles, all mares ovulated normally (100% ovulation rate) 36-48 h after human chorionic gonadotrophin, while in 4 of 5 control cycles the mares developed an LUF (80%, P<0.05). All 3 inseminated mares became pregnant in the treatment cycles, but not in the control cycles. Intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α overcame the anovulatory effect of FM. This sheds new insights into the knowledge on the possible therapeutic options for ovulatory failure in the mare. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Use of a five-day progesterone-based timed AI protocol to determine if flunixin meglumine improves pregnancy per timed AI in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglino, M B; Risco, C A; Thatcher, M-J; Lima, F; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the 5 d Co-Synch + CIDR (Controlled Internal Drug Release insert containing progesterone) protocol could be applied as an efficient timed AI (TAI) protocol in dairy heifers, and that treatment with flunixin meglumine (FM) during the period of CL maintenance would increase pregnancy per TAI (P/TAI) and late survival of embryos. Objectives were: 1) in Experiment 1, to compare P/TAI with the 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol to a PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol; and 2) in Experiment 2, to determine if FM administered 15.5 and 16 d after first TAI would increase P/TAI, using the 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol with a new or previously used (5 d) CIDR insert. In Experiment 1, 248 heifers were assigned randomly to either the PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol (n=120) or the 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol (n=128). Pregnancy per TAI did not differ between the 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol (53.1%) and the PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol (45.8%; P=0.22). In Experiment 2, 325 heifers synchronized with the 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol were assigned randomly to receive two injections of FM (FM group; n=158) at 15.5 and 16 d after TAI, or to remain as untreated controls (n=165). Pregnancy per TAI in Experiment 2 was 59.4 and 59.5% at 45 d for control and FM groups, respectively, with no differences between groups (P=0.83). The 5 d Co-Synch+CIDR protocol resulted in an acceptable P/TAI in dairy heifers. However, FM did not improve P/TAI in dairy heifers. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systemic treatment with high dose of flunixin-meglumine is able to block ovulation in mares by inducing hemorrhage and luteinisation of follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Domingo-Ortiz, R

    2011-03-01

    Prostaglandins play an obligatory role during the process of ovulation in mammals. Ovulation can be blocked by intrafollicular administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in several domestic species including the mare as well as by systemic administration of these drugs in women. In the mare, the effect of systemic NSAIDs treatment on ovulation has not been critically studied. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine whether high dose of flunixin-meglumine (FM) administered systemically to mares during the periovulatory period was able to block ovulation; and b) to study the follicular ultrasound characteristics of FM treated mares. Six mares were used in the study during two consecutive estrous cycles. Each mare received 2 mg FM/kg i.v. twice a day starting at the time of treatment with hCG when the follicle reached a diameter of ≥ 32 mm and continuing until ovulation. During the consecutive control cycle (CON) the mares received the same dose of hCG but were not administered FM. During the FM cycles five of six mares failed to ovulate and collapse the preovulatory follicle; but echoic specks were observed within the follicles, which continued to grow until a mean diameter of 55 mm. Eventually, the follicular contents were organised and luteinised. All CON mares ovulated normally. In conclusion, when mares were treated with FM, they had a higher incidence of ovulatory failure and development of luteinised unruptured follicles (83%, P = 0.015) compared with untreated mares. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of single-dose intravenous phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine before, during and after exercise in an experimental reversible model of foot lameness in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H; Grubb, T L; Inoue, O J; Banner, S E; Ball, K T

    2010-11-01

    Objective blinded efficacy data during exercise are lacking on the use of single-dose i.v. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) before, during and after exercise. Single i.v. doses of either phenylbutazone (PBZ) or flunixin meglumine (FM) would prove more efficacious than negative saline control (SAL) before, during and after exercise in a reversible model of foot lameness. Six Quarter Horse mares had lameness induced by tightening a set screw against a heart bar shoe 1 h prior to treatment. Randomised blinded treatments included PBZ (4.4 mg/kg bwt i.v.), FM (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.v.), and SAL (1 ml/45 kg i.v.). Heart rate and lameness score (LS) were recorded at rest; every 20 min after lameness induction for 5 h and at the end of 2 min treadmill workloads of 2 and 4 m/s. Heart rate was also recorded from 0.5-60 min post exercise. Results were compared using RM ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test (HR) and Wilcoxon signed rank test (%ΔLS) with significance set at P 0.05), but mean %ΔLS was decreased for both NSAIDs compared to SAL (P < 0.01). Mean recovery HR was decreased for PBZ and FM from 1-60 min compared to SAL (P < 0.05). PBZ and FM demonstrated definitive clinical efficacy after single i.v. doses before, during and after exercise. Use of single i.v. doses during competition may mask lameness and may affect the ability of judges in determining the soundness of horses in competition. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and a local anesthetic block (LA) on postcastration performance, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavior in dairy calves. Thirty 2- to 3-mo-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were allocated to 5 treatments: castration with LA (2% lidocaine injected into the testes and subcutaneously), castration with FM (1.1mg/kg, i.v.), castration with LA+FM, castration without drugs (CC), and sham castration (SC). Castration was performed using a Newberry knife and Henderson castrating tool. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded for 10d postcastration. Plasma cortisol concentration and behavior frequency and duration were monitored for 8h postcastration. Variables with repeated measures were analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); one-way ANOVA was used for nonrepeated measures. No differences in feed intake or body weight gain were detected among groups. Calves in the CC, LA, and FM groups had transient (<60, <60, and <45 min, respectively) increases in plasma cortisol concentration after castration, with a second increase at 120 min in the LA group, whereas cortisol concentration remained at baseline in the LA+FM and SC groups. Mean cortisol concentrations were lower for calves in the LA+FM and SC groups than in the CC group. The area under the plasma cortisol concentration curve during the first 3h postcastration was greater in CC- and LA-treated calves than in SC controls. Castration without drugs was associated with higher frequencies of crouching and statue standing and less oral activity compared with SC controls. Administering LA alone before castration was associated with higher frequencies of head turning, statue standing, and postural changes, and less feeding behavior compared with SC controls. More leg lifting to groom was seen in LA+FM-treated calves than in SC controls. Calves administered FM alone before castration exhibited less crouching than CC calves, fewer postural shifts

  9. Antipyretic effect of flunixin meglumine (FM) in pigs experimentally infected with Streptococcus spp%氟尼辛葡甲胺对猪实验性链球菌感染的解热作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焕中; 孙永学; 曾振灵; 陈杖榴

    2008-01-01

    氟尼辛(flunixin),是美国先灵葆雅公司于20世纪90年代开发的兽用非甾体类抗炎药,主要通过抑制环氧化酶、减少前列腺素等炎性介质的生成而发挥解热、抗炎和镇痛作用。在兽医临床中,以葡甲胺(meglumine)作为增溶剂而使用氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine,FM)。兽医临床中,FM用于马、牛、猪、猫、犬、羊等动物感染性疾病引起的发热及急性炎症反应,还可用于缓解马肌肉骨骼系统病症和腹痛伴有的炎症反应和疼痛;用于母猪的乳腺炎-子宫炎-无乳综合征(MMA)的辅助治疗和犬的内毒素血症等。

  10. La modernización ¿siempre disminuye la fecundidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanza, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La teoría evolutiva interpreta el comportamiento humano como adaptativo, es decir, contribuye a maximizar el éxito reproductivo de quien lo exhibe. Sin embargo, debido a que la reproducción implica un costo, aquellos comportamientos que permitan maximizar la relación entre la producción de descendientes y la inversión parental serían favorecidos por efecto de la selección natural. No obstante, esta relación estará determinada por las limitaciones impuestas por el ambiente. Por otro lado, la teoría clásica de la transición demográfica sostiene que las mejoras en las condiciones de vida de una población determinan un descenso de la fecundidad. ¿Podemos explicar esta relación desde un punto de vista evolutivo? La población Toba Cacique Sombrero Negro se encuentra en plena transición económica y social, caracterizada por un mayor sedentarismo y una incipiente economía de mercado. En este trabajo se estiman la Tasa Global de Fecundidad (TGF y la tasa específica por edades (fx de la población rural Toba del oeste de la provincia de Formosa, correspondientes a cuatro períodos entre 1981 y 1999. Se obtuvieron valores crecientes de la TGF que variaron entre 6.36 y 7.27 hijos. La fx evidenció importantes variaciones que determinaron un envejecimiento de las curvas en una primera etapa y un posterior rejuvenecimiento de ésta. Se propone aquí que el aumento en la fecundidad estaría determinado por una disminución de los costos reproductivos maternos, lo que sería el resultado de un mayor acceso a recursos energéticos. Sin embargo, los costos reproductivos pueden variar con la edad materna y por lo tanto, afectando a la estructura etaria de la fecundidad.

  11. La modernización ¿siempre disminuye la fecundidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Norberto; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2012-01-01

    La teoría evolutiva interpreta el comportamiento humano como adaptativo, es decir, contribuye a maximizar el éxito reproductivo de quien lo exhibe. Sin embargo, debido a que la reproducción implica un costo, aquellos comportamientos que permitan maximizar la relación entre la producción de descendientes y la inversión parental serían favorecidos por efecto de la selección natural. No obstante, esta relación estará determinada por las limitaciones impuestas por el ambiente. Por otro lado, la t...

  12. Research on Determination Method of Flunixin Residue in Bovine Milk and Milk Powder by HPLC-UV%牛奶和奶粉中氟胺烟酸残留量测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 苏海滨; 陶迎春; 赵静; 吴鹏飞; 杨晓旎; 蒋玉新; 宋文斌

    2013-01-01

    The method for the determination of flunixin residues in aquatic products is studied by HPLC-UV.Bovine milk is digested using β-glucuronidase.The enzyme digestion was extracted using acetonitrile,cleaned up with SPE column.The solution was analyzed by LC-UV using external standard method.The detection limit of this method is 5μg/kg for bovine milk and 40mg/kg for milk power.The results showed a good linear (r=0.9996) in the concentration range of 2.5-160.0μg/kg,the average recoveries for spiked standards (5.0μg/kg-40μg/kg)and(40.0μg/kg-100.0μg/kg) were 86.86%-100.32%,the relative standard deviations were 1.986%-2.295% in bovine milk and milk powder.%研究了牛奶和奶粉中氟胺烟酸残留量的液相色谱-紫外分析方法.样品在酸性条件下酶解用乙腈提取后,经固相革取柱净化,用配有紫外检测器的高效液相色谱测定,外标法定量.方法的最低检出限牛奶为5mg/kg,奶粉为40mg/kg;在2.5~160.0mg/kg浓度范围内,线性关系良好,相关系数r=0.9996,添加水平牛奶5.0~ 40mg/kg时,奶粉40.0~100mg/kg时,回收率在86.86%~100.32%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.986%~2.295%.

  13. Inibição e reversão da agregação plaquetária de eqüinos in vitro com o uso de ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixim meglumine In vitro inibition and reversion of equine platelet aggregation using ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola O. Paes Leme

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Como são várias as enfermidades e os distúrbios que induzem à hipercoagulabilidade e à pré-ativação de plaquetas em eqüinos. A atividade de medicamentos utilizados para controle dessas enfermidades sobre a agregação de plaquetas pode, não apenas servir para avaliar sua evolução, como também a resposta terapêutica. Com o objetivo de avaliar a prevenção e a reversão da agregação plaquetária de eqüinos in vitro foram utilizados os antiinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINES: ketoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixim meglumine. A comparação demonstrou que a fenilbutazona e o ketoprofeno previnem a agregação de plaquetas de eqüinos induzida pelo ADP, de forma mais eficaz do que o flunixim-meglumine e, superior ao fragmento monoclonal de anticorpo Reopro, sendo semelhante a dos bloqueadores de receptores de membrana Ro-438857 e RGDS. Quanto a reverão da agregação plaquetária tanto a fenilbutazona quanto o ketoprofeno demonstraram efeitos dose-dependente.Several diseases may lead to platelet pre-activation and hypercoagulability states in horses. The activity of many drugs against platelet aggregation may, not only contribute to the evaluation of a disease but also its response to the therapy. With the aim to study in vitro prevention and reversion of platelet aggregation, the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID: ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin-meglumin were evaluated. The comparison demonstrated that phenylbutazone and ketoprophen prevented platelet aggregation induced by ADP better than flunixin-meglumin, in a superior manner to the monoclonal antibody Reopro, and in a better way than the membrane receptor blockers Ro-438857 and RGDS. The reversion of platelet aggregation demonstrated that even phenylbutazone or ketoprophen have a dose-dependent effect.

  14. 顶空气相色谱法测定氟尼辛葡甲胺原料药中有机溶剂残留量%Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡慧廉

    2012-01-01

    建立了氟尼辛葡甲胺原料药中乙酸乙酯、甲醇、异丙醇、乙醇和乙腈有机溶剂残留量的顶空气相色谱分析方法.以HP-FFAP色谱柱(30m×0.32 mm×1.0μm)为分离柱,火焰离子化检测器检测,外标法定量,并考察了顶空平衡温度、平衡时间等对残留有机溶剂测定的影响.实验结果表明,在顶空平衡温度为90℃、平衡时间为30min条件下获得较好的定量结果.乙酸乙酯、甲醇、异丙醇、乙醇和乙腈的线性范围分别为0.40~7.93 mg/L (r=0.999 8)、7.32~146.48 mg/L (r=0.999 6)、4.53~90.61 mg/L(r=0.999 9)、3.62 ~ 72.32 mg/L(r=0.999 8)和2.31~46.24 mg/L(r=0.999 6);平均回收率范围为95.96% ~100.31%,精密度(以相对标准偏差计,n=6)为1.97%~3.28%;检出限分别为0.08、0.9、0.2、0.4和0.3mg/L.利用该方法对实际样品氟尼辛葡甲胺原料药中有机溶剂残留量进行了检测.结果表明,该样品中含有异丙醇和乙醇,其含量分别为177.44μg/g与69.32 μg/g.本方法快速、灵敏、准确,适用于氟尼辛葡甲胺原料药中残留溶剂的检测.%A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m xO. 32 mm x 1. 0 jim), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 t! And equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0. 40 - 7. 93 mg/L (r = 0. 999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7. 32 - 146. 48 mg/L (r = 0. 999 6) for methanol, 4. 53 - 90. 61 mg/L (r = 0. 999 9) for isopropanol, 3. 62 - 72. 32 mg/L (r = 0. 999 8) for ethanol and 2.31- 46. 24 mg/L (r = 0. 999 6) for acetonitrile. The

  15. Expresión diferencial de proteínas en Leishmania (Viannia panamensis asociadas con mecanismos de resistencia a antimoniato de meglumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Guillermo Peláez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los mecanismos de resistencia al antimonio pentavalente conocidos hasta el momento,se han descrito ampliamente en cepas del subgénero Leishmania, pero poco se sabe sobre lasproteínas involucradas en los mecanismos de resistencia presentes en cepas del subgénero Viannia,como Leishmania panamensis. Objetivo. Identificar proteínas diferencialmente expresadas entre las cepas de L. panamensis(UA140, sensible y resistente al antimonio pentavalente, y analizar el posible papel de estas proteínasen mecanismos de resistencia. Materiales y métodos. Las proteínas de las cepas, sensible y resistente al antimonio pentavalente, secompararon usando electroforesis bidimensional. Las proteínas con aumento de la expresión fueronaisladas e identificadas por espectrometría de masas mediante MALDI-TOF/TOF (Matrix AssistedLaser Desorption Ionization/Time of Flight. La expresión del ARNm de cinco de estas proteínas secuantificó mediante PCR en tiempo real. Resultados. Los geles bidimensionales de las cepas sensible y resistente detectaron 532±39 y 541±43manchas proteicas. Se encontraron 10 manchas con aumento de la expresión en la cepa resistente,identificadas como proteínas de choque térmico (Hsp60 mitocondrial, Hsp70 mitocondrial y citosólica,isomerasa de disulfuro, proteasa de cisteína, enolasa, factor de elongación 5-α, la subunidad 5-α delproteasoma y dos proteínas hipotéticas nombradas como Sp(2 y Sp(25. Conclusión. Este es el primer estudio llevado a cabo con una cepa resistente al antimonio pentavalenteen L. panamensis, en el cual se han identificado proteínas que están relacionadas con el mecanismode resistencia del parásito frente al medicamento, abriendo el camino para futuros estudios de estasproteínas como blancos terapéuticos.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i3.392

  16. El ácido linoleico conjugado disminuye la hipercolesterolemia pero aumenta el riesgo de litiasis biliar Conjugated linoleic acid lowers hypercholesterolemia but increases the risk for biliary lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Navarro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El término ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC designa una serie de isómeros del ácido linoleico, presentes en la carne y productos lácteos de rumiantes, que presentan sus dos dobles enlaces en posición conjugada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de un isómero del ALC, el trans-10, cis-12, sobre la colesterolemia y el riesgo de litiasis biliar en un modelo animal de hipercolesterolemia inducida por dieta. Para ello se utilizaron dos grupos de hámsters alimentados con una dieta hipercolesterolemiante suplementada al 0,5% con ácido linoleico o con el isómero trans-10, cis-12 del ALC, respectivamente. Se midió diariamente su ingesta de alimento y peso corporal y, tras 6 semanas, se obtuvieron muestras de suero y bilis, y se diseccionaron y pesaron sus hígados y bazos. Se determinó la colesterolemia, el contenido hepático y esplénico de colesterol, y la concentración biliar de colesterol, fosfolípidos y sales biliares; se calculó el índice litogénico biliar y se evaluó la presencia de cálculos biliares. El ALC no modificó la ingesta energética, el peso corporal final, ni el tamaño y contenido de colesterol del bazo, pero sí produjo una disminución significativa del colesterol sérico total (-18% a expensas de la fracción c-LDL (-66%, y también redujo significativamente el contenido hepático de colesterol libre (-26%, sin cambios en el colesterol esterificado. Además, el ALC produjo un incremento del 32% de la concentración biliar de colesterol, un aumento del 28% del índice litogénico y una mayor incidencia de litiasis biliar. Por tanto, el presente estudio demuestra que el isómero trans-10, cis-12 del ALC es hipocolesterolemiante debido, al menos en parte, a que aumenta la secreción de colesterol a bilis. En contrapartida, este efecto aumenta el riesgo de litiasis biliar.The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a series of linoleic acid isomers present in meat and diary products from ruminants that have their double bonds in a conjugated position. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a CLA isomer, trans-10,cis-12, on cholesterolemia and biliary lithiasis risk in an animal model of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. For that, two groups of hamsters were fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 0.5% linoleic acid or with the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer, respectively. Daily food intake and weight were determined and, 6 weeks later, serum and bile samples were obtained, and livers and spleens were dissected and weighted. Cholesterolemia, hepatic and splenic cholesterol content, and biliary cholesterol phosnolipid and bileacid concentrations were determined; Biliary Lithogenic Index was calculated, and presence of gallstones was assessed. CLA did not modify energetic intake or final body weight, spleen size or spleen cholesterol content, but it did significantly reduce total serum cholesterol (-18% at the expense of c-LDL (-66%, and it also significantly reduced hepatic content of free cholesterol (-26%, without changes in esterified cholesterol. Besides, CLA produced a 32% increase in biliary cholesterol concentration, a 28% increase in Lithogenic Index, and a higher incidence of biliary lithiasis. Therefore, the present study shows that the CLA trans-10,cis-12 isomer is hypercholesterolemic since it increases, at least in part, cholesterol secretion to the bile. As a consequence, this effect increases the risk for biliary lithiasis.

  17. ¿Por qué disminuyó la migración México-Estados Unidos a partir de 2008 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Levine

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la migración de mexicanos a Estados Unidos durante las últimas décadas e intenta explicar el porqué de su caída a partir de 2008. Después de algunos señalamientos sobre de las tendencias históricas de la migración laboral a Estados Unidos, el artículo se centra en la ubicación de los mexicanos y otros latinoamericanos en el mercado laboral de aquella nación, como el contexto que enmarca la migración mexicana. Se analizan los impactos de la recesión de 2008-2009 para los ...

  18. ¿Por qué disminuyó la migración México-Estados Unidos a partir de 2008 ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Levine

    2015-01-01

    sobre de las tendencias históricas de la migración laboral a Estados Unidos, el artículo se centra en la ubicación de los mexicanos y otros latinoamericanos en el mercado laboral de aquella nación, como el contexto que enmarca la migración mexicana. Se analizan los impactos de la recesión de 2008-2009 para los trabajadores latinos, en particular para los mexicanos, y el comportamiento del flujo migratorio desde México en los últimos años. La conclusión derivada del análisis de los datos y de las tendencias observadas es que la caída en la migración mexicana, que se registra a partir de 2008, se explica primordialmente por el comportamiento de la demanda laboral estadounidense, provocado por la recesión.

  19. Hemograma de cães envenenados experimentalmente com Bothrops alternatus após diferentes tratamentos.

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    D. O. Jacome

    2005-03-01

    inoculação do veneno. O hemograma de cães envenenados por Bothrops alternatus e tratados com soro antibotrópico, flunixina meglumina e extrato aquoso de Curcuma longa é caracterizado por anemia e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Palavras-chave: Hemograma, Bothrops, cão SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to evaluate hemograms of dogs experimentally envenomed with Bothrops alternatus following different therapeutic approaches (specific anti-venom serum, flunixin meglumine and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa. Twelve Mongrel adult dogs were IM inoculated with 0.3 mg/Kg of venom and treated two hours after venom inoculation. The dogs were divided into three groups (I, II and III of four animals each. Group I was treated with specific anti-venom serum diluted in 0.9% saline which can neutralize 0.3mg/Kg of venom. Group II received flunixin meglumine (1,1mg/kg, IM once a day for five days. Group III was treated with aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (10% on the skin at the site of venom inoculation, three times a day, for five days. The results showed a significant decrease (p<0,05 in the mean values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volumes in all groups 168 hours after venom inoculation. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The mean values of band neutrophils were within the normal ranges, but were increased 30 hours after inoculations in group II, and 24-168 hours after inoculation in group III. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The mean values of band neutrophils were within the normal ranges, but were increased 30 hours after inoculations in group II, and 24-168 hours after inoculation in group III. The numbers of eosinophils dropped significantly (p<0,05 in the three groups between six and 168 hours after

  20. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

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    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0,05. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que la ingestión de calcio reduce la resorción ósea en el embarazo.

  1. La toxicidad por exceso de mn y zn disminuye la producción de materia seca, los pigmentos foliares y la calidad del fruto en fresa (fragaria sp. cv. camarosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Casierra-Posada, Fanor; Poveda, Jeimy

    2010-01-01

    Aunque el zinc y el manganeso son nutrientes minerales esenciales a bajas concentraciones, son muy tóxicos en cantidades altas en el suelo. Algunos fungicidas pueden incrementar el contenido de Zn y Mn en plantas cultivadas y en el suelo, si se utilizan en programas de protección vegetal. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el objeto de estudiar la respuesta de plantas de fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa) a niveles elevados de Zn y Mn en el suelo. Las plantas de fresa crecieron en materas llenas co...

  2. Representaciones sociales de la inseguridad urbana en niños de Peñalolén: ¿qué ocurre en contextos donde la distancia geográfica de la segregación disminuye?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pérez A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La escala de segregación residencial de la comuna de Peñalolén ha disminuido a partir de los años 90's. Actualmente coexisten sectores de viviendas populares con áreas que concentran proyectos inmobiliarios tipo condominios. Este acercamiento geográfico entre familias de clases sociales divergentes hace de esta comuna un espacio propicio para observar nuevos tipos de relaciones sociales. Este artículo provee material empírico sobre cómo los niños pertenecientes a perfiles socioterritoriales diferenciados que viven aquí representan el fenómeno de la inseguridad urbana y de qué modo el temor al otro modela sus experiencias urbanas.

  3. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  4. La gastrostomía afecta positivamente al estado nutricional y disminuye los días de hospitalización en pacientes con errores innatos del metabolismo

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Guillén-López; Marcela Vela-Amieva; Merit Valeria Juárez-Cruz; José Francisco González-Zamora; Susana Monroy-Santoyo; Leticia Belmont-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento nutricional de los pacientes con errores innatos del metabolismo (EIM) implica el uso permanente de fórmulas modificadas en aminoácidos cuyas características organolépticas pueden dificultar su aceptación por vía oral. Estos pacientes pueden tener alteraciones gastrointestinales y requieren el uso constante de medicamentos, lo cual complica la adherencia al tratamiento, comprometiéndose con ello su estado nutricional y el control de la enfermedad. La gastrostomía ...

  5. Denied density-dependent seedling recruitment in a fragmented forest does not decrease seedling diversity El denegado reclutamiento denso-dependiente de plántulas en un bosque fragmentado no disminuye la diversidad de plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS E VALDIVIA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative density-dependent relationships in plant communities are currently claimed as an important mechanism for the maintenance of plant diversity. However, anthropogenic perturbations such as forest fragmentation might modify such relationships. We evaluated density-dependent relationships between seed and seedling abundance of a tree assemblage in a fragmented forest for estimating seed-to-seedling transitions and their effects on seedling richness. In continuous forest, two out of four and one out of four species presented significant or a tendency to exhibit negative seedling recruitment which is in agreement with other temperate and tropical forests. In forest fragments (1-6 ha, however, this relationship was uncoupled. Seedling richness and diversity, assessed through Shannon-Wiener Index, did not differ between both types of sites. Therefore, forest fragmentation negatively affected seedling recruitment by uncoupling seed-to-seedling transitions, but not by diminishing seedling diversity. This leads to considering the role of density-dependent relationships for the maintenance of plant diversity in communities and claims for including forest fragments into conservation programmes.Las relaciones denso-dependientes negativas en las comunidades vegetales son actualmente señaladas como un importante mecanismo para la mantención de la diversidad de plantas. Sin embargo, las perturbaciones antropogénicas como la fragmentación del bosque podrían modificar este tipo de relaciones. Evaluamos las relaciones denso-dependientes entre las abundancias de semillas y plántulas en un ensamble de árboles en un bosque fragmentado para estimar las transiciones de semillas a plántulas y sus efectos sobre la riqueza de plántulas. En el bosque continuo tres de cuatro especies presentaron reclutamientos de plántulas negativos, lo cual se condice con otros bosques templados y tropicales. En los fragmentos de bosque (1-6 ha, no obstante, estas relaciones estuvieron desacopladas. La riqueza y diversidad de plántulas, evaluadas a través del Índice de Shannon-Wiener, no difirió entre ambos tipos de sitios. Por lo tanto, la fragmentación del bosque afectó negativamente el reclutamiento de plántulas modificando las transiciones de semilla a plántula, pero no disminuyendo la diversidad de plántulas. Este resultado nos conduce a considerar el rol de las relaciones denso-dependientes en la mantención de la diversidad de plántulas en las comunidades y aboga por incluir los fragmentos de bosque en los programas de conservación.

  6. 75 FR 1274 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Intervet, Inc. The NADA provides for... INFORMATION: Intervet, Inc., 56 Livingston Ave., Roseland, NJ 07068, filed NADA 141-299 that provides for use... Histophilus somni, and control of BRD-associated pyrexia in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle. The NADA is...

  7. 75 FR 54018 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Florfenicol and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Intervet, Inc. The supplemental NADA adds..., NJ 07068, filed a supplement to NADA 141-299 that provides for use of RESFLOR GOLD (florfenicol and... pathogens for which the use of this product is approved. The supplemental NADA is approved as of June 7...

  8. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Norbrook Laboratories, Ltd. The NADA provides for... INFORMATION: Norbrook Laboratories, Ltd., Station Works, Newry, BT35 6JP, Northern Ireland, filed NADA 141-312...

  9. In vitro inibition and reversion of equine platelet aggregation using ketoprophen, phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumin

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola O. Paes Leme; Laurenz Wurzinger; Geraldo E.S. Alves; Adriane P. da Costa-Val; Pinnoti,Marcos B.; Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Paes; Oliveira,Marcos E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Como são várias as enfermidades e os distúrbios que induzem à hipercoagulabilidade e à pré-ativação de plaquetas em eqüinos. A atividade de medicamentos utilizados para controle dessas enfermidades sobre a agregação de plaquetas pode, não apenas servir para avaliar sua evolução, como também a resposta terapêutica. Com o objetivo de avaliar a prevenção e a reversão da agregação plaquetária de eqüinos in vitro foram utilizados os antiinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINES): ketoprofeno, fenilbuta...

  10. 氟尼辛葡甲胺结晶工艺探讨%Discussion of Flunixin Meglumine Crystallization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜; 郑建滉; 丁庆华

    2013-01-01

    为了优化氟尼辛葡甲胺的结晶工艺,提高晶体的内在质量和收率,提高生产操作安全性,选用纯化水替代有机溶媒作为结晶溶剂.试验结果表明,以水作结晶溶剂是可行的,并且结晶液质量浓度在25%时,同样可以得到纯度高,杂质少,收率稳定的晶体.改善了生产环境,提升了生产和用药安全.

  11. Análogo de GnRH disminuye la secreción de hormona folículo estimulante (FSH en ovejas prepúberes A gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue decreases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Recabarren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La secreción de LH y FSH depende de la liberación pulsátil de GnRH desde el hipotálamo; sin embargo, el grado de dependencia así como la relación entre los pulsos de GnRH y la secreción de FSH es menos clara. Experimentos en monos han mostrado que altas frecuencias de liberación de pulsos de GnRH estimulan preferentemente la secreción de LH, mientras que bajas frecuencias de pulsos de GnRH favorecen la secreción de FSH. Estudios sobre el control de la secreción de FSH en ovejas prepúberes son escasos. Con el objetivo de reconocer la dependencia de la secreción de FSH por parte de la GnRH, se administró un análogo de GnRH en microcápsulas de liberación lenta (Trp6-GnRH, Decapeptyl® y cuyo efecto bloqueador sobre la secreción de LH ha sido demostrado. El análogo se administró intramuscularmente cada cuatro semanas a partir de las 20 semanas de edad a cinco borregas Suffolk por tres veces. Otro grupo de ovejas prepúberes de las mismas edades recibió el vehículo. Estudios de pulsatilidad de FSH se efectuaron a las, 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad. Se utilizó el programa Cluster para reconocer las características de la secreción pulsátil de FSH. En las borregas del grupo control no hubo cambios en las características de la secreción pulsátil de FSH entre las 20 y 30 semanas de edad. En el grupo tratado con el análogo de GnRH, las concentraciones plasmáticas de FSH disminuyeron desde 3,4±0,3 ng/mL/5h a las 20 semanas de edad hasta los 0,36±0,1 ng/mL/5h a las 30 semanas de edad (pLH and FSH secretions depend on the pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus. However, the grade of dependency as well as the relationship between pulses of GnRH and pulses of FSH secretion is less clear. Experiments in monkeys have shown that high GnRH pulse frequency favors LH secretion while low frequency of GnRH pulses preferentially stimulates the FSH secretion. The objective of the present work was to recognize the dependence of GnRH on the FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep. A GnRH agonist analogue in slow release microcapsule preparation was used (Trp6-GnRH, (Decapeptyl® whose blocking effect on the LH release has been previously demonstrated. The analogue was injected intramuscularly every 4 weeks beginning at 20 weeks of age three times in five Suffolk ewe lambs. Another group of five lambs received the vehicle of Decapeptyl. Studies of FSH pulsatility were carried out at 20 (before the analogue agonist administration, 26 and 30 weeks of age. The CLUSTER program was used to identify characteristics of FSH secretion: transversal mean (ng/ml/5h, frequency of pulses (number of pulses/5h, amplitude of pulses (ng/ml and nadir (ng/ml . In the control group, FSH secretion characteristics did not change between 20 and 30 weeks of age. In the experimental group, mean FSH concentrations decreased from 3.4±0.3 ng/ml/5h at 20 weeks of age to 0.36 ±0.1 ng/mL/ 5h at 30 weeks of age (P<0,05, which was also significantly lower than in the control group of the same age. Amplitude of FSH pulses in lambs of 30 weeks of age were significantly lower than in lambs of 20 weeks of age (4.4 ± 0.5 versus 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/mL respectively, P<0.05, and lower than that exhibited by control ewe lambs of 30 weeks of age. FSH pulse frequency did not change between lambs of 20 and 30 weeks of age in either group. Results show that the GnRH analogue is able to block the FSH secretion suggesting that the FSH secretion is dependant on GnRH stimulation in prepubertal female sheep.

  12. E. coli Lipopolysaccharide Decreases the Expression of Proteins of Tight Junctions in the Jejunum of Weaning Piglets / Lipopolisacárido de E. coli Disminuye la Expresión de Proteínas de Uniones Apretadas en Yeyuno de Lechones Posdestete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Ciro Galeano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to assess the effect of the addition of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on the expression of tight junction proteins in the jejunum of weaned piglets (the animals were weaned at 21-days-old, 64 piglets were slaughtered at 1, 5, 7 and 10 days postweanig and complete extraction of jejunum was carried out in order to evaluate the molecular expression of Claudine 3 (C3, Claudine 4 (C4, and Zonula Ocludens-1 (ZO-1. To induce intestinal inflammation, animals were fed a basal dietsupplemented with four levels of E. coli LPS (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 μg mg-1 of feed. The statistical design consisted of randomized blocks in a 4X4 factorial arrangement (four LPS concentrations and four post-weaning periods. A decrease was observed (P<0.01 in the expression of C3, C4, and ZO-1 in the animals that were fed the diet with the highest LPS-inclusion level. LPS contributes to the appearance of anatomical and intestinal functional disorders which are denoted by a decrease in the molecular expression ofproteins from the intestinal barrier. This, in turn, is associated with an indiscriminate paracellular transport of molecules, microorganisms, and toxic compounds into the circulatory system. This results in post-weaning diarrhea and a decrease in the productive efficiency of piglets. / Resumen. Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la adición de lipopolisacárido LPS de E. coli sobre la expresión de proteínas de las uniones apretadas en yeyuno de lechones destetos, se sacrificaron 64 lechones escalonadamente los días 1 (21 días de edad, día del destete, 5, 7 y 10 posdestete, y se les extrajo completamente el yeyuno para la evaluación de la expresión molecular de Claudina 3 (C3, Claudina 4 (C4, y Zonula Ocludens-1 (ZO-1. Para inducir la inflamación intestinal los animales fueron alimentados con una dieta basal, adicionada con cuatro niveles de LPS de E. coli (0; 0,3; 0,5 y 1,0 μg mg-1 de alimento. El diseño estadístico utilizado fue de bloques al azar en arreglo factorial de 4X4 (cuatro concentraciones de LPS en cuatro tiempos posdestete. Se observó la disminución (P<0,01 en la expresión de C3, C4 y ZO-1 en los animales que consumieron la dieta con mayor nivel de inclusión de LPS. El LPS contribuye a desordenes anatómicos y funcionales a nivel intestinal, representados por la disminución en la expresión molecular de proteínas de la barrera intestinal, lo que está asociado al transporte paracelular indiscriminado de moléculas, microorganismos y compuestos tóxicos hacia la circulación sistémica. Todo lo anterior conlleva la presentación de diarreas posdestete y a la disminución en la eficiencia productiva de los lechones.

  13. 新兽药氟尼辛葡甲胺的解热镇痛作用%Antipyretic and analgesic effects of flunixin meglumine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 胡屹屹; 冯秀娟; 江善祥

    2008-01-01

    通过小鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法对氟尼辛葡甲胺的解热、镇痛作用进行了研究.结果表明,氟尼辛葡甲胺具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.和对照组相比,氟尼辛葡甲胺4个剂量组(1.25、2.5、5、10 mg/kg)对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应均有极强的抑制作用,抑制率最高达100%.2.5 mg/kg的氟尼辛葡甲胺镇痛率即达82.7%,明显强于双氯芬酸钠(65.4%)和安乃近(58.7%).对蛋白胨所致家兔发热的解热效果,氟尼辛葡甲胺高剂量组(4 mg/kg) 于安乃近组(0.2 g/kg)(P(0.05)和氨基比林组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.01).中剂量氟尼辛葡甲胺组(2 mg/kg)作用稍逊于安乃近组,但差异不显著.低剂量氟尼辛葡甲胺组(1 mg/kg)作用与氨基比林组相当.

  14. 氟尼辛葡甲胺对血液内毒素的影响%Effect of flunixin meglumine on blood endotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章红兵; 章瑞; 严新兴

    2016-01-01

    为研究氟尼辛葡甲胺对血液内毒素的影响,本实验选择预产期相近的长大母猪20头,随机分为实验组和对照组各10头.实验组母猪于分娩前15d直至断奶,每l 000 kg日粮中添加1 kg高热血毒清(含]0%氟尼辛葡甲胺),对照组不添加高热血毒清.采用鲎试验法检测内毒素、使用全自动生化分析仪测定肝功能、通过临床症状评估发病率.结果显示:实验组母猪和仔猪血液内毒素含量均极显著低于对照组(P<0.01);实验组母猪便秘发生率、子宫内膜炎发生率、仔猪腹泻发生率和仔猪死亡率极显著低于对照组(p<0.01);实验组母猪分娩前3d至分娩后2d的体温显著低于对照组(p<0.05);实验组各日龄仔猪血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶和天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶均显著低于对照组(p<0.05),γ-谷氨酰转移酶极显著低于对照组(p<0.01).本研究结果表明氟尼辛葡甲胺具有较强的抗内毒素作用,可以改善仔猪肝功能,为控制内毒素对猪的不良作用提供实验依据.

  15. Antipyretic and analgesic effects of Flunixin Meglumine%氟尼辛葡甲铵的解热镇痛效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 胡屹屹; 冯秀娟; 余祖功; 江善祥

    2007-01-01

    目的:通过小白鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法观察氟尼辛葡甲铵的解热、镇痛作用.方法:实验于2004-03/06在南京农业大学药理及毒理教研室实验室完成.①小鼠扭体实验:取清洁级KM小鼠80只按随机数字表法分为8组,每组10只:双氯芬酸钠16.25 mg/kg组、安乃近32.5 mg/kg组、氟尼辛葡甲铵10,5,2.5,1.25,0.625 mg/kg组、生理盐水对照组.除双氯芬酸钠采取口服外,其余各组分别肌肉注射相应剂量的药品,生理盐水对照组给予等体积量的生理盐水.给药30 min后立即给各组小鼠腹腔注射1.2%的冰醋酸溶液0.2 mL/只,观察记录15 min内出现扭体反应的次数.②蛋白胨致热实验:健康家兔36只,按随机数字表法分成6组,每组6只:空白对照组(生理盐水1 mL/kg)、氟尼辛葡甲铵1,2,4 mg/kg组、安乃近0.2 g/kg组和氨基比林0.2 g/kg组.实验前测定各组兔子的直肠体温.在家兔大腿肌肉注射40%蛋白胨,剂量为2 mL/kg,然后按上述分组分别给予相应的药物.给药后8 h内每小时各测体温1次.结果:80只小鼠和36只家兔均进入结果分析,中途无脱落.①与生理盐水对照组相比,安乃近32.5 mg/kg组、氟尼辛葡甲铵10,5,2.5,1.25 mg/kg组和双氯芬酸钠16.25 mg/kg组对醋酸所致小鼠的扭体反应有显著的镇痛作用[(4.3±4.1),(10.4±5.7),(0.0±0.0),(0.9±1.9),(1.8±2.4),(3.2±4.2),(3.6±3.9)次/15 min;P<0.05,P<0.01].②与空白对照组比较,氟尼辛葡甲铵高、中剂量组及安乃近0.2 g/kg组、氨基比林0.2 g/kg组对由蛋白胨引起的家兔发热,在给药后4~8 h均有显著的抑制作用(P< 0.05),氟尼辛葡甲铵高、中剂量和安乃近0.2 g/kg组在给药后6~8 h作用极显著(P<0.01).氟尼辛葡甲铵高剂量组在给药后5~7 h显著强于安乃近0.2 g/kg组(P<0.05),与氨基比林0.2 g/kg组相比,差异极显著(P<0.01).氟尼辛葡甲铵中剂量组作用稍逊于安乃近0.2 g/kg组,差异不显著.氟尼辛葡甲铵低剂量组与氨基比林0.2 g/kg组相当.结论:氟尼辛葡甲铵具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.

  16. Pharmacodynamic studies on antipyretic and analgesic effects of flunixin meglumine%氟尼辛葡甲铵解热镇痛作用药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大健; 余祖功; 江善祥

    2007-01-01

    通过小白鼠醋酸扭体法、家兔蛋白胨致热法对氟尼辛葡甲铵(FM)解热、镇痛作用进行了药效学研究.结果表明:氟尼辛葡甲铵具有明显的解热、镇痛作用.与对照组相比,氟尼辛葡甲铵4个剂量组(1.25、2.5、5、10 mg/kg)对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应均有极强的抑制作用,抑制率最高达100 %.2.5 mg/kg的FM镇痛率即达82.7 %,明显强于双氯芬酸钠(65.4 %)和安乃近(58.7 %).对蛋白胨引起的家兔发热的解热效果,氟尼辛葡甲铵高剂量组(4 mg/kg)优于安乃近组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.05)和氨基比林组(0.2 g/kg)(P<0.01).中剂量氟尼辛葡甲铵组(2 mg/kg)解热作用稍逊于安乃近组,但差异不显著.低剂量氟尼辛葡甲铵组(1 mg/kg)解热作用与氨基比林组相当.

  17. 兽药中间体氟尼辛的高效液相色谱分析%HPLC Analysis for Veterinary Pharmaceutical Intermediate Flunixin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡飞; 王金泉; 张洪学; 何良年

    2007-01-01

    为了监控兽药的质量,建立测定兽药中间体氟尼辛的高效液相色谱分析方法.适宜的分析条件为:色谱柱为250×4.6 mm不锈钢柱,内装C18键合硅胶填料;流动相:v(甲醇):v(水,pH调至为4.0)=82:18;流速:1.0mL/min;紫外检测器,检测波长为254 nm.测定方法的标准偏差、变异系数分别为0.217、0.0022,平均回收率为100.1%.

  18. Corynebacterial Necrohemorrhagic Cystitis in Two Female Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    intramuscular flunixin meglumine, intramuscular enrofloxacin, and 300 ml of subcutaneous flu- ids. The animal’s physical condition continued to deteriorate...and flunixin meglumine. Despite these aggressive therapies, the animal died subsequently. Results Complete necropsies were performed on each animal

  19. Study on pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine after intravenous,intramuscular and oral administration in broilers%氟尼辛葡甲胺在鸡体内的药物动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春茂; 余祖功; 郭永刚; 陈大键; 胡屹屹

    2006-01-01

    36只健康三黄肉鸡,随机分为3组,进行单次静注、肌注和内服2.2 mg·kg-1氟尼辛葡甲胺,用反相高效液相色谱法测定鸡血浆中氟尼辛葡甲胺的浓度,经3P97药物动力学软件处理血浆药物浓度-时问数据.试验结果表明,静注给药拟合适合二室开放模型,主要动力学参数为:t1/2α:(0.56±0.20)h,t1/2β:(5.98±0.02)h,Vd(area):(0.01±0.003)L·kg-1,CL:(0.03±0.01)L·kg-1·h-1,AUC:(683.00±185.79)μg·h-1·mL-1.肌注和内服给药的药时数据均适合一级吸收二室模型,肌注主要动力学参数为:t1/2α:(0.78±0.04)h,t1/2β:(6.76±0.24)h,Vd(area):(0.01±0.003)L·kg-1,CL: (0.005±0.001)L·kg-1·h-1,AUC: (499.40±130.47)μg·h-1·mL-1,F:73.12%;内服的主要动力学参数是:t1/2α:(0.85±0.11)h,t1/2β:(5.15±0.19)h,()):(0.02±0.004)L·kg-1,CL:(0.01±0.002)L·kg*1·h-1,AUC:(288.51±74.06)μg·h-1·mL-1,F:42.24%.结果显示:氟尼辛葡甲胺在健康鸡体内的主要药物动力学特征为吸收迅速,达峰时间较短,肌注生物利用度较高,内服生物利用度一般.

  20. Flunixin对猪肝微粒体细胞色素P450酶系的影响%Effects of flunixin meglumine on live cytochrome P450 enzymes in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡屹屹; 杨海峰; 江善祥

    2006-01-01

    采用cocktail探针药物法研究了氟尼辛葡甲铵对猪肝微粒体细胞色素(CY)P450酶系的作用.将12头猪随机分为2组,试验组每日肌肉注射氟尼辛葡甲铵1次,对照组给予等体积的生理盐水,连续给药10 d.通过高效液相色谱法检测探针药物的代谢率,评价各组CYP450酶的活性水平.结果显示,试验组的氨苯砜代谢减慢,消除半衰期t1/2延长;而氯唑沙宗代谢加快,t1/2缩短.说明氟尼辛葡甲铵对猪的CYP3A4具有抑制作用,而对CYP2E1存在诱导效应.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Inclusion Complex of β-cyclodextrin with Flunixin%氟尼辛与β-环糊精超分子配合物的制备及其表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 黄真

    2009-01-01

    考察了氟尼辛与β-环糊精包合物的制备与表征.采用超声波法制备包合物,并采用倒置相差显微镜法、紫外-可见吸收光谱法、红外光谱法、X射线衍射法、热分析等多种方法进行了物性鉴定.研究发现,最佳制备工艺为n(氟尼辛):n(β-环糊精)=2:3、包合时间为1h、包合温度为40℃.氟尼辛经β-环糊精包合后,证明有包合物形成.为氟尼辛加工制成各种剂型开辟了良好的前景.

  2. Study on Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Flunixin Meglumine in Mice and Rats%氟尼辛葡甲胺对大鼠小鼠的抗炎镇痛作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡屹屹; 陈大健; 江善祥

    2006-01-01

    氟尼辛葡甲铵盐是一种动物专用的非甾体抗炎药,具有镇痛和解热功能,但抗炎是其主要功效.本试验通过对鸡蛋清诱导的大鼠踝关节炎性肿胀模型和冰醋酸所致小鼠疼痛扭体反应来研究其抗炎镇痛效果.与对照组相比,FM高中低各剂量组(0.55、1.1、2.2 mg/kg)对大鼠足关节炎症均有显著的对抗作用(P<0.05,P<0.01),呈明显的量效关系.高剂量组(2.2 mg/kg)抗炎功效明显优于吲哚美辛组(2.25 mg/kg)和地塞米松组(2.52 mg/kg).中剂量组(1.1 mg/kg)作用堪比吲哚美辛,而低剂量组(0.55 mg/kg)稍逊于地塞米松.与同类对照药双氯芳酸钠(16.25 mg/kg)和安乃近(32.5 mg/kg)相比,结果显示FM(2.5 mg/kg)对小鼠扭体抑制作用最强,抑制率高达82.69%.

  3. Determination of flunixin meglumine in meat product by LC-MS/MS%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定肉制品中的氟尼辛葡甲胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金翠; 刘艳荣; 杨成

    2014-01-01

    通过试验确定了肉制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺的前处理方法及液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定条件.样品经过乙腈-乙酸乙酯(1∶1,V/V)超声提取,PCX固相萃取柱净化,采用C18(2.1×l00mm,3.5μm)柱分离,以0.1%甲酸水溶液和0.1%甲酸乙腈溶液作为流动相梯度洗脱,采用电喷雾离子源,多反应监测方式进行采集,外标法定量.结果表明:氟尼辛葡甲胺在0.1 ~ 50ng/mL质量浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,标准曲线相关系数r2=0.9998,方法回收率为85.0% ~ 110.0%,相对标准偏差(RSD)<6.0%;方法最低检出限为0.1μg/kg,定量限为0.3 μg/kg.该方法操作简单,易于推广,可以对内制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺进行准确的定性和定量测定.

  4. 复方氟苯尼考注射液在猪体内的药代动力学研究%Pharmacokinetic study on a florfenicol/flunixin meglumine compound injection in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志娟; 周丹; 钱民怡; 朱沛; 李道稳; 刘晓东; 陈婷婷; 汤树生

    2016-01-01

    本文对自制氟苯尼考(FF)和氟尼辛葡甲胺(FM)复方制剂在猪体内的药代动力学进行了研究.试验选用健康断奶仔猪6头(30+5 kg),采用三周期交叉设计,FF给药剂量均为20 mg/kg体重,FM给药剂量均为2 mg/kg体重(以氟尼辛计),同一头猪不同给药的时间间隔为2周,给药途径均为颈部肌肉注射.试验结果显示,自制复方制剂与两种进口市售单方制剂在动物体内的药代过程基本一致,氟苯尼考和氟尼辛葡甲胺相对生物利用度分别为99.89%和108.78%,表明本复方注射液中两种药物的药效均与国外进口单方产品相当,一次给药即可获得两种进口单方制剂同时给药的良好疗效,且具有方便临床给药、减少动物应激的显著优点.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Flunixin Meglumine After Intervenous, Intramuscular Administration in Pigs%猪静注、肌注氟尼辛葡甲胺的药物动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祖功; 蒋春茂; 郭永刚; 胡屹屹; 陈大键

    2007-01-01

    [目的]为了研究氟尼辛葡甲胺在健康猪体内的药动学.[方法]14头健康猪,按照随机拉丁方设计,进行单次不同给药剂量(2.2,1.1 mg·kg-1bw)静注和肌注.血浆样品经乙腈沉淀血浆蛋白,高速离心,用反相高效液相色谱法测定猪血浆中氟尼辛葡甲胺的浓度,3P97药动学计算软件处理血浆药物浓度-时间数据.[结果]健康猪静注给药的药时数据适合二室开放模型,2.2、1.1mg·kg-1bw剂量组主要药动学参数分别为:t1/2α(0.49±0.03)h,(0.58±0.07)h;t1/2β(6.28±0.13)h,(7.37±0.59)h;V/F(0.01±0.001)L·kg-1,(0.01±0.002)L·kg-1;CL(0.01±0.002)L·h-1,(0.01±0.002)L·h-1;AUC(237.73±52.46)μg·h·ml-1,(147.71±36.76)μg·h·ml-1.健康猪肌注给药的药时数据适合一级吸收二室模型,2.2 mg·kg-1bw、1.1 mg·kg-1bw剂量组主要药动学参数为:t1/2α(0.90±0.07)h,(0.86±0.10)h;t1/2β(8.79±0.85)h,(9.60±0.10)h,V/F(0.02±0.004)L·kg-1,(0.02±0.003)L·kg-1;CL(0.01±0.002)L·h-1,(0.01±0.003)L·h-1;AUC(174.63±45.84)μg·h·ml-1,(112.42±31.19)μg·h·ml-1.[结论]氟尼辛葡甲胺在健康猪体内肌注的主要药动学特征为吸收迅速,达峰时间短,生物利用度较高,半衰期较长.

  6. Uso de um inibidor da síntese de prostaglandinas em receptoras bovinas com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical Use of a synthesis inhibitor of prostaglandins in cattle recipients with or without difficult of cervical manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinícius Galvão Loiola; Priscila Assis Ferraz; Marcos Chalhoub Coelho Lima; Alexandra Soares Rodrigues; Daniela Souza Freitas; Antonio de Lisboa Ribeiro Filho; Bruno Henrique de Araújo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar o efeito do flunixin meglumine sobre a taxa de concepção de receptoras de embriões bovinos com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical na inovulação. As receptoras foram distribuídas em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo a dificuldade ou não de transposição cervical e tratamento ou não com flunixin meglumine. Desta forma, os grupos experimentais foram denominados: Não tratadas com flunixin meglumine e sem dificuldade de transposição cervical (S/FM-CF, n=184), nã...

  7. Uso de um inibidor da síntese de prostaglandinas em receptoras bovinas com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Filho,Antonio de Lisboa; Freitas, Daniela Souza; Rodrigues, Alexandra Soares; Chalhoub, Marcos; Ferraz,Priscila Assis; Loiola,Marcus Vinícius Galvão; Andrade, Bruno Henrique de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    p.819-827 Objetivou-se determinar o efeito do flunixin meglumine sobre a taxa de concepção de receptoras de embriões bovinos com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical na inovulação. As receptoras foram distribuídas em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo a dificuldade ou não de transposição cervical e tratamento ou não com flunixin meglumine. Desta forma, os grupos experimentais foram denominados: Não tratadas com flunixin meglumine e sem dificuldade de ...

  8. Avaliação de compostos derivados de plantas brasileiras na busca de protótipos a fármacos com atividade antileishmanial

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Souza Lage

    2015-01-01

    As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania e são endêmicas em 98 países. Os antimoniais pentavalentes, Pentostam® (estibogluconato de sódio) e Glucantime® (antimoniato de meglumina), são os medicamentos de primeira escolha no tratamento. No entanto, seu uso contínuo pode provocar nefrotoxicidade, cardiotoxicidade e toxicidade hepática. Medicamentos alternativos incluem pentamidina, anfotericina B (também em formulações lipídicas), paromomicina e miltefosina. N...

  9. Hipertension arterial en diferentes edades de la mujer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pacheco-Romero, Jose

    2010-01-01

    La hipertension se asocia a comorbilidades, como la diabetes mellitus, enfermedad coronaria, apoplejia, enfermedad vascular periferica, falla renal cronica, todo lo cual disminuye la expectativa de vida...

  10. Kinetics of venom and antivenom serum and clinical parameters and treatment efficacy in Bothrops alternatus envenomed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, Do; Melo, M M; Santos, M M B; Heneine, L G D

    2002-12-01

    Dogs envenomed with non-lethal doses of Bothrops alternatus venom received standard antivenom therapy, im injections of flunixin meglumine, or topical treatmentwith aqueous Curcuma longa plant extract. Biodistribution of the venom and antivenom were determined by ELISA. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of antivenom and plant extract on local effects; flunixin treatment had lower efficacy. Distribution of the venom was similar with all 3 treatments. Serum levels of the antivenom reached maximum 2-4 h after administration and were not detected after the 5th d.

  11. Uso de um inibidor da síntese de prostaglandinas em receptoras bovinas com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical Use of a synthesis inhibitor of prostaglandins in cattle recipients with or without difficult of cervical manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Galvão Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o efeito do flunixin meglumine sobre a taxa de concepção de receptoras de embriões bovinos com ou sem dificuldade de transposição cervical na inovulação. As receptoras foram distribuídas em quatro grupos experimentais de acordo a dificuldade ou não de transposição cervical e tratamento ou não com flunixin meglumine. Desta forma, os grupos experimentais foram denominados: Não tratadas com flunixin meglumine e sem dificuldade de transposição cervical (S/FM-CF, n=184, não tratadas com flunixin meglumine e com dificuldade de transposição cervical (S/FM-CD, n=58, tratadas com flunixin meglumine e sem dificuldade de transposição cervical (C/FM-CF, n=38 e tratadas com flunixin meglumine e com dificuldade de transposição cervical (C/FM-CD, n=57. As receptoras tratadas com flunixin meglumine receberam uma aplicação de 500mg de flunixin meglumine i.m. (DESFLAN, Ouro Fino, São Paulo, Brasil imediatamente após as inovulações, enquanto os animais não tratados receberam a aplicação de 10 mL de solução salina fisiológica i.m. A taxa de concepção média foi de 51,93%, já as taxas de concepção dos grupos S/FM-CF, S/FM-CD, C/FM-CF e C/FM-CD foram, respectivamente, de 54,35; 36,21; 50,00 e 61,40%. Verificou-se taxa de concepção significativamente inferior (P=0,007 para as receptoras do grupo S/FM-CD. Os resultados demonstram que o uso do flunixin meglumine pode ser útil em receptoras com dificuldade de transposição cervical, proporcionando o controle do fenômeno de regressão lútea precoce.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flunixin meglumine on conception rate of bovine embryo recipients with or without difficulty of implementation of the cervix at inovulation. The superovulation and synchronization of donors and recipients were done for this purpose. The recipients were divided into four groups according to difficulty or not for cervical implementation and being treated or

  12. 探针药物法评价氟尼辛葡甲铵对猪肝CYP450酶的影响%Simultaneous evaluation of effect of flunixin meglumine on live cytochrome P450 enzymes in pigs by Cocktail probe drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡屹屹; 杨海峰; 江善祥

    2008-01-01

    采用Cocktail探针药物法探讨氟尼辛葡甲铵对猪肝CYP450酶是否具有诱导或抑制作用.将12头健康猪随机均分为2组.公母各半.试验组每天肌肉注射氟尼辛葡甲铵1次(11 mg/kg),对照组给予相同体积的生理盐水,连续给药10 d.通过HPLC检测探针药物的代谢率,来评价各组CYP450水平.结果显示,试验组的氨苯砜代谢减慢,t1/2延长;而氯唑沙宗代谢加快,t1/2缩短.这说明氟尼辛葡甲铵对猪CYP3A4具有抑制作用,而对CYP2E1存在诱导效应.

  13. 新型复方氟苯尼考注射液中氟尼辛葡甲胺含量测定方法研究%Content Determination of Flunixin Meglumine in a Novel Compound Florfenicol Injection by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程培培; 杨亚军; 刘希望; 李剑勇

    2014-01-01

    为了建立新型复方氟苯尼考注射液中氟尼辛葡甲胺含量的高效液相色谱测定方法,选用Hypersil ODS2(250 mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水(体积比为80∶20),检测波长为254 nm,柱温30℃,流速1 mL/min进行测定.结果显示,氟尼辛葡甲胺在该色谱条件下,系统适应性良好;在27~889 μg/mL的质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,回归方程为y=9 596.7X+32 979,R2 =0.999 9;总平均回收率为(97.16±2.05)%,RSD为2.11%;对5批样品中的氟尼辛葡甲胺进行含量测定,RSD为1.14%.表明该方法可用于新型复方氟苯尼考注射液中氟尼辛葡甲胺含量的测定.

  14. A method to determine flunixin meglumine in meat products using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-质谱法测定肉制品中氟尼辛葡甲胺的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武婷; 郭捷; 赵小珍

    2013-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱-质谱联用法(UPLC-MS/MS)测定肉类中氟尼辛葡甲胺的方法.肉制品经过乙腈-乙酸乙酯超声提取后,提取液经PCX固相萃取小柱净化,采用超高效液相色谱柱WATERS ACQUITY C18(50 mm×2.1mm,1.7μm)分离,乙腈和0.1%甲酸水溶液进行梯度洗脱.氟尼辛葡甲胺在0.1~50 ng/mL范围内,线性关系良好,回归系数R2 =0.999 0,回收率达到83.0%~106.0%,相对标准偏差达到1.82%~3.69%.本方法稳定,操作简便、快速,提取效率高,重现性好.

  15. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... period of at least 12 days after administering to dairy animals. (4) Biologics—Vaccines. (5) Butorphanol... administering to dairy animals. (6) Chlorhexidine—Allowed for surgical procedures conducted by a veterinarian...—without antibiotics. (9) Flunixin (CAS #-38677-85-9)—in accordance with approved labeling; except that...

  16. Novel Mycoplasma hyosynoviae vaccination of one herd failed to prevent lameness in finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Christensen, Dennis;

    difference in the prevalence of lameness was found (P=0.157). All lame finishers were treated with Lincosin® and Flunixin® by injection for three days. In conclusion, this novel M. hyosynoviae vaccine could not successfully prevent the development of lameness in finishing pigs presumed to have been caused...

  17. Vivienda/violencia: intersecciones de la vivienda y la violencia intrafamiliar en Ciudad Bolivar, Bogota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemaitre Ripoll, Julieta; Garcia Jaramillo, Sandra; Ramirez Rodriguez, Hernan

    2014-01-01

    ... de 2010, que es representativa para la localidad. Concluimos que la vivienda propia tiene un efecto protector porque disminuye el estres economico, aumenta el estatus de la mujer y facilita la solucion del conflicto...

  18. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  19. The use of activity measures in combination with physiological factors as indicators of disease in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yeiser, Emily Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Animal activity, in combination with physiological factors, can be used for early disease detection in dairy cattle. An initial study determined the impact of flunixin meglumine (FM), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on activity measures, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. A total of 24 primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows were challenged with E.coli 727 in one quarter. Of the 24 E.coli challenged animals, 12...

  20. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zhoumeng Lin; Christopher I. Vahl; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive pu...

  1. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study.

  2. The effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors on bile-injured and normal equine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N B; Jones, S L; Blikslager, A T

    2002-07-01

    A potential adverse effect of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) in horses is colitis. In addition, we have previously shown an important role for COX-produced prostanoids in recovery of ischaemic-injured equine jejunum. It was hypothesised that the nonselective COX inhibitor flunixin would retard repair of bile-injured colon by preventing production of reparative prostaglandins, whereas the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac would not inhibit repair as a result of continued COX-1 activity. Segments of the pelvic flexure were exposed to 1.5 mmol/l deoxycholate for 30 min, after which they were recovered for 4 h in Ussing chambers. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, recovery of bile-injured colonic mucosa was not affected by flunixin or etodolac, despite significantly depressed prostanoid production. However, treatment of control tissue with flunixin led to increases in mucosal permeability, whereas treatment with etodolac had no significant effect. Therefore, although recovery from bile-induced colonic injury maybe independent of COX-elaborated prostanoids, treatment of control tissues with nonselective COX inhibitors may lead to marked increases in permeability. Alternatively, selective inhibition of COX-2 may reduce the incidence of adverse effects in horses requiring NSAID therapy.

  3. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on proliferation, differentiation and migration in equine mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maike; Raabe, Oksana; Addicks, Klaus; Wenisch, Sabine; Arnhold, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In equine medicine, stem cell therapies for orthopaedic diseases are routinely accompanied by application of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Thus, it has to be analysed how NSAIDs actually affect the growth and differentiation potential of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro in order to predict the influence of NSAIDs such as phenylbutazone, meloxicam, celecoxib and flunixin on MSCs after grafting in vivo. The effects of NSAIDs were evaluated regarding cell viability and proliferation. Additionally, the multilineage differentiation capacity and cell migration was analysed. NSAIDs at lower concentrations (0.1-1 μM for celecoxib and meloxicam and 10-50 μM for flunixin) exert a positive effect on cell proliferation and migration, while at higher concentrations (10-200 μM for celecoxib and meloxicam and 100-1000 μM for flunixin and phenylbutazone), there is rather a negative influence. While there is hardly any influence on the adipogenic as well as on the chondrogenic MSC differentiation, the osteogenic differentiation potential, as demonstrated with the von Kossa staining, is significantly disturbed. Thus, it can be concluded that the effects of NSAIDs on MSCs are largely dependent on the concentrations used. Additionally, for some differentiation lineages, also the choice of NSAID is critical.

  4. Ondas no lineales en la locomoción de las culebras Thamnophis melanogaster y Thamnophis eques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Manjarrez Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan los resultados experimentales comparados con los teóricos sobre la posible existencia de ondas no lineales solitónicas durante el desplazamiento de un ser vivo a través de la observación de la locomoción de huida terrestre de las culebras Thamnophis melanogaster y Thamnophis eques. En T. eques se encontró que el número total de puntos de contacto disminuyó al aumentar la velocidad y la longitud de onda, mientras que la amplitud de onda disminuyó. En el caso de T. melanogaster solo se encontró que el número total de puntos de contacto disminuyó conforme la velocidad aumentó; en contraste la amplitud y longitud de onda permanecían casi constantes.

  5. Successful therapeutic response of resistant cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis to a very low dose of antimony Resposta terapêutica bem sucedida de casos resistentes de leishmaniose mucocutânea a doses muito baixas de antimônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Paes de Oliveira-Neto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Two mucocutaneous leishmaniasis cases resistant to therapy are reported here. After the failure of initial therapies (antimony, amphotericin B and/or pentamidine patients received a low-dose schedule: one ampoule of meglumine antimoniate (405mg of pentavalent antimony [Sb v] by intramuscular injection, three times a week until complete healing of the lesions. One patient was cured with a total of 30 ampoules in 10 weeks and the other received 36 ampoules in 12 weeks. Both remain clinically cured after one year of follow-up.São relatados dois casos de leishmaniose mucocutânea resistentes ao tratamento. Depois das terapêuticas iniciais (antimônio, anfotericina B e/ou pentamidina, os pacientes receberam um esquema alternativo: uma ampola de antimoniato de meglumina (405mg de antimônio pentavalnte [Sb v] por via intramuscular, três vezes por semana até a cura completa das lesões. Um paciente recebeu um total de 30 ampolas durante 10 semanas e o outro, 36 ampolas durante 12 semanas. Ambos permanecem clinicamente curados até um ano após o tratamento.

  6. Eficacia de la inducción miofascial para el tratamiento de la espasticidad en pacientes con parálisis cerebral espástica: ensayo clínico aleatorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesa Justicia, Aiantze

    2014-01-01

    ¿El tratamiento mediante la inducción miofascial disminuye la espasticidad en los pacientes con Parálisis Cerebral Espástica (PCE) mientras son intervenidos con un tratamiento convencional? Objetivos: Comprobar si la inducción miofascial disminuye la espasticidad en pacientes con parálisis cerebral espástica (PCE) y así mismo prevenir las complicaciones musculoesqueléticas y aumentar el rango de movilidad articular. Metodología: Ensayo controlado clínico aleatorizado que recoge un total...

  7. Análisis del efecto del poli[bis(HEMA)-fosfaceno] y poli[(HEMA- g-PLA) fosfaceno] en la contracción de fotopolimerización de Bis-GMA:TEGDMA

    OpenAIRE

    E. C. Martínez-Ceballos; G. Martínez-Barrera; O. Olea-Mejía

    2012-01-01

    Un problema de suma importancia en las resinas dentales poliméricas, es el efecto que causa su contracción cuando se polimeriza in-situ. Esta contracción disminuye la efectividad del implante ya que cuando la resina endurece y se adhiere al diente se generan fisuras y otros defectos que permiten la absorción de alimentos y la formación de caries. Esta contracción también disminuye las propiedades mecánicas de la resina implantada. Para disminuir la contracción por polimerización y evitar esto...

  8. Determinantes para la Práctica de Actividad Física en Estudiantes Universitarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Isabel Caro-Freile; Roberto Carlos Rebolledo-Cobos

    2017-01-01

    .... En Colombia la mayor parte de la población es inactiva, los niños son más activos, pero esta condición disminuye con la edad, el porcentaje de universitarios que realizan actividad física es bajo, está práctica está...

  9. PROGRAMA DE TAMIZAJE AUDITIVO NEONATAL UNIVERSAL EN CLÍNICA LAS CONDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Gloria Ribalta

    2016-11-01

    La pérdida en el seguimiento, en comparación a nuestra última revisión del 2010, disminuyó de un 15,6% a un 12%. Esta pérdida del 12% se considera una cifra aceptable si la comparamos con valores internacionales que pueden alcanzar hasta 50%.

  10. Bifosfonatos e implantes dentales, ¿son incompatibles? Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moreno-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Conclusiones: El tratamiento con bifosfonatos no disminuye la osteointegración del implante dental, aunque estos resultados se han obtenido en base a estudios retrospectivos en humanos. Se han descrito casos de osteonecrosis de los maxilares relacionada con bifosfonatos en estos pacientes, sobre todo tras tratamiento prolongado.

  11. Utilidad del ensayo de nitrato reductasa en la detección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multirresistente en caso de recursos limitados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela López

    2011-03-01

    Conclusiones. La experiencia con el ensayo de nitrato reductasa demuestra que produce resultados resistentes confiables. El uso de cultivos envejecidos conduciría a una mayor proporción de resultados falsos sensibles, mientras que su capacidad para detectar multirresistencia disminuye a consecuencia de una mayor proporción de resultados no interpretables.

  12. Representatividad de las mujeres en las sociedades científicas españolas del ámbito de la salud en 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Casado-Mejía

    2015-05-01

    Conclusión: No existe paridad en el conjunto. La presencia femenina es mayor en las sociedades de enfermería y de primaria que en las médicas y las hospitalarias. Disminuye con el nivel de responsabilidad.

  13. 230. Actividad antitrombina III en pacientes intervenidos bajo circulación extracorpórea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La CEC disminuye la AT-III. La administración intraoperatoria de dosis bajas de antitrombina es segura, y logra un aumento significativo de la AT-III, aunque no se han demostrado cambios clínicos significativos ni en los parámetros de anticoagulación/fibrinólisis.

  14. Beneficios de la suplementación con L-carnitina en pacientes pediátricos hemodializados. Reporte de casos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JA Martínez-Morales; P Raya Jiménez; R Monroy Torres; L Daza Benítez

    2016-01-01

    ... la situación nutricional del paciente, por lo que la L-carnitina es una alternativa que mejora el estado nutricional y, al mismo tiempo, disminuye la frecuencia de anemia. OBJETIVO: mejorar los parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos...

  15. When Your Child Is Diagnosed with Diabetes: Parents' Questions for the Health Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... para jóvenes: disminuye tu riesgo de desarrollar la diabetes tipo 2) What research is going on? Several large national and international studies are under way through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other ...

  16. Efectos de la radiación UV en la salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    La reducción de la capa de ozono disminuye la protección natural que ofrece nuestra atmósfera contra la radiación ultravioleta (UV) perjudicial del sol. Esta página web proporciona una descripción general de los principales problemas de salud relacionados

  17. Hepatoencephalopathy and hypocalcemia in a miniature horse mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarratt, W K; Furr, M O; Robertson, J L

    1991-12-15

    A pregnant, miniature horse mare had clinical signs of hepatoencephalopathy and concurrent hypocalcemia. The signs included dullness, inappetence, blindness, head pressing, weakness, muscle fasiculations, uveitis, and urinary incontinence. Hepatic dysfunction and hypocalcemia were confirmed by serum biochemical analysis. The mare was treated successfully with a continuous infusion of Ringer solution, calcium gluconate, dextrose, B-complex vitamins, sodium ampicillin, and flunixin meglumine; topical administration of ophthalmic ointments; and decompression of the urinary bladder. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen revealed acute hepatic necrosis, which likely was associated with administration of a vaccine of equine origin 2 months earlier.

  18. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siard, Melissa H; McMurry, Kellie E; Adams, Amanda A

    2016-05-01

    Senior horses (aged ≥ 20 years) exhibit increased chronic, low-grade inflammation systemically, termed inflamm-aging. Inflammation is associated with many afflictions common to the horse, including laminitis and osteoarthritis, which are commonly treated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. Although these NSAIDs are effective in treating acute inflammatory problems, long-term treatment with NSAIDs can result in negative side effects. Thus, bioactive polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene were investigated to determine their effectiveness as anti-inflammatory agents in vitro. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses (n = 6; mean age = 26 ± 2 years), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient. PBMC were then incubated 22 h at 37°C, 5% CO2 with multiple concentrations (320, 160, 80, 40, 20, 10 μM) of all five polyphenols (curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene), dissolved in DMSO to achieve the aforementioned concentrations. PBMC were stimulated the last 4h of the incubation period with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and Brefeldin A (BFA). A Vicell-XR counter evaluated cell viability following incubation. PBMC were stained intracellularly for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and analyzed via flow cytometry. Data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Viability of PBMC incubated with various compound concentrations were compared with PBMC incubated with DMSO alone (positive control) to determine at what concentration each compound caused cytotoxicity. The highest concentration at which cell viability did not significantly differ from the positive control was: 20 μM for curcuminoids, 40 μM for hydroxypterostilbene, 80 μM for pterostilbene, and 160 μM for

  19. Susceptibilidad in vitro a infección por Leishmania y sensibilidad a medicamentos difiere según tipo de macrófagos The susceptibility to infection by Leishmania panamensis and the sensitivity to drugs differ according to the macrophage type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol V. Mesa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los sistemas in vitro son útiles en la evaluación de compuestos con actividad biológica, permitiendo por ejemplo, determinar el potencial citotóxico y leishmanicida de un compuesto. Objetivo: Identificar el tipo de célula mamífera que permita una óptima infección in vitro por Leishmania y que constituya el sistema adecuado para el tamizaje in vitro de compuestos con actividad anti-Leishmania. Métodos: La susceptibilidad de las células a infección por L. panamensis se evalúo según la Concentración Infectiva 50 determinada por microscopía de luz y citometría de flujo; la supervivencia intracelular de los amastigotes se evaluó por microscopía de fluorescencia y la sensibilidad de las células a anfotericina B y antimoniato de meglumina se evalúo por espectrofotometría. Resultados: Los cultivos primarios son más susceptibles a la infección por L. panamensis in vitro. Sin embargo, la supervivencia intracelular del parásito fue mejor en U-937. Por su parte, la sensibilidad de las células a anfotericina B y antimoniato de meglumina vario según el tipo de célula. Conclusión: Las células U-937 son las adecuadas para la infección por Leishmania porque: a presentan crecimiento ilimitado y se les puede inducir transformación a macrófagos. b la susceptibilidad a la infección por Leishmania es similar a la observada en cultivos primarios de macrófagos y c permiten mayor supervivencia de los amastigotes luego de la infección. Adicionalmente, las células U-937 son menos sensibles a la acción de los fármacos comúnmente utilizados como control en la detección de compuestos con actividad leishmanicida. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 200-211Introduction: In vitro systems are useful in the evaluation of compounds with biological activity determining the cytotoxic and leishmanicidal activity of the candidates. Objective: To identify the mammalian cell that allows the optimal in vitro infection by Leishmania and therefore

  20. Leishmaniose tegumentar na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte: aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, terapêuticos e evolutivos (1989-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Valéria M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, terapêuticos e evolutivos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Belo Horizonte. O estudo incluiu 358 pacientes com leishmaniose cutânea (LC e 25 com leishmaniose mucosa (LM. Comparados aos pacientes com LC, aqueles com LM apresentaram maior tempo de doença e relato de outras doenças concomitantes, sugerindo que a debilitação pela leishmaniose e/ou outras doenças podem contribuir para a ativação e/ou disseminação mucosa do parasito. As sensibilidades das reações intradérmica, de imunofluorescência indireta e da pesquisa direta do parasito foram de 78,4, 79,3 e 68,3%, respectivamente. O tratamento com antimoniato de meglumina foi 100% eficaz, com 59% de efeitos colaterais ao longo do tratamento. A recidiva após tratamento ocorreu em 32 (10,1% dos 318 casos seguidos por até dois anos. A maioria das recidivas (31 dos 32 casos ocorreu em pacientes com LC tratados com 15mg Sb5+/kg/dia. Na investigação de critérios de cura, a reação intradérmica negativa foi o único fator associado a um risco três vezes maior de recidiva. Um aumento da dose ou do tempo de tratamento talvez melhore o prognóstico nestes pacientes.

  1. Avaliação das lesões locais de cães envenenados experimentalmente com Bothrops alternatus após diferentes tratamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M.M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic action of flunixin meglumine and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (10% on local lesions caused by bothropic venom, comparing with the specific antivenom. Twelve adult dogs were inoculated in the middle third of the lateral face of the thigh with 0.3mg/kg of venom. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals and the treatment was done two hours after venom inoculation as follows: Group I- specific antivenom diluted in saline (one dosage sufficient to neutralize the venom, Group II- flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/kg, IM, once a day for five days, Group III- topical application of aqueous extract of C. longa (10% (three times a day for five days. Necrosis was observed in all dogs of groups I and II, and in two dogs of group III. Edema and hemorrhagic halo were observed in all dogs. Better recovery of lesions was observed in dogs of group I and III. The results denote a satisfactory effect of C. longa on treatment of local lesions caused by bothropic venom in dogs.

  2. Role of prostaglandins in intrauterine migration of the equine conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, T A; Allen, W R

    2001-05-01

    Between at least day 9 and day 16 after ovulation the spherical equine conceptus migrates continuously throughout the uterine lumen, propelled by peristaltic myometrial contractions. This unusually long period of intrauterine movement ensures that the conceptus delivers its anti-luteolytic signal to the entire endometrium to achieve luteostasis. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins stimulate the myometrial contractions that result in the migration of the conceptus. Serial ultrasonographic examinations of the uteri of eight mares performed during 2 h periods between day 10 and day 18 of gestation recorded the pattern of conceptus migration before and after treatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flunixin meglumine. Conceptus mobility was high between day 10 and day 14 after ovulation (4.3 +/- 0.8, 4.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.9 changes of location per h on day 10, day 12 and day 14, respectively), but was reduced immediately and markedly by an i.v. injection of flunixin meglumine (3.8 +/- 1.5, 1.8 +/- 0.8 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 location changes per h), thereby implicating prostaglandins as the primary stimulus for the myometrial contractions that drive migration of the conceptus.

  3. The effects of two analgesic regimes on behavior after abdominal surgery in Steller sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen A; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Weary, Daniel M

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment protocols on the behavioral responses of juvenile Steller sea lions after abdominal surgery. Sea lions were randomly assigned to one of two treatments designed to control post-operative pain. The flunixin group (n=6) received flunixin meglumine (1mg/kg) administered as a single intramuscular (IM) injection before extubation from surgery. The carprofen group (n=5) received carprofen (4.4 mg/kg) as an IM injection before extubation, then orally at 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. Seven behaviors related to post-operative pain were monitored by observers, blinded to treatment, for a total of 10 days (3 days pre-, day of surgery, and 6 days post-surgery). All seven behaviors changed after surgery regardless of NSAID treatment, two of which returned to baseline within 6 days of surgery. Only one behavior was mildly affected by analgesic treatment: sea lions in the carprofen group tended to spend less time lying down in Days 1-3 following surgery (i.e., the days which they received oral carprofen). These results suggested that neither treatment, at the dose administered, was effective in controlling pain in the days following this surgery.

  4. Evaluation of tramadol, an "atypical" opioid analgesic in the control of immediate postoperative pain in dogs submitted to orthopedic surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Velloso Braga Yazbek

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a qualidade da analgesia pós-operatória após administração preemptiva de tramadol (2 mg/kg/grupo 1 e flunixin meglumine (1,1 mg/kg/grupo 2 em 30 cães submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos. Os animais tratados com tramadol apresentaram maior grau de analgesia comparado ao grupo do flunixim meglumine. A qualidade do retorno anestésico dos animais tratados com tramadol foi superior, livre de excitação e desconforto e com grau de sedação superior ao grupo do flunixin meglumine. Não foram observadas alterações cardiovasculares e respiratórias durante a anestesia. Podemos concluir que o tramadol pode ser utilizado como analgésico preemptivo em cães submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, já que o retorno anestésico apresentou adequada analgesia, livre de desconforto e excitação.

  5. The Effects of Perioperative Analgesia on Litter Size in Crl:CD1(ICR) Mice Undergoing Embryo Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, David R; Myers, Page H; Goulding, Eugenia H; Blankenship, Terry L; Grant, Mary F; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on litter size of 2 analgesics used perioperatively during mouse embryo transfer surgery. Day 2.5 pseudopregnant CD1 mice (n = 96) were divided equally into 2 analgesic treatment groups and a saline control group. Each mouse received a single, subcutaneous dose of buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1 mg/kg), flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg), or saline immediately after induction of anesthesia with 2.5% isoflurane. Each mouse then was prepared for aseptic surgery. Blastocysts had previously been collected from C57BL/6NCrl female mice that were synchronized and superovulated by using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated with C57BL/6NTac male mice 3.5 d before collection. Viable blastocysts were pooled, and 8 were selected arbitrarily and transplanted into the right uterine horn of each pseudopregnant CD1 mouse. Mice were monitored throughout pregnancy, and the number of pups at birth was documented. No statistically significant difference was found between the 3 groups. These results indicate that perioperative analgesic treatment with buprenorphine or flunixin in the CD1 mouse undergoing embryo transfer is not associated with increased embryonic loss. PMID:20819387

  6. Evaluación del efecto de niacina en un modelo de obesidad con sindrome metábolico en ratas Zucker-Zucker (fa/fa) longevas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura Esquivel Campos; María Cristina Fresán Orozco; Miguel Mosqueda Cabrera; Julia Pérez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto farmacológico de la niacina sobre los niveles plasmáticos de adiponectina, leptina, IL-6 y TNF-α, así como el intercambio gaseoso, en un modelo de obesidad-vejez con hiperglicemia y dislipidemia en ratas macho de la cepa Zucker-Zucker (fa/fa) La niacina disminuyó significativamente los niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos. Mejoró el intercambio gaseoso, incrementó la presión parcial arterial de oxígeno, y disminuyó la presión parcial de dióxido de carbono y redujo los niv...

  7. CRECIMIENTO, SOBREVIVENCIA Y ADAPTACIÓN DE Bifidobacterium infantis A CONDICIONES ÁCIDAS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Mayorga-Reyes; P. Bustamante-Camilo; A. Gutiérrez-Nava; E. Barranco-Florido; A. Azaola-Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    La acidez es una condición ambiental comúnmente encontrada por las bacterias presentes en productos lácteos fermentados y el tracto gastrointestinal. En este estudio, las células de Bifidobacterium infantis de 24 h de fermentación se inocularon en medios de cultivo con pH iniciales de 7.0, 4.0, 3.0 y 2.0 durante 24 h. Conforme el pH inicial disminuye, la población celular activa disminuyó hasta tres órdenes de magnitud. A pH 4.0 las células se mostraron estables durante las primeras 5 h de fe...

  8. ALMIDÓN TERMOPLÁSTICO DE YUCA REFORZADO CON FIBRA DE FIQUE: PRELIMINARES

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA LUNA; HÉCTOR VILLADA; REINALDO VELASCO

    2009-01-01

    Se emplearon fibras cortas de fique (Furcraea spp) como material de refuerzo de una matriz termoplástica de almidón nativo de yuca (Manihot sculenta crantz). Se uso el diseño experimental factorial para analizar las propiedades mecánicas: Esfuerzo y elongación en tres mezclas de almidón más fibra de fique al 10, 15 y 20% y TPS sin fibra como blanco. El esfuerzo fue mayor para el compuesto con 10% de fibra, mientras que con 15 y 20% disminuyó. La elongación también disminuyó con el incremento ...

  9. Are erythropoiesis-stimulating agents beneficial for anemia in chronic heart failure patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Araneda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La anemia es común en la insuficiencia cardiaca, y se asocia a una mayor morbimortalidad. Sin embargo, no está claro si corregirla con agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis se traduce en un beneficio clínico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos 11 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 17 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el uso de agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y anemia no disminuye la mortalidad, y que no está claro si disminuye las hospitalizaciones o si mejora la capacidad funcional porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja. Probablemente aumenta el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos totales.

  10. 190. Extubación en el Quirófano Como Rutina Tras Cirugía Cardíaca: 500 Casos Consecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ysasi

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: la extubación en el quirófano de forma rutinaria en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca es viable y segura. La necesidad de reintubación o reingreso en UCI es baja. Contribuye a la recuperación precoz del paciente y disminuye los tiempos de estancia y consumo de recursos hospitalarios.

  11. Comparación de las intervenciones de educación sanitaria y de seguimiento farmacoterapéutico enpacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular que acuden a una farmaciacomunitaria (Estudio FISFTES-PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bofí Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Conclusiones: El GSFT mostró en general porcentajes de reducción mayores para todos los parámetros estudiados excepto para la presión arterial diastólica, que disminuyó un 4,7% (p < 0,001 más en el GES, ya que partía de valores basales superiores.

  12. Separación temprana cría-madre: un modelo para estudiar cambios que puedan asociarse con conductas suicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Janeth Dueñas Gómez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El suicidio es un fenomeno complejo que involucra aspectos psicológicos, biológicos y sociales. En Colombia, los datos reportados en Forensis 2004, muestran que si bien el número de suicidas disminuyó, aunque no significativamente con respecto al año anterior, sigue en aumento la proporción de jóvenes que se quitan la vida.

  13. Trichinellosis una zoonosis vigente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gabriela Chávez Guajardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available .- En la presente revisión presentamos una panorámica de la Trichinellosis enfermedad parasitaria cosmopolita y de distribución mundial que afecta prácticamente a todos los mamíferos que su gravedad depende de la carga parasitaria, pero en sus huéspedes aunque no les cause la muerte si disminuye su calidad de vida que desafortunadamente, sigue siendo vigente en este nuevo siglo XXI.

  14. La rentabilidad de la esclavitud en el Choco, 1680 -1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Sharp

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de diferente datos estadísticos relacionados con los costos y producción de las cuadrillas de negros en el Chocó se muestra como la esclavitud era allí altamente rentable hasta la década de 1780 en que el descenso en la producción de oro disminuye la rentabilidad y obliga a reajustes por parte de los esclavistas.

  15. Nuevas investigaciones sobre la acción anticonvulsivante de la Cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gutiérrez-Noriega

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. La cocaína inhibe la acción convulsivante de la estricnina y disminuye considerablemente la mortalidad originada por dosis letales máximas de este alcaloide. 2. También la cocaína disminuye la intensidad del ataque estrícnico, aumenta el período de latencia de las convulsiones y el tiempo de supervivencia. 3. A dosis iguales el efecto anticonvulsivante de la cocaína es muy superior al efecto anticonvulsivante del fenobarbital (observaciones en ratas . 4. En animales que han recibido una dosis letal máxima de estricnina (D. L. 100, se observó que mientras el efecto protector sobre la vida llega a su óptimo a la dosis de 40 mgrs. x Kgr., con la cocaína, dicho óptimo requiere dosis muy superiores de fenobarbital. 5. A dosis iguales, la cocaína disminuye la mortalidad de los animales intoxicados con estricnina principalmente porque impide la aparición de las convulsiones, mientras que el fenobarbital disminuye la mortalidad principalmente porque debilita la intensidad de las mismas. 6. No se observó sinergismo de las acciones anticonvulsivantes de la cocaína y del fenobarbital; por el contrario, el fenobarbital antagoniza la acción anticonvulsivante de la cocaína y su efecto antiletal. 7. Se discute el mecanismo de la acción anticonvulsivante de la cocaína. Las observaciones realizadas indican que la cocaína impide las convulsiones estrícnicas excitando el sistema nervioso.

  16. Observaciones en enfermos mentales habituados a la coca

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Noriega, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Estudio en seis enfermos mentales habituados a la coca. En sólo un caso encuentra relación entre el cocaísmo y la alteración mental. Lo más frecuente son las alucinaciones, ideas delirantes de persecución y alteraciones cenestésicas. En todos los casos hubo bradicardia e hipotensión arterial. El metabolismo basal disminuye durante la abstinencia.

  17. Pericarditis tuberculosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Echeverri

    2014-12-01

    La pericarditis tuberculosa puede considerarse como una manifestación infrecuente de la tuberculosis, con una morbilidad elevada y una mortalidad considerable, cuya probabilidad disminuye si hay un diagnóstico oportuno y se instaura un tratamiento efectivo temprano. Aunque se han sugerido varios criterios diagnósticos para la pericarditis tuberculosa, su diagnóstico definitivo puede implicar varios desafíos técnicos.

  18. Efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento refrigerado sobre la calidad del queso Oaxaca (M??xico) elaborado con leche cruda y estudio taxon??mico y tecnol??gico de su microflora ??cido-l??ctica

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    250 p. El presente trabajo analiza en qu?? medida disminuye la calidad del queso de Oaxaca como consecuencia de las condiciones de almacenamiento usualmente empleadas en el mercado regional (envasados al vac??o y a temperaturas de refrigeraci??n entre 8-10??C) sobre diversas caracter??sticas microbiol??gicas, qu??micas y sobre las principales propiedades funcionales y sensoriales del queso tradicional Oaxaca elaborado con leche cruda. El fin ??ltimo es conocer los factores limitantes de la...

  19. Trichinellosis una zoonosis vigente

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    .- En la presente revisión presentamos una panorámica de la Trichinellosis enfermedad parasitaria cosmopolita y de distribución mundial que afecta prácticamente a todos los mamíferos que su gravedad depende de la carga parasitaria, pero en sus huéspedes aunque no les cause la muerte si disminuye su calidad de vida que desafortunadamente, sigue siendo vigente en este nuevo siglo XXI.

  20. NGC 6826: A UNIFIED STUDY OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA AND ITS CENTRAL STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fierro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una metodología de trabajo para obtener un modelo estelar-nebular autoconsistente. Determinamos la distancia usando las trazas evolutivas teóricas de estrellas centrales de nebulosas planetarias. Se aplicó esta metodología a la nebulosa planetaria galáctica NGC 6826. El modelo unificado requiere más trabajo pero disminuye las incertidumbres debido al mayor número de restricciones observacionales.

  1. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  2. Evolución del consumo del tabaco, alcohol y drogas entre adolescentes en la última década y relación con el apoyo familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Pulido, Idoa

    2012-01-01

    [ES] Estudio descriptivo transversal de asociación cruzada, para conocer cambios del consumo cuantitativo, cualitativo de drogas y relación familiar, en adolescentes jienenses, 1997-2010.1493 encuestas. Edad media 14,2 años. 50% chicos/chicas. Aumentan adolescentes que no consumen drogas. El consumo de cualquier sustancia implica mayor riesgo de consumir otras. Alcohol la más consumida, descendiendo desde 1997. El consumo diario disminuye. Aumentando la cantidad y las copas. ...

  3. Trichinellosis una zoonosis vigente

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Gabriela Chávez Guajardo; M.V.Z Sergio Saldivar Elías; José Jesús Muñoz Escobedo; Dra. en C. María Alejandra Moreno García

    2006-01-01

    .- En la presente revisión presentamos una panorámica de la Trichinellosis enfermedad parasitaria cosmopolita y de distribución mundial que afecta prácticamente a todos los mamíferos que su gravedad depende de la carga parasitaria, pero en sus huéspedes aunque no les cause la muerte si disminuye su calidad de vida que desafortunadamente, sigue siendo vigente en este nuevo siglo XXI.

  4. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  5. GIST gástrico: revisión de la literatura a propósito de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V Blanco-Echezuría

    2010-08-01

    La sintomatología depende de la localización del proceso neoproliferativo, hallándose con mayor frecuencia en el estómago (60-70%. La supervivencia tras citorreducción R0 a 5 años es de 40% a 65%, con recurrencia del 20%; sin embargo, disminuye a 9-12 meses si la reducción fue incompleta.

  6. La rentabilidad de la esclavitud en el Choco, 1680 -1810

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    William F. Sharp

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de diferente datos estadísticos relacionados con los costos y producción de las cuadrillas de negros en el Chocó se muestra como la esclavitud era allí altamente rentable hasta la década de 1780 en que el descenso en la producción de oro disminuye la rentabilidad y obliga a reajustes por parte de los esclavistas. 

  7. Cambios físicos que afectan la sexualidad en la vejez.

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    Thomas Mulligan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Las personas pueden tener una sexualidad activa en la vejez. Aquí se describen los cambios por envejecimiento que influyen sobre el sexo. En el hombre hay una disminución de la libido y de la rigidez del pene, aumento del estímulo peneano directo para alcanzar la erección, disminuye la fuerza expulsiva eyaculatoria, y se prolonga el período refractario. Sin embargo, la urgencia eyaculatoria disminuye, lo que protege de eyaculación precoz y facilita un coito prolongado. El exceso de alcohol y las enfermedades como hipertensión, diabetes y déficit de vitamina B12 afectan la sensibilidad peneana. La enfermedad vascular es la primera causa de disfunción eréctil, e incluye la enfermedad arterial oclusiva y el escape venoso peneano. En la mujer la libido disminuye por factores múltiples; si no hay reemplazo hormonal la menopausia produce cambios involutivos en los órganos urogenitales, como atrofia vaginal y disminución de la lubricación, esto es menor en las mujeres sexualmente activas. La capacidad sexual y la sensación en el clítoris permanecen intactas; el orgasmo permanece hasta edad muy avanzada pero es menos explosivo.

  8. Shock wave lithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy for lower pole renal stones?

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    Alejandro Rojas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las alternativas terapéuticas disponibles para el tratamiento de la litiasis renal de polo inferior se encuentran la litotricia extracorpórea, la nefrolitotomía percutánea y la cirugía intrarrenal retrógrada. Existe controversia sobre cuál de estas técnicas es más efectiva, sobre todo en cálculos menores de 20 milímetros. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cuál es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 19 estudios. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. La nefrolitotomía percutánea probablemente aumenta la tasa libre de cálculos, pero no es claro si disminuye la necesidad de retratamiento comparada con la litotricia extracorpórea. En comparación con cirugía intrarrenal retrógrada podría aumentar la tasa libre de cálculos, pero no es claro si disminuye la necesidad de retratamiento. La cirugía intrarrenal retrógrada podría aumentar la tasa libre de cálculos, y probablemente disminuye la necesidad de retratamiento, comparada con la litotricia extracorpórea.

  9. Concentrações plasmáticas de triptamina, tiramina e feniletilamina em eqüinos sob efeitos de sobrecarga de carboidratos e antiinflamatórios não esteroidais Plasmatic concentrations of tryptamine, tyramine end phenylethylamine in horses under the effect of carbohydrate overload and non-steroid antinflammatory compounds

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    Paulo Tarso L. Botteon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As concentrações plasmáticas das aminas triptamina (TRP, tyramina (TYR e pheniletilamina (PEA foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa (CG de 20 eqüinos sob efeito de sobrecarga por carboidratos (SC. Após 36h da SC os animais foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos (n=5 e receberam a cada 12h por via iv: solução salina 10mL (GC, ketoprofeno 2,2mg/kg (GK, fenilbutazona 4,4mg/kg (GF e flunixin meglumine 1,1mg/kg (GFM. As concentrações das aminas TYR e PEA variaram de 0,18 a 164,2mg/L, com diferenças nos tempos avaliados, mas não entre os tratamentos (pThe concentrations of the bioactives amines tryptamine (TRP, tyramine (TYR and phenylethylamine (PEA were determined by gas chromatography in plasma samples of 20 horses submitted to carbohydrate overload. Thirty hours after the overload, the horses were randomly distributed in four groups (n=5 and were submitted to four IV treatments every 12 hours: 10ml of saline (GC, ketoprofen 2.2mg/kg (GK, phenylbutazone 4.4mg/kg (GF, and flunixin meglumine 1.1mg/kg (GFM. Blood samples were collected at various times after the overload (0-72 h. Plasma TYR and PEA concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 164.2mg/L, and differed significantly with time (p<0.01, but did not differ in the treatments. Plasma concentrations of TRP differed between times and treatments. The GC was significantly major than other treatments at 48h and 60h after the overload, and the plasma concentration of TRP in groups GK and GFM was significantly lower than in groups GF and GC at 72 h (p=0.0012. We concluded that the anti-inflammatory drugs evaluated do not interfere in the plasma concentration of TYP and PEA. For TRP, ketoprofen and flunixin meglumine was effective to reduce de plasmatic concentration of this amine.

  10. Pain sensitivity and healing of hot-iron cattle brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Mintline, E M; Banuelos, J; Walker, K A; Hoar, B; Varga, A; Drake, D; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Hot-iron branding is painful for cattle, but little is known about the duration of or effective methods to control this pain. This work quantified pain sensitivity and healing in branded and unbranded animals. In addition, the effects of a single injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) were also considered; this has been suggested as practical method of mitigating pain in the hours after the procedure. Calves (mean±SE, 126±2.2 d and 112±2.8 kg) were hot-iron branded and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments: branded with or without flunixin meglumine (intravenous; 1.1 mg/kg) and unbranded with or without this NSAID (n=12/treatment). Pain sensitivity was assessed by applying a known and increasing force with a von Frey anesthesiometer in the center of the brand (or equivalent area in nonbranded treatments) until animals showed a behavioral response. Healing was measured with a 6-point scale (1=fresh brand and 6=no scabbing and fully repigmented). These measures, along with weight gain and surface temperature, were recorded 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 71 d after branding. Lying behavior was recorded with loggers from the day before to d 27 after branding. Brand wounds were more painful than nonbranded tissue (Pbranding (e.g., d 7; 113±36 g of force for Brand vs. 449±23 g force for No brand, mean±SE) but persisted until d 71 (380±37 g force for Brand vs. 453±23 g of force for No brand, mean±SE); only 67% of brands were fully regimented or healed by this time. The first fully healed brand was identified 8 wk after the procedure. Giving a single injection of flunixin had no brand-specific effects on sensitivity, surface temperature, or healing but improved weight gain in the days after branding in all treated groups (flunixin×brand×day, Pbranding but tended to spend more time lying on d 15 and 26 after the procedure. The magnitude of these differences is small, less than the day-to-day variation, and not brand specific. In summary, brand

  11. Medida do volume da úlcera cutânea na leishmaniosetegumentar

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    Dalmo Correia

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A medida dos diâmetros longitudinal e transverso de uma lesão ulcerada na leishmaniose tegumentar não reflete a profundidade, a qual também tem importância na avaliação da cura. A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar o volume da úlcera leishmaniõtica, através da moldagem seriada, antes e após o tratamento. A moldagem da cavidade, apôs assepsia local com água e sabão, foi feita com material plástico gelatinoso ã base de sílica, alginato de potássio, sulfato de cálcio e óxido de magnésio, comercializado sob o nome de jeltrate® (Dentsply Laboratory. Dissolveu-se 9,5g de jeltrate® em 20ml de água e aplicou-se o gel sobre a úlcera, o qual se solidificou em cinco minutos. Este molde foi então preenchido com acrílico autopolimerizante e o seu volume mensurado através do peso, usando-se balança analítica (Técnica 1 ou através do deslocamento da água, aplicando o princípio de Arquimedes (Técnica 2. Mostramos os dados de um estudo i-ealizado numa área de transmissão de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis onde 20 pacientes foram tratados com três diferentes esquemas: sete pacientes receberam isotianato depentamidina, sete receberam sulfato de aminosidine e seis antimoniato de meglumina. Os resultados mostram em todos os pacientes redução uniforme do volume das úlceras melhor avaliada por qualquer uvta das duas técnicas utilizadas. Em relação aos esquemas terapêuticos houve diferença estatística significante entre os três esquemas usando o teste T de student, o qual mostrou que o sulfato de aminosidine produziu maior redução de volume que os outros compostos. Moldagens seriadas são registros permanentes e refletem melhor a cura clínica. Concluímos que a medida da lesão ulcerada é útil na avaliação terapêutica como procedimento prático, barato e que pode ser utilizado em estudos de campo.

  12. Mefloquina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea em uma área endêmica de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da mefloquina numa região endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, considerando que esta droga de administração oral, eficaz no tratamento da malária, com meia vida prolongada e efeitos colaterais pouco freqüentes poderia ser menos tóxica e de mais fácil administração, quando comparada com os antimoniais pentavalentes. Em Corte de Pedra, no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia, foram tratados, aleatoriamente, dez pacientes portadores de lesões leishmanióticas, subdivididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo recebeu mefloquina pela via oral, dose de 250mg/dia, durante seis dias, repetindo-se o mesmo esquema após intervalo de três semanas. O segundo grupo recebeu antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® diariamente, pela via endovenosa, na dose de 20mg/kg por 20 dias. Do grupo da mefloquina só um paciente apresentou cicatrização depois do segundo ciclo. Um desses, com quatro lesões apresentou nova lesão durante o primeiro ciclo de tratamento. A evolução dos outros três foi lenta sendo que em nove semanas nenhum deles tinha cicatrizado as úlceras que permaneciam com grande infiltração e sinais evidentes de atividade. O grupo tratado com Glucantime® apresentou evidente melhora.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®, 20mg/kg daily administered

  13. 氟尼辛葡甲胺在猪病防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗显阳

    2015-01-01

    非甾体类抗炎药(Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs,NSAIDs)是一类具有解热、消炎、止痛等功效的药物,广泛用于控制感染和非感染性的炎症和疼痛。在众多的NSAIDs中,氯尼辛葡甲胺(Flunixin Meglumine,简称FM)是唯一动物专用的,英国兽药典、美国药典均已收录,我国农业部也已批准其为国家三类新兽药。

  14. The use of analgesic drugs by South African veterinarians : continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available According to a survey, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were the most popular analgesic used in South Africa for management of peri-operative pain, acute post-operative pain and chronic pain. The most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone. The most popular opioid type drug is buprenorphine, followed by morphine. In the peri-operative setting, analgesic agents were not actively administered to 86.3 % of cats and 80.7 % of dogs. Analgesic premedications were frequently administered, e.g. xylazine or ketamine, but no specific drug was administered for post-operative pain. Veterinarians need to critically review their anaesthetic and analgesic practices in order to achieve balanced anaesthesia.

  15. 动物专用解热镇痛抗炎新药——氟尼辛葡甲胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢小春

    2006-01-01

    氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine)是一种有效的非麻醉、非类固醇类的止痛剂,最早由Doran;Henry等人于1996年研制生产,美国先灵葆雅公司将其做成注射液(商品名为Baaamine),用于动物疾病的治疗。由于其疗效好、毒性低.在欧美等国家应用广泛,并于2004年10月被FDA批准用于产乳期奶牛,目前,该药在我国兽医临床应用较少.故对该药做一介绍。

  16. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  17. 氟尼辛葡甲胺注射液与氟苯尼考注射液联用对人工感染猪巴氏杆菌的治疗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世江; 张克云; 张彬; 禚瑞华; 禚宝山

    2007-01-01

    氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine)是一种有效的非麻醉、非类固醇类的解热镇痛剂,通过抑制环氧酶的活性从而阻止前列腺素的合成.减少炎性病变介质的繁殖来发挥抗炎作用。最早由Doran等于1996年研制生产(U.S.PNO.5484931),美国先灵葆亚公司将其做成注射液,用于马跛行和关节肿胀、牛呼吸道疾病感染等动物疾病的治疗。

  18. 一种动物专用解热镇痛抗炎药--氟尼辛葡甲胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红娟; 李世江; 禚瑞华

    2005-01-01

    @@ 氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine)是一种有效的非麻醉、非类固醇类的止痛剂(NSAID'S),最早由Doran;Henry等人于1996年研制生产(U.S.P NO.5484931),美国先灵葆雅公司将其做成注射液 (商品名为Banamine),用于动物疾病的治疗.由于其疗效好、毒性低,在欧美等国家应用广泛,并于2004年10月被FDA批准用于产乳期奶牛.本文简要介绍一下该药.

  19. Modulatory effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the luminol and lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence of equine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbarek, H; Ayad, A; Deby-Dupont, G; Boukraa, L; Serteyn, D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the potential modulation of equine neutrophil oxidative burst by a series of classical NSAIDs which was subsequently monitored by the luminol or lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) technique. A significant dose-dependent inhibition of the luminol CL was observed with the majority of investigated drugs. This inhibition was very significant for phenylbutazone and Indomethacin; while for aspirin, a higher concentration is required. The action of Ketoprofen was significant during the first 5 min and only when the concentration was above 1 mM. Indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid result in an inhibition dose-dependent of luminol CL. On the other hand, the phenylbutazone showed an inhibiting effect when used either luminol or lucigenin though luminol is slightly better. When the ketoprofen is considered, an inhibiting effect of luminal CL was observed but less significant than the other NSAIDs investigated. The flunixin meglumine enhances strongly the CL.

  20. The effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the equine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J F; Blikslager, A T

    2011-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in the management of pain and endotoxaemia associated with colic in the horse. While NSAIDs effectively treat the symptoms of colic, there is evidence to suggest that their administration is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects including right dorsal colitis and inhibition of mucosal barrier healing. Several studies have examined the pathophysiology of NSAID associated effects on the large and small intestine in an effort to avoid these complications and identify effective alternative medications. Differences in the response of the large and small intestines to injury and NSAID treatment have been identified. Flunixin meglumine has been shown in the small intestine to inhibit barrier function recovery and increase permeability to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A range of NSAIDs has been examined in the small intestine and experimental evidence suggests that those NSAIDs with cyclooxygenase independent anti-inflammatory effects or a COX-2 selective mode of action may offer significant advantages over traditional NSAIDs.

  1. Stimulatory effect of PGF2α on PRL based on experimental inhibition of each hormone in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Rodriguez, M B; Duarte, L F; Beg, M A

    2012-12-01

    During the luteolytic period in mares, the peak of 65% of pulses of a PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) and the peak of a pulse of PRL have been reported to occur at the same hour. It is unknown whether the synchrony reflects an effect of PGF2α on PRL or vice versa. Controls, a flunixin meglumine (FM)-treated group (to inhibit PGF2α), and a bromocriptine-treated group (to inhibit PRL), were used at 14 days postovulation in June and in September (n = 6 mares/group/mo). Blood samples were collected hourly from just before treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 10. Concentrations of PGFM in the FM group were lower (P PRL in June were lower (P PRL averaged over groups was lower (P PRL concentrations in mares represents an effect of PGF2α on PRL rather than an effect of PRL on PGF2α.

  2. Pulmonary Abscess In An Adult Horse: Report Case

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    Julio Enrique Gutiérrez Boada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Abscess is the consequence of an inflammatory process delimitation on the lung, this illness is more common in young horses. On February 25 of 2006, was received at Large Animal Clinic of the National University of Colombia, a male horse, who was 5 years old, with the following symptoms: chronic cough, epistaxis, weight loss, jaundice and inflammation of limbs. The clinic exam found that the patient had a Pulmonary Abscess; for that reason it was started with antibiotic therapy (Rifampicina and Sulfa Trimetoprim and AINES (Flunixin Meglumine. During that period of time the patient showed different alterations in other systems (Diarrhea, Laminitis and Phlebitis which were treated and solved, before the patient leave de clinic.

  3. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  4. A multiresidue liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method for the detection and quantitation of 15 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in bovine meat and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pamel, Els; Daeseleire, Els

    2015-06-01

    This study concerns a validated liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multiresidue method for the simultaneous detection, identification, and quantitation of 15 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in bovine meat and milk. The NSAIDs considered are carprofen, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, flunixin (5-hydroxyflunixin as marker metabolite in milk), ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (marker metabolite of metamizole in meat and milk), naproxen, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone (and metabolite oxyphenbutazone), ramifenazone, salicylic acid, and tolfenamic acid. These compounds were chosen as representatives of different chemical subclasses of NSAIDs. Flunixin-d3, diclofenac-d4, 4-aminoantipyrine-d3, and phenylbutazone-d10 were used as internal standards. Performance characteristics were validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC (Off J Eur Communities, L221: 8-36). Recovery percentages varied between 81 and 114% for bovine meat and between 79 and 118% for milk. Repeatability percentages were within the range of 1-12% for meat and between 1 and 17% for milk, whereas the intralaboratory reproducibility varied between 3 and 19% for meat and between 3 and 23% for milk. The decision limit and the detection capability for bovine meat were within the range of 0.5-579 μg kg(-1)and 0.6-642 μg kg(-1), respectively. Those for milk were within the range of 0.12-55 μg kg(-1) and 0.14-61 μg kg(-1), respectively. The methods developed were successfully applied for proficiency test samples and routine samples analyzed in the laboratory. The methodology concerns fast, user-friendly, and sensitive methods, which can be easily extended for other compounds and matrices. In general, such multiresidue methods contribute to the reduction of human exposure to these veterinary drug residues by consumption of contaminated bovine-derived products such as meat and milk.

  5. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dalla Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19 received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21 received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C. These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS scores and horse grimace scale (HGS scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules.

  6. Role of prostaglandins in development of porcine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisert, R D; Rasby, R J; Minton, J E; Wetteman, R P

    1986-02-01

    Rapid elongation of porcine blastocysts between Days 11 to 12 of pregnancy coincides with an increase in uterine luminal content of prostaglandins. The present study evaluated the effect of two prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin and flunixin meglumine) on elongation of porcine blastocysts from spherical to filamentous forms between Day 11 to 12 of pregnancy. Gilts were hemi-hysterectomized on Day 11 of pregnancy. The excised uterine horn was flushed with 0.9% saline and diameter of blastocysts recovered were measured. Immediately following surgery, pregnant gilts were assigned to receive either: 1) vehicle every 4 h, 2) flunixin meglumine (banamine) every 4 h, or 3) indomethacin every 12 h. The remaining uterine horn was removed and flushed after the time of blastocyst elongation estimated for each gilt on basis of blastocyst development in the first horn. Uterine flushings were analyzed for total calcium, protein, acid phosphatase activity, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and prostaglandin F. Pretreatment blastocyst diameter was similar for all groups and ranged from 1 mm to 20 mm. Treatment of gilts with either banamine or indomethacin effectively inhibited (P less than 0.001) the increase in uterine luminal content of PGF. Total calcium, estrone and estradiol-17 beta were not influenced by treatment. Total uterine luminal protein and acid phosphatase activity were reduced (P less than 0.05) in banamine treated gilts compared to those receiving vehicle or indomethacin treatments. Although total PGF recovered in uterine flushings was reduced during the period of blastocyst elongation, treatment with PGF synthetase inhibitors failed to block rapid elongation of blastocysts from the spherical to filamentous forms.

  7. Comparación del funcionamiento mecánico, termodinámico y ambiental de motores operando con gasolina y gas natural de La Guajira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados experimentales del funcionamiento mecánico y ambiental de un motor Toyota Hilux 2.400 cm3. con relación de compresión 9:1 y el diagnóstico termodinámico de un motor de ensayos normalizado de relación de compresión variable ASTM-CFR monocilíndrico, operando con gasolina y gas natural de La Guajira. Al usar gas natural en el motor Toyota se observó que para mantener la misma potencia se produce un incremento del consumo específico de combustible cercano al 20%, sin embargo el costo específico (pesos/galón equivalente está cercano al 50% a su favor. El rendimiento volumétrico mejoró alrededor del 10% respecto a la gasolina. Las emisiones de CO disminuyeron alrededor del 40%. Al hacer la comparación en términos termodinámicos en el motor CFR para una relación de compresión de 9:1, se observó que al usar gas natural de La Guajira, la potencia indicada disminuyó en 12,5%, la presión máxima de combustión disminuyó alrededor del 17%, lo que implica disminución proporcional en la temperatura instantánea cercana al 20% para las mejores condiciones de operación del motor. El coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor disminuyó alrededor del 28%. La primera fase de la combustión se duplica respecto a la gasolina al mantener el mismo ángulo de avance de chispa. Al usar un avance 15º por encima del establecido para gasolina, esta fase se hace similar.

  8. Biodiesel. Una revisión del desempeño mecánico y ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Agudelo S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de investigaciones relevantes relacionadas con el desempeño mecánico y ambiental de motores diesel, utilizando diversos combustibles, entre ellos el diesel convencional y alquilésteres obtenidos de aceites vegetales (biodiesel. Aunque las tendencias observadas dependen fuertemente del tipo de aceite del que provienen los alquilésteres, se puede concluir que a medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de biodiesel en las mezclas biodiesel–diesel disminuye la potencia y aumenta el consumo de combustible. También disminuyen el CO, Hc, material particulado, hollín y la opacidad de humos. De otro lado, los Nox aumentan o disminuyen dependiendo de la afinación del motor. La potencia disminuye entre 2 y 10% para B30 y B100 respectivamente. El consumo de combustible aumenta entre 10 y 24%, para el biodiesel y sus mezclas, debido al menor poder calorífico del biocombustible comparado con el del diesel convencional. Las emisiones de CO diminuyen de 10 a 50%, hc 12 a 55%, con B30 y B100 respectivamente. La opacidad de humos disminuye entre 0 y 30% y los Sox entre 20 y 100%, debido al escaso contenido de azufre del biodiesel. La reducción «global» de CO2 es de 16 a 78,4% para B20 y B100 respectivamente. La ventaja medioambiental de tipo global del biodiesel es el cierre del ciclo de vida del CO2 (emisión nula, pues las plantas oleaginosas por medio del proceso de fotosíntesis toman este gas y lo transforman en oxígeno.

  9. Antibióticos vs. resistencia bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-01-01

    La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud mundial que se encuentra en constante evolución. De manera frecuente se reportan nuevos mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos, tanto en bacterias gram negativas como en gram positivas. La presencia de resistencia en una bacteria causante de infección disminuye las posibilidades de obtener la curación clínica y la erradicación bacteriológica e incrementa los costos del tratamiento, la morbilidad y la mortali...

  10. Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico a paciente con cansancio y riesgo cardiovascular importante

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Mauricio Bonilla; Ramírez, Victoria Hall; Morúa, María Soledad Quesada

    2013-01-01

    Paciente masculino de sesenta años con historial de infarto agudo al miocardio, con hipertrigliceridemia, LDL elevado, HDL disminuido y un 37,2% de riesgo de presentar enfermedad cardiovascular en los próximos diez años. Padece otras enfermedades concomitantes, incluido un cansancio importante que no disminuye con tratamiento farmacológico; cumple adecuadamente sus tratamientos y no fuma, pero nunca hace ejercicio.Se realizó una intervención oral para optimizar la terapia para tratar el cansa...

  11. Osteomalacia oncogénica: Presentación de dos casos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Jerkovich

    2015-01-01

    La osteomalacia oncogénica es una enfermedad rara. Existen descriptos alrededor de 337 casos. Es ocasionada por un tumor productor del factor de crecimiento fibroblástico 23 (FGF-23), hormona que disminuye la reabsorción tubular de fosfatos y altera la hidroxilación renal de la vitamina D, con hipofosfatemia, hiperfosfaturia y niveles bajos de calcitriol. Se presentan dos pacientes de 44 y 70 años, que consultaron por dolores óseos generalizados de aproximadamente un año de evolución en los q...

  12. Perfil de prescripción de nutrición parenteral en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer: período 2006 a 2010 Profile of parenteral nutrition prescription in very low birth weight infants: period 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    P Gomis Muñoz; G. Bustos Lozano; J. Becerril Morancos; C.M. Fernández-Llamazares; C. R. Pallás Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Un aporte precoz de nutrientes en las cantidades adecuadas es de vital importancia para los recién nacidos prematuros ya que disminuye el tiempo en alcanzar el peso esperado y en tolerar por vía enteral, disminuyendo la estancia hospitalaria El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar la prescripción de nutrición parenteral (NP) de pacientes con menos de 1.500 g al nacimiento en los primeros 7 días de vida durante los años 2006-2010 en nuestro hospital y la adecuación de d...

  13. Procedimiento de identificación de compuestos antitumorales inhibidores de la dimerización de la proteinas ERK

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Procedimiento de identificación de compuestos antitumorales inhibidores de la dimerización de las proteínas ERK. La presente invención describe un procedimiento para identificar y evaluar compuestos antitumorales. El procedimiento se basa en la búsqueda de compuestos inhibidores de la dimerización de las proteínas ERK. La inhibición de dicho proceso disminuye la malignización, proliferación y progresión tumoral.

  14. NORMAS DE PROFILAXIS ANTIBIÓTICA EN PROCEDIMIENTOS OBSTÉTRICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas P,Hugo; Preisler R,Jessica; Aleuanlli A,Cristina; Ide V.,Rodolfo; Erazo B,Marcia; Carmona G,Sergio; Erlij O,Daniel; Sepúlveda R,Paulina

    2006-01-01

    La terapia antibiótica profiláctica en los actos quirúrgicos es una práctica común y aceptada por la comunidad médica, por que disminuye la probabilidad de infección quirúrgica y las complicaciones implican. A pesar de la frecuencia de uso y las normas hospitalarias que lo regulan, es posible observar la falta de seguimiento de éstas por parte del personal médico, quienes ateniéndose a conocimientos personales, al seguimiento de normas de otro origen o simplemente al desconocimiento de ellas,...

  15. Violencia del crimen organizado relacionada a los sectores económicos en México. Una propuesta de categorización

    OpenAIRE

    María Vanessa Romero Ortiz; Jorge Loza López; Felipe Machorro Ramos

    2013-01-01

    La violencia ocasionada por el crimen organizado se ha constituido como uno de los principales problemas en México en los últimos años; adicionalmente a las pérdidas humanas que ocasiona, afecta a las actividades económicas, lo cual disminuye la calidad de vida de la población. En el presente documento se presenta una clasificación de las conductas violentas que el crimen organizado realiza y que afectan a los sectores económicos en México, la cual se elaboró mediante un análisis de contenido...

  16. EFECTO DEL TELURITO SOBRE EL METABOLISMO DEL ACETOGLUTARATO Y OTROS METABOLITOS DEL CICLO DE KREBS EN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El telurito es tóxico para la mayoría de los organismos debido a su capacidad para generar estrés oxidativo. En E. coli la exposición a este tóxico provoca un aumento en la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) intracelulares, particularmente de radical superóxido. En estas condiciones se observó que la actividad de enzimas del ciclo de Krebs sensibles a ROS, específicamente aconitasa y fumarasa, disminuye. Dado que el a-cetoglutarato (a-KG) puede descarboxilarse no enzimáti...

  17. Obesidad materna y riesgo de parto prematuro

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal C,Jorge; Vera P-G.,Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Importancia: El parto prematuro es la principal causa de mortalidad, morbilidad y discapacidad a largo plazo en el período infantil, y estos riesgos aumentan a medida que disminuye la edad gestacional. La obesidad aumenta el riesgo de parto prematuro, pero la asociación entre el sobrepeso y la obesidad y subtipos de parto prematuro no son claras. Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) al comienzo del embarazo temprano y el riesgo de parto prematuro por edad ge...

  18. Análisis económico del sistema de pensiones y asistencia social en México

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Fócil, Ana Bertha

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad es de gran relevancia el estudio de los sistemas de pensiones, debido a que la población en etapa de vejez crece rápidamente, al mismo tiempo que la población económicamente activa disminuye. Aunque diversos países han realizado reformas a sus sistemas de pensiones para dotarlos de mayor sostenibilidad financiera, esto no ha tenido un impacto favorable en la cobertura. Por otra parte, el empleo informal ocasiona que no sea significativa la población que cotiza para una pensió...

  19. Viaje alrededor del sistema-mundo

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Al iniciar el recorrido, Wallerstein sostiene dos tesis principales: que la historia está abierta, y que vivimos una etapa en que el determinismo disminuye. En un caso enfrenta las tesis de una historia clausurada, en otro, la de un futuro sin alternativas. Ni es el ?n de la historia ni vivimos en el mejor de los mundos posibles. La investigación y la acción tienen que explorar en los terrenos macro y micro de la política, la economía, la cultura y la sociedad y descubrir cómo se abre y cierr...

  20. Estrategias para el control de Phytophthora capsici Leo. y Fusarium solani Mart. en el cultivo del chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Juárez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani son los principales agentes causales de la marchitez del chile que disminuye el rendimiento del cultivo, lo cual ha originado la sustitución de cultivos y abandono de tierras. Con el fin de coadyuvar al manejo de esta enfermedad en el presente trabajo se evaluaron 51 accesiones de chile (árbol, copi y soledad) para buscar fuentes de resistencia; se probó metalaxyl, fosetil aluminio y tiabendazol para evaluar la sensibilidad de un aislami...

  1. La Nocturna : estudio de la eleccion educativa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dueñas Herrera, Ximena

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio utiliza información de la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida realizada en Colombia durante 2003 para examinar si el estrato de servicio eléctrico (como proxy del estrato socioeconómico) predice la decisión del tipo de institución y sesión escolar al que asisten los estudiantes. En el modelo de elección por tipo de institución, universidades privadas vs públicas, encuentro que conforme aumenta el estrato del servicio eléctrico, disminuye la probabilidad marginal de registro en una univer...

  2. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm) en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham), ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida ...

  3. Una nueva acción farmacológica de la cocaína la acción anticonvulsivante

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gutiérrez-Noriega; V. Zapata Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Se han estudiado los efectos de la cocaína sobre el sistema nervioso central en relación a otros neuroestimulantes. Los resultados son los siguientes : 1. La cocaína a dosis subconvulsivantes actúa como antagonista del cardíazol a dosis convulsivante. Se demostró que en los ratones y conejillos disminuye la frecuencia de las convulsiones cardiazólicas y de otras reacciones originadas por la acción estimulante del cardiazol sobre el sistema nervioso central. También se observó que la cocaína d...

  4. Estrategias para el control de Phytophthora capsici Leo. y Fusarium solani Mart. en el cultivo del chile (Capsicum annuum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Juárez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani son los principales agentes causales de la marchitez del chile que disminuye el rendimiento del cultivo, lo cual ha originado la sustitución de cultivos y abandono de tierras. Con el fin de coadyuvar al manejo de esta enfermedad en el presente trabajo se evaluaron 51 accesiones de chile (árbol, copi y soledad) para buscar fuentes de resistencia; se probó metalaxyl, fosetil aluminio y tiabendazol para evaluar la sensibilidad de un aislami...

  5. La Electromiografía (EMG) como método de valoración de la Fatiga Muscular.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Gómez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Fatiga es un término ampliamente utilizado que puede referirse a diversos significados y dominios. La fatiga muscular es un síntoma común que se experimenta en muchas enfermedades y se trata de una respuesta normal al esfuerzo físico o estrés, pero también puede ser un signo de un desorden físico. En individuos sanos, es una reacción fisiológica a una prolongada e intensa actividad, pero que disminuye con el reposo y no suele afectar a las actividades de la vida diaria. Sin ...

  6. Estudio de la fragmentación en el ADN espermático en pacientes sometidos a técnicas de reproducción asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Esbert Algam, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    La integridad del ADN del espermatozoide es de vital importancia, dado que puede comprometer la viabilidad del embrión. Para cuantificar la fragmentación en el ADN espermático se han desarrollado distintas técnicas, que han servido para relacionar dicha fragmentación con la esterilidad de origen masculino. Teniendo en cuenta que algunos de los individuos estériles van a someterse a técnicas de reproducción asistida, se ha valorado si la fragmentación en el ADN espermático i) disminuye tras pr...

  7. Estudio y diseño del sistema de iluminación de un centro de uso general

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Rodríguez, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    En el Proyecto se realiza el estudio del diseño de un sistema de iluminación pretendiendo: - Mejorar la iluminación - Mejorar la eficiencia energética - Obtener ventajas económicas. La experiencia demuestra que una buena iluminación resulta eficaz a la hora de mejorar la productividad y la calidad. Una buena iluminación disminuye el cansancio visual, disminuyendo los dolores de cabeza, aumenta el confort y la seguridad del trabajador, reduce el índice de errores y estimula al personal. Además...

  8. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; Bravo, L.; Vaquero, M. P.; S. Bastida; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  9. Efectos del D-003 sobre daño endotelial inducido por citrato de sodio en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El D-003 es una mezcla de ácidos grasos alifáticos superiores purificada de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) con efecto hipolipemiante y antiagregante plaquetario, que disminuye las concentraciones plasmáticas de tromboxano B2 y aumenta las de prostaciclina, lo que indirectamente sugiere que el D-003 ejerce un efecto beneficioso sobre el endotelio vascular. Teniendo en cuenta que el número de células endoteliales circulantes en plasma (endotelemia) refleja indirectamente e...

  10. Búsqueda de Biomarcadores Asociados con la Respuesta al Tratamiento con Interferón-beta en Pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple Remitente-Recurrente

    OpenAIRE

    Comabella López, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    El interferón-beta (IFNβ) es un tratamiento parcialmente efectivo en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente (EMRR). Disminuye el número de brotes y reduce la actividad y carga lesional de la enfermedad medidas por resonancia magnética. Sin embargo, el coste del IFNβ es elevado, el tratamiento tiene efectos secundarios y, sobretodo, existe una proporción relativamente importante de pacientes que no responden al mismo. En la actualidad, no disponemos de biomarcadores que se pued...

  11. Respuesta de una pastura de alfalfa al encalado y fertilización con fósforo y molibdeno

    OpenAIRE

    Boschetti, Norma Graciela; Quintero, César Eugenio; Lucca, C; Quinodoz, Juan Enrique

    2000-01-01

    p.105-110 La alfalfa constituye una de las principales plantas forrajeras, sin embargo, presenta serias limitaciones para su crecimiento tanto en suelos ácidos como con bajos niveles de P. En la provincia de Entre Ríos, se han observado aproximadamente un millón y medio de hectáreas con suelos ácidos. En suelos ácidos, la disponibilidad de molibdeno disminuye considerablemente a medida que desciende el pH, afectando principalmente la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. Ante esta problemática ...

  12. La cafeína. Ayuda ergogénica en el campo de la suplementación nutricional deportiva

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Mata, María de las Nieves

    2016-01-01

    La cafeína es una sustancia que se encuentra en numerosas bebidas consumida por el ser humano a diario y es parte de la rutina diaria de numerosos deportistas. Hasta hace poco, no estaba muy claro el efecto beneficiosos que esta sustancia proporcionaba a los deportistas y hoy en día, tras numerosos estudios, se ha demostrado que es una ayuda ergogénica tanto en el ejercicio aeróbico (de larga duración) porque disminuye la percepción de fatiga y mejora el rendimiento deportivo, así como en ...

  13. Ensayo no aleatorizado del tratamiento con acupuntura de la neuralgia del trigémino resistente a tratamiento convencional

    OpenAIRE

    E. Collazo; F. Gómez Armenta

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: valorar la efectividad global de la acupuntura como terapia complementaria en la reducción del dolor crónico en la neuralgia del trigémino resistente a terapias habituales en grupos apareados de pacientes en condiciones de práctica clínica real. Conocer en qué proporción disminuye el consumo de analgésicos en estos pacientes tras un ciclo de acupuntura. Determinar las reacciones adversas debidas a acupuntura. Material y métodos: estudio cuasi-experimental en 57 pacientes ambulatori...

  14. Un modelo econométrico de la demanda de tortilla de maíz en México, 1996-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rogel Fernando Retes Mantilla; Guillermo Torres Sanabria; Samuel Garrido Roldán

    2014-01-01

    Enero-Junio 2014 39 Resumen / Abstract La tortilla de maíz es un alimento funda- mental en la dieta de los mexicanos. Sin embargo, su demanda disminuyó 36.7% de 1996 a 2008. El objetivo de este estu- dio fue identifi car y medir por estratos de ingreso los principales factores económi- cos que afectaron la demanda de este ali- mento en México. Para ello, se estimaron tres modelos uniecuacionales del compor- tamiento de su demanda utilizando datos de ENIGH y Banxico. Los resultados indi- can u...

  15. Caracterización de algunos aspectos fisiológicos y bioquímicos del musgo pleurozium schreberi relacionados con su capacidad de tolerancia a la deshidratación

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Los musgos pueden sobrevivir períodos prolongados de tiempo con contenidos hídricos internos muy bajos. Se estudiaron algunas adaptaciones de tolerancia a la deshidratación del musgo Pleurozium schreberi en la época seca del Páramo de Chingaza – Colombia, y bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico en laboratorio. Se encontró que durante el déficit hídrico se detiene la fotosíntesis y disminuye la respiración a valores cercanos a cero; aumenta el contenido de proteínas totales solubles y la activid...

  16. Malocclusion class III treatment in teething decidua.

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica, Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    According as age increases, growth decreases and Class III skeletal patterns become more stable. The objective of Class III malocclusion’s treatment in primary dentition is to get a favorable environment to achieve a better dentofacial development. This article’s objective is to give a theorical summary about treatment of Class III malocclusions in primary dentition, and to present a case report. A medida que aumenta la edad, la cuantía de crecimiento disminuye y las clases III esquelética...

  17. Efectos de la televisión sobre la actividad física y el rendimiento escolar en niñas escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Barbancho Cisneros, Francisco Javier; Prieto Moreno, Jesús; Tirado Altamirano, Francisco; Hernández Neila, Luis Mariano; Santos Velasco, Jesús; Moreno Méndez, Andrés

    2005-01-01

    Los niños de los países occidentales industrializados dedican más tiempo a ver televisión (TV) que a cualquier otra actividad extraescolar. Numerosas publicaciones internacionales y nacionales evidencian que la TV favorece el sedentarismo y disminuye la actividad física y el trabajo escolar. Este estudio descriptivo y transversal indaga los hábitos televisivos de la población escolar de 10 a 14 años de edad de la ciudad de Plasencia (Extremadura). El método de estud...

  18. La federalización del sector agropecuario. Avances y retos en el caso de Nuevo León

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Ortega Ridaura; José María Infante Bonfiglio; José Juan Cervantes Niño

    2009-01-01

    A pesar de que México es un país federalista, en la práctica ha prevalecido la centralización política, económica y administrativa. La crisis del estado de bienestar en 1982, disminuyó su capacidad de responder a las crecientes demandas ciudadanas. Desde entonces, la Reforma del Estado ha buscado, entre otras, la creciente descentralización de la administración pública federal. Este trabajo muestra los recientes intentos por reforzar el federalismo mexicano, analizando el caso de la federaliz...

  19. Biomarcadores metabólicos y de inflamación en la obesidad canina y felina en enfermedades asociadas

    OpenAIRE

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2012-01-01

    En esta Tesis los principales 5 avances que se aportan sobre obesidad en perros y gatos son: 1) Los ensayos comercialmente disponibles para la adiponectina y la IGF-1 funcionan para estas especies. 2) La adiponectina y IGF-1 no están influenciadas por los ciclos de alimentación/ayuno o por corticoides. La adiponectina no se afecta por orquidectomia, mientras que la IGF-1 baja. La inflamación disminuye la adiponectina y la IGF-1. 3) La adiponectina baja en la obesidad, aunque no se aprecia un ...

  20. Prevención de adherencias peritoneales postoperatorias mediante uso de antagonista de receptores de neurokinina tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-TORRES,CARLOS; UZCÁTEGUI P,ESTRELLA; MILANO M,MELISSE; PLATA-PATIÑO,JOSÉ; NOBOA B,FABIANNE; SHIOZAWA C,NAOAKI

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: La actividad fibrinolítica juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de las adherencias peritoneales (AP), y se conoce que la Sustancia P al actuar sobre receptores de neurokinina tipo 1 a nivel peritoneal, disminuye la fibrinólisis, favoreciendo la formación de las mismas. Objetivos: Evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento intraperitoneal con antagonista de receptores 1 de neurokinina (NK-R1A) en la prevención de AP en modelo animal. Materiales y Métodos: A 40 ratas wistar se ...

  1. Intervención de enfermería para disminuir las complicaciones derivadas de la hospitalización en los ancianos Nursing interventions aimed at reducing complications set in the hospitalisation of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Dolores Canga Armayor; María Jesús Narvaiza Solís

    2006-01-01

    La hospitalización en los ancianos puede llevar a pérdidas de capacidad funcional y sensorial. Pregunta de investigación: ¿Una intervención de enfermería protocolizada en ancianos que ingresan en un hospital de agudos disminuye las complicaciones de la hospitalización? Diseño: Estudio experimental con grupo control (18 casos)/intervención (13 casos) y asignación aleatoria en pacientes mayores de 70 años. Intervención protocolizada. Instrumentos de medida al ingreso y el alta: escala de compor...

  2. Variabilidad genética y susceptibilidad al dolor postoperatorio en CMA tras empleo tramado-paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Hernández, Miguel Vicente

    2016-01-01

    [ES]El dolor agudo postoperatorio es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes en Cirugía Mayor Ambulatoria, constituyendo un problema de considerable incidencia desde el postoperatorio inmediato hasta la recuperación tardía en el domicilio. Se ha demostrado que el mal control del dolor postoperatorio, incrementa la necesidad de personal sanitario y disminuye el flujo de pacientes, aumentando los costes y disminuyendo la eficacia del sistema. El analgésico ideal para la CMA, debería reunir la...

  3. Hábitos saludables y prevención de la osteoporosis en mujeres perimenopáusicas de un ámbito rural

    OpenAIRE

    M. Reyes Pérez-Fernández; Raquel Almazán Ortega; José M. Martínez Portela; M. Teresa Alves Pérez; M. Carmen Segura-Iglesias; Román Pérez-Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: La posibilidad de padecer osteoporosis disminuye, entre otros factores, con un aporte adecuado de vitamina D, dieta equilibrada y aumentando la actividad física. En este estudio evaluamos si una intervención educativa mejora comportamientos relacionados con la prevención de la osteoporosis en mujeres perimenopáusicas de un ámbito rural. Métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado con intervención educativa. Variables: actividad física, ingesta de calcio y exposición solar en mujeres ru...

  4. El amor, una utopía para reconstruir: circundando los discursos amorosos

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A pesar de todo lo que se ha escrito, lo que se ha soñado y lo que se ha esperado de ese sentimiento denominado amor, como tema sigue siendo inextinguible al igual que como ilusión, una de las ilusiones que aporta mayor energía y fuerza para vivir, para ayudar a vivir. Que constituya - de acuerdo con la visión de la autora - una utopía, un mito o una metáfora, no disminuye su valor ni su necesidad, al menos para las personas con el grado de humanidad que poseen hasta este final de siglo.

  5. Utilización de estudios de potencial zeta en el desarrollo de un proceso alternativo de flotación de mineral feldespático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR MANTILLA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental de flotación de feldespato usando mezcla de colectores. La evaluación de la hidrofobicidad de las partículas se realiza mediante la medición del potencial Z de los principales minerales del sistema particulado (Cuarzo-Feldespato Se encuentra que la mezcla de colectores mejora fuertemente la hidrofobicidad del feldespato, mientras que se disminuye la flotabilidad del cuarzo, lo cual está asociado a fuertes cambios del potencial Z.

  6. Indicadores microbiológicos como marcadores de la contaminación y recuperación de suelos contaminados con queroseno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pérez

    2008-01-01

    actividad deshidrogenasa (DH, la respiración basal (RB y la concentración residual de hidrocarburos (THC. El recuento de heterótrofos cultivables (ufcs resultó ser menos efectivo que las variables anteriores para monitorizar el proceso de biorremediación. Tras 2-4 semanas de adaptación, el incremento en la actividad de los microorganismos aumentó la tasa de degradación. A medida que los hidrocarburos disponibles se consumían, la actividad disminuyó y con ella las tasas de degradación.

  7. Sexualidad en el personal de Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Parera, Jorgelina; Suso, Andrea; Santolín, Laura; Salomón, Susana Elsa; Carena, José Alberto

    2011-01-01

    La práctica de profesiones relacionadas con la salud se asocia a agotamiento físico y psicológico capaz de producir alteraciones en el plano de la sexualidad. Mediante una encuesta estructurada y anónima se valoró el grado de satisfacción respecto a la calidad de vida sexual y los factores relacionados con esta en médicos, residentes y enfermeros. El 62% afirmó que desde el inicio de la actividad laboral disminuyó la frecuencia y calidad de las relaciones sexuales, primordialmente en resident...

  8. La Nocturna : estudio de la eleccion educativa en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dueñas Herrera, Ximena

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio utiliza información de la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida realizada en Colombia durante 2003 para examinar si el estrato de servicio eléctrico (como proxy del estrato socioeconómico) predice la decisión del tipo de institución y sesión escolar al que asisten los estudiantes. En el modelo de elección por tipo de institución, universidades privadas vs públicas, encuentro que conforme aumenta el estrato del servicio eléctrico, disminuye la probabilidad marginal de registro en una univer...

  9. Avances en el conocimiento de la diarrea viral

    OpenAIRE

    Mohs-Villalta, Edgar; Faingezicht, Idis; Odio, Carla; Mata, Leonardo

    1981-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), 1981 Hasta la segunda década de este siglo, la diarrea había encabezado las causas de muerte durante el primer año de vida, aún en los países desarrollados; en estas naciones, tal problema y sus complicaciones disminuyó considerablemente al mejorar las condiciones de higiene en el suministro de agua, leche y alimentos en general. Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. Hosp...

  10. Eliminación del plomo por curado casero

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Sánchez Luisa; López-Carrillo Lizbeth; Ríos Camilo

    1999-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el curado ácido como medida preventiva para reducir el contenido de plomo en vasijas de barro vidriadas. Material y métodos. En 27 vasijas de barro procedentes de cuatro estados de México se determinó, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, el nivel de plomo residual, después de cuatro lavados con ácido acético al 3%. Resultados. El contenido de plomo en el ácido acético utilizado para lavar las vasijas disminuyó proporcionalmente con el número de lavados, aunque ...

  11. Eliminación del plomo por curado casero Lead elimination by traditional acidic curing

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Torres-Sánchez; Lizbeth López-Carrillo; Camilo Ríos

    1999-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el curado ácido como medida preventiva para reducir el contenido de plomo en vasijas de barro vidriadas. Material y métodos. En 27 vasijas de barro procedentes de cuatro estados de México se determinó, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, el nivel de plomo residual, después de cuatro lavados con ácido acético al 3%. Resultados. El contenido de plomo en el ácido acético utilizado para lavar las vasijas disminuyó proporcionalmente con el número de lavados, aunque ...

  12. Caracterización por Ardrea de microorganismos acidófilos aislados en minas de oro de Marmato, Colombia Ardrea characterisation of acidophilic micro-organisms isolated from gold mines in Marmato, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio E. Victor Manuel; Márquez F. Edna Judith; Márquez G. Marco

    2007-01-01

    La bio-oxidación de minerales mejora la recuperación de metales valiosos y disminuye el impacto negativo causado por los subproductos de las operaciones mineras, pero las interacciones de los microorganismos involucrados son poco conocidas. Con el objeto de avanzar en el estudio de interacciones microbianas de bacterias acidófilas nativas en cultivos mixtos, en este trabajo se utilizó la siembra en medio sólido doble capa y el análisis de enzimas de restricción del ADN ribosomal amplificado (...

  13. Caracterización por ardrea de microorganismos acidófilos aislados en minas de oro de marmato, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez F., Edna Judith; MÁRQUEZ G., MARCO; Osorio E., Victor Manuel

    2008-01-01

    La bio-oxidación de minerales mejora la recuperación de metales valiosos y disminuye el impacto negativo causado por los subproductos de las operaciones mineras, pero las interacciones de los microorganismos involucrados son poco conocidas. Con el objeto de avanzar en el estudio de interacciones microbianas de bacterias acidófilas nativas en cultivos mixtos, en este trabajo se utilizó la siembra en medio sólido doble capa y el análisis de enzimas de restricción del ADN ribosomal amplificado (...

  14. Efectos de un extracto de uva enriquecido en resveratrol en el perfil aterogénico, inflamatorio y fibrinolítico de pacientes en prevención primaria y secundaria de riesgo cardiovascular. Evidencia en marcadores y expresión genética en dos ensayos clínicos aleatorios de un año.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé Carneiro, João Tiago Estêvão

    2013-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la causa principal de muerte prematura en los países desarrollados. El control de los factores de riesgo disminuye la aparición de estas enfermedades (Prevención Primaria) o su recaída (Prevención Secundaria). Sin embargo, a pesar del uso de tratamientos farmacológicos optimizados, en muchas ocasiones siguen apareciendo eventos adversos debido a un riesgo residual por lo que resulta esencial la búsqueda de estrategias complementarias a estos tratamientos ...

  15. Cómo y cuando el levonorgestrel previene el embarazo cuando se administra como anticonceptivo de emergencia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Maria Elena; Croxatto, Horacio

    2007-01-01

    La anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (AHE) es uno de los pocos recursos que la mujer puede usar para prevenir un embarazo no deseado después de haber tenido una relación sexual en la que no usó método anticonceptivo o el que usó presentó una falla. Actualmente, el método preferido para la AHE es la píldora que contiene solamente levonorgestrel (LNG). Según la OMS, puede prevenir embarazos si se usa hasta 120 horas después del acto sexual, pero su eficacia disminuye drást...

  16. Razonamiento estratégico que promueve el comportamiento persistente: un enfoque experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Carballo, Federico; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Sandoval-Sánchez, Yarima

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo aplicar técnicas experimentales para estudiar el comportamiento estratégico utilizado en los juegos de “esconder y buscar” (Hide & Seek en inglés) como un marco para representar situaciones empresariales más reales y elaboradas. Para promover el pensamiento estratégico y la persistencia, se aplican reiterados juegos coincidentes entre desconocidos, y uno de ellos con una dotación fija (pago inicial que disminuye en cada ronda) con la posibilid...

  17. Razonamiento estratégico que promueve el comportamiento persistente: un enfoque experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Torres-Carballo; Yarima Sandoval-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo aplicar técnicas experimentales para estudiar el comportamiento estratégico utilizado en los juegos de “esconder y buscar” (Hide & Seek en inglés) como un marco para representar situaciones empresariales más reales y elaboradas. Para promover el pensamiento estratégico y la persistencia, se aplican reiterados juegos coincidentes entre desconocidos, y uno de ellos con una dotación fija (pago inicial que disminuye en cada ronda) con la posibilidad d...

  18. Erosión y pérdida de nutrientes en diferentes sistemas agrícolas de una microcuenca en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalía Castelán Vega; Leticia Citlaly López Teloxa; J. Víctor Tamariz Flores; Gladys Linares Fleites; Abel Cruz Montalvo

    2017-01-01

    El suelo es un componente natural de gran importancia en la sostenibilidad de los ecosistemas, su degradación se debe, en la mayoría de los casos, al mal manejo bajo condiciones de ladera, lo que disminuye su productividad y su capacidad para sostener la vida humana. Se evaluó la producción de sedimentos y la pérdida de nutrientes durante el año 2013 en sistemas agrícolas representativos de la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Puebla, México; con el objetivo de ponderar el coeficiente de enriqu...

  19. Catalizadores para la reacción de transferencia de hidrógeno de un alcohol a glicerina para su conversión en propilenglicol

    OpenAIRE

    González Amaya, Jhon Alex

    2013-01-01

    Se exploró la conversión de glicerol a propilenglicol a través de la hidrogenación catalítica por transferencia (CTH) usando etanol como donor de hidrógeno en atmósfera inerte. Se prepararon catalizadores basados en paladio metálico sobre diferentes soportes. Se halló que los soportes con gran microporosidad dificultan el transporte de masa, y disminuye la actividad y selectividad del catalizador. Nuestros resultados muestran que la ruta (deshidratación-hidrogenación) es válida para la CTH de...

  20. Cambio de los coeficientes de transferencia en reactores de desintegración catalítica

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Villafuerte Macías; R. Aguilar López; R. Maya Yescas

    2003-01-01

    Debido a la generación de moléculas a lo largo de los reactores de lecho transportado durante la desintegración catalítica de hidrocarburos pesados, disminuye la densidad y se incrementa la velocidad de la mezcla reactiva. Esta situación provoca un cambio en dirección axial de la velocidad relativa del catalizador respecto a la de la mezcla reactiva evaporada y, consecuentemente, variación continua de los coeficientes de transferencia de masa y calor entre la fase gaseosa y la superficie del ...

  1. [IMPACT OF SIX COOKING TECHNIQUES ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MARLIN (MAKAIRA NIGRICANS) AND HAKE (MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Carrillo-Domínguez, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el consumo frecuente de pescado aporta beneficios a la salud por su contenido en ácidos grasos n-3. Generalmente se consume cocinado pero la cocción mejora o perjudica la concentración de ácidos grasos(AG), pues son susceptibles a oxidarse por las temperaturas y tiempos de cocción. Objetivos: analizar el efecto de seis técnicas de cocción sobre los lípidos totales (LT) y AG de marlín y merluza y seleccionar la que favorece una mejor conservación de AG de importancia para la salud. Métodos: se sometieron los filetes a diferentes técnicas de cocción: vapor (VA), empapelado papel-aluminio (EA), empapelado hoja-plátano (EP), horno-gas (HG), horno-microondas (HM) y sofrito (SF). Los AG se identificaron por cromatografía de gases/FID. Resultados y discusión: Marlín: el SF aumentó la concentración de LT y el HM la disminuyó. Estadísticamente, los AGS, AGP y EPA + DHA aumentaron con EA, los AGM disminuyeron con EP y aumentaron en el SF. Merluza: el SF aumentó la concentración en todos los grupos de AG, mientras que el VA la disminuyó. Por los valores de AGS, índices de aterogenicidad (IA), trombogenicidad (IT), susceptibilidad a la peroxidación y relación hipocolesterolémica/ hipercolesterolémica de los ácidos grasos (HH) encontrados, se sugiere que la merluza es un pescado con mayores beneficios para la salud, independientemente de la técnica que se aplique. Por su contenido en EPA + DHA el marlín parece ser una excelente opción si se cocina en papel aluminio. La técnica de sofrito en ambas especies disminuyó el IA, IT y aumentó significativamente la HH, sin embargo la relación n3/n6 disminuyó. La técnica menos conveniente para ambas especies resultó ser el VA.

  2. Prescripción de hidroclorotiazida en pacientes con diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial sistémica en consulta externa

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla Roa, Análida Elizabeth; Cano Arenas, Nairo; Spinel Bejarano, Néstor Leonardo; Peñaranda Parada, Édgar Alfonso; Granados Gómez, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la morbilidad y mortalidad por eventos cardiovasculares en diabéticos disminuye con un adecuado control de la hipertensión. Cuando las metas de presión arterial no se logran con monoterapia, se recomienda la adición un diurético tiazida como primera opción para terapia combinada, dada su eficacia farmacológica, seguridad y bajo costo. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del uso de hidroclorotiazida en el tratamiento antihipertensivo en diabéticos tipo 2, describir el tratamient...

  3. Efectividad del "apoyo entre iguales" en la promoci??n de la lactancia materna: revisi??n sistem??tica = Systematic review of the effectiveness of breastfeeding counseling over other types of breastfeeding promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltr??n Mu??oz, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Tras el nacimiento, la lactancia materna se convierte en la forma de alimentaci??n natural del reci??n nacido, con m??ltiples beneficios tanto para la madre como para el ni??o. Organismos nacionales e internacionales recomiendan la lactancia materna como alimento exclusivo hasta los seis meses, y en combinaci??n con la alimentaci??n complementaria hasta los dos a??os. A pesar de ello, la proporci??n de lactancia exclusiva en Espa??a disminuye progresivamente durante las primera...

  4. Diseño, simulación y construcción de un convertidor elevador corrector del factor de potencia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es la corrección del factor de potencia mediante un convertidor elevador. Es necesario porque disminuye las pérdidas en los conductores, reduce la caída de tensión, aumenta la disponibilidad de potencia de transformadores, líneas y generadores y también incrementa la vida útil de las instalaciones. A continuación se muestran y se explican los diferentes objetivos que se han ido marcando en el desarrollo del proyecto, es decir, los principales objet...

  5. Caracterización de la mastitis bovina en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Rafael; Gutierrez, Norma; Sanchez, Pilar; Barragan, Gustavo; Posada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    La mastitis infecciosa es una enfermedad que ha cobrado importancia en el ámbito investigativo por ser causante de pérdi‑das económicas significativas en los sistemas de producción bovino, debido a que altera la leche fisicoquímica y organolépticamente; disminuye la duración y la capacidad de lactancia de las vacas; aumenta los costos de producción y puede llegar a convertirse en un riesgo para la salud pública. El presente artículo de revisión aborda parte de los estudios adelantados sobre e...

  6. Producción y descomposición de hojarasca en sistemas silvopastoriles de estratos múltiples y su efecto sobre propiedades bioorgánicas del suelo en el valle medio del Río Sinú

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Atencia, Judith Del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: La ganadería es uno de los renglones de mayor importancia en la economía de la región Caribe Colombiana. Sin embargo, el suelo y las praderas en estos sistemas presentan problemas de degradación, lo cual disminuye la productividad vegetal y animal. Bajo estas circunstancias, los arreglos silvopastoriles de estratos múltiples se presentan como alternativas, que además de mejorar la calidad nutricional de la dieta, ayudan a la rehabilitación de suelos degradados mediante el aporte de m...

  7. Disfunció Muscular en Malalts amb malaltia Pulmonar Obstructiva Crònica (MPOC)

    OpenAIRE

    Coronell Coronell, Carlos Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    La Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC), presenta signos y síntomas sistémicos que se han venido explorando desde hace algún tiempo. La presente Tesis Doctoral estudia la disfunción que presentan los músculos respiratorios y periféricos, específicamente el cuádriceps de los pacientes con EPOC. Esta disfunción muscular afecta las actividades de la vida diaria, la tolerancia al ejercicio, limita la calidad de vida y disminuye la expectativa de vida de estos pacientes. Una de las posib...

  8. Asimilación de carbono, eficiencia de uso de agua y actividad fotoquímica en xerófitas de ecosistemas semiáridos de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tezara

    2010-01-01

    . La fotosíntesis máxima diurna (A max permitió estimar la AD en muchas de las especies estudiadas. La EUA disminuyó con la sequía en las formas de vida caducifolias, mientras que permaneció constante en árboles y arbustos siempreverdes e incrementó en las hierbas. La sequía causó un descenso en ¿PSII acoplado a un incremento en el coeficiente de extinción no fotoquímico (NPQ, lo cual sugiere una regulación descendente del aparato fotoquímico.

  9. Caracterización genómica y funcional de los genes AtNIP4;1 y AtNIP4;2 que codifican para proteínas de tipo acuaporinas en Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Juliana Andrea

    2015-01-01

    En las Angiospermas, la reproducción incluye procesos en los cuales el transporte de agua está espacial y temporalmente regulado. Durante la microgametogénesis del polen, el contenido de agua del grano de polen comienza a aumentar de manera significativa desde el estadio temprano de la microespora y continúa haciéndolo hasta la deshidratación parcial. El volumen de polen, al igual que el contenido de agua, disminuye durante la deshidratación de las anteras y el polen, se adapta a las condicio...

  10. Efectividad de la técnica de DOG para T4 en extensión bilateral sobre el test neurodinámico del mediano en pacientes con whiplash

    OpenAIRE

    Antolinos Campillo, Pedro José

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la efectividad de la técnica de dog par T4 en extensión bilateral (TDT4) en los pacientes con whiplash tanto en el dolor, en la fuerza de prensión de la mano como en el test neurodinámico del mediano (TNM). Adicionalmente, se estudiaran las posibles correlaciones entre las variables iniciales. Hipótesis: La aplicación de la TDT4 sobre pacientes con whiplash que presentan un TNM positivo, mejora la respuesta del paciente a dicho test, a la vez que disminuye el dolor ce...

  11. Artrosis trapeciometacarpiana.efecto diferencial del método facilitación neuromuscular propioceptiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Villegas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hipótesis: el presente estudio sostiene que un programa de tratamiento basado en la Facilitación Neuromuscular Propioceptiva (F.N.P) en pacientes de sexo femenino afectadas de artrosis TMC de grado ≤ 3 en la clasificación Eaton-Litter Burton, disminuye el dolor, mejora la capacidad funcional del miembro superior, aumenta la fuerza de empuñadura y fuerza de pinza tetradigital, terminal y de llave. Métodos: Se realizó un muestreo de casos consecutivos de pacientes afectadas de rizartrosis, q...

  12. Oxazolidinones as an Alternative in the Treatment of Multiresistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Quiros Enríquez; Diana Rosa Fernández Ruíz; Belkis Barrios Romero; Pedro Miguel Milián Vázquez.; Yacelys Cisneros Napóles; Lucía Noa Justafé

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones provocadas por cepas resistentes se hacen cada día más difíciles de tratar con los antibióticos disponibles. Las causadas por Staphylococcus aureus multirresistente han alcanzado niveles sin precedentes y escasean los medicamentos efectivos para combatirla. La resistencia bacteriana es un problema global que disminuye las opciones terapéuticas en infecciones intra y extrahospitalarias y aumenta las posibilidades de fracaso y los costos de los tratamientos. Esta revisión preten...

  13. ¿Es la Pitavastatina una estatina más o un nuevo fármaco ventajoso?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F Whayne, Jr

    2011-01-01

    Hoy en día, disponemos de 7 estatinas. La pitavastatina, la estatina más nueva, parece tener ventajas significativas para el paciente que no ha tolerado otras estatinas. Además, causa una menor disminución de la coenzima Q-10 que puede resultar en un riesgo menor de miopatía. La pitavastatina no depende del citocromo P450 para su metabolismo y esto disminuye el riesgo de alteraciones metabólicas; y existe la posibilidad de un mayor aumento en la lipoproteína de alta densidad, en comparación c...

  14. Degradación de suelos por actividades antrópicas en el norte de Tamaulipas, México

    OpenAIRE

    M. Espinosa Ramírez; E. Andrade Limas; P. Rivera Ortiz; Romero Díaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    La degradación de los suelos es un proceso que puede estar inducido por el hombre y que disminuye la capacidad actual y/o futura para sostener la vida humana. En este trabajo se estudia la Zona II de la Cuenca de Burgos (México) con el objetivo de evaluar y conocer los distintos tipos de degradación, originada por la acción antrópica. Para ello se delimitaron los tipos de suelo, se seleccionaron áreas representativas para realizar perfiles de suelos y se evaluó la degradación de los mismos si...

  15. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Mervat SH SADAK; MAGDI T. ABDELHAMID; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2015-01-01

    La salinidad disminuye el rendimiento en zonas áridas y semiáridas. Con el aumento de la demanda de agua de riego, se están buscando fuentes alternativas. El agua de mar se consideró previamente inutilizable para irrigación debido a su salinidad. Sin embargo, esta agua puede ser utilizada con éxito en cultivos bajo ciertas condiciones. Los aminoácidos son bioestimulantes bien conocidos por sus efectos positivos sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento, y por mitigar significativamente las lesiones ...

  16. Selección y evaluación de microorganismos promisorios para el biocontrol del patógeno Spongospora subterranea, causante de la sarna polvosa de la papa.

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Arango, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea es un patógeno obligado que se replica en raíces y tubérculos de papa, causando la enfermedad conocida como sarna polvosa de la papa en las principales zonas productoras del mundo. Debido a la falta de tratamientos efectivos contra este patógeno y al comercio de tubérculos-semilla infectados, esta enfermedad disminuye el crecimiento de la planta, el área foliar efectiva y la producción hasta un 40%. El control biológico de patógenos del suelo con otr...

  17. Solubilidad de hidrocarburos aromaticos en soluciones acuosas de sales de amonio cuaternario

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Mercado, Edgardo Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Las solubilidades del benceno, tolueno y terbutil benceno en agua y en soluciones de bromuro de trietil bencil amonio, fueron determinadas en un rango de temperaturas de 283.15 a 313.15 K. Los valores obtenidos son relativamente muy bajos y esto se debe a la formación de enlaces de H que el anillo aromático forma con los hidrógenos del agua. Además se produce un ligero incremento en la solubilidad cuando la temperatura aumenta. Sin embargo la solubilidad disminuye en la medida que aumenta el ...

  18. Tratamiento y post-tratamiento con lonidamina en la línea celular de carcinoma colónico humano HT-29 Treatment and post-treatment with lonidamine in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Lonidamina (1-[ 2,4-diclorofenil metil]-1H indazol-3-ácido carboxílico), (lnd), es una droga antineoplásica cuyo mecanismo de acción se ejerce sobre el metabolismo intermedio de la glucosa. Los efectos de la lnd sobre el crecimiento celular y el metabolismo celular se investigaron en las células HT- 29, línea celular de carcinoma colónico humano, que requiere altas concentraciones de glucosa para su crecimiento indiferenciado en cultivo. La lnd en dosis de 0.2 mM disminuyó significativamente ...

  19. Efectos del tratamiento con anti-TNF-α, infliximab, sobre la resistencia insulínica, adipocinas (visfatina, leptina, adiponectina, resistina y apelina) y angiopoyetina-2 en pacientes con espondilitis anquilosante

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Filloy, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: La Espondilitis Anquilosante (EA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta fundamentalmente a la columna vertebral produciendo sacroileítis. Estos pacientes presentan una aterogénesis acelerada y resistencia insulínica, lo que favorece la disfunción endotelial e incrementa el riesgo cardiovascular. Hemos documentado que la infusión del anti-TNF-α infliximab en pacientes no diabéticos con EA mejora la sensibilidad insulínica y disminuye las concentraciones séricas de angio...

  20. Empleo del Yopodato Sódico (Biloptin) en el tratamiento agudo de las complicaciones cardiovasculares severas del hipertiroidismo.

    OpenAIRE

    SECLEN, Segundo; Pretell, Eduardo; Tapia, Fernando; Sosa, José; Barreto, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Los cambios hemodinámicos del hipertiroidismo son atribuídos al efecto cronotropo e inotropo cardíaco directo del exceso de T3, así como a cambios en la resistencia periférica. Recientes estudios han demostrado que el yopodato sódico disminuye rápidamente los niveles de T3 en más del 50% de los valores basales dentro de las 24 horas, al bloquear la conversión de T4 a T3. Este estudio muestra su utilidad en controlar las manifestaciones cardiovasculares severas del hipertiroidismo, en 5 casos ...

  1. Caracterización de hidrogeles de quitosano-alcohol polivinílico obtenidos por radiación gamma

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Se han obtenido hidrogeles de quitosano con alcohol polivinílico (PVA) utilizando radiación gamma. Se presenta un análisis preliminar del tipo de interacción entre las cadenas de quitosano y del PVA en estos hidrogeles. El quitosano en solución disminuye rápidamente su peso molecular por efecto de la radiación gamma, mientras que el PVA en solución acuosa forma hidrogeles luego de ser irradiadas a dosis mayores a 5 kGy. Sin embargo, las mezclas de quitosano y PVA forman hidrogeles en los cual...

  2. Renovando el Hábitat en Riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    La calidad del hábitat es el conjunto de propiedadesevaluables del mismo que permiten juzgar las condiciones enque las personas vivimos; cuando habitamos en zonas deamenaza por terremoto, inundación o deslizamiento, estacalidad se disminuye al no contar con un sitio seguro en elcual emplazar nuestra vivienda.Consciente de esta situación, la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá haformulado dentro de su Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial unaserie de medidas y ha facultado a un conjunto de entidadescomo respo...

  3. Biología reproductiva de la golondrina patagónica Tachycineta meyeni en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Liljesthrom, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Durante cuatro temporadas reproductivas consecutivas (2006-2007 al 2009- 2010) se estudió la biología reproductiva de la Golondrina Patagónica, Tachycineta meyeni, nidificando en cajas-nidos en los alrededores de la ciudad de Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Las golondrinas construyeron nidos formados por una base de pasto seco entretejido con plumas y una copa tapizada con plumas. El número de plumas adicionadas al nido disminuyó al aumentar la temperatura ambiente y no estuvo asociado al éxito de...

  4. Evolución del tratamiento ortopédico de la escoliosis con la introducción de nuevos materiales. Análisis de la eficacia y eficiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Rotllant Solà, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Introducción: El tratamiento ortopédico sigue siendo clave en modificar la historia natural de la escoliosis idiopática (EI) y los corsés de yeso EDF influyen de forma significativa. El tratamiento es complejo y requiere mucha dedicación tanto del facultativo como de la familia. Este trabajo está encaminado a facilitar todo el proceso.Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio es demostrar que la introducción de la fibra de vidrio en la confección de los corsés EDF, disminuye el coste económico global...

  5. Evolución del tratamiento ortopédico de la escoliosis con la utilización de nuevos materiales. Análisis de la eficacia y eficiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Rotllant Solà, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    [spa] Introducción: El tratamiento ortopédico sigue siendo clave en modificar la historia natural de la escoliosis idiopática (EI) y los corsés de yeso EDF influyen de forma significativa. El tratamiento es complejo y requiere mucha dedicación tanto del facultativo como de la familia. Este trabajo está encaminado a facilitar todo el proceso. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio es demostrar que la introducción de la fibra de vidrio en la confección de los corsés EDF, disminuye el coste económico...

  6. Desarrollo de una instalación para reducir la temperatura de paneles fotovoltaicos y mejorar su eficiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Hernández, Rocío; Vera García, Francisco; Sánchez Kaiser, Antonio; Zamora Parra, Blas

    2010-01-01

    La primordial prioridad de los paneles fotovoltaicos (PV) es la producción de electricidad. La transformación de la energía solar en electricidad depende de la temperatura de funcionamiento del módulo PV, de modo que para temperaturas elevadas el rendimiento de los paneles disminuye bruscamente. Ante este problema se sugieren diferentes técnicas de refrigeración usando agua o aire como fluido calorportador. Este estudio está enfocado a una nueva aplicación de los paneles PV, la cual consis...

  7. Rehabilitación implantoprotésica en el paciente oncológico: experiencia de 20 años

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ruiz, Rafael; Torres Carranza, Eusebio; González Guerrero, Salvador; García-Perla García, Alberto; González Padilla, David; Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Los pacientes que han sido tratados por un proceso oncológico se encuentran con una alteración de funciones básicas, como la masticación, fonación y estética, que les impide desarrollar una vida normal en cuanto a la alimentación, habla y relaciones sociales, lo que disminuye de forma manifiesta su calidad de vida. En la medida de lo posible la restitución del tejido perdido se puede realizar con prótesis dental, si bien los implantes en estas situaciones han supuesto un elemen...

  8. Prescripción facilitada de drogas antihipertensivas y disminución de la muerte prematura por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Mariani; Marina Ridao; Gabriel González; Mauricio Monsalvo; Alejandro Macchia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Desde 2003, el programa Remediar (+Redes) distribuye gratuitamente medicación antihipertensiva. Durante este período, la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular disminuyó, aunque con inequidades entre grupos socioeconómicos. Objetivos: Evaluar la asociación entre la mortalidad por accidente cerebrovascular y la provisión de fármacos antihipertensivos. Estudiar la posible interacción entre los efectos de los antihipertensivos sobre la mortalidad y el nivel socioeconómico. ...

  9. Serie de la fisiología a la clínica: Secreción gástrica e inhibidores de bomba de protones.

    OpenAIRE

    Cienfuegos, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    El estómago es el reservorio muscular en el cual ingresan los alimentos al ser deglutidos y que permite la ingesta más rápido de lo que pueden ser ingeridos y adsorbidos. El jugo gástrico con bajas tasas de secreción (en estado basal de ayuno) es esencialmente una solución de NaCl con pequeñas cantidades de de H+ y K+ (es decir un ultrafiltrado de plasma). Durante la ingesta de alimentos la concentración de H+ aumenta sustancialmente y disminuye la de Na+ en proporciones equivalentes y se lle...

  10. Disminución de la Ansiedad Estado previa al Cateterismo Cardiaco programado tras una intervención de enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Buján Buján, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Los pacientes sometidos a cateterismo cardíaco (CC) experimentan niveles significativos de ansiedad relacionados con el procedimiento y puede ser percibido como una amenaza. Es fundamental por ello desarrollar estrategias de educación que se centren en las necesidades psicológicas y fisiológicas, manteniendo una información ordenada y clara, con el propósito de manejar y prevenir las complicaciones que se pueden presentar. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer si disminuye la ansiedad ...

  11. SOLAPÓN DEL GUIRRE [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XVI Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN CULTURAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No GRAN SOLAPON RESGUARDADO DE LOS VIENTOS FUERTES. SIN INFRAESTRUCTURA CON TRES HUECOS CADA UNO DE PLANTACASI SEMICIRCULAR. A UNOS METROS POR DELANTE Y PARALELO AL SOLAPON HAY UN MURO DE PIEDRAS SECAS DE TAMAÑO GRANDE. LA ALTURA DEL SOLAPON DISMINUYE CON LA PROFUNDIDAD, ES NATURAL. Nivel de protección: 6 Propiedad: PÚBLICA RECOLONIZACION VEGETAL S...

  12. EFECTO DE LA DESHIDRATACION EN LA AGUDEZA VISUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo López Dávila; Wálter Salazar Rojas

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si existe un efecto negativo agudo de la deshidratación inducida por ejercicio sobre la agudeza visual. La evidencia previamente revisada señala que las funciones visuales son de especial importancia en la vida cotidiana, así como en el contexto competitivo. La deshidratación afecta negativamente algunas tareas motrices, disminuye sensiblemente el rendimiento deportivo y genera alteraciones fisiológicas importantes. Por su parte, la sola práctica de ...

  13. Caracterización de la rigidez positiva y negativa aportada por imanes permanentes como soportes de estructuras esbeltas

    OpenAIRE

    González Morán, David

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende estudiar el uso de imanes permanentes como resortes mecánicos para variar la rigidez, aumentándola o disminuyéndola. Este uso tendría la ventaja de que además de poder variar la rigidez de una estructura, también variaría su frecuencia, ya que es dependiente la una de la otra. Para poder validar el estudio, se ha realizado un modelo experimental que consiste en una viga de aluminio a la cual se la han añadido unos imanes y se ha ido registrando como varía la...

  14. Propuesta de mejora: una intervención para favorecer el uso prudente de antibióticos en atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria Jabat, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    La aparición de la terapia antibiótica supuso un importante avance para la historia de la medicina. Sin embargo, desde hace unos años, las resistencias bacterianas constituyen una amenaza creciente que disminuye la eficacia de los antibióticos. En el presente proyecto, se ha descrito la situación actual de la resistencia bacteriana a los antimicrobianos de más frecuente utilización, tanto a nivel europeo como, particularmente, en España. Asimismo, se han identificado los factor...

  15. Acciones lipostáticas de la leptina actuando vía sistema nervioso central: mecanismos moleculares en el hígado y en el tejido adiposo blanco. Efecto de la resistencia central a la leptina

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzón Kulichenko, Elena

    2007-01-01

    La leptina actuando vía central o periférica disminuye la ingesta, la adiposidad y aumenta la sensibilidad a insulina del organismo como un todo. La dilucidación de las vías de señalización de la leptina y de los mecanismos que provocan la resistencia a la misma, son factores claves para entender el fenómeno de la obesidad y la diabetes tipo II, así como para permitir el desarrollo de una manera consciente de fármacos que corrijan estas patologías. En la presente tesis se abordan algunos meca...

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de materia orgánica y enmienda cálcica sobre el contenido de boro en el suelo de la costa sur

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Suelos En el presente trabajo se determina la concentración de boro soluble luego del lavado del suelo; el efecto de la aplicación de materia orgánica y una enmienda cálcica sobre el contenido de boro disponible del suelo y de la planta y el efecto del boro presente en el agua de riego. Se concluye que por efecto del lavado inicial del suelo, se disminuyó la concentración de boro soluble de 61 a 20.9 ppm. La materia o...

  17. Tratamiento endovascular de estenosis carotidea sin empleo de sistemas de protección. Estudio descriptivo, complicaciones y seguimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    1.- INTRODUCCIÓN: Una de las causas más frecuente de eventos cerebrovasculares es la estenosis de carótida. Su tratamiento disminuye de manera significativa el riesgo de accidentes cerebrovasculares. La estenosis de carótida puede tratarse mediante cirugía o mediante técnicas endovasculares con colocación de un stent. Inicialmente el tratamiento de elección de la estenosis de carótida era la endarterectomía quirúrgica, sin embargo, hoy en día los tratamientos endovasculares ...

  18. Efectividad del "apoyo entre iguales" en la promoci??n de la lactancia materna: revisi??n sistem??tica = Systematic review of the effectiveness of breastfeeding counseling over other types of breastfeeding promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltr??n Mu??oz, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Tras el nacimiento, la lactancia materna se convierte en la forma de alimentaci??n natural del reci??n nacido, con m??ltiples beneficios tanto para la madre como para el ni??o. Organismos nacionales e internacionales recomiendan la lactancia materna como alimento exclusivo hasta los seis meses, y en combinaci??n con la alimentaci??n complementaria hasta los dos a??os. A pesar de ello, la proporci??n de lactancia exclusiva en Espa??a disminuye progresivamente durante las primera...

  19. Espiral de silencio y autocensura política en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Puig -I- Abril, Eul; Rojas, Hernando

    2010-01-01

    Utilizando una encuesta probabilística que representa a la población urbana adulta colombiana, en el año 2006, se muestra de qué manera un contexto adverso de opinión pública disminuye la probabilidad de que un individuo exprese sus opiniones políticas. Estos resultados son consistentes con investigaciones previas sobre la "espiral de silencio" en las que una opinión particular termina pareciendo más extendida de lo que en realidad está. Más allá del contexto de opinión, este estudio demuestr...

  20. Hipertensión en el personal administrativo de una universidad pública de Huánuco, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis Raraz Vidal; Omar Raraz Vidal; Bernardo Cristóbal Dámaso Mata

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) disminuye la calidad de vida y la supervivencia de la población, constituyéndose en una enfermedad importante para la salud pública. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial y los factores relacionados en personal administrativo de una universidad pública. Métodos: El diseño fue transversal, prospectivo y observacional. Muestreo probabilístico, constituido por una muestra de 110 individuos. Empleo de encuesta y toma de pre...

  1. HIPERTENSION EN EL PERSONAL ADMINISTRATIVO DE UNA UNIVERSIDAD PÚBLICA DE HUANUCO, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis Raraz Vidal; Omar Raraz Vidal; Bernardo Cristóbal Dámaso Mata

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) disminuye la calidad de vida y la supervivencia de la población, constituyéndose en una enfermedad importante para la salud pública. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial y los factores relacionados en personal administrativo de una universidad pública. Métodos: El diseño fue transversal, prospectivo y observacional. Muestreo probabilístico, constituido por una muestra de 110 individuos. Empleo de encuesta y toma de pre...

  2. La melatonina: ¿Una alternativa saludable para combatir el insomnio?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: la melatonina es una hormona que se encuentra de forma natural en el cuerpo, producida por la glándula pineal. Participa en procesos celulares, neuroendocrinos y neurofisiológicos. La melatonina determina el ciclo sueño-vigilia. La cantidad de melatonina producida por nuestro cuerpo disminuye a medida que envejecemos. Ob...

  3. Monitoreo del arrecife coralino Meager Shoal, Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca E., Ana C.; Salas, Eva; Cortés, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Los arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Cahuita, en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, específicamente en el sitio CARICOMP llamado Meager Shoal, han sido monitoreados desde 1999. Bases de datos completas de los años 2000 y 2004, muestran que la cobertura de coral viva se mantuvo baja con un aumento menor al 3% (15-17 %), pero la cobertura de algas no coralinas aumentó mucho (63-74%) y la cobertura de algas coralinas disminuyó significativamente (17-5 %) (p

  4. El caminar ayuda a mejorar la comunicación en personas con enfermedad de alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Hernández, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Más de un siglo después de descrita la Enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA), se ha convertido en uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en el mundo debido a la prevalencia actual. La EA es además una de las enfermedades de mayor impacto social y económico para los sistemas de salud, grupos familiares y los pacientes mismos, pues afecta su funcionalidad y disminuye su calidad de vida. Uno de los problemas que produce la EA es la alteración de la comunicación, ya que se considera como u...

  5. Recursos disponibles para la recuperación de información sobre salud en Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Elizondo Herrera

    2005-01-01

    El Internet se ha convertido en un fenómeno social en nuestros tiempos y en un apoyo vital para el desarrollo de las investigaciones en salud.El hecho de que es una herramienta para recuperar información e investigar no se discute.Las ciencias de la información avanzan a grandes pasos y los profesionales en salud que se apoyan o tienen contacto con la realidad de Internet,encuentran difícil seguir este paso,lo que disminuye la efectividad y eficiencia con que se utiliza este recurso.Motivado ...

  6. Utilidad de la lidocaína intravenosa para reducir la tos tras la extubación en pacientes fumadores intervenidos de cirugía electiva bajo anestesia general

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Montes, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos El objetivo principal de este estudio es comprobar si la lidocaína intravenosa a dosis de 1 mg/kg (ajustados según el peso ideal) disminuye la tos y la severidad de la misma tras la extubación. También se valoró su efecto sobre otras complicaciones respiratorias, su utilidad para atenuar los cambios hemodinámicos y de SatO2 que ocurren tras la retirada del tubo endotraqueal, si mejora la calidad subjetiva de la extubación, si reduce las molestias faríngeas postoperatorias y su se...

  7. Efectos y adaptaciones inducidos por el tratamiento prolongado con agonistas dopaminérgicos en un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Parkinson

    OpenAIRE

    Larramendy, Celia

    2011-01-01

    Levodopa y pramipexol son drogas de uso frecuente en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Levodopa es el fármaco más efectivo para aliviar las deficiencias motoras pero en la mayoría de los casos induce disquinesias (movimientos involuntarios anormales). Pramipexol ha sido relacionado con efectos neuroprotectores y con una menor inducción de disquinesias. Sin embargo, su eficacia disminuye a medida que progresa la enfermedad. Con el objetivo de analizar si estas diferencias se reflej...

  8. Recaudador vs. contribuyente: el juego de la evasión fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Alberto Lara Pulido

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo parte de la teoría estándar de la evasión fiscal y, en ese contexto, incorpora la interacción estratégica entre el contribuyente y el administrador fiscal. Mediante las mejores respuestas de los jugadores, se determinan la existencia y unicidad (local) del equilibrio de Nash. Con el uso del análisis numérico, se concluye que la evasión disminuye cuando existen: mayores sanciones, disciplina fiscal, esfuerzos para mejorar la eficiencia del monitoreo y menor corrupción. Finalmente,...

  9. Promoción de los Parques Recreativos Metropolitanos de Costa Rica mediante el uso de medios tecnológicos y otros medios tradicionales

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño J., Johanna; Zeledón P., Laura

    2014-01-01

    En Costa Rica, la necesidad de recrearse aumenta conforme disminuye el tiempo libre de las personas por sus diversos quehaceres. Muchas veces se ignora la importancia que la recreación representa para poder sobrellevar las tareas y las actividades que se realizan día a día. Por ello, el Gobierno ha creado áreas recreativas para los costarricenses, ofreciendo lugares de esparcimiento sin costo o con uno muy bajo, para que puedan disfrutar de ellos. Estas áreas son conocidas en la actualidad co...

  10. Relación entre detección temprana y evolución del abdomen agudo quirúrgico de origen ginecológico Hospital Luis Vernaza, 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Mero, Wilson Ronald

    2014-01-01

    El abdomen agudo ginecológico ocurre entre7 y 20%; puede ser hemorrágico, infeccioso, mecánico o traumático. Requiere un tratamiento rápido, precoz para disminuir las complicaciones postoperatorias. Los cuadros de abdomen agudo ginecológico hemorrágico son los más frecuentes, y el embarazo ectópico complicado es el más común con un porcentaje de 90%. Objetivo: Demostrar que el diagnóstico oportuno del abdomen agudo quirúrgico de origen ginecológico disminuye las complicaciones y mejora la exp...

  11. Variabilidad temporal de aerosoles atmosféricos en Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefany Virginia Vivanco Cristobal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar la variabilidad temporal de los aerosoles atmosféricos en Huancayo a través de datos satelitales. Métodos: Investigación de alcance descriptivo, diseño longitudinal. Los datos utilizados fueron, el índice de aerosol (IA tomados por el sensor OMI (ozone monitoring instrument en el período 2005-2012; y el espesor óptico de aerosol (EOA registrados por el sensor MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer de las plataformas Aqua y Terra, en los períodos 2003-2012 y 2001-2012, respectivamente. Resultados: El IA registró el año 2012 un máximo interanual de 0,61; durante el período enero-marzo disminuyó a 0,30; abril-agosto aumentó a 0,75 y setiembrediciembre disminuyó a 0,43. En cambio, el EOA reportó en el 2005 un máximo interanual de 0,22; en el período abril-junio disminuyó a 0,09; juliosetiembre aumentó a 0,30; octubre-diciembre disminuyó a 0,22, y enero-marzo aumentó a 0,20. El análisis estadístico reportó un coeficiente de correlación entre el IA del sensor OMI y el EOA del sensor MODIS de las plataformas Aqua y Terra, siendo 0,1041 y 0,0982 (p<0,05, respectivamente. La misma correlación fue efectuada entre los datos del sensor MODIS, resultando más elevada 0,902 (p<0,05. El IA mostró una tendencia de incremento a razón de 0,036/año; el EOA de disminución, 0,003/año. Conclusiones: Se identificó un patrón de variación significativo entre las estaciones y los meses de ambos parámetros con elevados valores del IA en invierno y otoño, máximos en agosto; el EOA, en primavera y verano, máximos en septiembre.

  12. Machine vision algorithms applied to dynamic traffic light control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel

    2013-01-01

    número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.

  13. Impacto de la cirugía bariátrica en la calidad de vida y en la calidad de alimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Safar, María Nahime

    2012-01-01

    La obesidad mórbida es una enfermedad crónica resultante de una compleja interacción entre factores genéticos y medioambientales, que se caracteriza por el exceso de grasa corporal progresiva. Se asocia a un mayor riesgo de mortalidad sobre todo de origen cardiovascular, así como a una serie de comorbilidades, además de una gran afectación psicológica que disminuye la calidad y la esperanza de vida de los pacientes que la padecen. La cirugía de la obesidad mórbida o cirug...

  14. Estudio de la calidad de las aguas del Estero del Muerto en base a la concentración de oxígeno disuelto.- Estación fija

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, M.; Burgos, L.; Espinoza, M.

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis de la influencia de la marea y profundidad sobre la concentración de oxígeno disuelto en aguas del Estero del Muerto, Provincia del Guayas. Se establece que existe una relación directa de estos dos factores sobre la msima. Se encuentra mayor concentración de oxígeno disuelto en superficie, la cual disminuye conforme aumenta la profundidad, siendo mayor durante el flujo que durante el reflujo; existe un leve incremento durante la noche como producto de la agitación de l...

  15. “Resultante Materno – Neonatal en Gestantes con Rotura Prematura de Membranas Pretérmino Manejadas con Ampicilina + Eritromicina en la Sala de Cuidados Intermedios Del Hospital Enrique C Sotomayor”

    OpenAIRE

    Falcones Vera, Shasky

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se demostró que hubo una mejoría en cuanto al resultado perinatal asociado al manejo conservador con el uso de ampicilina + eritromicina. La efectividad de esta asociación para evitar infecciones fue casi total para las madres, disminuyó la incidencia de sépsis puerperal, no así las patologías infecciosas en los recién nacidos pero sin embargo fue un porcentaje bajo la presencia de sepsis en los mismos 19%. El uso precoz de los antibiótico...

  16. Efectos del tratamiento con anti-TNF-α, infliximab, sobre la resistencia insulínica, adipocinas (visfatina, leptina, adiponectina, resistina y apelina) y angiopoyetina-2 en pacientes con espondilitis anquilosante

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Filloy, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: La Espondilitis Anquilosante (EA) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta fundamentalmente a la columna vertebral produciendo sacroileítis. Estos pacientes presentan una aterogénesis acelerada y resistencia insulínica, lo que favorece la disfunción endotelial e incrementa el riesgo cardiovascular. Hemos documentado que la infusión del anti-TNF-α infliximab en pacientes no diabéticos con EA mejora la sensibilidad insulínica y disminuye las concentraciones séricas de angio...

  17. Diseño de un sistema de control multivariable del nivel de glucosa en sangre para pacientes con diabetes tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPOS CARCELLER, ALEJANDRO

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo se enmarca en el contexto del páncreas artificial o control automático de glucosa para pacientes con diabetes tipo 1. Actualmente se ha validado clínicamente la viabilidad técnica de un páncreas artificial domiciliario, así como su eficacia en el control nocturno en estudios controlados. Hay que tener en cuenta que el efecto de la insulina es unidireccional: disminuye el valor de glucosa. Si es suministrada en exceso, existen serios límites para compensar una caída exces...

  18. Caracterización de recién nacidos reanimados durante el año 2011 en el Hospital Clínico Regional de Concepción.

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Vinet M; Iván Saavedra S; Cynthia Cisterna Q; Rubén Peña Z; Aldo Bancalari M

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La asfixia es responsable del 19% de las muertes neonatales que ocurren en el mundo. La reanimación neonatal disminuye la mortalidad en estos Recién Nacidos (RN). 10% de los RN requieren maniobras de reanimación, de éstos, 1% requiere reanimación avanzada. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar los RN reanimados durante el año 2011 en un hospital público. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, con historias clínicas correspondientes a la totalidad de RN durante el 2011 en el ...

  19. Terapia nutricia en fístula enterocutánea; de la base fisiológica al tratamiento individualizado

    OpenAIRE

    Ameyalli Mariana Rodríguez Cano

    2014-01-01

    La fístula enterocutánea es la forma más común de las fístulas intestinales. Es una patología que obliga la estancia hospitalaria prolongada debido a complicaciones como desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico, desnutrición, desajustes metabólicos y sepsis. El apoyo nutricio es parte esencial en el manejo, ya que favorece la función intestinal, inmune, promueve la cicatrización y disminuye el catabolismo. Aunque se ha reconocido la importancia del apoyo nutricio no existen ensayos clínicos sobre su ...

  20. VIH/SIDA: COMPORTAMIENTO EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DE LA TRANSMISIÓN VERTICAL EN EL CONTEXTO GENERAL DE LA INFECCIÓN EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R,Enrique; Sepúlveda M,Alvaro; Candia P,Paula; Sepúlveda B,Carolina; Lattes A,Karinna

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes: En embarazadas seropositivas sin profilaxis antirretroviral la transmisión vertical (TV) del VIH es de 30%, cifra que disminuye bajo al 2% con un manejo integral de prevención. Objetivo: Conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de la TV en Chile desde la creación del programa nacional de prevención. Método: Datos aportados por el Departamento de Epidemiología del MINSAL y CONASIDA (1984-2006). Estudió de situación VIH/SIDA por año, regiones, grupo etario y sexo, con especial énf...

  1. RESISTENCIA AL CONGELAMIENTO EN ESPECIES ALTO-ANDINAS DE CHILE CENTRAL: VARIACIONES ESPACIALES Y TEMPORALES DE DISTINTA ESCALA

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA ALMEIDA ; ANGELA PAOLA

    2010-01-01

    Aunque las plantas de alta montaña tienen la habilidad de resistir temperaturas congelantes, esta habilidad disminuye considerablemente durante el período de crecimiento, incrementando el riesgo que las plantas sufran daños severos producto de las heladas. La magnitud y causas de la disminución de la resistencia al congelamiento están en estrecha relación con la temperatura ambiental que experimentan las plantas. Por ello, la resistencia al congelamiento de las plantas de alta ...

  2. Atención y preparación del duelo en familiares de pacientes crónicos terminales: prueba piloto en Zaragoza

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Guio, Tania; Becerril Ramírez, Natalia; Delgado Sevilla, David

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar si la intervención enfermera (información) disminuye el grado de ansiedad y miedo a la muerte que presentan los familiares de pacientes con enfermedad crónica terminal en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos de la Orden Hospitalaria San Juan de Dios (OHSJD) de Zaragoza. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cuaxiexperimental de diseño pre post intervención para analizar el grado de ansiedad que presentan los familiares de pacientes en situación de enfermedad crónica terminal, así c...

  3. Efectos de la aplicación de ceniza pe cascarilla de arroz en la composición química y mineralógica de dos oxisoles de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa López, Luis Jorge

    2011-01-01

    El presente experimento se fundamentó en las siguientes hipótesis 1. El silicio amorfo presente en las cenizas de cascarilla de arroz podría reaccionar con formas solubles del aluminio presente en el suelo disminuyendo el AL3+ activo. 2. El silicio amorfo adicionado disminuye la fijación del fósforo-agregado por el suelo, 3. Un incremento en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo podría ocurrir con la adición de ceniza de cascarilla de arroz, y 4. El silicio amorfo podría formar diferentes tipo...

  4. Evaluación de diferentes granulometrías de calcio en la alimentación de gallinas ponedoras

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Angélica Sanmiguel-Plazas; Giovanny Rodrigo Mejía-Rojas; Luisa María Lozano-Covaleda; Román David Castañeda-Serrano

    2016-01-01

    En los últimos años, diversos estudios se han realizado para evaluar el efecto de la granulometría del calcio en la alimentación de gallinas ponedoras, dada su importancia en la eficiencia de la absorción de este mineral para la calcificación del huevo, especialmente en épocas en las que el ave disminuye el consumo de alimento; sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos son controvertidos. En el presente trabajo se propuso evaluar el efecto del tamaño de la partícula de calcio sobre el porcentaje ...

  5. Microorganismos rizosféricos, potenciales antagonistas de Fusarium sp. causante de la pudrición radicular de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims

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    Luisa Fernanda Quiroga-Rojas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis, de gran importancia económica para Colombia, actualmente es afectado por la enfermedad del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium sp. lo que hace necesario la búsqueda de alternativas que permitan un control eficiente de esta enfermedad. Aislados de las bacterias Azotobacter spp., Azospirillum spp. y el hongo Trichoderma spp., fueron evaluados como potenciales biocontroladores de Fusarium sp. en pruebas in vitro e in vivo. Las pruebas de “test dual” evidenciaron que un aislado nativo de Trichoderma sp. y un producto comercial (Trichoderma lignorum, provocaron la inhibición del crecimiento micelial de Fusarium sp. entre 94.2% y 93.6%, respectivamente. La evaluación de aislados de Trichoderma sobre plántulas de maracuyá en tres momentos de aplicación indicó que la inoculación previa disminuyó el porcentaje de infección de las plantas entre un 75 y 50%, mientras que con aplicaciones después o simultáneamente con el patógeno, el porcentaje de infección disminuyó en 25%. Estos resultados indican que la aplicación de organismos de biocontrol en semillas pregerminadas mejora la protección de las plantas contra el fitopatógeno estudiado y son un recurso importante en el manejo preventivo de las enfermedades de maracuyá.

  6. Analysis of the trend and impact of mortality due to external causes: Mexico, 2000-2013

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    Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervantes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la mortalidad por las principales causas externas (accidentes de tránsito, otros accidentes, homicidios y suicidios en México, calculando los años de vida perdidos entre 0 y 100 años de edad y su contribución al cambio en la esperanza de vida entre 2000 y 2013, a nivel nacional, por sexo y grupos de edad. La información provino de las estadísticas vitales de mortalidad del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI. El mayor impacto de la mortalidad por causas externas entre 2000 y 2013 se presentó en hombres jóvenes y adultos de 15 a 49 años de edad; la mortalidad por estas causas se mantuvo constante en hombres, mientras que disminuyó en mujeres. La mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito y otros accidentes disminuyó, lo que significó un aporte positivo a la esperanza de vida, que fue cancelado por un incremento de la mortalidad por homicidios y suicidios. La mortalidad por causas externas es prevenible por medio de intervenciones, programas y estrategias de prevención y tratamiento oportuno. Es necesario desarrollar estudios multidisciplinarios sobre la dinámica de los factores asociados con la mortalidad por estas causas.

  7. Inseguridad y turismo en Quintana Roo, México (1997-2013

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    Maribel Lozano Cortés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es determinar si el turismo en Quintana Roo se ve afectado por el incremento de los delitos, y demostrarlo mediante un modelo econométrico. Para este se retoman las variables de los delitos del fuero federal, por considerar que son los que más impactan en la percepción de inseguridad, y la ocupación hotelera. En los resultados del modelo se observa que la relación entre los delitos del fuero federal y el turismo es inversa, es decir, cuando se incrementan los delitos, el número de turistas disminuye; sin embargo, el efecto de la delincuencia está en función de la percepción, y, por lo tanto, resolvimos que este efecto puede lograrse rezagando la variable explicativa, por lo que se retardó a un periodo, es decir, la inseguridad o el temor se presenta con rezago de un año. Por esto, se concluye que al aumentar los delitos del fuero federal en el Estado de Quintana Roo, disminuye, para el siguiente año, la densidad hotelera en la entidad; en términos absolutos, son menos turistas pernoctando en la infraestructura hotelera del Estado.

  8. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto EStrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis en la zona de monteverde, puntarenas, Costa Rica. I. DISPONIBILIDAD DE BIOMASA Y FENOLOGÍA

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    Luis Villalobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la disponibilidad de biomasa y la fenología del pasto estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis a lo largo de 2 años en muestreos bimensuales, en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en los cantones de Tilarán y Central (latitud 10°20’ N, longitud 84°50’ O,altitud 800 a 1200 msnm de las provincias de Guanacaste y Puntarenas, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de materia seca pre-pastoreo y laedad fenológica promedio fueron 4484 kg.ha-1. corte-1 y 7,36 hojas verdes por rebrote, respec- tivamente. La composición botánica promediode las pasturas fue 86,81% estrella, 2,52% otrasgramíneas, 1,39% leguminosas, 1,53% malezas y 7,75% material senescente. La disponibilidad de biomasa fue mayor en las fincas con influencia climática del Oceano Pacífico y su producción disminuyó en los meses de mayor precipitación. La edad fenológica del pasto estrella africana se ubica entre 6 y 8 hojas verdes por rebrote, lo cual permite una adecuada recuperación del pasto, y disminuyó en los meses con excesos deprecipitación.

  9. El género afecta las propiedades contráctiles del músculo sóleo en diabetes inducida experimentalmente en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Virgen Ortiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ratas hembras y machos, de tres meses de edad, fueron separados en dos grupos: no diabéticas (ND, peso corporal, 274 ± 9 g; nivel de glucosa en la sangre, 4,94 ± 0,22 mmol/L; n = 16 y diabéticas (D; peso corporal, 207 ± 8 g; nivel de glucosa en sangre, 28,39 ± 0,94 mmol/L; n = 16. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola dosis de 60 mg/Kg de estreptozotocina administrada intraperitonealmente. Las ratas ND recibieron el mismo volumen de vehículo. Después de 4 semanas los animales fueron considerados diabéticos si su nivel de glucosa era ≥ 20 mmol/L. La masa y la contracción del músculo sóleo fueron mayores en machos ND que en las hembras ND. En las ratas macho D disminuyó su masa muscular en un 34% y la fuerza de contracción disminuyó en un 33%; mientras que en las hembras D disminuyeron 15% y 10% respectivamente.

  10. Diarrea y micronutrientes

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    Alonso Zea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea continúa siendo una causa importante de morbi-mortalidad en niños pequeños. Si bien el uso de las sales de rehidratación oral ha sido de gran ayuda para disminuir la mortalidad asociada a deshidratación, aún se requieren de estrategias efectivas para disminuir la morbilidad asociada a esta enfermedad. El zinc y la vitamina A son dos micronutrientes que han demostrado ser útiles en la prevención y tratamiento de la diarrea en niños. La suplementación de zinc actualmente es recomendada por la OMS para el manejo de diarrea en niños en países en vías de desarrollo, ya que se ha demostrado que disminuye la duración y severidad de los episodios de diarrea, el riesgo de diarrea persistente, y la recurrencia de episodios en los siguientes 2 a 3 meses. La vitamina A se usa de forma profiláctica hace mucho tiempo y es una de las intervenciones más importantes para la reducción en la mortalidad infantil. Se ha demostrado que la vitamina A disminuye la mortalidad y la incidencia de la diarrea. Sin embargo, el uso terapéutico de esta vitamina no ha sido muy estudiado ya que el éxito de su uso profiláctico limita su evaluación.

  11. INTERACCIÓN MICORRIZAS ARBUSCULARES- Trichoderma harzianum (Moniliaceae Y EFECTOS SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae

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    TIFFANY SOSA RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo en condiciones controladas utilizando hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HFMA nativos, provenientes de un suelo rizosférico de Pennisetum clandestinum de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, mante- niéndolos en plantas de Brachiaria decumbens creciendo sobre sustrato arenoso suple- mentado con solución nutritiva. Se evaluaron diferentes tratamientos: plantas con inóculo de HFMA, plantas con Trichoderma harzianum, plantas con HFMA+T. harzianum y plantas control no inoculadas, con el fin de determinar las posibles interacciones entre dichos microorganismos, así como su efecto sobre el crecimiento de B. decumbens. La presencia de T. harzianum disminuyó la colonización radicular por HFMA, aunque no afectó la cantidad de esporas de HFMA/g suelo seco, en tanto que la población de T. harzianum (UFC/g suelo seco disminuyó significativamente en presencia de HFMA. Estos resultados mostraron que existen interacciones entre HFMA y T. harzianum que afectan tanto el desarrollo de HFMA como la densidad poblacional de T. harzianum. Los valores obtenidos para los parámetros del crecimiento de la planta evaluados sugie- ren que el efecto de la interacción entre los microorganismos sobre la planta hospe- dera es de tipo neutral.

  12. Cambios en el uso de tabaco y factores relacionados en estudiantes del sexto al noveno grado, Estado Lara, Venezuela, años 2000 y 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    Full Text Available La Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN, sistema de vigilancia basado en la escuela elemental, fue realizada en el Estado Lara, Venezuela, por una coalición de organizaciones. El instrumento incluye: actitudes, conocimientos, conductas; acceso a productos, propaganda y exposición al humo de tabaco en el ambiente. Participación 85,7% (2000 y 79,3% (2003. Prevalencias (% 2000 vs. 2003 de: "primer contacto con tabaco": sin cambios (22,8% y 22,8%; "Fumar su primer cigarrillo antes los 10 años": disminuyó en varones (21,5% y 16,7%; "Fumadores actuales": sin cambio (8,4% y 8,3%; "Fumadores que desean dejarlo": aumentó en varones (62,6% y 84,7%; "Expuestos al humo de tabaco en el ambiente en lugares públicos": aumentó (43,9% y 50,7%; "Apoya prohibir fumar en lugares públicos": sin cambios(> 80% ambos,; "Recibieron cigarrillos promocionales gratis": aumentó (9,5% a 13,4%. "No tuvieron problema al comprar": disminuyó en varones (97% y 74,3% y mujeres (95,9% y 90,3%. El tabaquismo se mantiene sin cambios lo que puede imputarse al mercadeo y a la falta de efectividad de las leyes. Los datos presentados permiten examinar políticas y programas actuales a fin de ajustarlos a la realidad.

  13. Efecto de un proceso de deshidratación con aire forzado en la composición química y nutricional de la mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus.

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    Márquez C Carlos Julio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida y contenido de vitamina C, fenoles totales, capacidad antioxidante y actividad acuosa fueron determinadas para mora deshidratada a tres niveles de temperatura (35, 50 y 65C y dos tamaños de partícula (mora troceada y mora licuada. Los resultados mostraron una disminución del contenido de la vitamina C a medida que se incrementó la temperatura de deshidratación, presentándose pérdidas superiores al 50% con respecto a la mora fresca. Tendencia similar mostró el contenido de fenoles totales, donde el tratamiento más severo disminuyó su contenido en un 26,7%. Sin embargo, la capacidad antioxidante de la mora no fue afectada severamente por el proceso de deshidratación, siendo constante su valor y equivalente al 50% en promedio respecto al BHA (Butil Hidroxianisol. La actividad acuosa del producto disminuyó a medida que se incrementó la temperatura de deshidratación, presentando valores de 0,43 para 65C y 0,96 para la mora fresca.

  14. ALMIDÓN TERMOPLÁSTICO DE YUCA REFORZADO CON FIBRA DE FIQUE: PRELIMINARES

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    GABRIELA LUNA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplearon fibras cortas de fique (Furcraea spp como material de refuerzo de una matriz termoplástica de almidón nativo de yuca (Manihot sculenta crantz. Se uso el diseño experimental factorial para analizar las propiedades mecánicas: Esfuerzo y elongación en tres mezclas de almidón más fibra de fique al 10, 15 y 20% y TPS sin fibra como blanco. El esfuerzo fue mayor para el compuesto con 10% de fibra, mientras que con 15 y 20% disminuyó. La elongación también disminuyó con el incremento del contenido de fibra. Los Datos obtenidos por DSC revelaron temperaturas de transición vítrea mas bajas para las mezclas que para la matriz termoplástica pura. MOAR reveló que contenidos de fibra del 15 y 20% interfieren en la disrupción del gránulo de almidón.

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL AND ACETYLATED THERMOPLASTIC CASSAVA STARCH

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    JOSE MINA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Almidón de Yuca natural y acetilado fueron plastifi cados empleando un extrusor de doble husillo y almacenados a 25 °C y 54 % de humedad relativa. El índice de cristalinidad, estimado como el cociente de las bandas de FTIR a 1047 (fase cristalina y a 1022 cm-1 (fase amorfa disminuyó en ambos almidones debido al proceso de plastifi cación. Mediante las micrografías de SEM se pudo observar que el proceso de plastifi cación destruyó casi por completo la estructura granular de los almidones. Los resultados de TGA mostraron que la energía de activación, Ea, disminuyó con el proceso de plastifi cación. Por otra parte se encontró que el almidón termoplástico acetilado presentó una Tg, absorción de agua y resistencia a tensión menores en comparación con el almidón termoplástico natural, mientras que su elongación a la ruptura fue mayor. Este comportamiento sugirió que la esterifi cación de los grupos hidroxilos del almidón natural redujeron las interacciones entre las cadenas del almidón plastifi cado.

  16. El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla como combustible alternativo para motores diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIRIO BENAVIDES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio experimental sobre la producción y utilización del biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla. El máximo rendimiento de metilésteres en la reacción de transesterificación del aceite de higuerilla usado se obtiene bajo las siguientes condiciones: temperatura ambiente, una relación molar metanol/aceite de 9 y una concentración de catalizador de 0.8%. El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla puede ser mezclado con el combustible diesel convencional derivado del petróleo en proporciones hasta del 15%, sin que la mezcla resultante se salga de las especificaciones de calidad estipuladas en los estándares nacionales e internacionales para combustibles diesel. La mayor dificultad para el uso del biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla en motores es su alta viscosidad. Sin embargo este biocombustible presenta excelentes propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura (valores bajos para los puntos de nube y fluidez. Las pruebas en motor con mezclas biodiesel de higuerilla/diesel convencional, en el rango de proporciones de biodiesel ensayadas, muestran que ha medida que se incrementa la proporción de biodiesel en la mezcla aumenta el consumo específico de combustible, disminuye el dosado relativo, la opacidad de humos se disminuye levemente, mientras que el rendimiento efectivo y las emisiones de CO y CO2 prácticamente permanecen constantes

  17. ROL DEL SISTEMA PREHOSPITALARIO EN EL MANEJO DEL SINDROME CORONARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Luis Herrada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, los equipos de respuesta prehospitalaria son una pieza fundamental en el pronóstico de los pacientes que presentan emergencias médicas en el extrahospitalario. Las cardiopatías isquémicas durante el periodo 1997-2007 en Chile dieron muerte a 87342 chilenos, de estas muertes, un 60% fue extrahospitalaria. El enfrentamiento de esta patología comienza en las centrales de despachos que corresponden al principal articulador de la red de urgencias. Cuando se presenta este tipo de emergencias, estas se mantienen en escucha permanente sobre las necesidades de atención de urgencia de la población, siendo el punto de consulta de pacientes con dolor torácico. Su misión es reconocer y despachar el equipo adecuado e incluso comenzar terapia. Una vez que los equipos logran contactar al paciente se debe realizar un electrocardiograma en el prehospitalario, intervención que disminuye los tiempos de diagnóstico, disminuye los tiempos a la angioplastía primaria y permite realizar un triage prehospitalario. Dentro del manejo del sindrome coronario agudo en los últimos años, la trombolisis prehospitalaria es una terapia utilizada en algunos prehospitalarios y el uso de biomarcadores también es una realidad. Estas últimas intervenciones se analizan en detalle en el siguiente artículo.

  18. Efeito de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais na apoptose de células epidermais lamelares de equinos com laminite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.P. Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da administração dos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs cetoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumine sobre o índice apoptótico de células epiteliais do tecido lamelar de cavalos com laminite induzida por administração de amido. Foram empregados 20 equinos hígidos, divididos em quatro grupos experimentais (n=5: solução salina, cetoprofeno, fenilbutazona e flunixin meglumine. O tecido lamelar foi coletado por biópsia, fixado e corado pela técnica de TUNEL. À marcação positiva por essa técnica adicionou-se a avaliação morfológica celular para identificação da apoptose. Não houve diferença significativa no índice apoptótico entre os grupos tratados com anti-inflamatórios e o controle (P>0,05. Os anti-inflamatórios não interferiram sobre o índice apoptótico possivelmente porque foram administrados após a fase prodrômica da laminite e/ou porque não são eficazes em alterar a dinâmica da apoptose. Concluiu-se que a administração de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais após a fase prodrômica da laminite não contribui para uma intervenção no curso da apoptose no tecido lamelar de cavalos com laminite quando comparados ao grupo controle não tratado. Outros estudos, com diferentes períodos de avaliação, são necessários para esclarecer os efeitos dos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais na fisiopatologia da laminite em equinos, especialmente no que concerne à participação da apoptose.

  19. Online eluent-switching technique coupled anion-exchange liquid chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai Chun; Lin, Jyh Shiun; Cheng, Cheanyeh

    2015-11-27

    A novel method for online extraction, pH-gradient separation, and analysis of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was developed by coupling online eluent-switching technique to single anion-exchange chromatographic column/ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) and used for monitoring NSAIDs residues in pig serum. A neutral eluent and a pH-gradient eluent were used for extraction and separation of NSAIDs, respectively. Each of nine NSAIDs has an MS precursor ion of either [M−H]− or [M−Na]−. The extracted ion chromatogram for a specific product ion of each NSAID was used for its quantitative analysis. The dynamic linear ranges of calibration curves were all 0–200 ng mL−1 (R2 > 0.9950). The analysis accuracies estimated by spiking standard concentrations at 20, 100, and 200 ng mL−1 were 80.5–99.9%. The corresponding intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were 2.5–14.5% and 2.9–15.2%, respectively. The limit of detection/limit of quantitation of NSAIDs were 1.3/4.3, 0.5/1.6, 0.2/0.5, 2.5/8.2, 1.5/4.9, 0.6/2.1, 0.6/2.0, 0.5/1.7, and 0.6/2.1 ng mL−1 for carprofen, diclofenac, flunixin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, meclofenamic acid sodium, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, and tolfenamic acid, respectively. After 1 h injection of a dose containing 2 mg kg−1 weight pig of flunixin and tolfenamic acid to the pigs, a residue amount of 3480 ± 36 ng mL−1 and 431 ± 13 ng mL−1, respectively, was reached for the incurred pig serum specimens and both residues were reduced to about 20 ng mL−1 at the time of 24 h.

  20. Optimización de la técnica radiográfica del tórax PA

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    Patricia Mora

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: En Costa Rica las placas PA de tórax se toman con kilovoltajes bajos (<100 kVp, en contraposición con las recomendaciones internacionales. El estudio tiene como objetivo demostrar que al aumentar el kilovoltaje, la visualización de los datos diagnósticos de objetos de bajo contraste mejora y las dosis entregadas disminuyen. Métodos: Aun total de 11 pacientes se les tomó una placa de alto kVp y otra a bajo kVp. Sobre la piel del paciente se colocaron 2 cristales TLD-100 para cuantificar las dosis de entrada, que posteriormente fueron analizados en la Sección de Dosimetría del Laboratorio de Física Nuclear de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Utilizando el criterio anatómico, 28 médicos radiólogos compararon los hallazgos radiológicos para ambas técnicas. Resultados: Al aumentar el kilovoltaje se encontró que las dosis promedio de entrada a la piel disminuyerón en un 40% y el contraste de las imágenes, disminuyó entre un 10% y un 50%. La sumatoria general para el análisis del criterio anatómico fue de 448 puntos positivos, lo que indica que el grupo de médicos visualizó mejor las estructuras anatómicas con la técnica del alto kilovoltaje. Conclusiones: La optimización del estudio del tórax con base en la razón beneficio versus riesgo radiológico, señala que la técnica del alto kVp deberá ser implementada en nuestro país, pues disminuye la dosis de radiación entregada al paciente, objetivo primordial dentro de la protección radiológica, y permite una mejor visualización de la anatomía del área estudiada, por parte del médico.

  1. Ejercicio terapéutico para epicondilalgia lateral: revisión sistemática

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    F. Araya Quintanilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La epicondilalgia lateral es una de las lesiones más comunes del brazo, siendo el músculo extensor radial corto del carpo (ERCB la estructura más afectada, por movimientos repetitivos, rápidos y monótonos, principalmente afecta entre 1-3% de la población general, siendo más común en mujeres. El ejercicio terapéutico, es uno de los elementos claves en los programas diseñados para el manejo de esta condición. Se realizará una búsqueda de la evidencia a través de una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que hayan determinado la efectividad del ejercicio terapéutico para el manejo de estos pacientes. El objetivo de esta Revisión es determinar si existe evidencia científica que avale la efectividad clínica del ejercicio terapéutico sólo o dentro de un programa de tratamiento en pacientes adultos con epicondilalgia lateral. La estrategia de bús-queda incluyó ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA y ensayos clínicos controlados (ECC; las bases de datos usadas fueron: Medline, Cinahl, PEDro, Central, Lilacs. Los resultados obtenidos fueron de treinta y seis artículos que cumplían con nuestros criterios de elegibilidad. Se concluye que existe evidencia moderada que el ejercicio terapéutico comparado con una intervención única, disminuye el dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y aumenta la fuerza libre de dolor en corto, medio y largo plazo. Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio terapéutico disminuye el dolor, y aumenta la fuerza sin dolor a corto plazo. Existe evidencia fuerte de que el ejercicio terapéutico disminuye el dolor, aumenta la fuerza y mejora la funcionalidad a corto, medio y largo plazo.

  2. Propiedades antioxidantes de los frutos secos y la disminución del colesterol total y LDL- colesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Disminuir el colesterol total y el LDL colesterol mediante el consumo de frutos secos (maní, nuez y almendras con propiedades antioxidantes para reducir el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Método: El presente trabajo es cuantitativo transversal, cuasi-experimental. Se tomó una muestra de 45 participantes del Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA, ambos sexos, entre 18 y 65 años de edad, con hipercolesterolemia total mayor a 200 mg/dL y LDL-colesterol mayor a 100 mg/dl uno o ambos alterados. Sin plan nutricional establecido, sin antecedentes de alcohol, tabaco, alergias a frutos secos, hipotiroidismo, manteniendo actividad física usual y no consumo de estatinas. Los frutos secos fueron maní, nueces y almendras, distribuidos en tres grupos, cada participante consumió 40 gramos diarios de un tipo de fruto seco por seis semanas. Se realizó un pre y post test de examen bioquímico de lípidos intravenoso. Instrumentos utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y pesa de alimentos. Estudio realizado con una confianza estadística estimada (95 %. Resultado: Todos los participantes presentan niveles altos de ambos tipos de colesterol, uno u otro.En promedio estadístico el colesterol total disminuyó 12,7 mg/dl y el LDL colesterol disminuyó 10.8mg/dl. El colesterol total promedio estadístico disminuye 11,7 mg/dl consumiendo maní, 7,7 mg/dl, consumiendo almendras y 19.4 mg/dl consumiendo nueces. En cuanto a las disminuciones del LDLcolesterol se obtienen 6.5 mg/dl consumiendo maní, 7,5 mg/dl consumiendo almendras y 18,5 mg/dl consumiendo nueces. Discusión: El consumo de los frutos secos está asociado con la disminución del colesterol total y LDL colesterol, por sus propiedades antioxidantes, que tienen un efecto protector contra enfermedades cardiovasculares.

  3. Relaciones espaciales y alimenticias del ensamblaje de reptiles del complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, departamento del Cesar (Colombia

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    Guido Fabian Medina-Rangel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer los factores ambientales que favorece la riqueza y abundancia de especies y grupos de reptiles, su preferencia por microhábitats, dieta de especies y diferencias entre hábitats en parámetros como tamaño de individuos, grado de detección y proporción de depredación, se realizaron salidas en áreas circundantes al complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, entre noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007, abarcando la época de lluvias y la época seca en cinco tipos hábitats. Los hábitats con diferencias significativas entre variables ambientales y estructurales fueron: bosque de ribera, palmar, sabanas arboladas y bosque casmófito; el bosque de ribera y bosque seco no resultaron diferentes. La inclinación del terreno y el grado de intervención antrópica fueron las variables más relacionadas con la abundancia de las especies. Al aumentar la pendiente y la intervención antrópica disminuyó la riqueza y abundancia de reptiles en general y de serpientes y lagartos; con el aumento de la temperatura media ambiental la abundancia de reptiles disminuyó. Con el aumento de la cobertura herbácea y la disminución del diámetro de los árboles, disminuyó la riqueza de lagartos y serpientes. El tamaño corporal de los reptiles no fue diferente entre hábitats, aunque las tallas pequeñas predominaron en todos. Las serpientes presentaron menores valores de detección que los lagartos. El bosque de ribera presentó los valores más altos de detección. Un quinto de todas las lagartijas presentó algún signo de depredación y fue más alta en el palmar. Los reptiles terrestres fueron los más ricos y abundantes en el estudio. Los lagartos presentaron la mayor amplitud en el uso de hábitat y microhábitat, mientras que las serpientes Helicops danieli y Leptodeira septentrionalis y los lagartos Anolis gaigei, Gonatodes albogularis y Cnemidophorus lemniscatus en el uso de alimento. Los lagartos exhibieron mayor solapamiento en el uso de los recursos.

  4. Estabilidad estructural del suelo bajo diferentes sistemas y tiempo de uso en laderas andinas de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amézquita Collazos Edgar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el impacto de largos periodos de uso del terreno en propiedades estructurales del suelo, se realizó un muestreo a 0-20 cm de profundidad en los siguientes tratamientos: Suelo no intervenido 25% de pendiente (testigo, uso en pastura por 25 años 25% de pendiente y uso agrícola rotación trigo-maíz (rt-m de 25, 45 y 70 años de uso a 12% y 25% de pendiente, en un Inceptisol de la zona de reconversión del cultivo de trigo de Nariño (2.400 a 2.800 msnm, Colombia (longitud 75° 14' oeste, latitud 0.5° 10' norte, 2710 msnm, 80% HR, 12°C. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre el tipo e intensidad de uso del suelo por largos periodos en distribución de tamaño de agregados secos al aire, estabilidad de agregados al agua y distribución de tamaño de poros. El incremento de la intensidad de uso disminuyó la estabilidad estructural y afectó la porosidad del suelo. El porcentaje de agregados estables al agua mayores a 2.0 mm fue significativamente mayor en suelo no intervenido (51.5%. El cambio a uso agrícola (rt-m durante 25, 45 y 70 años disminuyó los agregados estables mayores a 2.0 mm a 36.9%, 35.3% y 29.1% respectivamente. La porosidad total del uso en pastura disminuyó en 18% respecto al testigo y tendió a disminuir al aumentar la intensidad de uso del suelo rt-m.

  5. [GASTROSTOMY POSITIVELY AFFECTS NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DIMINISHES HOSPITAL DAYS IN PATIENTS WITH INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-López, Sara; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Juárez-Cruz, Merit Valeria; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Monroy-Santoyo, Susana; Belmont-Martínez, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento nutricional de los pacientes con errores innatos del metabolismo (EIM) implica el uso permanente de fórmulas modificadas en aminoácidos cuyas características organolépticas pueden dificultar su aceptación por vía oral. Estos pacientes pueden tener alteraciones gastrointestinales y requieren el uso constante de medicamentos, lo cual complica la adherencia al tratamiento, comprometiéndose con ello su estado nutricional y el control de la enfermedad. La gastrostomía es una alternativa para facilitar la alimentación y el tratamiento, pero existen controversias sobre su uso. Objetivo: comparar el estado nutricional y la duración de las hospitalizaciones antes y después de la realización de la gastrostomía en un grupo de pacientes con EIM. Métodos: análisis retrospectivo de datos antropométricos, número de internamientos por descompensación metabólica y su duración en pacientes pediátricos con EIM antes y después de la gastrostomía. Resultados: se analizaron 16 niños; 40% con defectos del propionato, 25% con alteraciones del ciclo de la urea y 35% con otros EIM. Después de la gastrostomía, la proporción de pacientes eutróficos aumentó del 6 al 56% y la desnutrición disminuyó del 94 al 44%. Después de la gastrostomía, la duración de los periodos hospitalarios disminuyó significativamente de 425 a 131 días (p = 0.011); el número de internamientos disminuyó de 33 antes de la intervención a 17, sin embargo, esta diferencia no tuvo significación estadística. Conclusión: en esta muestra, la gastrostomía mejoró el estado nutricional en 56% de los pacientes con EIM, y redujo significativamente los días de hospitalización por descompensación metabólica.

  6. Efecto del extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Argüello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de estimulantes de la germinación de los esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, colocados antes de la implantación del cultivo, son una alternativa de manejo de la enfermedad. Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de los esclerocios del patógeno. Extracto de puerro fue colocado en cajas de Petri con 50 esclerocios, mezclados con 10 g de suelo, a las concentraciones 50, 75 y 100% (extracto en agua. Se determinó la eficiencia sobre la germinación de los esclerocios y la viabilidad de los recuperados, no germinados, ambos a los 30 y 60 días. El extracto de puerro disminuyó el porcentaje de esclerocios recuperados. Con extracto al 100% y 75% germinaron un 32-38,5% y 31,5-35,5%, respectivamente, de los esclerocios en los dos tiempos evaluados, y valores menores se encontraron con extracto al 50%. La viabilidad de los esclerocios recuperados disminuyó entre 66,5 y 54,5%, para el extracto al 100%, y entre 68,5% y 51,5% para el extracto al 75%, a los 30 y 60 días, respectivamente. La supervivencia de los esclerocios disminuyó por la estimulación de la germinación y por la pérdida de viabilidad luego de aplicados los extractos.The use of sclerotial germination stimulants of Sclerotium cepivorum prior to crop planting is an alternative for the management of the disease. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of S. cepivorum. Aqueous leek extract at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100% were placed in Petri dishes containing 50 sclerotia mixed with 10 g soil. Both the efficacy of the extract on sclerotia germination and the viability of recovered ungerminated sclerotia were determined after 30 and 60 days. Leek extract reduced the percentage of recovered sclerotia in all cases. Percentages of germinated sclerotia ranged from 32 to 38.5% and from 31.5% to 35.5% at 100% and 75% extract concentration respectively, at

  7. Preparation Method and Curative Effect of Compound Injection of Oxytetracycline Dihydrate and Arteannuin%复方土青注射液制备方法及疗效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽华; 刘在青; 肖建森; 李莎

    2012-01-01

    试验用土霉素二水合物、青蒿素、氟尼辛葡甲胺和甲氧苄啶制成了复方土青注射液,并进行了鉴别、含量、稳定性、安全性等测定.所制成的注射液,经肌肉注射,治疗敏感的革兰氏阳性菌、阴性菌、支原体、立克次氏体及衣原体等感染性疾病,疗效极显著,平均治愈率为94.89%,比土霉素注射液平均治愈率提高67.83%.%The compound injection was prepared with oxytetracycline dihydrate, arteannuin, flunixin meglumine and trimethoprim, which was identified and measured in content, stability, and security. The re-sults showed that after intramuscular injection, its curative effect on infectious diseases caused by susceptible Gram - positive , negative bacteria, mycoplasma, rickettsia and chlamydia was very significant with the mean cure rate as 94. 89% , which was increased by 67.83% compared with oxytetracycline injection.

  8. VARIAÇÕES PLASMÁTICAS DE AMINAS VASOATIVAS EM EQUINOS SOB EFEITO DE SOBRECARGA DE CARBOIDRATOS E ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS NÃO ESTEROIDAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sampaio Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty horses were submitted to carbohydrate overload (CO and plasmatic concentrations of the bioactive amine serotonin (5-HT, putrescin (PUT and cadaverin (CAD were determined by gas chromatography. After 36h of carbohydrate overloading, horses were randomly distributed into four groups (n=5 and were submitted to four intravenous treatments every 12 hours. The treatments were as follows: 10ml of saline (GC, ketoprofen 2.2mg/kg (GK, phenylbutazone 4.4mg/kg (GF, and flunixin meglumine 1.1mg/kg (GFM. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals (0-72h after the CO. After 6h, there were peaks in the concentrations of 5-HT, which rapidly returned to values above the basal standard. No variations of PUT concentrations were observed; however CAD concentrations increased at 6h, remaining elevated (with some variation until the end of the observation period. In conclusion, CO induced early (6h increases in plasmatic concentrations of 5-HT and CAD. Plasmatic concentrations of the amines were not changed by any of the treatments used.

  9. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.

  10. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  11. A clinical study of metritis in dairy cows in the region of Batna (east of Algeria and their treatments using different therapeutic protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Adnane Smadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to make an inventory of cases of metritis in dairy cows during the post-partum period, to verify with a detailed clinical study on its real incidence in Batna region and to study the treatment of metritis, using different treatment protocols. Materials and Methods: A total of 432 dairy cows were examined during the post partum period and forty dairy cows having metritis were selected and assigned into four groups of 10 each to be treated with different drugs. Visits were programmed to track the status of uterine involution and different parameters of fecundity and fertility of cows. Result: The injection of Cloprostenol (a synthetic analogue of PGF2á has a significant effect particularly on shorter intervals from calving to the first mating, calving to positive fertilization and for the reduction of the number of services of inseminations. Similarly, the association "antibiotic+Flunixin /Meglumine has a positive effect on the parameters mentioned above . Conclusion: These results show that the double injection of Cloprostenol in the treatment of metritis improves the performance of fertility of animals and the dose of 3ml of PGF2á had succeeded in giving a positive effect on the different fertility parameters studied, compared to the dose of 2 ml. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 45-48

  12. 氟尼辛葡甲胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭腾

    2007-01-01

    氟尼辛葡甲胺(flunixin meglumine)是一种新型的、非甾体类动物专用的解热镇痛药物,属于烟酸类衍生物,是环氧化酶的抑制剂。由美国先灵葆雅公司于20世纪90年代开发(商品名为Banamine),现已在美国、法国、瑞士、德国、英国等许多国家广泛应用。齐鲁动物保健品有限公司独立研制并申报的氟尼辛葡甲胺已于2007年6月1日被农业部批准为国家三类新兽药。证书编号为(2007)新兽药证字23、24号。

  13. Lameness in cattle herd due to lime toxicity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty adult Friesian cows were presented to the University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia with primary complain of lameness. Upon physical examination of the cows, open wounds were found at the distal limbs, dorsal hoof, knee joint, metacarpal region, and udder. Based on history, clinical observation and physical examination, the cause of the lameness was diagnosed as of non-infectious origin; the cattle were affected with chemical burn originated from exposure to lime. The affected cattle were treated similarly to that of the line of open wound treatment; the wound was cleaned with topical application of the mixture of dermapred-iodine-benacillin. Flunixin meglumine dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt and Oxytetracycline dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt were given intramuscularly as anti-inflammatory and prophylactic antibiotic, respectively. This case report describes diagnosis of the cause of lameness, and its management in cattle herd caused by lime toxicity for the first time in Malaysia.

  14. Quantification of several acidic drugs in equine serum using LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Negrusz, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in racehorses is allowed under most jurisdictions. Furosemide is administered to treat exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. To help distinguish between therapeutic and illegal uses, racing regulatory bodies have set thresholds in serum for several drugs. The method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of furosemide, flunixin, ketoprofen, phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone using 500 µL of serum, and liquid extraction using diethyl ether : hexanes : dichloromethane followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantitation, was developed and validated. Method validation included inter- and intraday precision and accuracy. Method validation also included bench-top, freeze-thaw, processed and long-term storage stability testing. For all stability testing, the compounds showed a breakdown of <15%. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds was found to be within the acceptance interval of ±15% [±20% at the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)]. Accuracy data for all compounds were within the acceptance interval of ±15% (±20% at the LLOQ). Uncertainty was calculated using the simplified Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement approach and was <30% for all drugs at 95% confidence level. The method was found to be both robust and accurate for all tested drugs.

  15. Practical experience with the treatment of recipient mares with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in an equine embryo transfer programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Müller, J; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    As part of a commercial embryo transfer programme, 20 embryos were transferred to spontaneously synchronous or synchronized recipient mares. In 14 cases, embryo recipients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), receiving flunixin meglumine i.v. at the time of transfer and vedaprofen orally twice a day on the 3 days after embryo transfer, while six embryos were transferred to untreated mares that served as controls. Out of the 14 recipient mares treated with NSAID, 11 (79%) were pregnant at 6-8 days after transfer and in 10 mares, the pregnancy was continued. From the six untreated recipients, only one became pregnant but underwent early embryonic death between day 14 and 35 after ovulation. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in NSAID-treated recipients is higher than that in untreated recipients and above reported average values, indicating that treatment of recipient mares with NSAID helps to increase pregnancy rates after transcervical transfer and can be recommended for equine embryo transfer.

  16. Pain control in horses: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L C; Robertson, S A

    2014-07-01

    Currently, approaches to pain control in horses are a mixture of art and science. Recognition of overt pain behaviours, such as rolling, kicking at the abdomen, flank watching, lameness or blepharospasm, may be obvious; subtle signs of pain can include changes in facial expression or head position, location in the stall and response to palpation or human interaction. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and firocoxib), opioids (i.e. butorphanol, morphine and buprenorphine) and α2 -adrenergic agonists (i.e. xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and medetomidine) are the most commonly used therapeutic options. Multimodal therapy using constant-rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine and/or butorphanol has gained popularity for severe pain in hospitalised cases. Drugs targeting neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin, are increasingly used for conditions such as laminitis. Optimal strategies for management of pain are based upon severity and chronicity, including special considerations for use of intra-articular or epidural delivery and therapy in foals. Strategies that aim to mitigate adverse effects associated with use of various analgesic agents are briefly discussed.

  17. Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical technology now make it feasible to detect and confirm exceptionally low concentrations (pg to fg/mL) of drugs and their metabolites in equine biological fluids. These new capabilities complicate the regulatory interpretation of drug positives and bring into question the fair application of medication rules. Such approaches and policies are further complicated by the possibility that drug positives may arise from contamination of the equine environment on the backstretch of the race track. This manuscript provides data demonstrating that the general environment of the backstretch in which horses live is contaminated with therapeutic drugs and drugs of human origin. The major contaminants are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, phenylbutazone and naproxen, present in the soil in stalls, on stall surfaces, in the dust that circulates and in the lagoon waters that accumulate on the backstretch. The presence of caffeine and cotinine suggest other possible vectors for contamination by humans. Concentrations of these compounds as well as their frequency of occurrence are provided.

  18. Equine hepatocytes: isolation, cryopreservation, and applications to in vitro drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibany, Khaled A; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Pratt, Stefanie L; Paine, Stuart W

    2016-10-01

    Despite reports of the successful isolation of primary equine hepatocytes, there are no published data regarding the successful cryopreservation of these isolated cells. In this study, a detailed description of the procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, and recovery of equine hepatocytes are presented. Furthermore, the intrinsic clearance (Clint) and production of metabolites for three drugs were compared between freshly isolated and recovered cryopreserved hepatocytes. Primary equine hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step collagenase perfusion method, with an average cell yield of 2.47 ± 2.62 × 10(6) cells/g of perfused liver tissue and viability of 84.1 ± 2.62%. These cells were cryopreserved with William's medium E containing 10% fetal bovine serum with 10% DMSO. The viability of recovered cells, after a 30% Percoll gradient, was 77 ± 11% and estimated recovery rate was approximately 27%. These purified cells were used to determine the in vitro Clint of three drugs used in equine medicine; omeprazole, flunixin, and phenylbutazone, via the substrate depletion method. Cryopreserved suspensions gave a comparable estimation of Clint compared to fresh cells for these three drugs as well as producing the same metabolites. This work paves the way for establishing a bank of cryopreserved equine hepatocytes that can be used for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters such as the hepatic metabolic in vivo clearance of a drug as well as producing horse-specific drug metabolites.

  19. Dexamethasone and indomethacin modify endotoxin-induced respiratory failure in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, N C; Brown, T T; Anderson, D L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the porcine pulmonary response to endotoxemia before and after administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e., indomethacin or flunixin meglumine) or dexamethasone (DEX). Escherichia coli endotoxin was infused intravenously into anesthetized 10- to 12-wk old pigs for 4.5 h. In endotoxemic pigs, the phase 1 (i.e., 0-2 h) increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and alveolar-arterial O2 gradient and the decreases in cardiac index (CI) and lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were blocked by NSAID. Thus phase 1 changes were cyclooxygenase dependent. Furthermore, these effects were blocked or greatly attenuated by DEX. During phase 2 of endotoxemia (i.e., 2-4.5 h), the increased PVR and decreased CI and Cdyn were not blocked by NSAID but were attenuated by DEX, suggesting the presence of cyclooxygenase-independent metabolites. Both NSAID and DEX blocked the endotoxin-induced increases in lung water, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil, and BAL albumin content. The fall in plasma proteins persisted in NSAID but not DEX-treated pigs. We conclude that endotoxemia in the pig causes severe acute respiratory failure largely mediated by cyclooxygenase and possibly lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism.

  20. Effect of farrowing duration, parity number and the type of anti-inflammatory drug on postparturient disorders in sows: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sang-Gassanee, Kridtasak

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of farrowing duration, parity number, and type of anti-inflammatory drug used postpartum on the incidence of postparturient disorders in sows. The duration of farrowing and postparturient disorders were examined in 64 sows at Days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after farrowing. The sows were classified according to parity number (1, 2-4, and 5-7), duration of farrowing (primiparous sows had fever, while 52.6 and 47.6 % of sows parity 2-4 and 5-7 had a fever (P<0.05). The presence of vaginal discharge on Day 1 of the postpartum was higher in sows of parity 5-7 than sows of parity 2-4 (85.7 and 52.6 %, P=0.029). The use of flunixin méglumine after parturition in sows reduced the percentage of sows with a fever from 61.3 to 22.6 % within 2 days (P=0.002), while, the percentage of sows with a fever was not decreased in sows treated with dipyrone. It can be concluded that the incidence of postparturient disorders in sows was affected by sow parity, farrowing duration and the type of anti-inflammatory drug used. Sows with a farrowing duration of ≥ 4 h were at a high risk of having fever at Day 1 after parturition.

  1. Biochemical and pathological findings of pregnancy toxemia in Saanen doe: A case report

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    Yusuf Abba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pregnant Saanen doe aging 1.5-year and weighing 40 kg was presented to the Large Animal Unit of Universiti Putra Malaysia Veterinary Hospital with history of inability to stand up. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the animal revealed two live fetuses at late pregnancy. Blood examination revealed decreased lymphocyte numbers, and increased monocytes count. Biochemical analyses showed marked decrease in glucose level and elevated level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatine kinase (CK. The goat was administered with 200 mL 20% Dextrose (G-20, NaCl solution (at 1.3 mL/animal, Flunixine meglumine (at 2.2 mg/kg bwt, and Vitavet multivitamin (at 1 mL/10 kg bwt. The prognosis of the case was grave, and the goat was sacrificed in order to save the fetuses. However, the fetuses were died within 10 min. Necropsy of the doe showed pale, yellow and friable liver and congested lungs, while histopathological evaluation of the liver showed diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Pregnancy toxemia in doe can be prevented by providing proper nutrition.

  2. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  3. A clinical case of bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic farm in Malaysia

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    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes the management of a clinical case of trypanosomosis in an adult Friesian Sahiwal cow. Materials and methods: An adult cow aging 3 years was presented with a complain of wound infection, weakness and inappetence. Physical examination was carried out and samples were collected for laboratory investigations. Results: The clinical history revealed generalised enlargements of the pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes, pale mucous membrane and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed that the cow had normocytic normochromic anemia with hyperproteinemia. Thin blood smear examination revealed the presence of Trypanosoma evansi. Treatment was instituted with Diminazene aceturate dosed at 3.5 mg/kg bwt through intramuscular (IM route for 3 days, 20 mL of Fercobsang for 3 days, IM, Flunixin meglumine dosed at 1.1 mg/kg bwt, IM, and Oxytetracycline dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt, IM once. The wounds were cleaned daily for one week. Examination of the blood film after therapy showed no parasite. Conclusion: The findings of this case report demonstrate the importance of an effective treatment regimen in managing bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 286-291

  4. Management of fetal dystocia caused by carpal flexion in ewe: A case report

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    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia or difficulty in parturition in a ewe may need veterinary assistance for the successful parturition. An adult ewe weighing 30 kg was presented to the Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of difficulty in giving birth. Physical examination of the ewe revealed that the animal was weak and in recumbent position. Head of a dead fetus was observed as protruding out from the vulva region. Through physical evaluation of the ewe by per vaginal examination, the condition was diagnosed as fetal dystocia. Treatment and management plans given to the ewe were episiotomy and manipulative delivery of the dead fetus via mutation and traction method. Post-operative treatment was given with Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt for 3 days, and Norodine (dosed at 1 mL/16-kg bwt once intramuscularly. The case was completely cured after 2 weeks. The risk of losing the lamb as well as the ewe increases with delay in treatment of dystocia.

  5. Comparison of gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 μg/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  6. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Y.; Abdullah, F.F.J.; Daud, N.H. Bin Abu; Shaari, R. Bin; Tijjani, A.; Sadiq, M.A.; Mohammed, K.; Adamu, L.; Mohd, A.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit. PMID:26623360

  7. Utilization of the serosal scarification model of postoperative intestinal adhesion formation to investigate potential adhesion-preventing substances in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E R; Livesey, M A; Barker, I K; Hurtig, M B; Conlon, P D

    1996-01-01

    A rabbit serosal scarification model was utilized to compare the ability of four drugs, previously administered peri-operatively to horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy, to prevent the development of postoperative intestinal adhesions. The substances compared were 32% Dextran 70 (7 mL/kg), 1% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (7 mL/kg), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (30 mg/kg), and flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg). The first two were administered intra-abdominally following surgery, while the latter two were administered systemically in the peri-operative period. Fibrous adhesions were evident in all animals in the untreated serosal scarification group. No significant difference in the number of animals with adhesions was found between the untreated control group and any treatment group, nor among the treatment groups. Microscopic examination of adhesions collected at postmortem examination revealed fibers consistent with cotton, surrounded by a giant-cell reaction and ongoing acute inflammation. The source of the fibers was likely the cotton laparotomy sponges used to scarify the intestinal surface, since the pattern in the granuloma and sponge fibers appeared similar under polarized light. Though consistent intestinal adhesion formation was produced in the rabbit, the presence of foreign body granulomas may prevent consideration of this model for future research. The drugs tested were ineffective in preventing the formation of postoperative small intestinal adhesions in this model. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8904667

  8. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

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    Javad Tajik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine, the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  9. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Javad; Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; paidar, Amin; Anousheh, Samaneh; Dehghani, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g) and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular antibiotic (ampicillin) and anti inflammatory agent (flunixin meglumine), the food consumption, clinical signs and faecal consistency were normal, and faecal examination revealed no parasite. Presence of no other pathogen in faecal samples, and concurrent disappearance of clinical signs and absence of the parasite in the faeces confirmed a diagnosis of balantidiasis. There are only two previous reports about the balantidiasis in camel and the current report is the first report of camel balantidiasis in Iran and supports the proposed role of camels as a reservoir host for Balantidium coli in Iran.

  10. Prognostic indicators of poor outcome in horses with laminitis at a tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, James A.; Parsons, Corrina Snook; Capewell, Linda; Smith, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated the factors associated with a poor outcome (death by euthanasia or from other causes) in horses treated for laminitis at a tertiary care hospital. Cases (n = 247) were defined as patients with laminitis that were euthanized or that died of other causes during hospitalization. Controls (n = 344) were patients with laminitis that survived to be discharged from the hospital. In the final multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk for death and their respective odds ratios (OR) were as follows: Thoroughbred (OR = 1.57); racehorse (OR = 1.76); treatment with flunixin meglumine (OR = 1.76); vascular pathology (OR = 2.12); distal displacement of the third phalanx (OR = 2.68); pneumonia (OR = 2.87); and lameness of Obel grade II (OR = 2.99), grade III (OR = 9.63), or grade IV (OR = 20.48). The use of glue-on shoes significantly reduced the risk for death (OR = 0.36). PMID:20808574

  11. Foaling rates and risk factors for abortion in pregnant mares presented for medical or surgical treatment of colic: 153 cases (1993–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenier, Tracey S.; Whitehead, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine foaling rates in mares presented for medical or surgical treatment of colic, and to examine risk factors associated with abortion following colic. A retrospective analysis of 153 medical records found that mares treated surgically for colic (P = 0.0007) were 3.5 times more likely to have a negative pregnancy outcome than were mares treated medically for colic. Anesthetic time (P = 0.01) and intra-operative hypotension (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with negative pregnancy outcome. Mares with an anesthetic time ≥ 3 h were 6 times more likely to abort. Signs of endotoxemia (P = 0.30), hypoxia (P = 0.89), flunixin meglumine administration (P = 0.13), mucous membrane color at the time of presentation (P = 0.82) and capillary refill time (P = 0.76) were not associated with pregnancy outcome. There was no difference in the foaling rate for mares that had received progestin supplementation versus those that had not (P = 0.42). In this study, the significant risk factors for abortion were surgically treated colic, long anesthetic time, and intraoperative hypotension. PMID:19436632

  12. Evaluation of a vessel-sealing device for use in laparoscopic ovariectomy in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Reese; Rakestraw, Peter; Taylor, Tex

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate a vessel-sealing instrument (LigaSure) as a method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Prospective study. Thirteen mares (8 experimental, 5 patients), aged 2 to 20 years and weighing 405 to 500 kg. Thirteen mares had standing bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy using a vessel-sealing device (LigaSure) to provide hemostasis. Eight reproductively normal experimental mares were divided into 2 groups: 1 group was re-examined laparoscopically 72 hours and the other group 10 days after the initial standing laparoscopic ovariectomy. The vessel-sealing device uses high current and low voltage, along with pressure, to reorganize the collagen into a translucent seal to achieve hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. No major operative or postoperative complications were encountered. Complete hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle was accomplished. One mare had a fever for 24 hours' postoperatively; this responded to a single dose of flunixin meglumine. The LigaSure appears to be a safe method for hemostasis of the ovarian vasculature. Benefits of the LigaSure include no foreign material remaining in the abdomen and minimal to no need for surgical dissection before application. The LigaSure eliminates complications with potential ligature slippage and bleeding during dissection. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  13. Medical treatment of osteoarthritis in the horse - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Laurie R; Nixon, Alan J

    2006-01-01

    The medical treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in the horse is one of the most utilized therapeutic regimens in the equine practice. It is important to understand the anatomy of synovial joints and the pathophysiology of the disease process to treat OA adequately. Once a thorough understanding of the disease process is comprehended the proper combination of systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intraarticular steroids, viscosupplementation and chondroprotectants can be used to treat the disease and inhibit further progression of degenerative changes to the cartilage surface. The equine practitioner is faced with many choices for controlling inflammation in OA. This review presents the background and appropriate uses of various NSAIDs such as phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, naproxen, and carprofen as well as their associated toxicities. Various steroid formulations exist for intraarticular (IA) administration and much has been learned in the past decade regarding correct dosage, frequency of administrations, indications and toxicity. This review presents IA steroids and their indications in addition to various chondroprotective drugs that also exist to control inflammation and provide viscosupplementation. Data are also given on disease modifying OA drugs such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate that have more recently become available to the equine practitioner.

  14. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  15. RESULTS OF THE MEGAVERTEBRATE ANALGESIA SURVEY: ELEPHANTS AND RHINO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M

    2016-03-01

    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety.

  16. Determination by high-performance liquid chromatography of phenylbutazone in samples of plasma from fighting bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M I González; Sánchez, González C I; Jiménez, Hernández; Cachán, García; Castro, de Cabo M J; Cuadrado, A L Garzón

    2002-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible presence of phenylbutazone in plasma samples from fighting bulls killed in 2nd and 3rd category bullrings in the province of Salamanca (Spain) in 1998, 1999 and 2000. For quantitative and qualitative determination, a high-performance liquid chromatograph was used, equipped with a photodiode-array detector and setting wavelengths at 240, 254 and 284 nm. The mobile phase optimized for the simultaneous detection of dexamethasone, betamethasone, flunixin and phenylbutazone, was 0.01 M acetic acid pH 3 in methanol (35:65 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Plasma samples were deproteinized with 400 microl of acetonitrile and 20 microl of the supernatant were injected directly into the chromatographic system equipped with a Lichrospher 60 RP select B column and guard column. For the quantitative analysis, standard calibration curves were made in a concentration range between 0.25 and 30 microg/ml, using betamethasone as internal standard. The retention time of phenylbutazone was 8.7 +/- 0.2 min and recovery was 83%. The detection and quantification limits were 0.016 and 0.029, respectively for A=240 nm. The study results show that 17 of the 74 samples analyzed in 1998, 18 of those from 1999 and 10 of those from 2000 were positive for phenylbutazone.

  17. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Y; Abdullah, F F J; Daud, N H Bin Abu; Shaari, R Bin; Tijjani, A; Sadiq, M A; Mohammed, K; Adamu, L; Mohd, A M L

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine(®)24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit.

  18. Asistencia miocárdica con matrices bioartificiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Trainini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la cardiomioplastia celular es regenerar el miocardio mediante el implante de células vivas. Sin embargo, en corazones isquémicos hay alteraciones en la matriz extracelular. El colágeno tipo I, responsable del soporte estructural, disminuye desde el 80% al 40%, mientras que el colágeno tipo III aumenta del 10% al 35%. De esta manera, se hace importante asociar las células implantadas con una matriz extracelular bioartificial. El propósito de esta revisión es evaluar la performance de las células junto con una matriz biodegradable ubicadas en la superficie ventricular izquierda.

  19. Eliminación del plomo por curado casero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Sánchez Luisa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el curado ácido como medida preventiva para reducir el contenido de plomo en vasijas de barro vidriadas. Material y métodos. En 27 vasijas de barro procedentes de cuatro estados de México se determinó, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, el nivel de plomo residual, después de cuatro lavados con ácido acético al 3%. Resultados. El contenido de plomo en el ácido acético utilizado para lavar las vasijas disminuyó proporcionalmente con el número de lavados, aunque se conservó por arriba de los niveles permisibles (2.5-7.0 p.p.m.. Conclusiones. El curado ácido de piezas de barro no es una medida preventiva útil para reducir la exposición a plomo.

  20. Mujeres y organización social en la gestión del agua para consumo humano y uso doméstico en Berriozábal, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Gutiérrez Villalpando

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza la organización comunitaria en la gestión del agua para consumo humano y uso doméstico y el papel que juegan las mujeres en ella en las localidades urbanas y rurales de las subcuencas Río Sabinal y Cañón del Sumidero en Berriozábal, Chiapas. El agua es suficiente, pero en la época de sequía disminuye y no alcanza para cubrir los requerimientos de quienes se benefician de estas fuentes. Por ello, las mujeres tienen que asumir la responsabilidad de abastecer el agua que se utiliza en el hogar, lo que les genera más carga de trabajo.