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Sample records for fluid rhinorrhoea diagnosis

  1. The value of 3D-FIESTA MRI in detecting non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea: correlations with endoscopic endonasal surgery.

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    Xie, Tao; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Liu, Tengfei; Ding, Hailing; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the value of three-dimensional (3D) fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea and compared it with regular MRI and 3D magnetisation prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) MRI sequences, as well as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging. We also present the endoscopic experiences of such cases. From June 2011 to Feb 2016, 17 patients with non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea were included. Seven patients had spontaneous rhinorrhoea, three patients had invasive tumours, and the remaining patients had traumatic aetiologies. All the patients underwent HRCT, regular MRI sequence imaging, 3D-MPRAGE MRI sequence imaging and 3D-FIESTA MRI sequence imaging for the preoperative evaluations of the leakages. For each patient, the CSF fistula site was confirmed by intraoperative neuronavigation and endoscopic findings. Statistical analyses were performed. All patients underwent endoscopic multilayer repair. The sensitivities of the HRCT, regular MRI (T1 and T2), 3D-MPRAGE and 3D-FIESTA modalities for identifying CSF leakage were 58.8 %, (11.8 % and 29.4 %), 74.7 %, and 88.2 %, respectively. The origins of the leakages included the cribriform plate (18 %), ethmoidal fovea (23 %), lateral recess of the sphenoid (17 %), sellar floor (12 %), ethmoidal roof (12 %), junction of the fovea and cribriform plate (6 %) and the junction of sellar and sphenoidal planum (6 %). Two patients required repair. The first was under local anaesthesia when the nasal packing was removed, and the second underwent repair at the same site a half-year later due to hydrocephalus. Lumbar drainage was performed in all cases. No major complications were encountered. The endoscopic endonasal approach is safe and effective for the treatment of CSF rhinorrhoea. The 3D-FIESTA MR modality is superior to 3D-MPRAGE MR and HRCT

  2. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

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    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistent CSF Rhinorrhoea, Pneumocephalus, and Recurrent Meningitis Following Misdiagnosis of Olfactory Neuroblastoma

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    Neil Barua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female patient was admitted with streptococcal meningitis on a background of 5-month history of CSF rhinorrhoea. Imaging revealed an extensive skull base lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, the pituitary fossa with suprasellar extension and bony destruction. Histological examination of an endonasal transethmoidal biopsy suggested a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. A profuse CSF leak occurred and the patient developed coliform meningitis. A second endonasal endoscopic biopsy was undertaken which demonstrated the tumour to be a prolactinoma. Following endonasal repair of the CSF leak and lumbar drainage, she developed profound pneumocephalus. The patient underwent three further unsuccessful CSF leak repairs. Definitive control of the CSF leak was finally achieved through a transcranial approach with prolonged lumbar drainage. This case illustrates some of the potentially devastating complications which can occur as a consequence of complex skull base lesions. A multidisciplinary approach may be required to successfully manage such cases.

  4. Rhinorrhoea from a frontal encephalocele after reduction of high intracranial pressure.

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    Yilmaz, Cem; Gulsen, Salih; Altinors, Nur; Caner, Hakan

    2008-12-01

    Acquired non-traumatic frontal sinus encephaloceles are very rare lesions that are usually caused by a tumour or hydrocephalus. We present a 31-year-old woman with a frontal sinus encephalocele who developed rhinorrhoea after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt to treat her hydrocephalus and underwent radiotherapy for a tectum tumour.

  5. Spontaneous CFS rhinorrhoea: role of computerized opaque cisternography; Rhinorrhee cerebro-spinale spontanee: place de la cisternographie opaque computerisee

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    Jouini, S.; Saidane, S.; Maamouri, M.; Shili, S.; Menif, E.; Ben Hajel, H.; El Khedim, A.; Ben Jaafar, M.; Belkahia, A. [Hopital La Rabtan Tunis (Tunisia)

    1995-12-31

    Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea, secondary to trauma in the great majority of cases, is very rare (3-4%). The authors report a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea secondary to an ethmoidal osteo-dural defect, diagnosed by digital cisternography and confirmed by the surgical operation. The value of digital opaque cisternography and its place in the diagnostic arsenal are discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Relative Etiological Importance of Adenoid Hypertrophy Versus Sinusitis in Children with Persistent Rhinorrhoea

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    Maheswaran, S; Rupa, V.; Ebenezer, Jareen; Manoharan, Anand; Irodi, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Persistent rhinorrhoea is a common, yet often neglected, problem among Indian children. This study was designed to evaluate the relative etiological importance of adenoid hypertrophy versus sinusitis in children with persistent rhinorrhea. Additionally, the association between S. pneumoniae colonization and adenoid hypertrophy was studied. Children aged 1–14 years with persistent rhinorrhea underwent clinical evaluation, rigid nasal endoscopy and xrays of the nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses...

  7. Relative etiological importance of adenoid hypertrophy versus sinusitis in children with persistent rhinorrhoea.

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    Maheswaran, S; Rupa, V; Ebenezer, Jareen; Manoharan, Anand; Irodi, Aparna

    2015-03-01

    Persistent rhinorrhoea is a common, yet often neglected, problem among Indian children. This study was designed to evaluate the relative etiological importance of adenoid hypertrophy versus sinusitis in children with persistent rhinorrhea. Additionally, the association between S. pneumoniae colonization and adenoid hypertrophy was studied. Children aged 1-14 years with persistent rhinorrhea underwent clinical evaluation, rigid nasal endoscopy and xrays of the nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses to ascertain the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and sinusitis using standard criteria. Nasopharyngeal swabbing to ascertain the presence of nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae was also performed. Adenoid hypertrophy was more consistently associated with persistent rhinorrhea than sinusitis (p adenoid hypertrophy and sinusitis occurred in 57 %. S. pneumoniae was cultured in only 29 % of children. Up to 47 % of patients had features of nasal allergy. There was no association between S. pneumoniae colonization and adenoid hypertrophy (p = 0.1). Adenoid hypertrophy is an important cause of persistent rhinorrhea in children. Measures to evaluate for and treat adenoid hypertrophy should be instituted early to alleviate the problem of persistent rhinorrhoea in children. S. pneumoniae colonization of the nasopharynx is not a major etiological factor for persistent rhinorrhoea in these children. Nasal allergy may be a cause of adenoid hypertrophy in roughly half the children.

  8. Defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis: excess fluid volume.

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    Narriman Silva De Oliveira Boery, Rita; Bottura Leite De Barros, Alba Lúcia; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2008-01-01

    A descriptive exploratory study about the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis: excess fluid volume, founde by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association – NANDA. Carried out in an institution in São Paulo, SP, it aimed at the detection of the usage and significance assigned to the defining characteristics, as well as the skills associated to the propaedeutic procedures used in nursing clinical practice to determine such diagnosis. Data were collected through a questionnair...

  9. Pitfalls in cerebrospinal fluid test for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis.

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    Al-Semari, A M; Bohlega, S I; Cupler, E J; Al-Watban, J A; McLean, D R

    2001-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid tests in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Two hundred and seven cerebrospinal fluid-Venereal Disease Research Laboratories tests were performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1992 and 1997. The records of 14 cases with progressive neurological disease and reactive serum fluorescent treponemal absorbent antibodies or treponemal pallidum hemagglutination test were reviewed for clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and Venereal Disease Research Laboratories, neuro-imaging abnormalities and compatibility with the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made if the patient had reactive serum fluorescent treponemal absorbent antibodies or treponemal pallidum hemagglutination, history of progressive neurological disease and increased cerebrospinal fluid cells or protein. None of the 207 cerebrospinal fluid-Venereal Disease Research Laboratories tests were reactive. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made in 10 out of 14 cases with progressive neurological disease and reactive serum rapid plasma reagin, fluorescent treponemal absorbent antibodies and treponemal pallidum hemagglutination. We conclude that if reactive cerebrospinal fluid-Venereal Disease Research Laboratories is required to confirm or diagnose neurosyphilis, most cases will be overlooked.

  10. Incidence, diagnosis and pathophysiology of amniotic fluid embolism.

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    Ito, F; Akasaka, J; Koike, N; Uekuri, C; Shigemitsu, A; Kobayashi, H

    2014-10-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare clinical entity, sometimes fatal. A review was conducted to describe the frequency, diagnosis and pathophysiology of AFE. The reported incidences ranged from 1.9 cases per 100,000 maternities (UK) to 6.1 per 100,000 maternities (Australia), which can vary considerably, depending on the period, region of study and the definition. Although the development of amniotic fluid-specific markers would have an impact on early diagnosis, definition of AFE based on these markers is not widely accepted. To date, immunological mechanisms, amniotic fluid-dependent anaphylactic reaction and complement activation, have been proposed as potential pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms. Immune cell activation induced through complement activation may be associated with the mechanism that immediately initiates maternal death, only in susceptible individuals. This review will focus on advances in the field of AFE biology and discuss the prevalence, diagnosis and pathophysiology of AFE.

  11. [Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease].

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    da Costa, Andreia Gomes; Gago, Miguel Fernandes; Garrett, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    In current medical practice, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease remains essentially clinical. This practice determines that the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is done in an already advanced neuropathological stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to review the validity of cerebrospinal fluid protein biological markers in the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The a-synuclein and DJ-1 proteins, due to their role in the hereditary Parkinson's disease, have been the most widely studied cerebrospinal biomarkers. Nevertheless, they have had divergent results mostly owing to different processing, identification and control of laboratory techniques. The new proteomic techniques, directed to the detection of multiple undifferentiated proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (eg. ceruloplasmin, chromogranin B, apoH), are promising. The early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is imperious as it is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes extensive morbidity. Most of current scientific research in Parkinson's disease is focused on the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. Thus, the definition of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is highly relevant.

  12. Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in Amniotic Fluid Embolism

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    Michael D. Benson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Current thinking about pathophysiology has shifted away from embolism toward a maternal immune response to the fetus. Two immunologic mechanisms have been studied to date. Anaphylaxis appears to be doubtful while the available evidence supports a role for complement activation. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE remains a clinical diagnosis. It is diagnosed based on one or more of four key signs/symptoms: cardiovascular collapse, respiratory distress, coagulopathy, and/or coma/seizures. The only laboratory test that reliably supports the diagnosis is the finding of fetal material in the maternal pulmonary circulation at autopsy. Perhaps the most compelling mystery surrounding AFE is not why one in 20,000 parturients are afflicted, but rather how the vast majority of women can tolerate the foreign antigenic presence of their fetus both within their uterus and circulation?

  13. Prenatal toxoplasmosis diagnosis from amniotic fluid by PCR

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    Vidigal Paula Vieira Teixeira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common infections all over the world. Most cases are asymptomatic, except in immunosuppressed individuals and fetuses, which can be seriously damaged. Prenatal diagnosis should be made as soon as possible since treatment of the mother can minimize fetal sequelae. Our aim in this study was to test the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR in 86 samples of amniotic fluid from women who seroconverted during pregnancy. DNA was amplified using external primers and, in a second step, internal primers, in a nested PCR system. Samples were also inoculated into mice and the newborn were evaluated by T. gondii serology, skull x-ray, transfontanel ultrasound, fundoscopic examination, lumbar puncture and clinical examination. PCR was positive in seven cases and negative in 79. Among PCR-positive cases, two were negative by inoculation into mice and by clinical evaluation; among PCR-negative ones, three had clinical evidence of toxoplasmosis and one was positive after inoculation into mice. PCR showed values of sensitivity = 62.5% and specificity = 97.4%; the values of inoculation into mice where 42.9% and 100%, respectively. Although PCR should not be used alone for prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, it is a promising method and deserves more studies to improve its efficacy.

  14. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    Introduction Oral fluid testing has been suggested as an alternative diagnostic approach for surveillance of pathogens in swine herds3. In Denmark oral fluid has been used for detection of PCV22 and swine veterinarians are eager to use it for diagnosis of other pathogens. The aim of the present s...... in this study is applicable for PRRS surveillance and diagnosis under Danish conditions....

  15. New Biochemical Parameters in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascitic Fluids

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    Angeleri, Anabela; Rocher, Adriana; Caracciolo, Beatriz; Pandolfo, Marcela; Palaoro, Luis; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the cases of ascitis, it is essential to determine their origin using the parameters obtained by the cytological and biochemical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different biochemical markers and the number of cells in the differential diagnosis of ascitic fluid (AF). Methods One hundred ninety-one cases of AF were studied, who were admitted to the hospital from January 01, 2009 to December 31, 2014. One hundred fifty-two of them were included in the analysis, and the remaining 39 were excluded because they had more than one associated pathology, clotted or hemolyzed. Results The more frequent etiologies of AF were the cirrhosis (29%), the infections (22%) and the neoplasies (19%). Other pathologies reached 16%. Cutoff > 300 cells/mm3 detected the 78% of exudates. The AF/serum (S) of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (> 0.5), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (> 0.6), proteins (PT) (> 0.5), cholesterol (COL) (> 0.4), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 0.5) correctly detected 80%, 78%, 72%, 70% and 70% of the exudates, respectively. Conclusion We proposed the utilization of a new cutoff of cellular counting, major of 300/mm3, since it would allow improving the detection of exudate ascites, without including the transudate ascites. AST AF/serum ratio (AF/S) showed the major usefulness in the differentiation and characterization of AF; LDH, proteins, cholesterol and ALT might be also acceptable in the above mentioned differentiation. The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) turned out to be a good marker of portal hypertension associated with cirrhotic processes. Creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase (AMI), total bilirubin (TB), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (GLU) did not allow differentiating exudates from transudates. PMID:27785319

  16. Cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid supernatant for prenatal diagnosis.

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    Soltani, M; Nemati, M; Maralani, M; Estiar, M A; Andalib, S; Fardiazar, Z; Sakhinia, E

    2016-04-30

    In widespread conviction, amniotic fluid is utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Amniotic fluid supernatant is usually discarded, notwithstanding being a good source of fetal DNA. The aim of the present study was to assess cell-free fetal DNA extracted from amniotic fluid supernatant for application in prenatal diagnosis such as gender determination and early diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Samples of amniotic fluid of 70 pregnant women were collected and went through routine tests along with tests for cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant. The DNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant was extracted and analyzed for gender determination by PCR and Real-time PCR. ARMS-PCR was applied to test early diagnosis of IVS II-I mutation (common β-thalassemia mutation) and E7V mutation for sickle cell anemia using DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant. Using the cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant, the sensitivity of PCR and Real-time PCR for gender detection was compared with the routine cytogenetic method. The fetus tested for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia was observed to be healthy but heterozygous for IVS II-I mutation. The findings indicated that cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant can be a good source of fetal DNA and be used in early prenatal diagnosis since because of its fast and accurate application. Therefore, it would be suggested that the amniotic fluid supernatant's disposal is prevented because if the tests needs to be repeated, cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant can be used as an alternative source for prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay for Neurosyphilis Diagnosis.

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    Marra, Christina M; Maxwell, Clare L; Dunaway, Shelia B; Sahi, Sharon K; Tantalo, Lauren C

    2017-06-01

    Limited data suggest that the cerebrospinal fluid Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (CSF-TPPA) is sensitive and a CSF Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (CSF-TPHA) titer of ≥1:640 is specific for neurosyphilis diagnosis. CSF-TPPA reactivity and titer were determined for a convenience sample of 191 CSF samples from individuals enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis (training data set). The sensitivity of a reactive test and the specificity for reactivity at serial higher CSF dilutions were determined. Subsequently, CSF-TPPA reactivity at a 1:640 dilution was determined for all available samples from study participants enrolled after the last training sample was collected (validation data set, n = 380). Neurosyphilis was defined as (i) a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (CSF-VDRL), (ii) detection of T. pallidum in CSF by reverse transcriptase PCR, or (iii) new vision loss or hearing loss. In the training data set, the diagnostic sensitivities of a reactive CSF fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (CSF-FTA-ABS) and a reactive CSF-TPPA did not differ significantly (67 to 98% versus 76 to 95%). The specificity of a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was significantly higher than that of lower dilutions and was not significantly different from that of CSF-VDRL. In the validation data set, the diagnostic specificity of a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was high and did not differ significantly from that of CSF-VDRL (93 to 94% versus 90 to 91%). Ten CSF samples with a nonreactive CSF-VDRL had a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640. If a CSF-TPPA titer of ≥1:640 was used in addition to a reactive CSF-VDRL, the number of neurosyphilis diagnoses would have increased from 47 to 57 (21.3%). A CSF-TPPA titer cutoff of ≥1:640 may be useful in identifying patients with neurosyphilis when CSF-VDRL is nonreactive. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Contribution of neonatal amniotic fluid testing to diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

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    Filisetti, Denis; Yera, Hélène; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%).

  19. Antinuclear antibody testing in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

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    Porcel, J M; Ordi-Ros, J; Esquerda, A; Vives, M; Madroñero, A B; Bielsa, S; Vilardell-Tarrés, M; Light, R W

    2007-01-01

    We sought to determine whether measuring antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and their specificities [dsDNA, extractable nuclear antigens (ENA)] on pleural fluid may contribute to the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. ANA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cells in the pleural fluid of 266 patients with effusions of different etiologies, including 15 lupus pleuritis. The cutoff value for diagnostic use was set at 1:160. Pleural fluid analysis of specific autoantibodies, such as anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA, was also performed if a positive ANA test was obtained. All patients with lupus pleurisy and 16 of 251 (6.4%) patients with pleural effusions secondary to other causes were ANA positive. Fifty-six percent of the positive ANAs in non-lupus pleural fluids were due to neoplasms. The pleural fluid ANA titers were low (pleuritis from non-lupus etiologies, the absence of pleural fluid anti-dsDNA or anti-ENA favored the latter. ANAs in pleural fluid provided no additional diagnostic information beyond that obtained by the measurement in serum and, therefore, these tests need not be routinely performed on pleural fluid samples. However, in patients with SLE and a pleural effusion of uncertain etiology, lack of ANAs or specific autoantibodies in pleural fluid argues against the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-beta Isoforms for Early and Differential Dementia Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P.; Streffer, Johannes R.; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-beta (A beta) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. Objective: To de

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid P-tau(181P) : biomarker for improved differential dementia diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struyfs, Hanne; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Goossens, Joery; Fransen, Erik; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the value of tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181p)) in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker panel for differential dementia diagnosis in autopsy confirmed AD and non-AD patients. The study population consisted of 140 aut

  2. Ascitic fluid analysis for diagnosis and monitoring of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliviero Riggio; Stefania Angeloni

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid is essential for the diagnosis and management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). To date, PMN cell count is routinely performed by traditional manual counting. However, this method is time-consuming, costly, and not always timely available. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to develop an alternative test for a more rapid diagnosis and monitoring of SBP. The use of urinary reagent strips was proposed to achieve an "instant" bedside diagnosis of SBP. A series of reports evaluated the urine strip test for SBP diagnosis and reported promising results. However, a recent large multicenter study revealed a surprising lack of diagnostic efficacy of the urine screening test for SBP diagnosis. Another method, more recently proposed as an alternative to the manual PMN count, is the measurement of lactoferrin in ascitic fluid, but the data available on the diagnostic value of this test are limited to a single study. However,both urinary reagent strips and ascitic lactoferrin tests are qualitative methods and need, therefore, to be further confirmed by standard cytology of the ascitic fluid.To date, the only quantitative method proposed as a valid alternative to manual PMN counting is automated blood cell counters, commonly used in all laboratories for blood cell counting. Data available in the literature on the diagnostic performance of this method are limited but very promising, and this tool seems to have the potential to replace the manual counting method.

  3. [Diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism with blood samples by liquid-based cytology technique].

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    Liu, Bao-qin; Deng, Jian-qiang; Hou, An-chao; Cai, Ji-feng

    2014-12-01

    To establish the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism with blood samples by liquid-based cytology technique and to study the validity of method. The blood samples were collected from patients who suffered from amniotic fluid embolism. The components of amniotic fluid in blood samples were examined with blood smear by two direct smear methods (supernatant smear, sediment smear) and two liquid-based cytology methods (automatic smear, manual smear). The positive detection rate of each method was calculated. The positive detection rates of two liquid-based cytology methods (84.6% and 92.3%, respectively) were much higher than those of two direct methods (53.8% and 61.5%, respectively). The liquid-based cytology technique could improve the positive detection rate of amniotic fluid embolism.

  4. MR Cholangiography and Dynamic Examination of Duodenal Fluid in the Differential Diagnosis between Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia and Infantile Hepatitis Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and dynamic examination of duodenal fluid in the differential diagnosis between extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) and infantile hepatitis syndrome (IHS), 52 pa tients with infantile cholestatic jaundice were examined by MRC and duodenal fluid examination. Original interpretations were compared with clinical outcome. Calculated sensitivity of duodenal fluid examination in diagnosis of EHBA was 100%, and specificity was 91.1%. Sensitivity of MRC in the diagnosis of EHBA was 94.4 % and specificity 88.24 %. The sensitivity of MRC and examination of duodenal fluid combined in diagnosis of EHBA was 94.4 % and specificity 97.06 %. We are led to conclude that MRC and dynamic examination of duodenal fluid are useful in the differential diagnosis between IHS and EHBA and the combined use of the two techniques yield better resutls.

  5. Adenosine deaminase in CSF and pleural fluid for diagnosis of tubercular meningitis and pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Nepal, A K; Gyawali, N; Poudel, B; Mahato, R V; Lamsal, M; Gurung, R; Baral, N; Majhi, S

    2012-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases in developing countries including Nepal. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis results in poor prognosis of the disease. This study was conducted to estimate diagnostic cut off values of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and pleural fluid and to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ofADA in pleural fluid and CSF from patients with tuberculous and non-tuberculous disease. A total of 98 body fluid (CSF: 24, Pleural fluid: 74) specimens were received for the estimation of ADA. ADA activity was measured at 37 degrees C by spectrophotometric method of Guisti and Galanti, 1984 at 625nm wavelength. Among the patients enrolled for the study subjects for which CSF were received (n = 24) included 8 tuberculous meningitis (TBM), and 16 non-tubercular meningitis (NTM). Pleural fluid samples (n = 74) were received from 19 pulmonary TB with pleural effusion, 17 PTB without pleural effusion and 37 of non-tuberculous disease patients. CSF ADA activity were (11. 1 +/- 2.03 IU/L) and (5.3 +/- +1.89 IU/L) (p <00001) in TM and non-NTM groups and Pleural fluid ADA activity were (10 +/- 22.18 IU/L) and (23.79 +/- 11.62 IU/L) (p < 0.001) in PTB and non-TB groups respectively. ADA test in body fluids, which is simple, cost-effective and sensitive, specific for the tubercular disease is recommended to perform before forwarding the cumbersome and expensive procedures like culture and PCR for TB diagnosis.

  6. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

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    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  7. Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever.

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    Mur, Lina; Gallardo, Carmina; Soler, Alejandro; Zimmermman, Jeffrey; Pelayo, Virginia; Nieto, Raquel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Arias, Marisa

    2013-07-26

    African swine fever (ASF) is a complex, highly lethal, notifiable disease of swine. ASF is wide-spread in sub-Saharan Africa and East European countries and there is presently a great risk of spread to neighboring countries. Since there is no vaccine for ASF virus (ASFV), control is based on rapid and early detection of the disease via surveillance. This approach requires collecting blood samples from large number of animals. Laborious and expensive of itself, this process also presents an additional risk because ASFV is present at high concentrations in the blood. The objective of this study was to initiate studies into the potential use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum for ASF diagnosis, for latter studying its possible use in surveillance and control programs. To this end, oral fluid samples collected at different times post infection from eight pigs experimentally inoculated with an attenuated ASFV were assayed using modified protocols of the two validated serological techniques, the enzyme-immune-liked assay (ELISA) and immunoperoxidase technique (IPT). Antibodies against ASFV were detected in oral fluid samples of all animals from early post infection through the end of the experiment by ELISA and IPT. These results confirmed the presence of ASFV antibodies in swine oral fluids samples, the possibility of an oral fluid-based approach in ASF diagnosis and, potentially in ASF surveillance.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using bronchial lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Masahito; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Komeno, Yukiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Ohishi, Nobuya; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detection of Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but it has not yet been able to distinguish infection from contamination. We have established a technique to quantify Aspergillus DNA using a real-time PCR method to resolve this problem, and we report herein a successful application of real-time PCR to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by comparing the amount of Aspergillus DNA in bronchial lavage fluid from an affected area to that from an unaffected area. This novel tool will provide rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  9. [The role of biology in the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaouti, K; Kraoul, L; Alyousef, L; Lahoud, G Abi; Rousset, S Brovedani; Lancelin, F; Mouchet, E; Piketty, M-L

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leakage is a rare but critical condition with a substantial risk of intracranial infection, therefore its diagnosis and treatment is of major importance. CSF leakage diagnostic can be a challenging problem. Nephelometric measurement of beta-trace protein in the liquorrhoea is a non-invasive and fast method that can be used for CSF leakage diagnosis. It should kept in mind, however, that the cut-off of 1.1 mg/L is not suitable for patients with bacterial meningitis and those with a reduced glomerular filtration rate. Complementary use of beta-trace protein assay and beta2-transferrin detection is therefore recommended.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Yang, Yan-ling; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Shi, Chun-yan; Song, Jin-qing; Sayami, Sujan; Liu, Ping; Yan, Rong; Dong, Jin-hua; Qin, Jiong

    2008-02-05

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China. Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA. However, since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid, the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses. The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA. The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated. Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16 - 24 weeks of gestation. Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS, propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS, and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In two pregnancies, high levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, propionylcarnitine, and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses. One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment, and the other terminated her pregnancy. In one pregnancy, significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, and propionylcarnitine, and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus; abortion was performed on this case. In the other six pregnancies, all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine. The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation. The level of total

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excessive fluid volume diagnosis in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel da Conceição Dias Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the excess fluid volume nursing diagnosis of NANDA International, in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Method: this was a study of diagnostic accuracy, with a cross-sectional design, performed in two stages. The first, involving 100 patients from a dialysis clinic and a university hospital in northeastern Brazil, investigated the presence and absence of the defining characteristics of excess fluid volume. In the second step, these characteristics were evaluated by diagnostic nurses, who judged the presence or absence of the diagnosis. To analyze the measures of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Approval was given by the Research Ethics Committee under authorization No. 148.428. Results: the most sensitive indicator was edema and most specific were pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Conclusion: the more accurate defining characteristics, considered valid for the diagnostic inference of excess fluid volume in patients undergoing hemodialysis were edema, pulmonary congestion, adventitious breath sounds and restlessness. Thus, in the presence of these, the nurse may safely assume the presence of the diagnosis studied.

  12. [Contribution of pleural fluid analysis to the diagnosis of pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; Toubes, María Elena; Valdés, Luis

    2015-08-21

    Analysis of pleural fluid can have, on its own, a high diagnostic value. In addition to thoracocentesis, a diagnostic hypothesis based on medical history, physical examination, blood analysis and imaging tests, the diagnostic effectiveness will significantly increase in order to establish a definite or high probable diagnosis in a substantial number of patients. Differentiating transudates from exudates by the classical Light's criteria helps knowing the pathogenic mechanism resulting in pleural effusion, and it is also useful for differential diagnosis purposes. An increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, both in the fluid and in blood, in a due clinical context, is highly suggestive of heart failure. The presence of an increased inflammatory marker, such as C-reactive protein, together with the presence of over 50% of neutrophils is highly suggestive of parapneumonic pleural effusion. If, in these cases, the pH is 45 U/L and>50% lymphocytes is suggestive of tuberculosis. If a malignant effusion is suspected but the cytological result is negative, increased concentrations of some markers in the pleural fluid can yield high specificity values. Increased levels of mesothelin and fibruline-3 are suggestive of mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical studies can be useful to differentiate reactive mesothelial cells, mesothelioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. An inadequate use of the information provided by the analysis of pleural fluid would results in a high rate of undiagnosed effusions, which is unacceptable in current clinical practice.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid Coccidioides antigen testing in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, David M; Pepito, Brian S; Proia, Laurie A; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Ashraf, Madiha; Marty, Francisco; Scully, Eileen; Wheat, L Joseph

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to report on the potential utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Coccidioides antigen testing in the diagnosis and management of Coccidioides meningitis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of seven patients with Coccidioides meningitis who had Coccidioides antigen tests performed on CSF. In two severely immunocompromised patients, CSF Coccidioides antigen testing was helpful in the diagnosis when other testing modalities were negative. Coccidioides antigen testing was also useful in the management of patients who had progression of disease due to non-adherence, development of resistance, failure of therapy and the presence of vasculitis. Changing antigen levels helped identify disease complications in three patients that led to alterations in therapy or management. On the basis of our review of these seven patients with Coccidioides meningitis, we concluded that the Coccidioides antigen test contributed to the diagnosis and management of patients with Coccidioides meningitis. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Development and optimization of quantitative PCR for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

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    Hackman Robert C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA remains challenging. Culture and histopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid are useful but have suboptimal sensitivity and in the case of culture may require several days for fungal growth to be evident. Detection of Aspergillus DNA in BAL fluid by quantitative PCR (qPCR offers the potential for earlier diagnosis and higher sensitivity. It is important to adopt quality control measures in PCR assays to address false positives and negatives which can hinder accurate evaluation of diagnostic performance. Methods BAL fluid from 94 episodes of pneumonia in 81 patients was analyzed. Thirteen episodes were categorized as proven or probable IPA using Mycoses Study Group criteria. The pellet and the supernatant fractions of the BAL were separately assayed. A successful extraction was confirmed with a human 18S rRNA gene qPCR. Inhibition in each qPCR was measured using an exogenous DNA based internal amplification control (IAC. The presence of DNA from pathogens in the Aspergillus genus was detected using qPCR targeting fungal 18S rRNA gene. Results Human 18S rRNA gene qPCR confirmed successful DNA extraction of all samples. IAC detected some degree of initial inhibition in 11 samples. When culture was used to diagnose IPA, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 100% respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of qPCR showed that a cutoff of 13 fg of Aspergillus genomic DNA generated a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 77%, 88%, 50%, 96% respectively. BAL pellet and supernatant analyzed together resulted in sensitivity and specificity similar to BAL pellet alone. Some patients did not meet standard criteria for IPA, but had consistently high levels of Aspergillus DNA in BAL fluid by qPCR. Conclusion The Aspergillus qPCR assay detected Aspergillus DNA in 76.9% of subjects with proven or probable IPA when

  15. Pleural effusion: Role of pleural fluid cytology, adenosine deaminase level, and pleural biopsy in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is designed to evaluate the role of pleural fluid analysis in diagnosing pleural diseases and to study the advantages and disadvantages of thoracocentasis and pleural biopsy. Materials and Methods: We prospectively included 66 consecutive indoor patients over a duration of 1 year. Pleural fluid was collected and cytological smears were made from the fluid. Plural biopsy was done in the same patient by Cope needle. Adequate pleural biopsy tissue yielding specific diagnosis was obtained in 47 (71.2% cases. Results: Tuberculosis was the commonest nonneoplastic lesion followed by chronic nonspecific pleuritis comprising 60% and 33.3% of the nonneoplastic cases respectively and tuberculosis was predominantly diagnosed in the younger age group. Majority (70.8% of malignancy cases were in the age group of >50-70. Adenocarcinoma was found to be the commonest (66.7% malignant neoplasm in the pleurae followed by small-cell carcinoma (20.8%. Conclusion: Pleural biopsy is a useful and minimally invasive procedure. It is more sensitive and specific than pleural fluid smears.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA )is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China.Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA.However,since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid,the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses.The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA.Methods The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated.Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16-24 weeks of gestation.Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS,propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS,and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.Results In two pregnancies,high levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,propionylcarnitine,and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses.One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment,and the other terminated her pregnancy.In one pregnancy,significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,and propionylcarnitine,and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus;abortion was performed on this case.In the other six pregnancies,all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine.Conclusions The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation.The level of

  17. Interferon gamma quantification in cerebrospinal fluid compared with PCR for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Rafael San; Sánchez-Suárez, Carmen; Rebollo, María J; Folgueira, Dolores; Palenque, Elia; Ortuño, Blanca; Lumbreras, Carlos; Aguado, José M

    2006-10-01

    To assess the utility of interferon gamma (INF-gamma) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), and compare these results with aPCR technique. We studied CSF samples from patients with proven or probable TBM and a control group, composed by patients with other causes of meningitis and without meningitis. INFgamma levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. A PCR technique was performed using IS6110 primers. Of the 127 patients studied, 20 (15.6%) had TBM, 59 (46%) had meningitis of another aetiology and 49 (38.4%) had were HIV and non-HIV patients with normal CSF. The area below the ROC curve for interferon gamma levels in the diagnosis of TBM was 0.94. A cut-off of 6.4 IU/mL yielded a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 94%. False positive results were observed in 7 of the 59 patients (11.8%) with non-TB meningitis, (patients with herpetic meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to intracellular microorganisms). INF-gamma sensitivity was higher than PCR (70% vs. 65%). Both tests performed together showed higher sensitivity (80%) and specificity (92.6%). CSF INF-gamma levels (> 6.4 IU/mL) are very valuable in TBM diagnosis. PCR and INF-gamma could be simultaneously used to increase the diagnostic yield.

  18. PCR Assay Using Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Brazilian AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E.; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA, and to determine if the association of PCR with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We studied two sample groups. First, we analyzed stored CSF samples from 29 newborns and from 39 adults with AIDS without a definitive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The goal of this step was to standardize the methodology with a simple and economical procedure to recover the T. gondii DNA. Next, we prospectively evaluated CSF samples from 12 AIDS patients with a first episode of cerebral toxoplasmosis and 18 AIDS patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases and without previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. In all PCR samples, an indirect immunofluorescent assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Samples from all patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis presented positive PCR results (sensitivity, 100%), and a sample from one of the 18 AIDS patients with other neurological diseases also presented positive PCR results (specificity, 94.4%). These findings suggest the clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in developing countries. PMID:15472338

  19. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  20. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  1. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy Applied to Dementia Diagnosis Through Analysis of Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jéssica; Correia, Marta; Martins, Ilka; Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Delgadillo, Ivonne; da Cruz E Silva, Odete; Nunes, Alexandra

    2016-04-08

    To date, it is still difficult to perform an early and accurate diagnosis of dementia, therefore significant research has focused on finding new dementia biomarkers that can aid in this respect. There is an urgent need for non-invasive, rapid, and relatively inexpensive procedures for early diagnostics. Studies have demonstrated that of spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy could be a useful and accurate procedure to diagnose dementia. Given that several biochemical mechanisms related to neurodegeneration and dementia can lead to changes in plasma components and others peripheral body fluids; blood-based samples coupled to spectroscopic analyses can be used as a simple and less invasive approach.

  2. Prevalence of nursing diagnosis of fluid volume excess in patients undergoing hemodialysis

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    Maria Isabel da Conceição Dias Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of nursing diagnosis of fluid volume excess and their defining characteristics in hemodialysis patients and the association between them. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in two steps. We interviewed 100 patients between the months of December 2012 and April 2013 in a teaching hospital and one hemodialysis clinic. The inference was performed by diagnostician nurses between July and September 2013. Results: The diagnostic studied was identified in 82% of patients. The characteristics that were statistically associated: bounding pulses, pulmonary congestion, jugular vein distention, edema, change in electrolytes, weight gain, intake greater than output and abnormal breath sounds. Among these, edema and weight gain had the highest chances for the development of this diagnostic. Conclusion: The analyzed diagnostic is prevalent in this population and eight characteristics presented significant association.

  3. Comparison of Three Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays of Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Arabella; Pierotti, Chiara; Terreni, Mariarosa; Zappa, Alessandra; Vago, Luca; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cinque, Paola

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic reliabilities of three cytomegalovirus (CMV) nucleic acid amplification assays of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compared by using CSF samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a postmortem histopathological diagnosis of CMV encephalitis (n = 15) or other central nervous system conditions (n = 16). By using a nested PCR assay, the quantitative COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR PCR, and the NucliSens CMV pp67 nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay, sensitivities were 93.3, 86.6, and 93.3%, respectively, and specificities were 93.7, 93.7, and 87.5%, respectively. The COBAS AMPLICOR assay revealed significantly higher CMV DNA levels in patients with diffuse ventriculoencephalitis than in patients with focal periventricular lesions. PMID:11230445

  4. Antimicrobial-Loaded Bone Cement Does Not Negatively Influence Sonicate Fluid Culture Positivity for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Patel, Robin

    2016-06-01

    We compared culture results to investigate the influence of antimicrobial-loaded cement on sonicate fluid culture positivity for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. Fifty-four subjects were assessed. The sensitivities of sonicate fluid culture were 77.8% (14 of 18) in subjects with an antimicrobial-loaded cemented prosthesis and 58.3% (21 of 36) in subjects with an antimicrobial-free prosthesis.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1997-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  6. Pleural Fluid Pentraxin-3 for the Differential Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Jin Woo; Cho, Mi Ran; Kang, Ji Young; Kim, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Haak; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Sang Ho; Park, Mi Sun; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Jong Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional biomarkers cannot always establish the cause of pleural effusions; thus, alternative tests permitting rapid and accurate diagnosis are required. The primary aim of this study is to assess the ability of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in order to diagnose the cause of pleural effusion and compare its efficacy to that of other previously identified biomarkers. Methods We studied 118 patients with pleural effusion, classified as transudates and exudates including malignant, tuberculous, and parapneumonic effusions (MPE, TPE, and PPE). The levels of PTX3, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactate in the pleural fluid were assessed. Results The levels of pleural fluid PTX3 were significantly higher in patients with PPE than in those with MPE or TPE. PTX3 yielded the most favorable discriminating ability to predict PPE from MPE or TPE by providing the following: area under the curve, 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.84), sensitivity, 62.07%; and specificity, 81.08% with a cut-off point of 25.00 ng/mL. Conclusion Our data suggests that PTX3 may allow improved differentiation of PPE from MPE or TPE compared to the previously identified biomarkers CRP and PCT. PMID:24416055

  7. Biochemical analysis of cystic fluid in the diagnosis of fetal intra-abdominal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Dreux, Sophie; Blanc, Thomas; Schaub, Bruno; Ville, Yves; Mandelbrot, Laurent; El Ghoneimi, Alaa; Oury, Jean-François; Muller, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a biochemical analysis of fluid sampled in utero from fetal abdominal cystic masses. A retrospective study of 42 intra-abdominal cystic masses [ovarian cysts (n = 22), cloaca (n = 8), urodigestive fistulae (n = 4), and urogenital sinuses (n = 8)] was carried out. The control group (n = 30) consisted of fetal urine. Seven biochemical markers were assayed: sodium, estradiol, β(2) -microglobulin, total proteins and digestive enzymes, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aminopeptidase M, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme. Outcome of pregnancies and final diagnosis of intra-abdominal mass were known in all cases. Biochemical patterns allowed to demonstrate (1) an ovarian origin based on elevated level of estradiol and of total proteins (100% specificity, 100% sensitivity); (2) urodigestive fistula based on the presence of high levels of digestive enzymes (cloaca in female fetuses or recto-urethral fistula in male fetuses); and (3) a renal origin (urinary pattern with low total proteins and absence of digestive enzymes); however, a biochemical pattern could not differentiate between fetal urogenital sinus and megacystis. Etiological diagnosis of a fetal cystic abdominal mass could impact both prenatal and postnatal management providing adapted prenatal counseling by a pediatric surgeon in surgically correctable congenital anomalies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity: A complimentary tool in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

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    Taori Girdhar M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the commonest form of neurotuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB. The diagnosis of TBM is often difficult. A reliable, cost-effective and rapid diagnostic test, which can be performed in any standard pathology laboratory, could be of help in the diagnosis of TBM. In the present study we measured the adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM and non-TBM patients. Method ADA activity in CSF was determined according to a method based on the Berthlot reaction, which is the formation of a colored indophenol complex from ammonia liberated from adenosine, and quantified spectrophotometrically. Results The CSF ADA activity from TBM patients was compared with CSF ADA from non-TBM infectious meningitis patients, and from patients with non-infectious neurological disorders. The mean CSF ADA activity was found to be significantly higher in CSF of TBM patients, 14.31 ± 3.87 (2.99–26.94, mean ± SD with range, than in the CSF from non-TBM infectious meningitis, 9.25 ± 2.14 (4.99–13.96 and from the non-infectious neurological disorders group, 2.71 ± 1.96 (0.00–7.68, P Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADA activity in the CSF of TBM patients, using a cut-off value 11.39 U/L/min, can be useful for the early differential diagnosis of TBM. This test can be performed in any pathology laboratory where more sophisticated methods are not available.

  9. MRI diagnosis of intravertebral at fluid osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral compression fractures

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    Александр Павлович Мягков

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the aim of the work was to evaluate the value of intravertebral fluid with osteoporosis and metastatic vertebral compression fractures using magnetic resonance imaging. Objectives of the study were to investigate: MRI semiotics of osteoporotic compression fractures with their diagnostic value; intravertebral fluid in pathological fractures.Methods. 120 patients with pathologic compression fractures of the spine, which included 70 patients with acute osteoporotic and 50 - with metastatic, are examined. Among patients with osteoporotic fractures were 62 women (88.6 % men - 8 (11.4 % with an average age of 65.6 ± 11.1 years, and among patients with MCP fractures was 30 (60.0 % men and 20 (40.0 % women with a mean age 60.8 ± 12.5 years. All patients underwent an MRI on devices with a magnetic field strength of 0.2, 1.5 and 0.36 Tс (AIRIS Mate, ECHELON firm "Hitachi medical Corp.", Japan, "I-Open 0.36", China. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA held 59 (39.1 % patients. DXA was performed on the unit «Lunar PRODIGY Primo DHA"Results. The basic structural and morphological changes with osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine such as - bone marrow edema, annular seal paravertebral soft tissue, compression of the veins bazivertebrales, remains of yellow bone marrow, involvement arches and rear elements of the vertebra, curved (intact the back surface of the body, the fracture of the reflex plates, rear corner pieces with indicators of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It was shown that the intravertebral fluid of the compressed vertebral bodies found in 72 (88.9 % patients. This feature may also be an indicator of the seam (or splice the data fractures.Conclusions. Intravertebral fluid in the compressed vertebral bodies was found in 88.9 % of patients with osteoporotic fractures, and this feature can be another tool in the diagnosis of this category of fractures with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. This feature

  10. Point-of-care diagnosis and prognostication of cryptococcal meningitis with the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanda, Taseera; Siedner, Mark J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Muzoora, Conrad; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    The cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow assay (LFA) had 100% sensitivity and specificity on cerebrospinal fluid samples. Pretreatment LFA titers correlated with quantitative cultures (R(2) = 0.7) and predicted 2- and 10-week mortality. The CRAG LFA is an accurate diagnostic assay for CSF and should be considered for point-of-care diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.

  11. [Diagnosis of anaerobic infection of the pleural fluid using gas-liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M; Rojo, P; Latorre, M; Herrero, O; Arriaga, I; Merino, J M; Cisterna, R

    1993-02-01

    An assessment of the efficacy of the detection of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids that are produced by microorganisms aimed at the possible diagnosis of pleural empyema. 106 pleural fluids were examined by gas-liquid chromatography in contrast to conventional aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The sample previously prepared (1 microliter) was injected in an Hewlett-Packard 5890 chromatograph, that was equipped with a fused silica capillary column and a flame ionization detector. Growth of aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms was obtained in 13 (12.3%) of the samples, and volatile or non-volatile fatty acids were detected in all of them (sensitivity = 1). No growth was obtained in the 93 samples, but volatile or non-volatile fatty acids were detected in 64 (68.8%) of them (specificity = 0.31). A positive predictive value of 0.17 and a negative predictive value of 1 were obtained. Growth of anaerobic microorganisms was obtained in 9 samples (8.5%) and volatile fatty acids were detected in all of them (sensitivity = 1). Anaerobic microorganisms did not grow in 97 samples, however volatile fatty acids were detected in 2 (2.1%) of them. A positive predictive value of 0.82 and a negative of 1 were obtained. Referring to pleural fluid samples, the detection of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography is a highly sensitive method, that may be used to quickly reject negative samples in about 30 mins. Furthermore, when anaerobic microorganisms exist, the high specificity of gas-liquid chromatography will make it possible to confirm their presence in the sample, mainly if there is a clinical suspect of anaerobic infection. Thus, the utilization of this sensitive method may also change the therapeutic behaviour.

  12. Performance of Aspergillus PCR in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, S; Brossas, J-Y; Palous, M; Joly, I; Meyer, I; Fekkar, A

    2017-06-20

    Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare but often fatal form of invasive aspergillosis that remains difficult to diagnose. The literature has shown the value of Aspergillus PCR in blood-derived samples for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis but provides far less information for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cerebral aspergillosis. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus PCR assay performed on CSF for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis. This retrospective study involved 72 patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis for a total of 88 CSF samples in whom CSF Aspergillus PCR was performed. Seventeen patients had proven/probable invasive aspergillosis according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria, including 12 cases of proven/probable cerebral aspergillosis. Aspergillus PCR in CSF was positive in nine of the twelve patients with cerebral aspergillosis, i.e. 75% sensitivity. In contrast, CSF culture was positive for Aspergillus in only two patients. In the non-cerebral aspergillosis group (60 patients), PCR was positive in one patient, i.e. 98.3% specificity. In this particular population of high-risk patients with suspicion of cerebral aspergillosis, the disease incidence was 16.7%. Therefore, the positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 90% and 95.2%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that Aspergillus PCR in CSF is an interesting tool that may eliminate the need for cerebral biopsy in patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Clinical Use of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis: The Italian Selfie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancesario, Giulia M; Toniolo, Sofia; Chiasserini, Davide; Di Santo, Simona G; Zegeer, Josh; Bernardi, Gaetano; Musicco, Massimo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Parnetti, Lucilla; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Although the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid β1-42 (Aβ42), tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) gives added diagnostic and prognostic values, the diffusion is still limited in clinical practice and only a restricted number of patients receive an integrated clinico-biological diagnosis. By a survey, we aimed to do a "selfie" of the use and diffusion of CSF biomarkers of dementia in Italy, the standardization of pre-analytical procedures, the harmonization of ranges, and the participation to Quality Control programs. An online questionnaire was sent to the members of SIBioC and SINdem-ITALPLANED and to main neurological clinics all over Italy. In Italy, 25 laboratories provide biomarkers analysis in addition to a network of 15 neighboring hospitals. In sum, 40 neurological centers require CSF analyses. 7/20 regions (35%) lack CSF laboratories. Standardization of pre-analytical procedures is present in 62.02% of the laboratories; only 56.00% of the laboratories participate in International Quality Control. There is no harmonization of cut-offs. In Italy, the use of CSF biomarkers is still limited in clinical practice. Standardization and harmonization of normal ranges are needed. To optimize and expand the use of CSF biomarkers, a cost-benefit analysis should be promoted by scientific societies and national health services.

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency by quantification of pterins in amniotic fluid and enzyme activity in fetal and extrafetal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, N; Kierat, L; Matasovic, A; Leimbacher, W; Heizmann, C W; Guardamagna, O; Ponzone, A

    1994-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency was undertaken by evaluating the pterin patterns in amniotic fluid and the specific enzyme activities in fetal or extrafetal tissues. This allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 19 pregnancies at risk. In 8 families with a child already affected by dihydropteridine reductase deficiency 4 fetuses were diagnosed as homozygotes and 4 as heterozygotes for the defect. In 11 families with a child affected by 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency 4 fetuses were homozygous, 4 heterozygous and 3 normal. This study also advanced our knowledge of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism during fetal development. The key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BH4 are expressed early and allow the fetus to be autotrophous for its cofactor requirement. In a twin pregnancy, both fetuses were diagnosed to be heterozygotes for dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and primapterin (7-biopterin) in amniotic fluid was increased. This indicates that pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase activity seems to be differently expressed during fetal life. As a consequence, pterins detected in amniotic fluid are of fetal origin and 6- and 7-substituted pterins can be present in amniotic fluid in higher proportions when compared with other body fluids.

  15. Case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid: value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.

    1986-11-06

    The author reports a case of acute meningitis with clear cerebrospinal fluid in which extensive bacteriologic investigations were negative making the etiologic diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Initiation of empiric antituberculous therapy was rapidly followed by clinical and biological improvement, without complications, and by resolution of abnormal findings on computed tomography of the brain. On these grounds, meningitis secondary to a tuberculoma in the temporal lobe was diagnosed. The author points out that tuberculous meningitis is still a severe, potentially fatal condition; this, together with the fact that tubercle bacilli are often very scarce or absent, requires that tuberculous meningitis be routinely considered in every patient with clear cerebrospinal fluid meningitis whose condition deteriorates. Computed tomography of the brain is essential to ensure rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antituberculous therapy. Lastly, the author points out that nowadays herpes simplex virus encephalopathy should also be considered.

  16. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration rinse fluid polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Saengsri, Siriwan; Santanirand, Pitak

    2017-03-01

    Intrathoracic tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis is a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can obtain a sample from the affected lymph node, the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis by cytopathology remains inaccurate. To evaluate the efficacy of EBUS-TBNA rinse fluid TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. A retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for diagnostic evaluation of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. EBUS-TBNA specimens were evaluated by cytopathological examination. Rinse fluid of the needle was routinely submitted for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, mycobacterial culture, and TB-PCR using the Anyplex(TM) MTB/NTM real-time detection kit. Of 102 patients, 16 were diagnosed with intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis by either microbiology, cytopathology, or on clinical grounds. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of rinse fluid TB PCR assay were 56.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 92.5%, respectively. Using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a measure of a diagnostic performance, TB-PCR had the highest AUC, compared with mycobacterial culture, AFB smear, and finding of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (0.78, 0.75, 0.56, and 0.72, respectively). A combination of TB PCR, mycobacterial culture, and finding of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation provided the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and AUC of 75.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 95.6%, and 0.88, respectively). EBUS-TBNA rinse fluid TB-PCR is useful in the diagnosis of intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. Combining TB-PCR with mycobacterial culture and cytopathological findings improved the diagnosis performance.

  17. The Value of Routine Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Intraocular Fluid Specimens in the Diagnosis of Infectious Posterior Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius A. Scheepers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the value of routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on intraocular fluid from patients presenting with a first episode of suspected active infectious posterior uveitis in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Design. Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants. 159 consecutive patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital over a five-year period. Methods. PCR analysis was performed for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results. PCR analysis confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis in 55 patients (35% and altered the initial clinical diagnosis in 36 patients (23%. The clinical diagnosis prior to PCR testing was nonspecific (uncertain in 51 patients (32%, with PCR providing a definitive final diagnosis in 20 of these patients (39%; necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis were particularly difficult to diagnose correctly without the use of PCR analysis. Conclusion. The clinical phenotype alone was unreliable in diagnosing the underlying infectious cause in a quarter of patients in this study. Since the outcome of incorrectly treated infective uveitis can be blinding, PCR analysis of ocular fluids is recommended early in the disease even in resource poor settings.

  18. The value of routine polymerase chain reaction analysis of intraocular fluid specimens in the diagnosis of infectious posterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Marius A; Lecuona, Karin A; Rogers, Graeme; Bunce, Catey; Corcoran, Craig; Michaelides, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To assess the value of routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on intraocular fluid from patients presenting with a first episode of suspected active infectious posterior uveitis in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants. 159 consecutive patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital over a five-year period. PCR analysis was performed for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PCR analysis confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis in 55 patients (35%) and altered the initial clinical diagnosis in 36 patients (23%). The clinical diagnosis prior to PCR testing was nonspecific (uncertain) in 51 patients (32%), with PCR providing a definitive final diagnosis in 20 of these patients (39%); necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis were particularly difficult to diagnose correctly without the use of PCR analysis. The clinical phenotype alone was unreliable in diagnosing the underlying infectious cause in a quarter of patients in this study. Since the outcome of incorrectly treated infective uveitis can be blinding, PCR analysis of ocular fluids is recommended early in the disease even in resource poor settings.

  19. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  20. Cytology of body fluids from different sites: an approach for early diagnosis of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S B; Pradhan, B; Dali, S

    2006-01-01

    Malignant effusions are a common presenting sign of malignancy and reflect dissemination. A retrospective study of all fluid samples accessioned at the Department of Pathology, TUTH from April 2000 to October 2002 were done. Over the study period, a total of 584 specimens were examined- 324 peritoneal fluid, 224 pleural fluid, 19 pericardial fluid, 9 knee joint effusion and 8 Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF). One hundred and nine (18.66%) out of 584 cases were found to have malignancy, 57 were male and 52 were female. The age group of the adult male ranged from 42-78 years and female ranged from 43-62 years. Three patients were children with age ranging from 8-11 years. Adenocarcinoma was the commonest that comprised 89%, followed by Non Hodgkin's lymphoma 6.5% squamous cell carcinoma 2.7% and small cell carcinoma comprised 1.8 %. Exfoliative cytology is cheap, rapid and highly effective tool for the evaluation of body fluid and should be advised in all effusion cases.

  1. 羊水栓塞的诊治%Progress in diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋洋; 袁雅冬

    2016-01-01

    羊水栓塞是一种罕见、但极为凶险的产科并发症,由羊水物质进入母体循环引起,起病急骤,病死率高。熟悉羊水栓塞的发病机制、临床表现,并进行早期诊断及治疗对降低其病死率有极其重要的价值。%Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but dreadful obstetric complications with a high maternal mortality,which caused by the transfer of amniotic fluid substances into the maternal circulation.In order to reduce the mortality,it is necessary to be familiar with the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations,and then make early diagnosis and choose the effective treatment.

  2. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS -ANTEMORTEM DETECTION OF OLIGODENDROGLIOMA "CEREBROSPINAL FLUID DROP METASTASES" IN A DOG BY SERIAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeral, Mariana; Bentley, R Timothy; Rancilio, Nicholas J; Miller, Margaret A; Heng, Hock Gan

    2017-02-07

    An English Bulldog underwent radiation therapy of an intracranial, left lateral ventricle mass. Following resolution of the primary mass, an intraventricular fourth ventricle lesion developed. Subsequently, multiple lesions developed from the cervical central canal and leptomeninges. Serial magnetic resonance imaging documented the propagation of lesions along the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways, known as "CSF drop metastasis." Histopathology confirmed multifocal intraventricular and leptomeningeal oligodendroglioma. Oligodendroglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis for an intraventricular tumor exhibiting apparent CSF drop metastasis. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Cytopathologic diagnosis on joint lavage fluid for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Toshinari; Kumagai, Akiko; Aomura, Tomoyuki; Javed, Fawad; Sugiyama, Yoshiki; Mizuki, Harumi; Takeda, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) are usually diagnosed based on the patient's clinical findings and the results of image investigations; however, understanding of the inflammatory process in TMJ is difficult. In addition, many of the TMJ disease types share common principal symptoms. Therefore, TMJ diseases in the early stage can be misdiagnosed with TMD. It is hypothesized that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids is useful in interpreting the TMD-associated inflammatory process from a cellular aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the TMJ lavage fluid cytopathologically in TMD patients. Thirty-nine patients, clinically diagnosed as TMD, were included in the present study. Clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. Forty-four samples of TMJ lavage fluid were collected and paraffin-embedded cell sections were made by cell block tissue array method. Cytologic conditions in upper articular cavity of TMJ were cytopathologically diagnosed and were compared with the clinical symptoms of each patient. Cell components were detected in 22 of the 44 analyzed joint lavage fluids. There was a correlation between cytopathologic findings and clinical symptoms. Variety of cytopathology and inflammatory conditions in patients with similar clinical symptoms were also found. The results suggested that cytopathologic examination of the joint lavage fluids from TMD patients is helpful for gaining an understanding of the inner local conditions of TMJ at the cellular level.

  4. The Utility of Blood Culture Fluid for the Molecular Diagnosis of Leptospira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Rudgard, William E.; Woods, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, with infections occurring after exposure to contaminated water. Despite being a global problem, laboratory diagnosis remains difficult with culture results taking up to 3 months, serology being retrospective by nature, and polymerase chain reaction...

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by measuring methylmalonic acid in dried amniotic fluid on filter paper using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshito; Ohse, Morimasa

    2011-06-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria is a common inherited metabolic disorder. Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a key indicator of methylmalonic aciduria, increases in the amniotic fluid of affected fetuses. For prenatal diagnosis, the MMA in amniotic fluid can be measured by stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here, we quantified the MMA in cell-free amniotic fluid samples that had been dried on filter paper and transported at ambient temperatures, and compared the results with data obtained from the original amniotic fluid. Our results indicated that the filter paper method was reproducible and accurate enough to be applied to clinical analysis. We also used the filter paper method to screen at-risk fetuses and obtained a clear diagnosis in each case. We conclude that our method enables the prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria using practical procedures and a simplified method for transporting the samples.

  6. The diagnosis of metachromatic leucodystrophy during life: metachromatic lipids in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid sediments and in the parotid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the study of saliva sediment in 4 cases of juvenile metachromatic leucodystrophy belonging to the same family (and else in a sister of one of these cases presenting the characteristic neurological picture but with no metachromasia demonstrable by the Austin test in urine or by biopsies, in 6 normal relatives of the patients with Scholz disease, in 9 cases of various diseases of the nervous system, and in 10 normal subjects. The presence of metachromatic bodies staining in a pinkish red colour with acid blue toluidine dye was demonstrated in the saliva sediment of the 4 cases of metachromatic leucodystrophy. In 2 of these patients biopsies of the parotid gland, stained with cresyl violet dye, showed the presence of intracellular brownish metachromatic bodies. In these 2 cases the study of cerebrospinal fluid sediment also disclosed the presence of metachromatic bodies. Furthermore, a chromatographic qualitative test for metachromatic lipids yielded positive results in saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine sediments. The conclusion was drawn that the search for metachromatic bodies in cerebrospinal fluid and mainly in saliva sediment may be of help in disclosing or ratifying the diagnosis of metachromatic leucodystrophy during life.

  7. Global metabolite profiling of synovial fluid for the specific diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis from other inflammatory arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooah Kim

    Full Text Available Currently, reliable biomarkers that can be used to distinguish rheumatoid arthritis (RA from other inflammatory diseases are unavailable. To find possible distinctive metabolic patterns and biomarker candidates for RA, we performed global metabolite profiling of synovial fluid samples. Synovial fluid samples from 38 patients with RA, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease, and gout were analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant and hierarchical clustering analyses were performed for the discrimination of RA and non-RA groups. Variable importance for projection values were determined, and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and the breakdown and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to identify potential biomarkers for RA. A total of 105 metabolites were identified from synovial fluid samples. The score plot of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed significant discrimination between the RA and non-RA groups. The 20 metabolites, including citrulline, succinate, glutamine, octadecanol, isopalmitic acid, and glycerol, were identified as potential biomarkers for RA. These metabolites were found to be associated with the urea and TCA cycles as well as fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. The metabolomic analysis results demonstrated that global metabolite profiling by GC/TOF MS might be a useful tool for the effective diagnosis and further understanding of RA.

  8. 浅析羊水栓塞的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿斯叶·阿布拉

    2014-01-01

    The amniotic fluid embolism is a serious complication in obstetrics, the onset is sudden, high mortality, serious impact on pregnant women and fetal safety. Based on years of clinical experience, analysis of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of amniotic fluid embolism, strengthen the understanding of this disease, in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism to reduce the mortality rate has a very important value.%羊水栓塞是产科严重并发症,该病起病急,死亡率高,严重影响孕妇及胎儿的生命安全。根据多年的临床经验,分析羊水栓塞的发病机制及临床表现,加强对该病的认识,以期提高羊水栓塞的临床诊断及治疗质量对降低该病死率有着极重要的价值。

  9. Karyotype analysis with amniotic fluid in 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis and strategies of prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H; Yang, Y L; Zhang, C Y; Liao, E J; Zhao, H R; Liao, S X

    2016-01-01

    We explored the strategies of prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotype analysis in pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid was performed on 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates and distributions of abnormal karyotypes were observed in a variety of indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates of abnormal karyotype were 57.4% in either a mother or father with chromosomal abnormality, 8.5% in the pregnant women with pathological ultrasound finding (PUF), 2.79% in the pregnant women with advanced age (35 years and over) and 2.23% in the women with abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS) tests. Foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 86 pregnant women with PUF; of the 86 pregnant women, 42 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Of the 12365 pregnant women, foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 428 (3.46%); of the 428 foetuses, only 154 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. In the pregnant women with abnormal MSS, 111 foetuses had abnormal karyotype, but only 36 foetuses had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. We conclude that (1) ultrasound is an important approach to prevent the birth of foetuses with chromosomal disease. (2) Non-invasive prenatal DNA detection cannot completely replace invasive prenatal diagnosis and MSS. (3) The strategies of prenatal diagnosis: Genetic amniocentesis is strongly recommended for the pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. For pregnant women who refuse invasive prenatal diagnosis, non-invasive prenatal DNA detection is first performed. If the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are negative, the pregnant women are followed up by ultrasound; if the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are positive, the pregnant women should undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  10. Distribution & diagnostic efficacy of cardiac markers CK-MB & LDH in pericardial fluid for postmortem diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Pankaj Suresh; Kumar, Narendra Baluram; Tingne, Chaitanya Vidyadhar; Keoliya, Ajay Narmadaprasad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of biochemical markers creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and LDH in pericardial fluid for postmortem diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We studied 119 medico-legal autopsies selected during a period of 2 years. Subjects were assigned into diagnostic groups upon final cause of death as follows: (1) sudden cardiac death due to IHD's (n = 52), (2) violent asphyxia (n = 24); (3) polytraumatic deaths (n = 20); (4) natural deaths excluding cardiac causes (n = 23). Pericardial fluid samples were tested for estimating enzyme levels. Histological examination was performed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain on myocardial tissue samples. We observed highest levels of CK-MB & LDH in deaths due to IHD's. Kruskal-Wallis test revels significant differences in activities of CK-MB (P = 0.0001) and LDH (P = 0.0065) amongst all diagnostic groups. Mann-Whitney test showed highly significant (P MB in group 1 as compared to other diagnostic groups. However, LDH levels were non-discriminatory (P = 0.0827) between cases of IHD's and cases of other natural deaths. CK-MB levels were statistically non-significant between cases divided as myocardial infarction (MI) and severe coronary artery disease in group 1, hence its role for postmortem detection of MI is somewhat limiting. However, sensitivity and negative predictive values of its cut off level obtained in cases of IHD's are nearly equal to diagnostic efficacy in clinical settings. Hence, it can be useful additional diagnostic tool for autopsy diagnosis of IHD's. Whereas, LDH is not useful for postmortem diagnosis in these cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Wide-field imaging of birefringent synovial fluid crystals using lens-free polarized microscopy for gout diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Lee, Seung Yoon Celine; Zhang, Yun; Furst, Daniel; Fitzgerald, John; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    Gout is a form of crystal arthropathy where monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit and elicit inflammation in a joint. Diagnosis of gout relies on identification of MSU crystals under a compensated polarized light microscope (CPLM) in synovial fluid aspirated from the patient’s joint. The detection of MSU crystals by optical microscopy is enhanced by their birefringent properties. However, CPLM partially suffers from the high-cost and bulkiness of conventional lens-based microscopy, and its relatively small field-of-view (FOV) limits the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis. Here we present a lens-free polarized microscope which adopts a novel differential and angle-mismatched polarizing optical design achieving wide-field and high-resolution holographic imaging of birefringent objects with a color contrast similar to that of a standard CPLM. The performance of this computational polarization microscope is validated by imaging MSU crystals made from a gout patient’s tophus and steroid crystals used as negative control. This lens-free polarized microscope, with its wide FOV (>20 mm2), cost-effectiveness and field-portability, can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis, reduce costs, and can be deployed even at the point-of-care and in resource-limited clinical settings.

  12. Efficient diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in cerebrospinal fluid filtrates using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Sagarika; Sharma, Neera; Gupta, V K; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2009-05-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of meningitis and prompt diagnosis holds the key to its management. Conventional microbiology has limited utility and nucleic acid-based methods have not been widely accepted for various reasons. In view of the paucibacillary nature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the recent demonstration of free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in clinical specimens, the present study was designed to evaluate the utility of CSF 'filtrates' for the diagnosis of TBM using PCR. One hundred and sixty-seven CSF samples were analysed from patients with 'suspected' TBM (n=81) and a control group including other cases of meningitis or neurological disorders (n=86). CSF 'sediments' and 'filtrates' were analysed individually for M. tuberculosis DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and conventional PCR. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were generated from qRT-PCR data and cut-off values of 84 and 30 were selected for calling a 'filtrate' or 'sediment' sample positive, respectively. Based on these, TBM was diagnosed with 87.6% and 53.1% sensitivity (Ptuberculosis DNA was detected using devR PCR assays in 'sediment' and 'filtrate' fractions of all samples. From this study, we conclude that (i) CSF 'filtrates' contain a substantial amount of M. tuberculosis DNA and (ii) 'filtrates' and not 'sediments' are likely to reliably provide a PCR-based diagnosis in 'suspected' TBM patients.

  13. The Diagnostic and Differential Diagnosis Utility of Cerebrospinal Fluid α -Synuclein Levels in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Wen, Min; Yu, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Jiao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies showed that α-syn might be a potential diagnostic biomarker for PD in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but the results were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the diagnostic and differential diagnosis efficacy of CSF α-syn in PD. Studies which measured CSF α-syn or α-syn oligomers in patients with PD and met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that mean concentration of CSF α-syn was significantly lower in PD compared to controls and significantly higher in PD compared to multiple system atrophy (MSA). No significant difference in mean concentration of CSF α-syn was found between PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Mean concentration of CSF α-syn was slightly decreased in PD compared to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Mean concentration of CSF α-syn oligomers was significantly higher in PD than control. These results support the findings that CSF α-syn may be a potential diagnostic and differential diagnosis biomarker in PD compared to control and MSA but not DLB. Furthermore, α-syn oligomer may represent a better biomarker for diagnosis of PD.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome using cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid by quantitative fluorescent polymersase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Chi Hongbin; Shao Minjie; Wu Yao; Jin Hongyan; Wu Baiyan; Qiao Jie

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Amniotic fluid (AF) supernatant contains cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fragments.This study attempted to take advantage of cffDNA as a new material for prenatal diagnosis,which could be combined with simple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) to provide an ancillary method for the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 syndrome.Methods AF supernatant samples were obtained from 27 women carrying euploid fetuses and 28 women carrying aneuploid fetuses with known cytogenetic karyotypes.Peripheral blood samples of the parents were collected at the same time.Short tandem repeat (STR) fragments on chromosome 21 were amplified by QF-PCR.Fetal condition and the parental source of the extra chromosome could be determined by the STR peaks.Results The sensitivity of the assay for the aneuploid was 93% (26/28; confidence interval,CI:77%-98%) and the specificity was 100% (26/26; CI:88%-100%).The determination rate of the origin of the extra chromosome was 69%.The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay in the euploid were 100% (27/27).Conclusions Trisomy 21 can be prenatally diagnosed by the QF-PCR method in AF supernatant.This karyotype analysis method greatly reduces the requirement for the specimen size.It will be a benefit for early amniocentesis and could avoid pregnancy complications.The method may become an ancillary method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

  15. Combining Diagnosis of the Casing and Tooljoint Wear in Mud Fluid While Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建春; 张来斌; 温东; 余磊

    2004-01-01

    A ground monitoring system was developed to diagnose casing and tooljoint wear in a well during drilling by combining the analysis of wear debris with detection of the tooljoints.The result shows that the wear debris concentration in the circulating drilling mud in a well reflects the total wear rate of the tribo-elements in the well, while the wear detection of a tooljoint can indicate its wear loss between two contiguous times of drill-pipe lifting.A diagnosis method that integrates the two types of information was developed to identify severe wear regions in well casing.Theoretical analyses and field test show that the severe casing wear region can be located relatively accurately by the integrated method.This method presents a new ground casing wear diagnosis approach with good real-time results.

  16. Diagnóstico laboratorial do líquido amniótico Laboratory diagnosis of amniotic fluid

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    Sabrina Gonçalves Campana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivos a definição e a fisiologia do líquido amniótico, ressaltando aspectos citológicos e principais técnicas para diagnóstico laboratorial das patologias mais freqüentes. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica atualizada relacionando os aspectos citológicos com a idade gestacional e técnicas laboratoriais para diagnóstico das principais patologias em que são observadas alterações do líquido amniótico, concluindo-se que este é um importante componente do ambiente intra-uterino. Sua produção e absorção dependem de uma série de mecanismos interdependentes entre o feto, a placenta, as membranas e o organismo materno. Atualmente este fluido pode fornecer inúmeras informações sobre a saúde fetal, realizando-se diversas técnicas, entre elas a amniocentese e a dosagem de alfafetoproteína, que pode detectar defeitos do tubo neural e trissomia do cromossomo 21. A análise do líquido amniótico reforça a importância da realização adequada de um pré-natal, sendo importante relacionar os resultados laboratoriais com a clínica.This present paper aims the definition of the amniotic fluid and its physiology standing out cytological aspects and main techniques for laboratorial diagnosis of the most frequent pathologies. The methodology was based on updated bibliographical research relating the cytological aspects with the pregnancy age and laboratorial techniques for diagnosis of the main pathologies in which alterations of the amniotic fluid are observed, concluding that this is an important component of the intrauterine environment. Its production and absorption depend on a series of interdependent mechanisms among the fetus, the placenta, the membranes and the maternal organism. Currently this fluid can supply innumerable information on the fetal health by the use of diverse techniques, among which, amniocentesis and dosage of alpha-fetoprotein, which can detect defects of the

  17. Criteria for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in cerebrospinal fluid: relationships with intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchik, Nadezhda; Ponomareva, Marina; Surganova, Vera; Zilberberg, Natalia; Kungurov, Nikolai

    2013-12-01

    The origin of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) syphilis antibodies (intrathecal or blood-derived) is in doubt. Little is known about CSF test behavior under the condition of physiological or disturbed functioning of blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) production. We collected 126 serum/CSF pairs from patients with serological evidence of syphilis. We explored the relationships between the established facts of intrathecal Ig synthesis and/or BCB dysfunction and the results of CSF diagnostic tests: the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, and white blood cell counts. We checked the criteria used either to support or refute the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Reactive CSF-VDRL tests, elevated CSF-white blood cell counts, and elevated CSF-TPHA titers/indices were associated with the signs of intrathecal Ig synthesis, whereas nonreactive CSF-fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, nonreactive CSF-TPHA tests, and CSF-TPHA titers from 1:4 to 1:160 were associated with cases where the intrathecal synthesis was not detected. There were some peculiarities of the tests toward BCB dysfunction.Most of reactive CSF-VDRL test samples and CSF samples with pleocytosis were also meeting at least 1 of the CSF-TPHA titer/indices-based criteria. T. pallidum hemagglutination indices were in no better conformity with the facts of intrathecal immune response than CSF-TPHA titers. Our findings have shown that all the examined criteria for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in CSF are different assessment tools of intrathecal humoral immune activity and support the hypothesis that high CSF treponemal-specific antibody titers are a consequence of inflammatory pathology of the central nervous system.

  18. [Simultaneous diagnosis of pseudomeningocele, tethered cord syndrome and cerebrospinal fluid fistula: Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Zambrano-Velarde, Luis E; Velázquez-Santana, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Partida, Carlos F; Velázquez-García, Francisco; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical case is presented on a patient with an extensive sacral dysraphism, a history of myelomeningocele surgical repair in her childhood, as well as tethered cord syndrome. The patient was also diagnosed with pseudomeningocele and a cerebrospinal fluid cutaneous fístula. A surgical approach was used, with encouraging results being obtained in the clinical outcome of the patient. A review of the literature was performed to support the surgical decision in this case. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

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    Iyer R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  20. Aberrant DNA methylation profile in pleural fluid for differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masanori; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Umemura, Shigeki; Katayama, Hideki; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2012-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) usually develops pleural fluid. We investigated the value of DNA methylation in the pleural fluid for differentiating MPM from lung cancer (LC). Pleural fluid was collected from 39 patients with MPM, 46 with LC, 25 with benign asbestos pleurisy (BAP) and 30 with other causes. The methylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a) , ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), and retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. DNA methylation of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a), RARβ, MGMT and DAPK was detected in 12 (30.8%), 3 (7.7%), 11 (28.2%), 0 (0.0%) and five patients (12.8%) with MPM, and in 22 (47.8%), 14 (30.4%), 24 (52.2%), 1 (2.2%) and six patients (13.0%) with LC, respectively. The mean methylation ratios of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a) and RARβ were 0.37 (range 0.0-2.84), 0.11 (0.0-2.67) and 0.44 (0.0-3.32) in MPM, and 0.87 (0.0-3.14), 1.16 (0.0-5.35) and 1.69 (0.0-6.49) in LC, respectively. The methylation ratios for the three genes were significantly higher in LC than in MPM (RASSF1A, P = 0.039; p16(INK4a), P = 0.005; and RARβ, P = 0.002). Patients with methylation in at least one gene were 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-11.34) times more likely to have LC. Hypermethylation seemed no greater with MPM than with BAP. Extended exposure to asbestos (≧30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.020). Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in pleural fluid DNA has the potential to be a valuable marker for differentiating MPM from LC.

  1. Value of ascitic fluid ferritin in the differential diagnosis of malignant ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouras, J; Boura, P; Tsapas, G; Charisis, K; Magoula, I; Tsakiri, I

    1993-01-01

    The ascitic fluid ferritin concentrations were compared with serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), in their diagnostic ability for detection of malignancy in 60 patients with ascites: 29 with chronic liver disease alone (CLD) and 31 patients with various neoplasms. Of the patients with malignancy, 12 had liver metastases, 9 had no evidence of liver involvement, and 10 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with or without coexisting liver cirrhosis. Analysis of our data confirms that the ascitic ferritin is a more accurate indicator of malignant ascites (MA) than the SAAG. This new parameter is particularly helpful in distinguishing MA associated with HCC and/or metastatic liver disease from nonmalignant ascites due to CLD alone.

  2. Real-time PCR analysis of dog cerebrospinal fluid and saliva samples for ante-mortem diagnosis of rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengseesom, Wachiraporn; Mitmoonpitak, Channarong; Kasempimolporn, Songsri; Sitprija, Visith

    2007-01-01

    The use of a 10-day observation to determine whether a dog is rabid is standard practice. This study was conducted in order to look for evidence of rabies vius in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of suspected live rabid dogs at the time of quarantine by using a SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR based assay for the detection of rabies virus RNA. Saliva and CSF of dogs were collected once on the day of admission for the 10-day quarantine. All test dogs were or became ill and died of rabies within the observation period. Thirteen of 15 dogs (87%) had saliva samples that were positive for rabies RNA. Two dogs with furious rabies had negative saliva samples. Positive CSF samples were found in 4 of 15 dogs (27%) whose saliva samples were positive. The time from sample collection to result was less than 5 hours. Because virus may be absent or present at very low level in both clinical fluids, samples taken for ante-mortem diagnosis cannot definitively rule out rabies.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Won Seok; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Shin, Ho Sik; Kim, Saeromi; Im, Ji Young; Ahn, Sang Il; Min, Kyoung Dae; Yim, Soo Jae; Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Park, Kyung Won; Choi, Seong Hye; Na, Duk L.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory-specific reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers are necessary. Our objective was to apply well-known CSF biomarkers and redetermine their diagnostic cutoff values for AD in South Korea. CSF samples from matched control subjects (n=71), patients with AD dementia (ADD, n=76), and other neurological disorders with cognitive decline (OND, n=47) were obtained from 6 Korean dementia clinics according to a standardized protocol. CSF biomarker concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CSF biomarkers differed significantly between the ADD and control groups (P<0.001 for all), and between the ADD and OND groups (P<0.001 for all). The areas under the curve in differentiation of ADD from control subjects were 0.97 for Aβ42, 0.93 for total tau (tTau), 0.86 for pTau, and 0.99 for both tTau/Aβ42 and pTau/Aβ42 ratios. Our revised cutoff value for Aβ42 was higher than our previous one, whereas the values for the Tau proteins were similar. The tTau/Aβ42 ratio had the highest accuracy, 97%. Our findings highlight the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers in South Korea, and the necessity of continually testing the reliability of cutoff values. PMID:28030437

  4. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

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    Čakić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and β-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  5. Pneumocephalus leading to the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and esophageal perforation after cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Boone, Christine E; Pendleton, James; Elder, Benjamin D; Wei, Zhikui; Hsu, Wesley; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-04-01

    Pneumocephalus is a collection of air within in the intracranial cavity, most commonly seen following traumatic injury or cranial surgeries. Esophageal injury and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak are rare complications that may occur following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a novel case of pneumocephalus arising from unrestricted leakage of CSF via coincident esophageal injury and durotomy in a patient who underwent an ACDF after trauma. A 21-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with C5/C6 subluxation, complete spinal cord injury, and quadriplegia from a motor vehicle accident. He underwent an ACDF, during which a CSF leak was observed. He was then transferred to our institution for rehabilitation and tracheostomy placement 1 week after the ACDF surgery. Following the tracheostomy, the patient developed intractable fevers and nonspecific symptoms. A CT scan demonstrated frontal pneumocephalus without mass effect. Air was found in the retropharyngeal space. There were no accumulations of CSF in the neck. Extravasation of contrast around instrumentation at C5/C6 on a cine esophagogram demonstrated an esophageal perforation at that level. Pneumocephalus may form when large volumes of CSF escape from the intracranial space and air is drawn into the space by the negative pressure. In this unusual case, the esophageal perforation promoted the formation of the pneumocephalus. Treatment included closure of both defects, disrupting the suspected communication between the intracranial space and the esophagus. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of treponemal serum tests performed on cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of neurosyphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Jost, Heather; Pillay, Allan; Sun, Yongcheng; Cox, David; Notenboom, Robert; Workowski, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the use of treponemal serum tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to diagnose neurosyphilis since CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) is specific but lacks sensitivity. We tested CSF specimens using the following treponemal serum tests: INNO-LIA, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA), Trep-Sure, and Maxi-Syph. The reference standard to calculate sensitivity and specificity was having two or more reactive/positive tests on CSF. The reference standard group included 11 cases that fulfilled the definition of neurosyphilis (reactive CSF-VDRL plus symptoms) and three cases that did not fulfill the definition: two cases had neurologic symptoms but a nonreactive CSF-VDRL, and one had several positive CSF syphilis tests (reactive VDRL and positive treponemal and syphilis polymerase chain reaction) but no history (referred sample). Controls included 18 patients in whom a CSF-VDRL was performed the same week as patients in the reference group. The sensitivity was 85.7% (12/14) for CSF-VDRL, 92.9% (13/14) for Trep-Sure, 100% (10/10) for Maxi-Syph, 92.3% (12/13) for INNO-LIA, and 83.3% (10/12) for TP-PA. Specificity was 100% for all tests. Treponemal serum tests performed on CSF were useful in identifying two patients with nonreactive CSF-VDRL. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  7. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  8. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

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    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  9. Anti-VDRL antibodies by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid and its value in the differential diagnosis of abnormalities of the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalban, J; Asherson, R A; Missine, J H; Vatanasuk, M; Tintore, M; Codina, A

    1992-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) techniques for the detection of antibodies to the Venereal Disease Research Laboratories (VDRL) antigen as well as for the estimation of antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were performed in several groups of patients, including those with definite paretic neurosyphilis (DPNS, 10 patients), probable paretic neurosyphilis (PPNS, 19 patients), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, 71 patients), and miscellaneous neurologic disorders (30 patients), and normal subjects (11 patients). In the DPNS group, all demonstrated positive VDRL by ELISA, and 7 also had positive aCL tests, whereas only 7 of the 10 had positive CSF fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPH A) tests. Three had positive VDRL tests by flocculation. In the PPNS group, no patients had positive FTA-ABS, TPH A, or VDRL flocculation tests in CSF. However, 18 of the 19 had positive CSF VDRL by ELISA; two of these also had positive aCL tests. Four SLE patients had positive CSF aCL tests (three with positive ELISA VDRL). Only one patient in the miscellaneous group had positive CSF aCL (Guillain-Barre syndrome), and one had positive IgM VDRL tests (bacterial meningitis). The value of VDRL ELISA in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in the face of other negative conventional tests is established by our study and had important therapeutic consequences in patients with possible/probable neurosyphilis. The aCL test often may be positive in patients with DPNS but is less useful in the PPNS group. Copyright © 1992 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leakage%脑脊液漏的诊断和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严勇; 侯立军; 于明琨; 陈菊祥; 吕立权; 齐向前; 卢亦成

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate standard diagnosis and treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage to improve the prognosis of the patients. Methods A retrospective study was done on 75 patients with CSF leakage from January 2004 to March 2007 in our hospital. There were 51 patients with rhinorrhea, nine with otorrhea and 15 with wound/incision leakage. Of all, 39 patients had traumatic leakage, 32 postoperative leakage and four spontaneous leakage. In the study, 23 patients were cured by position testing and drug therapy and 16 by cerebrospinal fluid drainage and/or wound debridement but 36 were treated with surgeries including craniotomy repair in 17, extracranial repair in 17 and CSF shunt in five (three received CSF shunt after repair). Results Of all, 64 patients were cured, 10 gained im-provement but one died. Conclusion Standard diagnosis and treatment of CSF leakage helps improve cure rate and reduce complications.%目的 探讨脑脊液漏的规范化诊断和治疗方法以改善患者预后.方法 回顾性分析我院自1994年1月-2007年3月收治的75例脑脊液漏的病例资料,其中鼻漏51例,耳漏9例,切口或伤口漏15例;外伤性漏39例,手术后漏32例,自发性漏4例.23例通过体位休息和药物治疗治愈,16例通过脑脊液引流和(或)伤口局部处理获愈;手术治疗36例,其中开颅修补17例,颅外修补17例,分流5例(其中3例为修补术后再行分流).结果 治愈64例,好转10例,死亡1例.结论 规范化的诊断、治疗方案有助于提高脑脊液漏的治愈率,减少并发症.

  11. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  12. The performance of four molecular methods for the laboratory diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in amniotic fluid samples

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    Leandro Emidio Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in fetuses and in immune-deficient patients. Conventional laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; however, molecular techniques have emerged as alternative tools due to their increased sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 4 PCR-based methods for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. One hundred pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy were included in the study. The definition of cases was based on a 12-month follow-up of the infants. Methods Amniotic fluid samples were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification by the following 4 Toxoplasma techniques performed with parasite B1 gene primers: conventional PCR, nested-PCR, multiplex-nested-PCR, and real-time PCR. Seven parameters were analyzed, sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR and efficiency (Ef. Results Fifty-nine of the 100 infants had toxoplasmosis; 42 (71.2% had IgM antibodies at birth but were asymptomatic, and the remaining 17 cases had non-detectable IgM antibodies but high IgG antibody titers that were associated with retinochoroiditis in 8 (13.5% cases, abnormal cranial ultrasound in 5 (8.5% cases, and signs/symptoms suggestive of infection in 4 (6.8% cases. The conventional PCR assay detected 50 cases (9 false-negatives, nested-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative and 4 false-positives, multiplex-nested-PCR detected 57 cases (2 false-negatives, and real-time-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative. Conclusions The real-time PCR assay was the best-performing technique based on the parameters of Se (98.3%, Sp (100%, PPV (100%, NPV (97.6%, PLR (∞, NLR (0.017, and Ef (99%.

  13. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN SERUM AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN RAPID AND EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CHILDHOOD MENINGITIS

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    F. Jadali MD,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBacterial meningitis is still a life threatening epidemiological problem especiallyin many developing countries; considering its dire consequences, its promptand accurate diagnosis has become a priority for clinicians. Because of thevarious limitations of conventionally used laboratory techniques, we evaluatedand compared the diagnostic utility of C-reactive protein(CRP and lactatedehydrogenase (LDHin serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSFin the diagnosisof bacterial meningitis and its effectivity in distinguishing it from asepticmeningitis (AP.Material and MethodsA total of 125 pediatric cases, aged between 1 month and 12 years, includingpatients with bacterial meningitis (n=45, aseptic meningitis (n=42 and acontrol group (n=38, were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of datafrom the initial clinical examinations. Cultures, smears and other commonserum and CSF indices were compared with serum and CSF CRP levels andLDH activity.ResultsCompared with each of the other variables, there were significant differencesin the mean values of serum-CRP, CSF-glucose, CSF-LDH and CSF/serumLDH ratio between the bacterial and aseptic meningitis groups (p<0.001.Of all the tests applied, the highest sensitivity (95% and negative predictivevalue (95% belonged to CSF-LDH activity and the most specific (100% testwith the highest positive predictive value (100% was CSF-CRP titration aswell as smear and culture. Combination of CSF-CRP serum-CRP, and CSFLDHyielded the highest sensitivity (100% and negative predictive value butthe combined application of CSF-LDH and CSF-CRP proved to be the mostspecific and efficient.ConclusionIn the presence of a normal CRP titration and low glucose level in CSF,bacterial meningitis is excluded, whereas elevated level of CSF-LDH activityis a valid confirmatory predictor of BM. In addition, combination of thesethree tests with serum CRP is far more effective than the separate determinationof any of these parameters.

  14. Procalcitonin levels in fresh serum and fresh synovial fluid for the differential diagnosis of knee septic arthritis from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis.

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    Wang, Chenggong; Zhong, DA; Liao, Qiande; Kong, Lingyu; Liu, Ansong; Xiao, Han

    2014-10-01

    Whether the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) in the serum and synovial fluid are effective indicators for distinguishing septic arthritis (SA) from non-infectious arthritis remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate whether PCT levels in fresh serum or fresh joint fluid may be used in the differential diagnosis of SA from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis (GA). From January 2012 to June 2013, 23 patients with knee SA, 21 patients with RA, 40 patients with OA and 11 patients with GA were enrolled in the current study. The levels of PCT were measured within 24 h after specimen collection at room temperature. An enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) was used to detect the levels of PCT in the serum and synovial fluid. The correlations between the levels of PCT in the serum and synovial fluid and the arthritic patient groups were determined by the Nemenyi test. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the correlations. The levels of PCT in the serum and joint fluid of the patients in the SA group were higher compared with those of the other groups (Parthritis; however, the PCT levels in fresh synovial fluid are more sensitive and accurate indicators than PCT levels in fresh serum.

  15. Assessment of the N-PCR assay in diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: detection of M. tuberculosis in pleural fluid and sputum collected in tandem.

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    Parameet Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nonspecific clinical presentation and paucibacillary nature of tuberculous pleuritis remains a challenge for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion depends on the demonstration of the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimen, or demonstration of granuloma in pleura by histological examination. We examined the clinical utility of the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis using the in house N-PCR assay, AFB smear microscopy and culture. Besides pleural fluid the inclusion of sputum in the efficacy of diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was scrutinized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pleural fluid and sputum samples of 58 tuberculous and 42 non-tuberculous pleural effusion patients were processed for AFB smear microscopy, culture and the N-PCR assay. Mycobacteria were detected exclusively in tuberculous pleural effusion samples. None of the non-tuberculous pleural effusion samples were positive for mycobacteria. Comparative analysis showed that the N-PCR assay had the highest sensitivity. Inclusion of sputum along with pleural fluid increased N-PCR sensitivity from 51.7 to 70.6% (p<0.0001.This improved sensitivity was reflected in AFB smear microscopy and isolation by culture. The sensitivity enhanced on inclusion of sputum from 3.4 (p = 0.50 to 10.3% (p = 0.038 for AFB smear microscopy and for isolation of mycobacteria from 10.3(p = 0.03 to 22.4% (p = 0.0005. Thirteen isolates were obtained from 58 pleural tuberculosis patients. Eleven mycobacterial isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and two as M. fortuitum and M. chelonae. Complete concordance was seen between the biochemical identification of isolates and the N-PCR identification of mycobacterial species prior to isolation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge this is the first PCR based report on utility of sputum for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. The present study demonstrates that a

  16. Phosphatidylglycerol determination in the amniotic fluid from a PAD placed over the vulva: a method for diagnosis of fetal lung maturity in cases of premature ruptured membranes.

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    Estol, P C; Poseiro, J J; Schwarcz, R

    1992-01-01

    Four hundred and forty seven pregnant women with ruptured membranes, were prospectively studied in order to assess the diagnostic capacity of Phosphatidylglycerol (PhG) determination in amniotic fluid recovered from vulval pads in the diagnosis of Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD). The identification of PhG was performed using one dimensional silica gel thin layer chromatography. The sensitivity of PhG determination in the diagnosis of HMD in newborns of the total population was found to be 88.2%, with a specificity of 76.9%. In the study population, the incidence of HMD was 7.6%, the negative predictive value was 98.8% and, the positive predictive value was 24.0%. When the 265 newborns of the gestational age group of less than or equal to 34 weeks is considered, we observed an incidence of HMD of 12.1%. The diagnostic capacity of PhG in this group was shown by a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 76.4%, a positive predictive value of 33.7% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%. This method of assessment of fetal lung maturity has a diagnostic capability similar to that described by other authors, who used amniotic fluid obtained vaginally or transabdominally. The procedure described here of amniotic fluid collection is non-invasive, harmless to the mother and fetus and simple to perform. The characteristics of this method, allow serial studies of the amniotic fluid to be carried out.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood flow in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a differential diagnosis from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

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    El Sankari Soraya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI enables quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow and total cerebral blood (tCBF flow and may be of value for the etiological diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. This investigation aimed to study CSF flow and intracerebral vascular flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and to compare the results with patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and with healthy elderly volunteers (HEV. Methods Ten a-MCI and 9 mild AD patients were identified in a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological assessment. They underwent brain MRI; PC-MRI pulse sequence was performed with the following parameters: two views per segment; flip angle: 25° for vascular flow and 20° for CSF flow; field-of-view (FOV: 14 × 14 mm²; matrix: 256 × 128; slice thickness: 5 mm; with one excitation for exams on the 3 T machine, and 2 excitations for the 1.5 T machine exams. Velocity (encoding sensitization was set to 80 cm/s for the vessels at the cervical level, 10 or 20 cm/s for the aqueduct and 5 cm/s for the cervical subarachnoid space (SAS. Dynamic flow images were analyzed with in-house processing software. The patients' results were compared with those obtained for HEVs (n = 12, and for NPH patients (n = 13, using multivariate analysis. Results Arterial tCBF and the calculated pulsatility index were significantly greater in a-MCI patients than in HEVs. In contrast, vascular parameters were lower in NPH patients. Cervical CSF flow analysis yielded similar values for all four populations. Aqueductal CSF stroke volumes (in μl per cardiac cycle were similar in HEVs (34 ± 17 and AD patients (39 ± 18. In contrast, the aqueductal CSF was hyperdynamic in a-MCI patients (73 ± 33 and even more so in NPH patients (167 ± 89. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that a-MCI patients present with high systolic

  18. [Cytological-energetic principle of the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes - up to now experiences and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, K; Kelbich, P; Švecová, M

    2015-12-01

    In our study we have dealt with the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). For one of the most important task in the feto-maternal medicine we consider the discovered method of amniotic fluid examination which is capable of the earliest possible detection in an intraamniotic inflammatory response. Unnoticed could harm or in the most serious cases threat the life of fetus or its mother. This was also the main reason why we chose this topic for our study. We have not been interested only in already known interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), but we have approached the examination comprehensively. We used the cytological-energetic principle supplemented by the examination of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), in which already are long-term experiences in investigating other extracellular fluids. We have monitored values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocytes in maternal serum, IL-6, AST and energetic score ratio (KEB) in amniotic fluid. Further we have investigated which imunocompetent cells have been dominant in amniotic fluid at different types of inflamantory reaction. According to the results of the examination of the control groups, it was necessary to correct the KEB limit in comparison to KEB limits of other extracellular fluids. Although our study includes untill now only 44 patients - 21 controls and 23 investigated persons, we have been already able to find out some trends of changes in observed parametres. As a very impotant discovery we consider the fact, that KEB, AST and cytological examination of amniotic fluid seem to be the methods for prediction of chorioamnionitis as reliable as the examination of IL-6. These methods are besides less expensive and therefore more suitable for the use in the small hospitals and developing countries. We continue in our study to confirm the previously found trends on the larger numbers of patients.

  19. A step-by-step diagnosis of exclusion in a twin pregnancy with acute respiratory failure due to non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

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    Papaioannou Vasilios E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Respiratory failure may develop during the later stages of pregnancy and is usually associated with tocolysis or other co-existing conditions such as pneumonia, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or amniotic fluid embolism syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with a twin pregnancy at 31 weeks and 6 days who experienced acute respiratory failure, a few hours after administration of tocolysis (ritodrine, due to preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Her chest discomfort was significantly ameliorated after the ritodrine infusion was stopped and a Cesarean section was performed 48 hours later under spinal anesthesia; however, 2 hours after surgery she developed severe hypoxemia, hypotension, fever and mild coagulopathy. The patient was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a quick and uneventful recovery within 3 days. As there was no evidence for drug- or infection-related thromboembolic or myocardial causes of respiratory failure, we conclude that our patient experienced a rare type of non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion In spite of the lack of solid scientific support for our diagnosis, we conclude that our patient suffered an uncommon type of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome and we believe that this report highlights the need for extreme vigilance and a high index of suspicion for such a diagnosis in any pregnant individual.

  20. Performance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious damage that can be diagnosed in utero or at birth, although most infants are asymptomatic at birth. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis considerably improves the prognosis and outcome for infected infants. For this reason, an assay for the quick, sensitive, and safe diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis is desirable. Goal To systematically review the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with recent serological toxoplasmosis diagnoses for the diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Method A systematic literature review was conducted via a search of electronic databases; the literature included primary studies of the diagnostic accuracy of PCR analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy. The PCR test was compared to a gold standard for diagnosis. Results A total of 1.269 summaries were obtained from the electronic database and reviewed, and 20 studies, comprising 4.171 samples, met the established inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The following results were obtained: studies about PCR assays for fetal toxoplasmosis are generally susceptible to bias; reports of the tests’ use lack critical information; the protocols varied among studies; the heterogeneity among studies was concentrated in the tests’ sensitivity; there was evidence that the sensitivity of the tests increases with time, as represented by the trimester; and there was more heterogeneity among studies in which there was more time between maternal diagnosis and fetal testing. The sensitivity of the method, if performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, was 87% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion The global sensitivity heterogeneity of the PCR test in this review was 66.5% (I2). The tests show low evidence of heterogeneity with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 99% when performed up to five weeks

  1. Essential and Toxic Metals in Oral Fluid-a Potential Role in the Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Malgorzata; Golasik, Magdalena; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Walas, Stanislaw; Napierala, Marta; Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurhanska-Flisykowska, Anna; Wozniak, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many studies have investigated the relationship between the level of metals in the body and various diseases. The objective of this study was to examine any possible influence of periodontal disease upon the concentration of metals in oral fluid and blood and to explore the usability of applying cluster analysis coupled with the analysis of selected elements in oral fluid, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), for effectively distinguishing people affected by periodontitis from healthy individuals. The quantification of eight metals in oral fluid and blood samples was performed by two inductively coupled plasma techniques-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Most of the examined elements were detected at elevated concentration in the oral fluid of periodontal patients. However, the differences were statistically significant in the case of three metals: Cu, Mg and Mn (p oral fluid of the periodontal patients compared to the controls. Cluster analysis confirmed the statistical significance of the differences in the level of metals in the oral fluid between the two groups in most cases, plus enabled the correct classification of the subjects into patients and controls. The relationship between concentrations of metals and periodontal disease may in the future serve to prevent the development of such disease.

  2. Diagnosis and management of fluid overload in heart failure and cardio-renal syndrome: the "5B" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio; Kaushik, Manish; Valle, Roberto; Aspromonte, Nadia; Peacock, W Frank

    2012-01-01

    Cardio-Renal syndrome may occur as a result of either primarily renal or cardiac dysfunction. This complex interaction requires a tailored approach to manage the underlying pathophysiology while optimizing the patient's symptoms and thus providing the best outcomes. Patients often are admitted to the hospital for signs and symptoms of congestion and fluid overload is the most frequent cause of subsequent re-admission. Fluid management is of paramount importance in the strategy of treatment for heart failure patients. Adequate fluid status should be obtained but a target value should be set according to objective indicators and biomarkers. Once the fluid excess is identified, a careful prescription of fluid removal by diuretics or extracorporeal therapies must be made. While delivering these therapies, adequate monitoring should be performed to prevent unwanted effects such as worsening of renal function or other complications. There is a very narrow window of optimal hydration for heart failure patients. Overhydration can result in myocardial stretching and potential decompensation. Inappropriate dehydration or relative reduction of circulating blood volume may result in distant organ damage caused by inadequate perfusion. We suggest consideration of the "5B" approach. This stands for balance of fluids (reflected by body weight), blood pressure, biomarkers, bioimpedance vector analysis, and blood volume. Addressing these parameters ensures that the most important issues affecting symptoms and outcomes are addressed. Furthermore, the patient is receiving the best possible care while avoiding unwanted side effects of the treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Alzheimer's disease cerebro-spinal fluid biomarkers: A clinical research tool sometimes useful in daily clinical practice of memory clinics for the diagnosis of complex cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Dumurgier, J; Bouaziz-Amar, E; Bombois, S; Wallon, D; Gabelle, A; Lehmann, S; Blanc, F; Bousiges, O; Hannequin, D; Jung, B; Miguet-Alfonsi, C; Quillard, M; Pasquier, F; Peoc'h, K; Laplanche, J-L; Hugon, J; Paquet, C

    2017-04-01

    The role of biomarkers in clinical research was recently highlighted in the new criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (total Tau protein, threonine 181 phosphorylated Tau protein and amyloid Aβ1-42 peptide) are associated with cerebral neuropathological lesions observed in Alzheimer's disease (neuronal death, neurofibrillary tangle with abnormal Tau deposits and amyloid plaque). Aβ1-40 amyloid peptide dosage helps to interpret Aβ1-42 results. As suggested in the latest international criteria and the French HAS (Haute Autorité de santé) recommendations, using theses CSF biomarkers should not be systematic but sometimes could be performed to improve confidence about the diagnostic of Alzheimer's disease in young subjects or in complex clinical situations. Future biomarkers actually in development will additionally help in diagnostic process (differential diagnosis) and in prognostic evaluation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  5. The metrizamide study in neuroradiologic diagnosis: The clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide

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    Song, Kounn Sik; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The retrospective analysis on the clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT cisternography were made in 292 patients. Metrizamide CT proved valuable in the diagnosis of intraspinal neoplasms with total block in myelography, demonstrating the upper margin of the neoplasms in a large number (75%) of the cases with neoplasm. Metrizamide study also clearly showed the nature and extent of the congenital anomalies such as spinal dysraphism, the exact site of leakage in CSF rhinorrhoea, the extent of the syringomyelia, and arachnoid cyst. Metrizamide CT was also helpful in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis, spinal trauma and infectious disease of the spine. The most common side effects were transient minor meningeal irritations (headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) which persisted no more than 48 hours in most of the patients. Five patients developed major complications such as grand mal seizure, toxic psychosis or aspetic meningitis.

  6. Comparison of interferon-gamma release assays and adenosine deaminase of pleural fluid for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic performance of interferon gamma releasing assays(T-SPOT.TB)and adenosine deaminase(ADA)in pleural tuberculosis,and therefore to evaluate the value of T-SPOT.TB in a high tuberculosis burden country.Methods From June 2011to November 2012,111 patients with pleural fluid in Beijing Chest Hospital,Capital Medical University were

  7. Concentration of Sonication Fluid through Centrifugation Is Superior to Membrane Filtration for Microbial Diagnosis of Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitron, Renato; Wajsfeld, Tali; Klautau, Giselle Burlamaqui; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Nigro, Stanley; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Salles, Mauro Jose Costa

    2016-03-01

    Microbial identification of orthopedic implant-associated infections using sonication fluid (SF) submitted to a concentration step by membrane filtration (SMF) was compared with the standard centrifugation (SC) method. Among 33 retrieved infected implants, sonication identified microorganisms in 26 (78.8%). The sensitivity of SC was higher than that of SMF (78.8% versus 30.3%; P < 0.001).

  8. Study on the value of detecting early secretory antigenic target-6 in cerebrospinal fluid monocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy techniques in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

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    Mei-jie LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of detecting early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monocytes by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM techniques in early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM, and to find a more specific method for early diagnosis.  Methods Double immunofluorescence staining was applied to detect ESAT-6, and LSCM was used to observe the dyeing result of CSF monocytes and to analyze three-dimensional images. ESAT-6 positive cells will present red fluorescence cytoplasm and blue fluorescence nuclei, and negative cells present blue fluorescence nuclei while the cytoplasm is not stained.  Results ESAT-6 was mainly expressed with red fluorescence in cytoplasm of CSF monocytes in patients with TBM. Among 35 cases of TBM patients, there were 28 patients (80% ESAT-6 positive, one case (2.86% ESAT-6 positive in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 42.918, P = 0.000. ESAT-6 sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 97.14%.  Conclusions The detection of ESAT-6 can provide a certain basis for the early diagnosis of TBM and has high specificity. LSCM techniques can realize simultaneously the observation of multiple fluorescence and provide clear tomography and three-dimensional images. The cytological research has been improved to a new level. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.010

  9. [Diagnostic performance of T-SPOT.TB on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase on pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy within different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H Y; Zhang, D Q; Ye, J R; Su, S S; Xie, Y P; Chen, C S; Li, Y P

    2017-06-27

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of T cell enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay (T-SPOT) on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) on pleural fluid for diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleurisy within different age groups. Methods: The data of patients with pleural effusion from the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from April 2012 to November 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and the diagnoses of these patients were histopathologically confirmed through medical thoracoscopy. The cases who had confirmed diagnosis, in the same time, received peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were enrolled. The performance of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in combination with pleural fluid ADA on diagnosing TB pleurisy in the younger patients (16-59 years old) and elderly patients (≥60 years old) were analyzed respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 448 cases were finally enrolled, 341(76.1%) confirmed with TB pleurisy, 224 males, 117 females, (47±19) years old; and 107 (23.9%) classified as non-TB pleurisy, 65 males, 42 females, (61±14) years old. There were 285 cases who were classified as younger group, and the other 163 cases were classified as elderly group. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were 85.4% (204/239) and 71.7% (33/46) in the younger patients, 76.5% (78/102) and 59.0% (36/61) respectively in the elderly patients. The sensitivity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was significantly higher than that in the elderly patients (P=0.047). The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2% and 95.7% in combination with peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB and pleural fluid ADA respectively in the younger patients. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was 0.833, AUC of T-SPOT.TB combined with ADA was 0

  10. The application values of cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination by slide centrifugation for diagnosis of central nervous system infectious diseases

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    LIU Ting-ting

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of cerebrospnial fluid (CSF cytological examination (by slide centrifugation results of 15 940 central nervous system infectious cases, this cytologic examination method shows definite diagnostic values as follows: 1 better etiological diagnostic value for central nervous system infectious diseases, such as purulent, viral, tuberculous, fungus and parasitic encephalitis meningitis and meningoencephalitis; 2 better differential diagnostic value for acute infectious toxic encephalopathy, meningeal carcinomatosis and central nervous system non-infectious diseases such as tumorous, leukemic and hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis and encephalopathy; 3 better clinical value for severity monitoring and prognostic judgement of central nervous system infectious diseases.

  11. Amniotic fluid cathelicidin in PPROM pregnancies: from proteomic discovery to assessing its potential in inflammatory complications diagnosis.

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    Vojtech Tambor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM complicated by microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC leading to histological chorioamnionitis (HCA significantly impacts perinatal morbidity. Unfortunately, no well-established tool for identifying PPROM patients threatened by these disorders is available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an unbiased exploratory analysis of amniotic fluid proteome changes due to MIAC and HCA. From among the top five proteins that showed the most profound and significant change, we sought to confirm results concerning cathelicidin (P49913, CAMP_HUMAN, since an ELISA kit was readily available for this protein. In our exploratory proteomic study, cathelicidin showed a ∼6-fold higher concentration in PPROM patients with confirmed MIAC and HCA. We verified significantly higher levels of cathelicidin in exploratory samples (women without both MIAC and HCA: median 1.4 ng/ml; women with both conditions confirmed: median 3.6 ng/ml; p = 0.0003. A prospective replication cohort was used for independent validation and for assessment of cathelicidin potential to stratify women with MIAC leading to HCA from women in whom at least one of these conditions was ruled out. We confirmed the association of higher amniotic fluid cathelicidin levels with MIAC leading to HCA (the presence of both MIAC and HCA: median 3.1 ng/ml; other women: median 1.4 ng/ml; p<0.0001. A cathelicidin concentration of 4.0 ng/ml was found to be the best cut-off point for identifying PPROM women with both MIAC and HCA. When tested on the validation cohort, a sensitivity of 48%, a specificity of 90%, a likelihood ratio of 5.0, and an area under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 71% were achieved for identification of women with MIAC leading to HCA. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-stage study suggests cathelicidin as a candidate marker that should be considered for a panel of amniotic fluid proteins permitting identification

  12. Diagnosis of retrodiscal tissue in painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (Pjoints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.

  13. Synovial fluid sedimentation in the immobile patient: a commentary on modern septic arthritis and the addition of a new variable confounding diagnosis

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    Cunningham G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Cunningham,1 Brendan Ricciardo21Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2Bunbury Regional Hospital, Bunbury, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Septic arthritis is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances, monoarticular and polyarticular septic arthritis (SA have a mortality rate of approximately 11% and 30%, respectively. SA has a 40% risk of permanent loss of joint function. Diagnosis of SA is difficult, given that no rapidly available individual test proves 100% sensitive or 100% specific. There are no previous reports on the phenomenon of synovial fluid sedimentation in an immobile patient, although the occurrence has been identified in vitro. This commentary also presents an extended report of a patient who had been immobile and supine for 24 hours before her right knee was aspirated and treated for septic arthritis. Due to her immobilization, the synovial fluid had settled. The color and opacity of the sequential aliquots from one arthrocentesis was noted to change from light straw-colored, to thick opaque purulent material. Laboratory reports showed increasing white cell counts (WCCs, from 2.6 × 109 to 78 × 109 between the sequential samples. This demonstrates a newly identified phenomenon of sedimentation. This might have led to a diagnostic difficulty, had the knee not been fully aspirated. Aspiration serves as a diagnostic tool, because it collects a sample, but it also serves as a treatment measure, because it removes purulent material. Complete aspiration of the joint should be performed for full therapeutic benefit and to avoid the potential diagnostic confusion of a falsely low WCC due to this newly identified phenomenon of synovial fluid sedimentation in the immobile patient.Keywords: septic arthritis, inflammatory arthritis, joint, sedimentation, orthopedic

  14. 流体网络在线性能评估与故障诊断方法%Online performance evaluation and failure diagnosis of fluid network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈砚桥; 倪何; 曾凡明; 孙丰瑞

    2015-01-01

    在流体网络机理建模的基础上,研究了各种性能退化因素对流体网络特性的影响,通过对网络当前特征参数与理想状态的偏差分析,给出了量化的流体网络性能评价指标,然后以该指标为依据,结合网络的拓扑结构和动态数据,实现了在线性能评估、故障诊断和故障定位。将该方法应用于实际工程案例,并通过仿真结果和实际情况的对比,证明了该方法的实用性和诊断评估结果的准确性。%Based on the fluid network modeling mechanism,the influences of various performance deg-radation factors on the characteristics of the fluid network are studied.Through the variance analysis of current network characteristic parameters and ideal state,the quantitative indexes of performance evaluation of fluid network are given based on which it is possible to carry out an online performance evaluation,fault diagnosis and location in combination with the network topology and dynamic data. The comparison of simulation results and practical situations of applying the method to engineering proves the method to be feasible and the evaluation result to be correct.

  15. Comparison of 16S rDNA-PCR Amplification and Culture of Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis

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    Farshad Foroughi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Early and accurate diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is of critical concern. Optimum and rapid laboratory facilities are not routinely available for detecting the etiologic agents of meningitis. The objective of this study was to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay with culture for detection of bacteria in central nervous system (CNS samples from patients suspected to have meningitis. Methods: One-hundred CSF samples were obtained and divided into two parts. One part of samples was used for standard bacterial culture and gram staining. The remaining was used for DNA extraction. PCR assay was performed with universal primers for 16S rDNA gene of bacteria. Performance characteristics of the test were determined. Findings:The PCR method was able to detect bacteria in all 36 culture-positive and in 38 of 64 culture-negative cases showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 40.6% respectively. Positive predictive value was 48.6% and negative predictive value 100%, however, Kappa coefficient showed the correlation of the 2 methods to be at 0.33. Conclusion:There are advantages and disadvantages in performance characteristics of the conventional CSF culture and universal CSF 16S rDNA PCR. Therefore, it is recommended to use both methods in clinical practice, particularly in suspicious contaminated samples, with presumable presence of fastidious or slow growing bacteria because of antibiotic consumption.

  16. Evaluation of PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkui Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is emerging as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool. PCR assays on serum have the potential to be a practical diagnostic tool. However, PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF has not been well established. We performed a systematic review of published studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR assays on BALF for invasive aspergillosis (IA. METHODS: Relevant published studies were shortlisted to evaluate the quality of their methodologies. A bivariate regression approach was used to calculate pooled values of the method sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall performance. We calculated the post-test probability to evaluate clinical usefulness. Potential heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Seventeen studies comprising 1191 at-risk patients were selected. The summary estimates of the BALF-PCR assay for proven and probable IA were as follows: sensitivity, 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.79-0.96; specificity, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.96; positive likelihood ratio, 11.90 (95% CI, 6.80-20.80; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.04-0.24. Subgroup analyses showed that the performance of the PCR assay was influenced by PCR assay methodology, primer design and the methods of cell wall disruption and DNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS: PCR assay on BALF is highly accurate for diagnosing IA in immunocompromised patients and is likely to be a useful diagnostic tool. However, further efforts towards devising a standard protocol are needed to enable formal validation of BALF-PCR.

  17. Dried fluid spots for peste des petits ruminants virus load evaluation allowing for non-invasive diagnosis and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ataur Rahman; Chowdhury, Emdadul Haque; Kwiatek, Olivier; Parvin, Rokshana; Rahman, Mushfiqur M; Islam, Mohammad R; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Geneviève

    2014-10-11

    Active surveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) should ease prevention and control of this disease widely present across Africa, Middle East, central and southern Asia. PPR is now present in Turkey at the gateway to the European Union. In Bangladesh, the diagnosis and genotyping of PPR virus (PPRV) may be hampered by inadequate infrastructures and by lack of proper clinical material, which is often not preserved under cold chain up to laboratories. It has been shown previously that Whatman® 3MM filter paper (GE Healthcare, France) preserves the nucleic acid of PPRV for at least 3 months at 32°C. In this study, we demonstrate the performances of filter papers for archiving RNA from local PPRV field isolates for further molecular detection and genotyping of PPRV, at -70°C combined with ambient temperature, for periods up to 16 months. PPR-suspected live animals were sampled and their blood and nasal swabs were applied on filter papers then air dried. Immediately after field sampling, RT-PCR amplifying a 448-bp fragment of the F gene appeared positive for both blood and nasal swabs when animals were in febrile stage and only nasal swabs were detected positive in non-febrile stage. Those tested positive were monitored by RT-PCR up to 10 months by storage at -70°C. At 16 months, using real time RT-PCR adapted to amplify the N gene from filter paper, high viral loads could still be detected (~2 x 10(7) copy numbers), essentially from nasal samples. The material was successfully sequenced and a Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction achieved adequate resolution to establish temporal relationships within or between the geographical clusters of the PPRV strains. This clearly reveals the excellent capacity of filter papers to store genetic material that can be sampled using a non-invasive approach.

  18. Microparticles in nasal lavage fluids in chronic rhinosinusitis: Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Kato, Atsushi; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Stevens, Whitney W; Suh, Lydia A; Norton, James E; Carter, Roderick G; Harris, Kathleen E; Peters, Anju T; Hulse, Kathryn E; Grammer, Leslie C; Welch, Kevin C; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Tan, Bruce K; Conley, David B; Kern, Robert C; Bochner, Bruce S; Schleimer, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron-sized shed membrane vesicles released from activated or injured cells and are detectable by flow cytometry. MP levels have been used as biomarkers to evaluate cell injury or activation in patients with pathological conditions. We sought to compare MP types and levels in nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) from controls and patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). We collected NLFs from patients with CRSsNP (n = 33), CRSwNP (n = 45), and AERD (n = 31) and control (n = 24) subjects. Standardized flow cytometry methods were used to characterize the following MP types: endothelial MPs, epithelial MPs (epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM](+)MPs, E-cadherin(+)MPs), platelet MPs (CD31(+)CD41(+)MPs), eosinophil MPs (EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1[EMR1](+)MPs), mast cell MPs (high-affinity IgE receptor [FcεRI](+)c-kit(+)MPs), and basophil MPs (CD203c(+)c-kit(-)MPs). Basophil activation was evaluated by the mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c on basophil MPs. Activated mast cell MPs (CD137(+) FcεRI(+)c-kit(+)MPs) were significantly increased in NLFs of controls compared with NLFs of patients with CRSsNP (2.3-fold; P < .02), CRSwNP (2.3-fold; P < .03), and AERD (7.4-fold; P < .0001). Platelet MPs (3.5-fold; P < .01) and basophil MPs (2.5-fold; P < .05) were increased only in patients with AERD. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c on MPs was increased in patients with CRSwNP (P < .002) and AERD (P < .0001), but not in patients with CRSsNP. EpCAM(+)MPs in patients with CRSwNP were no different from control (P = .91) and lower than those in patients with CRSsNP (P < .02) and AERD (P < .002). Based on released MPs, mast cells, platelets, and basophils were more highly activated in patients with AERD than in patients with CRS. Epithelial injury was lower in

  19. Differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from Guillain-Barré syndrome by quantitative determination of TDP-43 in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masato; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yamashita, Makiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Tamaoka, Akira; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased level of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be a biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and facilitate differential diagnosis of ALS from peripheral motor neuropathy. TDP-43 is the major constituent of neuronal and glial inclusions that neuropathologically characterize both ALS and tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Recent discoveries of various missense mutations in the TDP-43 gene in familial ALS indicate a pivotal role of the aberrant accumulation of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. Increased TDP-43 in the CSF could be a hallmark of ALS and other TDP-43 proteinopathy. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established to measure the concentration of TDP-43 in biological fluids. Culture supernatants of cells transfected with various TDP-43 constructs were used to confirm that the ELISA detected TDP-43. TDP-43 in the culture supernatant of TDP-43 transfected cells was detected by immunoprecipitation with subsequent immunoblotting and concentrations were successfully measured by sandwich ELISA. We then measured TDP-43 concentrations in the CSF of patients with ALS and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). TDP-43 concentrations in CSF were significantly higher in ALS than in GBS (p = 0.016). The sensitivity of the diagnostic test was 71.4% and the specificity was 84.6%. Quantitative determination of TDP-43 concentrations in the CSF by sandwich ELISA is a potential laboratory test for differentiating ALS from peripheral motor neuropathies such as GBS.

  20. Application of detecting cerebrospinal fluid circulating tumor cells in the diagnosis of meningeal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer

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    Rong JIANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe a new technology for the detection and enumeration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with meningeal metastasis (MM.  Methods Five cases of NSCLC with MM that were diagnosed by CSF cytology were selected, and 20 ml CSF samples were obtained by lumbar puncture for every patient. The tumor marker immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH technology was adapted to detect enrichment and enumeration of circulating tumor cells in 7.50 ml CSF samples; CSF cytology was checked in 10 ml CSF samples; CSF tumor markers were detected in 2.50 ml CSF samples. All of 5 cases were examined by MRI enhancement scan.  Results TM-iFISH detection found circulating tumor cells numbers ranging 18-1823/7.50 ml. Only 2 cases of patients with CSF cytology examination showed the tumor cells. The results of CSF tumor markers in all samples were higher than normal serum tumor markers detection results. The enhanced MRI scan of 5 cases revealed typical signs of MM.  Conclusions The TM-iFISH test showed certain advantages in the detection of malignant tumor cells in CSF. This technology may be a new method of detection and enumeration of tumor cells in CSF, but more studies are needed to prove its sensitivity and specificity. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.011

  1. Microscopic examination of intracellular organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia:a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Du Zhaohui; Zhou Qing; Hu Bo; Li Zhifeng; Yu Li; Xu Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of intracellular organisms (ICOs) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a possible method for rapid diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).However,the validity of this diagnostic method remains controversial and the diagnostic thresholds reported by investigators were different.Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of quantification of ICOs in BALF for the diagnosis of VAP,and to detect the best cutoff percentage of PMNs containing ICOs (PIC) in the microscopic examination of BALF for the diagnosis of VAP.Methods This was a prospective multi-center study conducted in 4 ICUs in Wuhan,China,which involved 181 patients suspected of first episode of VAP.BALF was obtained from all enrolled patients.The BALF samples underwent quantitative culture,cytological and bacteriological analysis to detect the culture results,PIC values and the morphological features of microorganisms.Definite diagnosis of VAP was based on pre-set criteria.The receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to detect the best cutoff point for PIG to diagnose VAP,and the diagnostic accuracy was calculated.Moreover,quantitative culture and Gram's stain of BALF were adopted to diagnose VAP,and their diagnostic accuracy was evaluated as well.Results There were 102 patients definitely diagnosed with VAP (VAP group),and 60 patients definitely diagnosed without VAP (no VAP group).We found that ICOs were present in 96.08% (98 out of 102) of VAP patients and 20.00% (12 out of 60) of no VAP patients.The PICs were significantly higher ((9.53±6.65)% vs.(0.52±1.33)%,P<0.01) in VAP group.In our study,the best cutoff point for PIC to diagnose VAP was 1.5%,which had a sensitivity of 94.12%,a specificity of 88.33%,a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.20% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 89.83%.The area under the receiveroperating characteristic curve was 0.956 (95% confidence interval,0

  2. Headspace screening of fluid obtained from the gut during colonoscopy and breath analysis by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry: A novel approach in the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases

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    Lechner, M.; Colvin, H. P.; Ginzel, C.; Lirk, P.; Rieder, J.; Tilg, H.

    2005-05-01

    Background: The diagnosis of many gastro-intestinal diseases is difficult and can often be confirmed only by using invasive diagnostic means. In contrast, the headspace screening of fluid obtained from the gut during colonoscopy and the analysis of exhaled air may be a novel approach for the diagnosis of these diseases.Materials and methods: The screening was performed by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) which allows rapid and sensitive measurement. Fluid samples obtained from the gut during colonoscopy were collected from 76 and breath samples from 70 subjects. Mass spectra of healthy controls were created. Afterwards these spectra were compared with those of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; n = 10) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; n = 7).Results: Significant differences in the mass spectra could be observed both in the headspace of the fluid and in the exhaled air comparing patients with healthy controls.Conclusions: This study is the first describing headspace screening of fluid obtained from the gut during colonoscopy, possibly presenting a novel diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases.

  3. Use of cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples impregnated on FTATM Elute filter paper for the diagnosis of infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fábio Takenori; Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares

    2017-01-01

    Background The lack of information regarding the burden of acute bacterial meningitis in Latin America leads to a reduction in the estimated incidence rates of the disease, and impairs public health decisions on the use and follow-up of preventive interventions, particularly, the evaluation of existing vaccination policies. The use of the real-time PCR in diagnostic routine procedures has resulted in a substantial increase in confirmed bacterial meningitis cases. However, in resource-poor countries, these assays are only available in reference laboratories. Sample transportation to these laboratories is a critical constraint, as it requires specialized, high cost courier services. To overcome this barrier we evaluated the use of FTATM Elute filter paper cards for the conservation and processing of samples under normal environmental conditions, as they would be when transported from remote and under-equipped healthcare facilities to the reference centers. A total of 401 samples received in 2015 as part of Sao Paulo’s national surveillance for routine diagnosis were selected for this study. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR were evaluated using fresh serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples processed using our laboratory’s standard DNA extraction, and processing the same samples after being dried and stored on FTATM card, and DNA extracted following the manufacturer’s instructions. Results The sensitivities for detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae from CSF dried and stored on FTATM cards were 98%, 92%, and 100%, respectively, and with serum samples were 73%, 88%, and 100%, respectively. When compared to our laboratory’s standard methodology, results showed high concordance, with Kappa index ranges of 0.9877–1.00 for CSF, and 0.8004–1.00 for serum samples. Conclusion The use of FTATM cards for CSF and serum conservation and transport represents a rapid, reliable, and cost

  4. Low-dose intrathecal fluorescein for diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea using the scanning fiber endoscope in the human nasal cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Vivian W.; Davis, Calvin G.; Davis, Greg E.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2016-03-01

    Intrathecal fluorescein (ITF) enhances detection of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (CSFR). Clinically administered doses fall in the range of 0.1ml to 0.5ml of 5% to 10% fluorescein (1.3×10-3M to 1.3×10-2M). Though uncommon, significant morbidities associated with high doses of fluorescein have been reported. High concentrations are necessary for white light visual assessment; in contrast, fluorescent imaging enhances signal contrast and requires lower ITF concentrations for visualization. The ultrathin and flexible, multimodal scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) can visualize nanomolar concentrations of fluorescein as pseudocolor over reflectance, video-rate imaging. The application of the SFE for CSFR detection was assessed in a cadaver study. Briefly, 10μM (1×10-5M) fluorescein, 100X-1000X less than the standard clinical dose, was injected intra-cranially into the epidural space through an orbital roof puncture. The resulting rhinorrhea was assessed with a conventional, rigid ENT scope and second with the SFE in both video reflectance and multimodal fluorescent imaging modes. Neither system could visualize the 10μM ITF during white light imaging however the nanomolar sensitive SFE visualized the rhinorrhea during fluorescent imaging. Despite the low concentration used, a target-to-background ratio of 5.6 +/- 2.7 was achieved. To demonstrate SFE guidance of CSFR detection and repair, de-identified patient computed tomography (CT) scans were used to generate 3D printed phantoms. Cases were selected for unique anatomical features and overall clinical difficulty as determined by an experienced ENT clinician (GED). The sensitivity and minimally invasive nature of the SFE provide a unique platform for enhancing diagnosis and monitoring interventions in surgical endoscopic approaches into the sinuses.

  5. Peritoneal fluid culture

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    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  6. Application of FISH in prenatal diagnosis of chromosome number abnormality in amniotic fluid cells%FISH在产前羊水细胞染色体数目异常诊断中的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 李华锋; 高刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) on prenatal diagnosis of abnormal number of chromosomes in amniotic fluid cells. Methods The amniotic fluid of 1 121 cases of pregnant women with down syndrome screening in high-risk or age higher than 35 years old, were got by amniocentesis, and udenvent rapid prenatal diagnosis by FISH. Then the G banding karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis after cultured amniotic fluid cells were compared to the FISH results. Results 16 cases were found abnormal result, including 7 cases of trisomy 21 , 4 cases of trisomy 21, and other 5 cases with abnormal. It was consistent with G banding karyotypes results. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome humber sbnormality by FISH is satisfactory.%目的 观察应用荧光原位杂交( FISH)技术产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常的效果.方法 唐氏综合征筛查高危或高龄(≥35岁)孕妇1 121例,经腹部穿刺抽取羊水,应用FISH技术进行羊水细胞染色体数目检测,并将其结果与羊水细胞常规G显带核型分析结果作比较.结果 均获得诊断结果,发现16例异常胎儿,其中7例为21三体,4例为18三体,5例为其他异常.FISH检测与核型分析结果一致.结论 用FISH产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常效果满意.

  7. 关节液用于关节疾病诊断的意义及未来展望%Prospect and significance of synovial fluid analysis in diagnosis of joint diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查振刚; 张还添; 谭文成; 杨杰

    2016-01-01

    Joint diseases are the most common and frequent encountered diseases in the clinical practice, yet the diagnosis of these diseases mainly depends on the history , physical examination , imaging examination, and blood tests.But these diagnosis methods are not early and accurate enough , so the patients may miss the opportunity of effective treatment in the early stage .More and more attetions are paid to synovial fluid analysis , the joint diseases change along with the synovial fluid and the internal environment .It is possible to make an early and accurate diagnosis of joint disease by synovial fluid analysis.This article reviews several common joint diaseases , such as osteoarthritis , prosthetic joint infection, septic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis, etc.The technologies, progresses and methods of synovial fluid analysis are introduced .The prospect and significance of synovial fluid analysis are also mentioned in this article .%关节疾病是临床上的常见病及多发病,在临床工作中,其诊断主要依靠询问病史、体格检查、影像学检查及相关血液学检查等。但上述方法诊断价值有限,因不能更早期且准确地诊断关节疾病而导致患者很可能错失早期的有效治疗。近年来在骨关节疾病中关节液的相关研究越来越受到重视,有研究表明关节疾病的早期改变中有关节液成分的变化及关节内环境的改变,所以关节液检查为早期准确诊断关节疾病提供了可能。本文就一些常见的关节疾病,如骨关节炎、假体周围感染、化脓性关节炎、类风湿性关节炎及痛风性关节炎等,介绍了在这些疾病中常见的关节液检查方法、手段及进展,并对关节液检查分析的未来前景及意义进行展望。

  8. Comparison of Real-Time PCR, Conventional PCR, and Galactomannan Antigen Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Samples from Hematology Patients for Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Pagano, Livio; Pagliari, Gabriella; Fianchi, Luana; Mele, Luca; La Sorda, Marilena; Franco, Angelica; Fadda, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    An iCycler iQ real-time PCR assay targeting 18S rRNA Aspergillus-specific sequences was developed for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Positive findings were obtained for 18 of 20 (90%) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from patients with probable or confirmed IPA and were obtained for none of the 24 BAL samples from patients with no clinical evidence of aspergillosis. These results were concordant with those of a nested PCR assay, which detected 90% of the patients with IPA, while galactomannan ELISA revealed positivity for 100% of these patients, suggesting that combined use of methods might improve the diagnosis of IPA. PMID:12904419

  9. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Craig; Smailagic, Nadja; Noel-Storr, Anna H; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Flicker, Leon; Mason, Sam E; McShane, Rupert

    2014-06-10

    According to the latest revised National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (now known as the Alzheimer's Association) (NINCDS-ADRDA) diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia of the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer Association, the confidence in diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease dementia is raised with the application of biomarkers based on measures in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or imaging. These tests, added to core clinical criteria, might increase the sensitivity or specificity of a testing strategy. However, the accuracy of biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias has not yet been systematically evaluated. A formal systematic evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and other properties of plasma and CSF amyloid beta (Aß) biomarkers was performed. To determine the accuracy of plasma and CSF Aß levels for detecting those patients with MCI who would convert to Alzheimer's disease dementia or other forms of dementia over time. The most recent search for this review was performed on 3 December 2012. We searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), BIOSIS Previews (ISI Web of Knowledge), Web of Science and Conference Proceedings (ISI Web of Knowledge), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and LILACS (BIREME). We also requested a search of the Cochrane Register of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (managed by the Cochrane Renal Group).No language or date restrictions were applied to the electronic searches and methodological filters were not used so as to maximise sensitivity. We selected those studies that had prospectively well defined cohorts with any accepted definition of cognitive decline, but no dementia, with baseline CSF or plasma Aß levels, or both, documented at or around the time the above diagnoses were made. We also included studies which looked at data from those cohorts

  10. Diagnosis of drowning using post-mortem computed tomography based on the volume and density of fluid accumulation in the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Kawabata, Tomoyoshi; Sugai, Yusuke [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miho, E-mail: meifan58@m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have reported that drowning victims frequently have fluid accumulation in the paranasal sinuses, most notably the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. However, in our previous study, many non-drowning victims also had fluid accumulation in the sinuses. Therefore, we evaluated the qualitative difference in fluid accumulation between drowning and non-drowning cases in the present study. Thirty-eight drowning and 73 non-drowning cases were investigated retrospectively. The fluid volume and density of each case were calculated using a DICOM workstation. The drowning cases were compared with the non-drowning cases using the Mann–Whitney U-test because the data showed non-normal distribution. The median fluid volume was 1.82 (range 0.02–11.7) ml in the drowning cases and 0.49 (0.03–8.7) ml in the non-drowning cases, and the median fluid density was 22 (−14 to 66) and 39 (−65 to 77) HU, respectively. Both volume and density differed significantly between the drowning and non-drowning cases (p = 0.001, p = 0.0007). Regarding cut-off levels in the ROC analysis, the points on the ROC curve closest (0, 1) were 1.03 ml (sensitivity 68%, specificity 68%, PPV 53%, NPV 81%) and 27.5 HU (61%, 70%, 51%, 77%). The Youden indices were 1.03 ml and 37.8 HU (84%, 51%, 47%, 86%). When the cut-off level was set at 1.03 ml and 27.5 HU, the sensitivity was 42%, specificity 45%, PPV 29% and NPV 60%. When the cut-off level was set at 1.03 ml and 37.8 HU, sensitivity was 58%, specificity 32%, PPV 31% and NPV 59%.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid A beta(1-40) Improves Differential Dementia Diagnosis in Patients with Intermediate P-tau(181P) Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaets, Sylvie; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed that the concentration of amyloid-beta(1-40) (A beta(1-40)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects the total amount of A beta protein in the brain and thus allows a better interpretation of inter-individual differences in A beta quantity than the A beta(1-42) concentration. In this stud

  12. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  13. Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞诊断治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世芬

    2007-01-01

    羊水栓塞(amniotic fluid embolism,AFE)是一种极为凶险的产科并发症。AFE已上升为产科死因的首位Ⅲ。近几年来对AFE的发病机制已有了更新的认识,现就AFE的诊断、治疗新进展进行讨论。

  14. Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis%脑脊液检查在多发性硬化诊断中的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖海灵

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究脑脊液变化与多发性硬化组诊断的相关性。方法选取多发性硬化患者34例记录临床EDSS评分分为多发性硬化组,另选取34例的其他中枢神经系统疾病患者,其中其它炎症性20例分为炎症组,其它非炎症性14例纳入非炎症组。所有患者留取脑脊液。统计学分析。结果脑脊液表达水平在各组中差别有统计学意义。结论脑脊液检测能够作为检验方法对多发性硬化临床诊断。%ObjectiveTo study changes in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis group diagnostic relevance.Methods 34 patients with multiple sclerosis clinical EDSS score record into multiple sclerosis group, select the other 34 patients with other central nervous system diseases, among other inlfammatory inlfammation group is divided into 20 cases, 14 cases of other non-inlfammatory included non-inlfammatory group. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from all patients. Statistical analysis.ResultsThe expression levels of cerebrospinal fluid in each group difference was statistically signiifcant.Conclusion The detection of cerebrospinal fluid can be used as test methods for the clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

  15. THE VALIDITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS ANTIGENS COCKTAIL: ESAT-6, CFP-10 AND MPT64 IN SPUTUM AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Kartika Turbawaty; Nenny Gustiani; Livia Noviani; Ida Parwati

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity of tuberculosis (TB) antigen cocktail (ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MPT64) for pulmonary tuberculosis and TB meningitis diagnosis. Methods: This is a descriptive observational study design. The study was conducted at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during September 2012 until March 2013 for the pulmonary tuberculosis study and from January 2014 to May 2014 for the TB meningitis study. The TB antigen cocktail rapid imm...

  16. Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Analysis of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞的临床诊断及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娓娓

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical diagnostic approach and efficacy in treatment of amniotic fluid embolism are to be discussed. Methods Chose 30 patients with amniotic fluid embolism in hospital from July 2013 to October 2014. Firstly,those patients was diagnosed accurately and treated them with anti-al ergy,shock and microcirculation dredge,and bronchial dilation on basis of diagnostic results. Then we observed the efficacy. Results After treatment,28 patients were cured and discharged. The treatment success rate was up to 93.33% . The treatment efficacy was significant and it had statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Diagnosing early amniotic fluid embolism patients and treating them with comprehensive and symptomatic treatment are bound to achieve favorable.%目的:探究羊水栓塞患者临床的诊断方法和治疗效果。方法选取2013年7月~2014年10月收治的30例羊水栓塞患者进行治疗,首先给予明确诊断,并根据诊断情况采取抗过敏、休克、疏通微循环、扩张肺支气管的治疗,观察患者的治疗效果。结果对所有患者进行治疗,28例患者治愈出院,治疗成功率为93.33%。治疗效果显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对羊水栓塞患者给予早期诊断,以及综合的对症治疗,可得到显著的治疗效果。

  17. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid interferon-gamma in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis%脑脊液γ-干扰素检测在结核性脑膜炎中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锡坤; 欧结艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨血清及脑脊液的γ-干扰素(I N F-γ)水平对结核性脑膜炎诊断的临床价值。方法采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测25例结核性脑膜炎(结核性脑膜炎组)、31例病毒性脑膜炎(病毒性脑膜炎组)、12例化脓性脑膜炎(化脓性脑膜炎组)患者血清及脑脊液中IN F-γ水平。结果结核性脑膜炎组患者脑脊液IN F-γ含量为(386.3±83.5)ng/L ,明显高于病毒性脑膜炎组(63.4±16.2)ng/L和化脓性脑膜炎组(116.8±22.6)ng/L ,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01),且重叠性很小;而3组血清INF-γ含量很低并相近,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。脑脊液INF-γ诊断结核性脑膜炎的灵敏度、特异度和准确度分别为92.0%、95.3%和94.1%。结论检测脑脊液IN F-γ对结核性脑膜炎有一定的辅助诊断价值。%Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis .Methods IFN-γlevels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed by ELISA method in 25 patients with tuberculous meningitis ,31 patients with viral meningitis and 12 patients with suppurative meningitis .Results The IFN-γlevels in cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in the patients with tuberculous meningitis (386 .3 ± 83 .5) ng/L than in the patients with viral meningitis (63 .4 ± 16 .2) ng/L or the patients with suppurative meningitis (116 .8 ± 22 .6) ng/L (P0 .05) .The sensitivity ,specificity and accuracy of IFN-γ level in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis were 92 .0% ,95 .3% and 94 .1% ,respectively .Conclusions Measurement of IFN-γlevel in cerebrospinal fluid may be helpful for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis .

  19. Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10, patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5 and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2 and neurocysticercosis (n = 2 were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.

  20. Detection of fungal DNA in peritoneal fluids by a PCR DNA low-density microarray system and quantitation of serum (1-3)-β-D-glucan in the diagnosis of peritoneal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Aguilar, Gerardo; Delgado, Carlos; Puig, Jaime; Izquierdo, Ana; Belda, Javier; Navarro, David

    2015-02-01

    Microbiological documentation of peritoneal candidiasis (PC) is hampered by the low numbers of yeasts observable by direct microscopic examination and recoverable by culture methods. The performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA Low-Density Microarray System (CLART STIs B) was compared to that of BACTEC FX automated culture method for the detection of Candida spp. in 161 peritoneal fluids (PF) from patients with peritonitis. The clinical utility of (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BDG) antigenemia in the diagnosis of PC was evaluated in 42 of these patients. The overall agreement between the PCR assay and the culture method was good (κ = 0.790), and their sensitivities were 93.5% and 74.19%, respectively. Serum BDG levels in patients with Candida spp. in PFs (median, 200.3 pg/mL; Range, 22.0-523.4 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.002) than those found in patients without the yeast (median, 25.3 pg/mL; Range, 0-523.4 pg/mL). Our study demonstrates the potential clinical utility of molecular methods and the measurement of serum BDG levels for the diagnosis of PC.

  1. Significance of amniotic fluid cells culture in the prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases%羊水细胞培养用于染色体病产前诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慈; 刘义辉; 刘学军; 王振海; 张晓艳; 辛虹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and necessity of amniotic fluid cells culture in the prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases in order to prevent the birth of fetus with chromosomal diseases .Methods The 293 specimens of amniotic cell obtained by amniocentesis from 293 pregnant women with prenatal diagnosis indications were cultured and analyzed .Results Among the 293 specimens of amniotic cell ,14 cases of chromosome abnormality were found , with the chromosome abnormality rate being 4.78%,including 9 cases of chromosome number abnormality and 5 cases of chromosomal structure abnormality .The chromosome abnormality rates were different in different groups with different prenatal diagnosis indications ,in which the chromosome abnormality rates were the highest in the group with one party of the couple with chromosome abnormality .Conclusion The amniotic cell culture and chromosome karyotype analysis are the effective means in prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases in the pregnant women with prenatal diagnosis indications at mid trimester of pregnancy, moreover, the combined detection of serological screening , chromosome examination and ultrasonic inspection plays an important role in the prevention of child birth defects .%目的:探讨羊水细胞培养对孕中期孕妇进行产前诊断的可行性及必要性,防止染色体病患儿的出生。方法对293例有产前诊断指征的孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺,采取羊水细胞培养,制备中期染色体,分析胎儿核型,进行产前诊断。结果发现染色体异常14例,异常率4.78%,其中数目异常9例,结构异常5例,不同产前诊断指征分组中的异常率不同,以夫妇一方为染色体异常组异常率最高。结论妊娠中期对有产前诊断指征的孕妇进行羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析是产前诊断的重要手段,而血清学筛查,染色体检查和超声检查三者相互结合对于预防出生缺陷意义重大。

  2. Value of determining the cerebrospinal fluid protein markers of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration in the diagnosis of vascular and neurodegenerative cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yuryevich Lobzin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on different forms of moderate cognitive impairments (MCI and the specific features of their transformation to dementia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was investigated in 60 patients with the amnestic and neurodynamic types of MCI, in 15 patients with vascular dementia (VD, 50 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and 23 patients with mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia (MVND. The specific features of β-amyloid and τ-protein concentrations were established in the preclinical stages of dementia, which reflects the main components of the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. In the amnestic form of MCI and AD, there was drastically decreased Aβ-42 and increased τ-protein levels in SCF. As cognitive impairments progressed, there was a rise in the concentration of τ-protein; its level correlated with the severity of dementia. In MND, the level of Aβ-42 was significantly reduced while the concentration of τ-protein was much increased; moreover, to a greater extent than in AD and VD. Cerebrovascular damage and neurodegeneration were related to each other and mutually worsened clinical and pathogenic effects.

  3. IL-6 and IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with aseptic meningitis and bacterial meningitis: their potential role as a marker for differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Laerte Pinto Junior

    Full Text Available Cytokines are molecules that act as mediators of immune response; cerebral spinal fluid (CSF IL-6 is found in all meningeal inflammatory diseases, but IL-8 is associated with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM. A case control study was done to ascertain the discriminatory power of these cytokines in differentiating ABM from aseptic meningitis (AM; IL-6 and IL-8 CSF concentrations were tested through ELISA in samples collected from patients who underwent investigation for meningitis. Sixty patients, 18 with AM, nine with bacteriologic confirmed ABM and 33 controls, assisted in 2005 (MA and controls and 2007 (ABM were included. Differently from controls, IL-6 concentrations were increased both in MA and ABM patients (p < 0.05. CSF IL-8 levels were higher in ABM than in AM and controls (p < 0.05. Discriminatory power in ABM as assessed by the area under receiver operator (ROC curve was 0.951 for IL-8, using a cut-off of 1.685 ng/dL (100% of sensitivity and 94% of specificity. The CSF concentration of both IL-6 and IL-8 are increased in the presence of meningeal inflammation, IL-8 could be an important tool to differentiate ABM from AM.

  4. Using Flow Cytometry for the Diagnosis of Lung Neuroendocrine Carcinoma With Samples From Endobronchial Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration and Pleural Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Costaldi

    2015-02-01

    Materials and Methods: Cases of LNC with both cytology and FC were identified in our pathology databases from 2008 until June 2012. IHC and FC results were compared in these cases. Results: Fifteen of 17 cases had immunohistochemical studies from cell block including cytokeratin (11/11, 100%, thyroid transcription factor-1 (6/8, 75%, synaptophysin (12/14, 86%, chromogranin (4/13, 31% and CD 56 (10/11, 91%. Of all 17 cases, 13 cases had FC performed with antibodies for CD 56, cytokeratin (Cam5.2 and CD 45. Twelve of the 13 cases were positive for CD 56 (12/13, 92%, which was similar to the IHC results (10/11, 91%. Eleven cases were positive for cytokeratin by IHC and 10 were positive (10/12, 83% for cytokeratin by FC. One case in our study which was CD 56+/Cam5.2+/CD 45 and #8722; was diagnosed as carcinoid tumor by final morphology. Conclusions: Our results suggest that FC utilizing antibodies for CD 56/cytokeratin/CD 45 is a reliable alternative method for detecting LNC from FNA specimens when IHC fails or becomes unavailable. However, the morphology is still necessary for the diagnosis since the FC panel is not wholly specific for the subtypes of LNC. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 3-8

  5. MRI及脑脊液分析在中枢神经系统感染鉴别中的作用%Role of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in early differential diagnosis of central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 张爱武; 方燕南; 徐如祥; 邸伟; 肖子建; 漆薇韡; 郑振扬

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨脑脊液(CSF)常规以及MRI特点对中枢神经系统感染性疾病鉴别诊断的意义. 方法 中山大学附属第一医院神经内科自2007年1月至2011年12月收住院并确诊中枢神经系统感染性疾病患者274例,其中病毒性脑/脑膜炎(病毒脑)166例、化脓性脑膜炎(化脑)45例、结核性脑膜炎(结脑)47例、隐球菌性脑膜炎(隐脑)16例;回顾性分析患者的MRI常规及增强扫描结果、CSF常规、血中性粒细胞百分比检查结果,采用逐步判别分析各项指标对4种感染的鉴别诊断价值. 结果 MRI扫描结果显示MRI异常患者76例(27.74%),其中病毒脑38例,化脑10例,结脑26例,隐脑2例;4种感染患者的CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、糖、中性粒细胞含量、血中性粒细胞百分比不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).逐步回归分析筛选出CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、血中性粒细胞百分比、有无MRI病灶5项指标建立判别函数,诊断的总准确率为59.1%.诊断化脑的敏感性、特异性和准确率分别为24.4%、73.4%和65.3%,结脑为61.7%、80.6%和77.4%,隐脑为62.5%、56.9%和57.3%,病毒脑为67.5%、75.0%和70.4%. 结论 CSF压力、蛋白质、氯化物、血中性细胞百分比、有无MRI病灶对中枢神经系统感染性疾病的鉴别诊断最有意义,建立的判别函数对鉴别诊断具有一定价值,但临床上仍需病原学进行确诊.%Objective To investigate the significance of cerebrospinal fluid pressure,cytology and biochemistry,and MRI features in the early differential diagnosis of central nervous system infections.Methods The clinical data of 274 patients with central nervous system infections (viral encephalitis/meningitis in 166 patients,purulent meningitis in 45,tuberculous meningitis in 47 and cryptococcal meningitis in 16),admitted to our hospital from January 2007 to December 2011,were analyzed retrospectively.The cerebrospinal fluid pressure

  6. The Research of Bilirubin Levels in Neonatal Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Diagnosis of Bilirubin Encephalopathy%新生儿脑脊液胆红素在胆红素脑病诊断中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙路璐; 金玉莲; 刘光辉; 张健; 郑洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of concentration of bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid for early diagnosis of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy.Methods 34 cases with bilirubin encephalopathy and 37 cases with non-bilirubin encephalopathy as control group were chosen from February 2011 to October 2012.The concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid and unconjugated bilirubin in serum of two groups were compared.According to the ROC curve,their critical value,sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of bilirubin encephalopathy were analyzed.Results The unconjugated bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid in the bilirubin encephalopathy group (13.88 ± 5.03)μmol/L was significant higher than that in the control group (5.83 ± 4.30)μmol/L(P < 0.01),there was statistical significance in difference (P < 0.01).The area under curve of unconjugated bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid(0.909) was larger than that of unconjugated bilirubin in serum(0.692),according to the ROC curve.When the critical value was 9.55 μmol/L,the sensitivity and specificity of unconjugated bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy were 86.7% and 93.9%,respectively.Conclusion Unconjugated bilirubin in cerebros-pinal fluid value was a good indicator for predicting bilirubin encephalopathy and it was helpful to provide information for rational clinical treatment of hyperbilirubinemia.%目的 探讨高胆红素血症新生儿脑脊液未结合胆红素水平对胆红素脑病的早期诊断价值.方法 以2011年2月-2012年10月入院的34例胆红素脑病患儿(病例组)和37例单纯高胆红素血症患儿(对照组)为研究对象,比较两组脑脊液及血清未结合胆红素水平,并绘制ROC曲线,计算脑脊液未结合胆红素及血清未结合胆红素水平在诊断胆红素脑病中的临界值、灵敏度、特异度、阳性预

  7. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  8. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  9. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  11. Vesicouterine fistula: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.M.; Lomas, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lee, G.; Doble, A. [Dept. of Urology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sharma, S.D. [Dept. of Urology, Peterborough NHS Trust Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula in a young woman following caesarean section is presented. The diagnosis was established successfully using heavily T2-weighted MRI which clearly demonstrated fluid within the fistula, obviating the need for conventional radiographic contrast examination. (orig.)

  12. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidy in uncultured amniotic fluid samples%FISH技术在产前诊断胎儿染色体数异常中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利平; 剡红民; 秦翠云; 娄超; 马晓萍; 郑军; 强荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术在快速产前诊断胎儿染色体非整倍体异常中的价值.方法 使用荧光原位杂交技术,选用荧光素标记的双色13/21染色体位点特异性探针和三色18/X/Y染色体着丝粒探针,检测760例胎儿羊水细胞.结果 采用双色13/21号和三色18/X/Y染色体荧光探针检测间期未培养羊水细胞,发现8例21三体综合征,1例13三体综合征,1例45,XO,1例47,XXX,3例性染色体嵌合体.荧光原位杂交检测结果 和常规细胞遗传学检测结果 相比,两者符合率为99%.结论 荧光原位杂交技术在产前快速诊断胎儿染色体非整倍体异常有很高的临床价值.%Objective To investgate clinical value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidy of the fetus. Methods Fluorescein-labeled bicolor 13th/21th chromosomal loci specificity probe and triad colour 18th/X/Y kinomere probe were used to detect cells in uncultured amniotic fluid samples of 760 pregnact women. Results 8 fetuses with trisomy 21 syndrome, I fetus with trisomy 13 syndrome, I fetus with with 45 ,XO, 1 fetus with 47,XXX and 5 fetuses with sex chromosome mosaic syndrome were identified. The coincidence rate of diagnosis between FISH and conventional cytogenetics was 99%. Conclusion FISH technique has a high clinic value in rapid diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidy.

  13. 脑脊液联合检测在颅内感染诊断中的应用%Combined detection of cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of intracranial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈达富; 邵筱

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脑脊液病原学及生物标志物联合检测在颅内感染诊断中的应用价值。方法对49例颅内感染患者(感染组)和49例颅脑外伤但无颅内感染患者(对照组)脑脊液标本进行病原学检测和腺苷脱氨酶(ADA)、葡萄糖、蛋白质、IgG、IgA、IgM检测,结合病原学检测和生物标志物检测结果进行对照分析。结果结核性颅内感染患者脑脊液ADA水平明显增高,细菌性颅内感染与隐球菌颅内感染患者脑脊液葡萄糖水平明显降低,细菌性颅内感染患者脑脊液蛋白质、Ig A水平明显增高,细菌性颅内感染与结核性颅内感染患者脑脊液IgG水平明显增高,结核性颅内感染患者脑脊液IgM水平明显升高(P<0.05)。病毒性颅内感染患者与对照组患者各项指标比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论脑脊液病原学和生物标志物联合检测对颅内感染的诊治具有一定参考价值。%Objective To investigate the application of pathogenic examination and biomarkers detection of cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of intracranial infection .Methods Pathogenic and biomarkers examination were performed in cerebrospinal fluid of 49 cases with intracranial infection (infection group) and 49 cases of craniocerebral trauma but without intracranial infection (control group) .Results Adenosine deaminase activity obviously increased in tuberculous meningitis cases ,glucose levels decreased in bac‐terial meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis cases ,protein and IgA content increased in bacterial meningitis cases ,IgG levels in‐creased in bacterial meningitis and tuberculous meningitis cases ,IgM levels increased in tuberculous meningitis cases (P0 .05) .Conclusion Combined pathogenic detection and biomarker detection of cerebrospinal fluid could be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial infection .

  14. Role of Routine Blood Test, Cerebrospinal Fluid Test and MRI in Differential Diagnosis of Meningitis%血、脑脊液常规及 MRI 对脑膜炎鉴别诊断的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索血、脑脊液(CSF)常规及 MRI 对病毒性、结核性、化脓性及隐球菌性脑膜炎鉴别诊断的意义。方法:回顾性分析病毒性、结核性、化脓性及隐球菌性脑膜炎患者220例的临床资料,筛选出 CSF 压力、氯化物、蛋白质,血中性粒细胞百分比及有无 MRI 病灶这5个指标,建立判定函数;比较应用此诊断标准诊断4种脑膜炎的准确性、特异性及敏感性。结果:结核性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.423,敏感性为61.7%,特异性为80.6%,ROC 曲线下面积为0.902;病毒性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.425,敏感性为67.5%,特异性为75.0%,ROC曲线下面积为0.855;化脓性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.390,敏感性为65.6%,特异性为73.4%,ROC 曲线下面积为0.754;隐球菌性脑膜炎的约登指数为0.194,敏感性为62.5%,特异性为56.9%,曲线下面积为0.705。结论:结合 CSF 压力、氯化物及蛋白含量,血中性粒细胞百分比及有无 MRI 病灶建立判别函数可以提高脑膜炎的早期诊断正确率,但确诊仍需病原学检测结果。%Objective: To explore the role of routine blood test, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) test and MRI in differen-tial diagnosis of viral meningitis, tubercular meningitis, purulent meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. Methods:A retrospective study of 220 patients with viral meningitis, tubercular meningitis, purulent meningitis and crypto-coccal meningitis was carried out. The data of CSF pressure, chloride and protein content, neutrophil percent of blood and MRI was collected to establish a discriminant function. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of this discriminant function to diagnosis the four types of meningitis were assessed. Results: The Youden index, sensitivi-ty, specificity and area under ROC curve of the discriminant functions were 0.423, 61.7%, 80.6% and 0.902 in tu-bercular meningitis; 0.425, 67.5%, 75.0% and 0.855 in viral meningitis

  15. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  16. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  18. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  19. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  20. MAT FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Rahardianingtyas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacterial infection leptospira interrogans.Leptospira bacteria is a spiral bacterium with solid strands with two flagella periplasmik.Septicaemic phase patient samples taken from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, whereassamples taken at phase immune extracted from urine. The diagnosis of leptospirosis occurdirectly or indirectly. Diagnosis is done by directly isolate and identify the causative agents ofthe agent. Diagnosis is done indirectly by detecting specific antibodies from the patient's body.Gold Standard of the diagnosis of leptospirosis is MAT. Mat made by reacting antibodies toleptospira antigen. Positive results seen with clump formed.Key words: Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis Diagnostic, MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan karena infeksi bakteri leptospirainterrogans. Bakteri leptospira merupakan bakteri spiral dengan untaian yang padat dengan duaflagella periplasmik. Sampel pasien pada fase septicaemic diambil dari darah dan cairanserebrospinal, sedangkan sampel yang diambil pada fase immune diambil dari urine. Diagnosisleptospirosis dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Diagnosis secara langsungdilakukan dengan cara mengisolasi agen penyebab dan mengidentifikasi agen tersebut. Diagnosissecara tidak langsung dilakukan dengan cara mendeteksi antibodi spesiflk dari dalam tubuhpasien. Gold Standart dari diagnosis leptospirosis adalah MAT. Mat dilakukan dengan caramereaksikan antibodi dengan antigen leptospira. Hasil positif dilihat dengan terbentuk gumpalanagglutinasiKata kunci: Leptospirosis, Leptospira, Leptospirosis Diagnosis.

  1. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  2. Comparison of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) toluidine red unheated serum test and the CSF rapid plasma reagin test with the CSF venereal disease research laboratory test for diagnosis of neurosyphilis among HIV-negative syphilis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ=0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ=0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available.

  3. 脑脊液腺苷脱氨酶检测在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的应用研究%Application research of Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛俊梅; 张冬杰

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss application value of cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase (CSF-ADA) for tuberculous meningitis diagnosis. METHODS We retrospectively summarized 80 cases who were diagnosed as tuberculus meningitis in our department from 2005-2010. At the same time, 76 cases with other nervous system diseases were selected in same period in our hospital. CSF-ADA of the two groups were compared and analyzed at the time of 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 30 days and recovery after 3 months, while CSF-ADA of 5 patients with simply pulmonary tuberculosis were also compared with patients with tuberculous meningitis. (P < 0.05 for statistical significance). RESULTS 7 days after the onset, CSF-ADA levels reached the peak, and then began to decline at the time of 14 days. With the treatment progress and course of development, the CSF-ADA level began to decrease. There were statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) of ADA level in each time points, and also showed significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION CSF-ADA have high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as an diagnosis index for tuberculous meningitis.%目的 探讨脑脊液腺苷脱氨酶检测在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性总结2005年6月~2010年6月间,某科收治的明确诊断为结核性脑膜炎的病例80例,同时选择同期在该科住院的非结脑性病人76例,对两组患者发病7d、14 d、21 d、30 d及恢复后3个月脑脊液ADA水平进行比较分析,同时与单纯肺结核患者进行比较分析,应用卡方检验,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 结核性脑膜炎组,发病后7d左右,脑脊液ADA水平达到峰值,14 d左右即开始下降,随着治疗的进展及病程的发展,脑脊液ADA水平整体成下降趋势.各个时间点之间的ADA水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),与对照组患者ADA水平亦差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 脑脊液ADA水平作为结核性脑膜炎诊断指

  4. IgG4 specific to Toxoplasma gondii excretory/secretory antigens in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid support the cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cristina S; Vidal, José E; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Motoie, Gabriela; Gava, Ricardo; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2013-09-30

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurological opportunistic disease manifested in HIV infected patients. Excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) are serological markers for the diagnosis of reactivation of the infection in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients develop high antibody titers for ESA. However, little is known about the humoral response for these antigens. The present study analyzed the profile of antibody recognition against ESA in comparison with tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA) in 265 sera and 270 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from infected patients with Toxoplasma gondii and or HIV and in sera of 50 healthy individuals. The samples of sera and CSF were organized in 8 groups. The sera sample groups were: Group I - Se/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 58 samples; Group II - Se/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 49 samples; Group III - Se/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 58 samples; Group IV - Se/PosT/NegHIV (individuals with asymptomatic toxoplasmosis/negative HIV) with 50 samples and Group V - Se/NegT/NegHIV (healthy individuals/negative toxoplasmosis and HIV) with 50 samples. The CSF sample groups were: Group VI - CSF/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 99 samples; Group VII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 112 samples, and Group VIII - CSF/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 59 samples. Levels of IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses were determined by ELISA against TLA and ESA antigens. IgM, IgA or IgE antibodies against ESA or TLA were not detected in sera from patients with toxoplasmosis suggesting that all patients were in chronic phase of the infection. High levels of IgG1 against TLA were found in sera samples from groups I, II and IV and in CSF

  5. Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thompson, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The appropriate management of hyponatraemia is reliant on the accurate identification of the underlying cause of the hyponatraemia. In the light of evidence which has shown that the use of a clinical algorithm appears to improve accuracy in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia, the European Hyponatraemia Network considered the use of two algorithms. One was developed from a nephrologist\\'s view of hyponatraemia, while the other reflected the approach of an endocrinologist. Both of these algorithms concurred on the importance of assessing effective blood volume status and the measurement of urine sodium concentration in the diagnostic process. To demonstrate the importance of accurate diagnosis to the correct treatment of hyponatraemia, special consideration was given to hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients. The differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, fluid overload and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was discussed. In patients with SIADH, fluid restriction has been the mainstay of treatment despite the absence of an evidence base for its use. An approach to using fluid restriction to raise serum tonicity in patients with SIADH and to identify patients who are likely to be recalcitrant to fluid restriction was also suggested.

  6. Application of Dellson Fluid-Based Thin-Preparation Cytologic in the Diagnosis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) Cytology%Dellson膜式超薄技术在肺泡灌洗液细胞学诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其春; 何磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)在肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查中的应用.方法 将临床送检的灌洗液,加处理液等系列处理后,用自动液基细胞制片机制片.同时用传统方法制作涂片,两者同步做瑞氏染色或HE染色,镜检观察.结果 通过对106例肺泡灌洗液标本用两种制片方法的对比观察,液基薄层细胞制片的优良率达90.5% (96/106),而传统制片仅为61.3% (65/106);液基薄层细胞制片癌细胞阳性率为46.2% (49/106),可疑癌细胞5.7% (6/106);传统制片的癌细胞阳性率为24.5% (26/106),可疑癌细胞2.8% (3/106).结论 Dellson膜式超薄细胞学制片技术(DTC)用于肺泡灌洗液细胞学检查,涂片质量及癌细胞检测的阳性率明显高于传统涂片.%Objective To investigate the application of production technology of liquid-based cytology in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology diagnosis. Methods Plus digestive to the collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, remove the mucus and other substance, the precipitate was transferred to preservation solution. Smear was made with automatic liquid-based cell production machine. Mean while smears were made by traditional methods. They were both dyed by Wright' s staining or hematoxylin eo-sin staining (HE). The effect of the smears was observed under microscope. Results By comparative study of 106 cases of clinical specimens of two kinds of production methods, the good rate of production of liquid-based cytology was 90.5% (96/106),and the traditional production was only 61. 3% (65/106) ;the positive rate of cancer cells in production of liquid-based cytology was 46. 2% (49/106) ,the suspected cancer was 2.8% (3/106) ;the positive rate of traditional production was 24.5% (26/106) .the suspected cancer was 2. 8% (3/106). Conclusion Production technology of liquid-based cytology can be used for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology diagnose,smears quality and detection of

  7. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  8. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  9. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  10. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE. The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high.

  11. 磁共振成像及脑脊液细胞学对病毒性脑(膜)炎的诊断性研究%Study on the significance of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the diagnosis of viral encephalitis (meningitis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊瑛; 张楠; 李玉静; 邹月丽; 李美杰; 谷聚贤; 张环环

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨MRI和脑脊液细胞学检测阳性率、异常程度和发病时间对病毒性脑(膜)炎诊断和制定治疗方案的指导价值.方法 回顾189例病毒性脑(膜)炎患者的头部MRI及脑脊液检查资料,分析MRI正常或异常患者在疾病早期的脑脊液细胞学改变.结果 189例患者中96例(50.79%)呈现MRI异常影像、129例(68.25%)脑脊液细胞学检测异常.MRI异常患者中脑脊液细胞学检测异常率为72.92%( 70/96),与MRI正常患者(63.44%,59/93)比较差异具有统计学意义(P=0.000).结论 病毒性脑(膜)炎患者在疾病早期MRI改变晚于脑脊液细胞学改变,但二者对提示诊断和制定治疗方案均具有重要临床意义.%Objective To explore the significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the diagnosis and treatment of viral encephalitis (meningitis). Methods The head MRI and cerebrospinal fluid data of 189 patients with viral encephalitis (meningitis) were reviewed, and early changes of cerebrospinal fluid cyotology of patients with normal or abnormal MRI findings were analysed retrospectively. Results Among 189 viral encephalitis (meningitis) patients, 96 (50.79%) patients presented abnormal MRI, and 129 (68.25%) patients presented abnormal cerebrospinal fluid cytological findings. In patients with abnormal MRI the abnormality rate of cerebrospinal fluid cytological findings was 72.92% (70/96), while in patients with normal MRI it was 63.44% (59/93), the difference was significant (P = 0.000). Conclusion In the early stage of viral encephalitis (meningitis) MRI changes appear later than abnormal cerebrospinal fluid cytological findings, but both of them are important for clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  13. The Clinical study of the Diagnosis of Amniotic Fluid Infection with theAmniotic Lens%羊水镜检查诊断羊水粪染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴芙蓉; 邵玉兰; 刘光亚

    2001-01-01

    Objective:By observing the characteristics of the amniotic fluid and choosing adaptable delivering ways to reduce the rate of neonatal mortality and asphyxia. Methods: Using the amniotie fluid lens to diagnose whether the amniotic fluid was infected or not. Results: It showed that the diagnostic rate could reach more than 90%. Conclusion:Using amniotic fluid lens has important and practical significance in treating the parturients.%目的:观察羊水性状,选择恰当的分娩方式,降低新生儿窒息、死亡率。方法:我院1998年1至12月采用沈阳市光学仪器厂生产的YSJ-Ⅰ型羊水镜检查,监测有无羊水粪染,并与B超进行比较。结果:发现羊水镜诊断率高达90%,同时可了解胎先露及胎膜早破情况。结论:对临产时医护人员的监护及处理有重要临床实用价值。

  14. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  15. From diagnosis to social diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil; Lyson, Mercedes; Jenkins, Tania

    2011-09-01

    In the past two decades, research on the sociology of diagnosis has attained considerable influence within medical sociology. Analyzing the process and factors that contribute to making a diagnosis amidst uncertainty and contestation, as well as the diagnostic encounter itself, are topics rich for sociological investigation. This paper provides a reformulation of the sociology of diagnosis by proposing the concept of 'social diagnosis' which helps us recognize the interplay between larger social structures and individual or community illness manifestations. By outlining a conceptual frame, exploring how social scientists, medical professionals and laypeople contribute to social diagnosis, and providing a case study of how the North American Mohawk Akwesasne reservation dealt with rising obesity prevalence to further illustrate the social diagnosis idea, we embark on developing a cohesive and updated framework for a sociology of diagnosis. This approach is useful not just for sociological research, but has direct implications for the fields of medicine and public health. Approaching diagnosis from this integrated perspective potentially provides a broader context for practitioners and researchers to understand extra-medical factors, which in turn has consequences for patient care and health outcomes.

  16. Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization in prenatal diagnosis of uncultured amniotic fluid cells%荧光原位杂交技术在未培养羊水细胞产前诊断中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉; 钟进; 陈志华; 郭晓玲; 邓秀珍; 邓露莎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术在产前诊断中的优缺点及临床应用价值.方法 用FISH技术检测163例孕17 - 33周孕妇的未培养羊水细胞,每例均行常规染色体核型分析.结果 应用FISH法,所有样本均在24h内获得检测结果,除4例羊水培养失败外,其余样本均在3周内获得细胞遗传学诊断.两种方法均检测出3例非整倍体,FISH结果与核型分析结果一致.9例染色体结构异常,FISH法未能检出.结论 FISH技术应用于产前诊断染色体非整倍体,成功率高,准确可靠,较常规核型分析方法有效缩短报告时间.FISH不能完全替代常规染色体核型分析,疑有染色体结构异常者,必须行羊水细胞染色体核型分析.母血清唐氏征筛查异常孕妇产前诊断倾向选择FISH检测.%Objective: To evaluate clinical application value of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples were taken from 163 women at 17 +4 ~ 33 +1 weeks of pregnancy; FISH was performed for diagnosing aneuploidies of five chromosomes (13, 18, 21, X and Y). The routine kaiyotypes analysis was performed at the same time. Results: The FISH diagnosis of all species was achieved in 24h, while 161 chromosome kaiyotypes diagnosis acquired in 3 weeks, since failed cell culture occurred in 2 amniotic fluid cases. 3 aneuploidies found by FISH and chromosome karyotypes. For the two methods, the diagnosis of aneuploidies matched perfectly. 9 Structural abnormalitic of chromosome were missed by FISH. Conclusion; FISH is a rapid and accurate method for prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidies, but it can't completely replace the conventional chromosome karyotype analysis. If structural abnormalities of chromosome was suspected to be, Amniotic fluid cell cultures and karyotype analysis must be performed. FISH could be choiced when biochemical data for Down's syndrome were positive.

  17. Clinical value of combined detection of cerebrospinal fluid-related indicators in diagnosis of intracranial infections%脑脊液相关指标联合检测在颅内感染诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温昌明; 王新凯; 张保朝

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical value of the change of cerebrospinal fluid‐related indicators in diag‐nosis of intracranial infections ,including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ,adenosine deaminase (ADA) ,immuno‐globulin (Ig) ,andβ2‐microglobulin (β‐MG) ,so as to determine the extent of brain tissue damage as well as the prognosis .METHODS A total of 22 patients with tuberculous meningitis ,34 patients with purulent meningitis , and 28 patients with viral meningitis were enrolled in the study ,then the contents of LDH ,ADA ,Ig ,andβ‐MG in the cerebrospinal fluids of the participants were determined ,meanwhile ,24 patients without infections were re‐cruited as controls .RESULTS There was significant difference in the level of LDH between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P< 0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the purulent meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the tubercu‐lous meningitis group and the viral meningitis (P<0 .05) ,and there was significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .There was significant difference in the ADA level between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,There was significant difference between the purulent meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the tuberculosis meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P< 0 .05) ,and there was statistically significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .There was significant difference in the level of IgA ,IgG ,or IgM between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,and there was significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The de‐tection of LDH ,ADA ,Ig ,and β‐MG is conducive to the diagnosis of the three common

  18. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... history and input from parents, caregivers and/or teachers are important components of an accurate diagnosis. An educational determination is made by a multidisciplinary evaluation team of various school professionals. The evaluation results ...

  19. 脑脊液乳酸和β2微球蛋白对细菌性脑膜炎的诊断价值%The value of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid and beta-2-microglobulin in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 李冬梅; 贺恒鹏; 周霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid (LA) and beta2-microglobulin (β2-MG) on the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis,and study their values compared with white blood cell (WBC) or protein in cerebrospinal fluid.Methods Thirty patients with bacterial meningitis were selected as bacterial meningitis group,and 30 surgical patients requiring spinal anesthesia were as control group.The level of cerebrospinal fluid LA was detected by Vitros950 automatic analyzer,and the level of cerebrospinal fluid β2-MG was detected by automatic AIA1800 enzyme immune analyzer.SPSS 13.0 and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the data.Results The cerebrospinal fluid LA level in bacterial meningitis group was 1.53 (0.50) mmol/L,in control group was 1.11 (0.34) mmol/L,and there was statistical difference (P < 0.05).The cerebrospinal fluid β 2-MG level in bacterial meningitis group was 2.61 (1.00) mg/L,in control group was 0.83 (0.45) mg/L,and there was statistical difference (P < 0.01).For bacterial meningitis diagnosis,the areas under the ROC curve of cerebrospinal fluid WBC,protein,LA and β2-MG were 0.760,0.936,0.705 and 0.960.The best boundary value of LA in bacterial meningitis diagnosis was 1.78 mmol/L with a sensitivity of 68.0% and specificity of 88.9%.The best boundary value of β2-MG in bacterial meningitis diagnosis was 1.756 mg/L,with a sensitivity of 92.0% and specificity of 99.4%.Conclusions Both cerebrospinal fluid LA and β 2-MG is valuable in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.But for the diagnostic value,cerebrospinal fluid LA is not as good as WBC or protein in cerebrospinal fluid,but β2-MG is better than them.It has high sensitivity and specificity.%目的 探讨脑脊液(CSF)乳酸(LA)和β2微球蛋白(β2-MG)是否有助于细菌性脑膜炎(BM)的诊断,以及与CSF白细胞(WBC)、蛋白相比较,二者是否诊断价值更高.方法 选取BM患者30例作为BM组,外科手术

  20. Nursing diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ščavničar, Ema

    2015-01-01

    Nursing diagnosis is an integral part of nursing process approach. There are many definitions, which have one common theme: it's a stth status of a client.A nursing diagnostic statement has two or three parts. The article includes section on making of nursing diagnosis and a section on classification. Negovalna diagnoza je sestavni del v procesnem pristopu zdravstvene nege. Predstavljene so definicije, katere temeljijo na varovančevem stanju zdravja. Negovalna diagnoza ima dva ali tri dele...

  1. GENERAL DIAGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006133 Value of 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging in the diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic oesophageal carcinoma. ZHANG Chun (张春), et al. Dept Nucl Med,Beijing Chaoyang Hosp,Capital Med Sci Univ,Beijing 100020. Chin J Nucl Med 2006;26(1):34-36. Objective:To explore the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglu-cose (FDG) dual-head coinci dence imaging in the diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic oesophageal carcinoma.

  2. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  3. To study on the methods of serial subcultivation of amniotic fluid in penatal diagnosis%转瓶培养在羊水细胞产前诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 郑红云; 童永清

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种成功率高,收获分裂相多的羊水细胞培养方法.方法 总共357例羊水标本用经典培养法和转瓶培养法培养.结果 经典培养成功率为94.3%(337/357),转瓶培养二次收获后成功率为97.8% (349/357),成功率提高,且所获分裂相数目多,形态好.结论 转瓶培养方法是一种简便易行的羊水细胞培养方法.%Objective; To improve the successful rate of culture of human amniotic fluid cells. Methods; The classic cultivation method and serial subcultivation method was performed in 357 cases of amniotic fluid cultivation. Results: The successful rate of classic cultivation method and serial subcultivation method was 94. 3% (337/357) and 97. 8% (349/357) respectively. The serial sub-cultivation has high successful rate. More and high - quality M - phase can be observed by serial subcultivation method. Conclusion: The serial subcultivation is convenient method in amniotic fluid culture. It has the advantages of good chromosome morphous and high successful rate.

  4. 中山地区羊水细胞培养核型分析联合荧光原位杂交技术在产前诊断中的应用%The combined application of karyotype analysis of chromosome in amniotic fluid cells and fish in prenatal diagnosis in Zhongshan District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏年华; 季明芳; 陈慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the applications value of karyotype analysis of chromosome in amniotic fluid cells and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in prenatal diagnosis.Methods:369 samples of amniotic fluid from women during 16-22th-week gestation and with the indications of prenatal diagnosis were cultured and performed both karyotype analysis of chromosome and FISH using the 13/18/21/X/Y chromosome probe.Results:The success rate of karyotype analysis of chromosome in amniotic fluid cells culture was 98.37% (363 in 369 cases).336 cases of normal variation of chromosome and 27 cases of abnormal variation of chromosome (numerical abnormalities chromosome in 18 cases,and structural abnormalities chromosome in 9 cases) were detected.The success rate of FISH detection of amniotic fluid cells culture was 100.00%,which included 351 cases of normal variation of chromosome and 18 cases of numerical abnormal variation of chromosome.However,there were no cases of structural abnormalities chromosome detected in FISH,due to the limited detecting probe.Conclusion:The karyotype analysis and FISH detection showed good consistency in detection of abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy) in amniotic fluid cells culture.Furthermore,the former was more comprehensive with higher detection rate,and the latter was more convenient with shorter operating time and less operating steps.To combined apply karyotype analysis and FISH in amniotic fluid cells can be more effective for fetal chromosome abnormalities in prenatal diagnosis.%目的 探索羊水细胞培养核型分析联合荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)在产前诊断中的应用价值;方法 采集16~22孕周、有产前诊断指征孕妇的羊水标本369例,进行羊水细胞培养核型分析并同时采用13/18/21/X/Y染色体探针对未培养羊水进行FISH检测;结果 369例羊水细胞培养核型分析成功363例,异常27例(数目异常18例,结构异常9例);未培养羊水细胞FISH检测

  5. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  6. Value of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatiosis with headache onset%脑脊液细胞学检测对以头痛起病的脑膜癌病诊断的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 李敬成; 林敏; 武雷; 林航

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and diagnostic methods of meningeal carcinomatiosis. Methods By using the cerebrospinal fluid cytology of 41 patients with headache onset were retrospective analyzed and 28 of them were diagnosed to meningeal carcinomatosis. Results Heterocysts were found in the cerebrospinal fluid with 28 cases. The rest was 3 hemiplegic migraine,2 Common migraine,2 ophthalmoplegic migraine,3 idiopathic intracra-nial hypertension ,3 myotonic headache and 2 venous sinus thrombus respectively. Conclusion There is no specific clinical manifestations with meningeal carcinomatosis and the headache is shown as the first symptom invariably. It is very important to detect the cerebrospinal fluid cytology repeatedly.%目的 探讨脑膜癌病的临床特点和诊断方法.方法 回顾性分析以头痛为首发症状的患者41例,经脑脊液细胞学确诊为脑膜癌病28例,结合文献进行分析.结果 经脑脊液细胞学检查发现异形细胞的患者共28例,余13例分别诊断为偏瘫性偏头痛1例,普通偏头痛2例,眼肌麻痹性偏头痛2例,特发性颅内压增高症3例,肌紧张性头痛3例,静脉窦血栓2例.结论 脑膜癌病临床表现无特异性,临床上常以头痛起病,反复CSF细胞学检查是确诊的重要手段.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  9. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization to prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy in 110 uncultured amniotic fluid samples%应用优化荧光原位杂交技术诊断110例羊水间期细胞常见非整倍体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晗; 廖灿; 黄以宁; 潘敏; 易翠兴; 袁思敏; 胡舜妍; 钟惠珠

    2010-01-01

    Objective To optimize the prenatal diagnosis platform by using domestically made fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) kit and to explore the clinical application of FISH to rapid prenatal diagnosis of a wide range of chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Amniotic fluid samples from 110 pregnant women were studied with the rapid prenatal diagnosis method of FISH and the conventional cell culture method of karyotyping, the results from both methods were compared. Results Four cases of trisomy 21 ,1 case of trisomy 18,58 cases of 46, XX, and 47 cases of 46, XY were detected by FISH in the 110 amniotic fluid samples. It is concordant with the results from conventional karyotype analysis. The concordance rate is 100%. Conclusion Domestically made FISH kit can be used to rapidly and accurately detect the most common chromosome aneuploidies by using less sample volume while the price is relatively low. FISH can be a reliable and rapid prenatal diagnostic tool as an adjunct to classical cytogenetic study. It can be used for rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis of women with high risk of maternal serum screening.%目的 优化现有荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术,探讨FISH快速产前诊断多种染色体异常的临床应用.方法 改良FISH操作过程中的滴片和杂交液用量,对110例孕妇羊水样本同时进行FISH快速产前诊断和常规细胞培养核型分析.结果 110例羊水样本中,FISH检测出了4例21三体、1例18三体、58例46,XX、47例46,XY,与染色体核型分析的结果一致,符合率100%.结论 国产FISH试剂能快速、准确检测常见的5种染色体数日异常,使用样本量少、价廉.FISH技术可作为经典染色体核型分析的辅助方法,能应用于唐氏血清学高风险孕妇的快速产前诊断.

  10. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  11. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  12. Dual diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dual diagnosis denotes intertwining of intellectual disabilities with mental disorders. With the help of systematic examination of literature, intellectual disabilities are determined (they are characterized by subaverage intellectual activity and difficulties in adaptive skills), along side mental disorders. Their influence is seen in changes of thinking, perception, emotionality, behaviour and cognition. Mental disorders often occur with people with intellectual disabilities (data differs f...

  13. 脑脊液细胞计数与实时荧光定量 PCR 检测结核菌在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between cell count of cerebrospinal fluid and real time PCR detection in diagnosis of cerebral tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠环; 李玉静; 郑立恒; 刘俊平; 杜月菊; 马玉腾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the cell count of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis(TBM)and explore the association of test positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by real time fluorescent quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR)and cell count.Methods The study selected 81 patients with tuberculous meningitis.Cerebrospinal fluid cell was counted by automatic blood-body fluid cytoanalyzer,cell smears of cerebrospinal fluid were made by centrifugal machine and cells were classified by image analysis system of optical microscope.Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid was detected by FQ-PCR and its correlation with cell count was analyzed. Results The positive rate of M.tuberculosis DNA(TB-DNA)by FQ-PCR method was 50.6%(41/81).The leukocyte count of FQ-PCR positive group was higher than that of the negative group(P <0.05).The leukocyte number was positively correlated with the copy number of FQ-PCR.The characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in FQ-PCR positive group indicated that the mixed cellular reaction was dominant,and the lymphocytes ratio was 0.590,while neutrophils ratio was 0.366.Conclusion The cerebrospinal fluid cytology of tuberculous meningitis is mostly lymphocyte reaction,cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count in combination with PCR can reflect the severity of disease and has certain significance for the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.%目的:分析结核性脑膜炎(tuberculous meningitis,TBM)脑脊液细胞数变化,探讨其与脑脊液中结核分枝杆菌实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR,FQ-PCR)检测阳性的相关性。方法选取确诊的结核性脑膜炎患者81例,应用全自动血液-体液细胞分析仪进行脑脊液细胞总数计数、离心甩片作脑脊液细胞涂片,光学显微镜图像分析系统分类计数,应用 FQ-PCR 法检测脑脊液中结核分枝杆菌,两者进行相关性分析。结果 FQ-PCR 法检测 TB-DNA 阳性率为50.6%(41

  14. Análisis de MMPs en fluidos orales en el diagnóstico complementario de las enfermedades periodontales Oral-fluid MMP analysis in the complementary diagnosis of periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis constituye la infección bacteriana más prevalente a nivel mundial y representa un factor de riesgo para diversas patologías sistémicas. El estado de inflamación y destrucción periodontal se manifiestan a través de la presencia de biomarcadores en el suero y fluidos orales, tales como el fluido gingival crevicular (FGC, saliva y enjuague oral. Enzimas como las metaloproteinasas de matriz (MMP y mieloperoxidasa, constituyen biomarcadores potenciales para ensayos moleculares complementarios a la clínica de uso en el sillón dental. A continuación se presenta una revisión de la literatura respecto de la aplicación potencial del análisis de metaloproteinasas de matriz extracelular (MMPs en el diagnóstico complementario de las enfermedades periodontales. Se ha demostrado que los niveles de MMP-9, -13 y particularmente de MMP-8, se asocian con el grado de inflamación periodontal, y pueden diferenciar entre sujetos sanos, con gingivitis, periodontitis y peri-implantitis, mientras que la mejoría de los parámetros clínicos en respuesta al tratamiento periodontal se asocia con la reducción de la activación y niveles de estas enzimas en FGC, como así también en el suero. Se concluye que la determinación, particularmente de MMP-8 en fluidos orales presenta un elevado potencial como complemento de los métodos clínicos tradicionales para identificar a los pacientes con periodontitis o en riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad, monitorear fases del tratamiento y mejoría de signos periodontales e incluso evaluar el estado de inflamación sistémica.Periodontal disease is the most common bacterial infection worldwide and it can contribute to enhance the risk for the development of several systemic diseases. The status of periodontal inflammation and destruction can be reflected in biomarker measurement in serum and oral fluids, like gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, saliva and mouth-rinse. Some enzymes, such as matrix

  15. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of the Knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Il; Cho, Kil Ho [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Knee ultrasonography is a feasible and useful diagnostic method not only for the evaluation of periarticular soft tissues but also for intra-articular lesions and for the diagnosis of tumorous disease. Joint effusion, synovial thickening, intra-articular loose bodies, bursal and/or other fluid collection, ganglionic cysts, ligament and tendon injuries, tendinosis, osteomyelitis, and symptoms related to metallic hardware can be diagnosed using ultrasonography.

  16. [Anaphylaxis caused by human seminal fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubira, N; Roger, A; Nogueiras, C; Server, T; Guspi, R; Cadahia, A

    1995-01-01

    Anaphylaxis to human seminal fluid (HSF) is rare. We present an atopic woman with postcoital cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. Prick by prick to HSF was positive. CAP to FSH was also positive (4 KU/l). The clinical findings, differential diagnosis and different treatments are discussed.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume by ultrasonography%羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的超声诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 杨萌; 张一休; 朱庆莉; 陈彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声检查对于羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的诊断价值和临床意义.方法 于孕中晚期对羊水量正常胎儿中发现的单侧或双侧肾超声表现异常(包括大小、回声、形态异常,出现囊肿等)病例进行系统二维超声检查、孕期及生后随访观察、病理学检查等,并进行总结分析.仅有肾盂增宽的胎儿不包括在本组研究中.结果 发现羊水量正常但单侧或双侧肾发育不良的胎儿11例.其中单侧多囊性肾发育不良5例,4例不合并其他异常,1例合并同侧手缺如;单侧肾缺如2例,其中1例不合并其他畸形,另1例合并多发畸形包括脑积水、骶尾部脊柱裂、同侧桡骨缺失及单脐动脉,符合VACTERL综合征;盆腔.肾1例,马蹄肾1例,生后超声证实;常染色体显性遗传多囊肾1例,胎儿一侧肾可见多发囊肿,合并心脏横纹肌瘤,孕妇为双侧多囊肾;双侧肾发育不良1例,产前超声表现为双侧肾回声增强.结论 单侧多囊性肾发育不良是羊水量正常时产前超声最常检出的胎儿肾发育不良性疾病.根据产前超声表现并结合家族史,能在大多数胎儿肾发育不良病例中进行病因学诊断并帮助判断预后.%Objective To determine the diagnostic value and clinical significance of sonographically detected fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume. Methods At the 2nd or 3rd trimester of gestation,the fetuses with unilateral or bilateral renal anomalies (ahnormal size,echo,shape or cyst of the kidney) and normal amniotic fluid volume received systemic ultrasound examination,autopsy or follow-up until after birth. The fetus with only dilated renal pelvis was not included. Results Eleven fetuses of dysplastic renal anomalies with normal amniotic fluid volume were identified by prenatal ultrasound. Among the five fetuses affected by unilateral multicystic kidney dysplasia (MCKD),the renal anomaly was isolated in four fetuses,and the

  18. 湘潭地区344例遗传咨询高危孕妇羊水染色体分析在产前诊断中的应用%Application of amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis for 344 cases of genetic counseling high risk pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊敏; 王淑嫒; 孙辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the application of amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. Methods; Am-niotic fluid (20-30 ml) was drawn from fetuses of 344 pregnant mothers who were diagnosed in prepotency department, Xiangtan MCH Hospital from Jun. 2007 to Aug. 2010 with high risks of genetic counseling, by amniocentesis under ultrasound monitoring at 18 -28 gestational age, and then amniotic - fluid cell culture's C - banding was examed by using amniotic - fluid chromosomal karyo-type analysis. Results; Amniotic cell culture was successfully undertaken in 342 among the 344 cases. The success rate of amniotic cell culture was 99. 41% (342/344). There were 15 cases found karyotype abnormal, the abnormal rate was 4. 39% (15/342) which includes 3 of 21 -trisomy, 2 of 18 -trisomy, 2 of Turner Syndrome (TS) , 1 of 48, XXY, +21, 4 of balanced translocation, 1 of inversion, lof trisomy, 1 of monosomy, 10 of genetic diversity. The abnormal karyotype analysis for karyotype of amniotic cell was consistent with the results of succedent visit. Conclusion; Amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis plays an important part when diagnosing chromosome diseases in prenatal diagnosis.%目的 探讨羊水染色体分析在产前诊断中的应用.方法 对344例2007年6月至2010年8月湖南省湘潭市妇幼保健院遗传咨询高危孕妇,于孕18~28周在B超引导下进行羊膜腔穿刺,抽取羊水20~30ml,羊水细胞培养G显带进行羊水染色体核型分析.结果 344例孕妇羊水羊水细胞培养成功342例,成功率为99.41%(342/344),发现异常核型15例,异常率为4.39%(15/342),其中21-三体3例、18-三体2例、特纳综合征2例、48,XXY,+21 1例、平衡易位4例、倒位1例、部分染色体三体1例、部分染色体单体1例;遗传多态性10例.羊水染色体异常核型分析与随访结果一致.结论 说明羊水染色体分析在产前诊断染色体病中起着重要的作用.

  19. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  20. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  1. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  2. Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.

    1996-01-01

    Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.

  3. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  4. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2007-10-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  5. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  6. Brain biopsy in the diagnosis of cerebral mycosis fungoides

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, GF; Anderson, JM; Davidson, DLW

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral mycosis fungoides co-existing with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy presented with dementia. Brain biopsy established the diagnosis of mycosis fungoides after cerebrospinal fluid examinations and computerised tomographic scanning of the brain produced non-specific abnormalities.

  7. Profiling of endogenous peptides in human synovial fluid by NanoLC-MS : Method validation and peptide identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J.J.; Heijden, R. van der; Groot, J. de; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; Reijmers, T.H.; El, B. van; Tjaden, U.R.; Greef, J. van der; Hankemeier, T.

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid potentially contains markers for early diagnosis and disease progression in degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, a method is described for profiling endogenous peptides in human synovial fluid, using ultrafiltration, solid-phase extraction, nanoscale liquid chroma

  8. Prenatal Amniotic Fluid Cell Chromosome Examination in the Diagnosis of Fetal Abnormalities in the Elderly%羊膜腔穿刺羊水细胞染色体检查用于高龄孕妇胎儿畸形预见性诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王花花

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨高龄孕妇进行孕中期羊膜腔穿刺羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析,提高对胎儿畸形的预见性诊断分析结果。方法随机选取该院2013年1月―2015年12月收治的714例高龄孕妇给予羊膜腔穿刺前的检查及超声诊断,行羊膜腔穿刺抽取羊水的孕妇,进行羊水细胞培养,制备染色体标本,分析高龄孕妇羊水胎儿细胞的染色体核型和胎儿染色体异常情况。结果该研究选取的714例高龄孕妇中染色体异常的分类有21三体综合征、18三体综合征、性染色体异常和其它的染色体异常。有23例高龄孕妇的染色体出现异常,检出率为3.22%;714例高龄孕妇中35~39岁占450例,发现胎儿染色体异常例数9例,检出率为2..00%为最低;44~46岁高龄孕妇占31例,发现胎儿染色体异常例数为3例,检出率为9.68%为最高。结论在产前对高龄孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺羊水细胞染色体培养可以有效的检测胎儿的染色体异常情况,有效的对高龄孕妇分娩畸形胎儿进行预见性的诊断,明显降低新生儿的缺陷率。%Objective Discussion older pregnant women were second-trimester amniocentesis amniotic fluid cells of fetal malformation predictive diagnostic analysis of cultured karyotype analysis. Methods The study selected from our hospital in January 2013 to December 2015 in 714 cases of advanced maternal age to give pre amniocentesis examination and ultra-sound diagnosis, underwent amniocentesis and amniotic fluid of pregnant women, the amniotic cell culture prepared chromo-some specimen, analysis of women of advanced maternal age and fetal amniotic fluid cells stained color karyotype and fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Results The classification of chromosomal abnormalities in 714 cases of elderly women is 21, 18,, sex chromosome abnormalities and other chromosomal abnormalities. Have abnormal chromosomes in 23 cases of ad-vanced maternal age, the

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of proteins in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease%阿尔茨海默病患者脑脊液蛋白指标敏感性及特异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪志; 梁临平; 屈传强

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of concentrations of Tau protein, amyloid β protein(Aβ) 1 -40, Aβ1 -42(43) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) among patients with Alzheimer's disease(AD).METHODS: Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(sELISA) was used for the measurement of the levels of Tau, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 (43)among 21 patients with AD, 28 with other dementias, 35 with other neurological diseases, and 50 normal control subjects.RESULTS: The CSF concentration of Tau protein increased with age. Among AD patients, the concentration of Tau protein was(491.5 ±35.7) ng/L and it was correlated positively with the severity of AD. The concentrations of A β1 -40 and Aβ1 -42(43) were(109.9 ± 73.2) and (16. 03 ±4. 07) pmol/L respectively. The concentration of Tau protein and the ratio of Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42 (43) were significantly higher in AD group than in all other groups.CONCLUSION: Combined interpretation of CSF concentration of Tau protein,Aβ 1-40 and Aβ1-42(43) has high diagnostic specificity for AD and can be used to differentiate AD from other dementias and neurological diseases.%目的:探讨联合分析脑脊液中Tau蛋白、β淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)1-40、Aβ1-42(43)含量作为生化指标对诊断阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)的意义.方法:采用夹心酶联免疫(sELISA)法测定上述生化指标,分析了21例AD,28例非AD痴呆,35例其他神经系统疾病患者,50例正常对照者脑脊液中Tau、Aβ1-40、Aβ1-42(43)水平的差异.结果:Tau水平随年龄而增加,AD组Tau水平为(491.5±35.7)ng/L且与临床进程存在相关性,Aβ1-42(43)水平为(109.9:±:73.2)pmol/L,Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42(43)为(16.03±4.07).AD组Tau水平、Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42(43)比率显著高于其他组(P<0.001),Aβ1-42(43)水平低于其他组.结论:同时测定脑脊液中的Tau、Aβ1-40、Aβ1-42(43)的含量对于AD的诊断有良好的特异性,对于AD与其他类型的痴呆和其他神经系统疾病的鉴别诊断具有意义.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  11. Tuberculosis diagnosed by PCR analysis of synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Yao, Atsushi; Ozaki, Shinji; Ono, Katsuichiro; Wada, Sae; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Namba, Yoshifumi; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2010-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of mortality due to an infectious agent worldwide. It often affects multiple organs by hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but knee-joint involvement is extremely rare, comprising approximately 0.1% of all forms of tuberculosis. We present a case of tuberculous pleuritis with knee-joint involvement. Cytological and biochemical analysis of the pleural fluid and a biopsy specimen of the cervical lymph node indicated tuberculosis, but a definitive diagnosis was not given. A confirmed diagnosis was finally obtained through PCR analysis of the synovial fluid. Tuberculosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with persistent pain and swelling of the knee. PCR analysis of the synovial fluid is a quick and useful method for the diagnosis.

  12. 眼弓蛔虫病患者眼内液与血清犬弓蛔虫特异性IgG抗体检测%Application of specific IgG detection in intraocular fluid for the laboratory diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朱健; 周旻; 吉建; 沈健; 汤荔; 曹文俊; 徐格致

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of detecting specific IgG against Toxocara canis in intraocular fluid for the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis(OT).Methods Fifty patients diagnosed as having OT(OT group),152 otolaryngology patients (serum control group) and 70 other oculopathy patients (intraocular fluid control group) were enrolled in the study.Intraocular fluids(28 aqueous humor and 22 vitreous humor) and serum samples of OT group were analyzed for specific IgG against Toxocara canis by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay,so were the intraocular fluids (46 aqueous humor and 24 vitreous humor) and 152 serum samples of two control group.Specific IgG level was compared between paired serum and intraocular fluids of OT group.Results 68.00% serum samples of OT group were positive for specific IgG against Toxocara canis and the U value was 20.42±17.01.The positive rate was 88.00% and U value 25.72±23.04 in intraocular fluids.In serum control group,it was 2.63% and 2.37±2.71 respectively.The intraocular fluids were negative and U value 0.69 ± 0.34 in intraocular fluid control group.The difference of specific IgG level was proved significant between OT group and control group in both serum and intraocular fluid (Z=8.962,8.120; P=0.000,0.000).Twenty-eight patients (56.00%) were positive for specific IgG in both serum and intraocular fluid.Six patients (12.00%) were positive only in serum,and 16 patients (32.00%) only in intraocular fluid.The positive rate was significantly higher in intraocular fluid than in serum (x2 =4.720,P=0.028).Moreover,64.00% intraocular fluid showed higher specific IgG level than pared serum.Conclusion The complementary detection of intraocular specific IgG have referential value in diagnosing ocular toxocariasis.%目的 评价眼内液犬弓蛔虫特异性IgG抗体检测在眼弓蛔虫病诊断中的作用.方法 临床确诊为眼弓蛔虫病的50例患者(眼弓蛔虫病组)、就诊于耳鼻喉科的152例患者(血清

  13. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

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    Umit Savasci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic infection that caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The clinical progress is generally asymptomatic in patient with normal immune system, on the other hand severe clinical presentations seen in patients with immune deficiency or pregnancy. Congenital toxoplasmosis can emerge due to contamination during pregnancy but 6-8 weeks prior to pregnancy are also at risk. Infants with toxoplasmosis have some clinical semptoms such as chorioretinitis, epilepsia, hypotonia, psychomotor disorders, mental retardation, encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly. Early diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent treatment. may prevent malformations. Toxoplasmosis diagnosis during pregnancy is mostly based on IgM and IgG antibody screening tests. While IgM indicates the acute infection, it disappears in early period and can be detected in low consantrations through long ages. Therefore IgG avidity test takes more place in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. High avidity levels indicate acquired infection prior than 16 weeks, so that it is recommended to perform the test in the first trimester. Low IgG avidity level may indicate a newly onset infection. Amniotic fluid T.gondii PCR, anomaly screening with ultrasonography, Toxoplasma gondii cyst dying with Wright-Giemsa dye in plasental and fetal tissue are the other diagnostic tools can be performed during pregnancy. Avidity test methods during the 16 weeks of pregnancy reduce repeating serum analysis, amniotic fluid PCR reguirement, unnecessary antibiotic treatments and noncompulsory abortus. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 767-772

  14. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursae (fluid-filled sacs in the joints), and tendon sheaths. After the joint area is cleaned, the ... HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes ...

  15. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  16. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose the cause of inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) and/or fluid accumulation around the heart ( ... pressure within blood vessels or inflammation of the pericardium. An initial set of tests, including fluid protein ...

  17. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to ... sample of fluid will be taken from the pericardium. This is done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis . ...

  18. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  19. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  20. Fluid force transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  2. Identificação das características definidoras do diagnóstico de enfermagem excesso de volume de líquidos Identificación de las caracteristicas definidoras del diagnóstico de enfermería excesso de volumen de liquidos Identification od defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis fluid volume excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Cristina Quatrini Carvalho Passos Guimarães

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar as características definidoras do diagnóstico de enfermagem Excesso de Volume de Líquidos, proposto pela NANDA. Os dados foram coletados num hospital especializado em cardiologia, com uma amostra de 29 pacientes, cuja seleção foi realizada por duas enfermeiras peritas no assunto. Concluiu-se que houve concordância das duas peritas na identificação de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico em estudo e 20 sem o diagnóstico. As características definidoras identificadas aparecem em percentagens diferentes nos pacientes estudados.Este estudio fue llevado a cabo con el objetivo de validar el diagnóstico de enfermería "Exceso de Volumen de Líquidos". Para esto se buscó verificar la existencia o no de concordancia entre enfermeras de un hospital especializado en cardiología en lo que respecta a la identificación de las características definitorias utilizadas para determinar dicho diagnóstico, tal como es propuesto por la Asociación Norteamericana de Diagnósticos de Enfermería. El estudio fue realizado con 29 pacientes evaluados, en un primer momento, por dos enfermeras especialistas. Los resultados mostraron que las dos enfermeras concordaron en la indicación de presencia del diagnóstico objeto de estudio, en 9 pacientes y de ausencia en 20. Las características definitorias que determinaban la presencia o ausencia del diagnóstico se presentaron en diferentes porcentajes en los pacientes estudiados.This study aimed at verifying the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis "Fluid Volume Excess" proposed by NANDA. Data collection was carried out within a specialized Cardiology health care setting where the 29 patients were selected by two expert nurses. The conclusion showed consonance of opinions between the two professionals in regard to the identification of nine patients with diagnosis and 20 without this type of diagnosis. The identified defining characteristics

  3. Clinical diagnosis value of immunoglobulin and c-reactive protein in cerebrospinal fluids for infectious meningitis in the aged patients%脑脊液免疫球蛋白与C-反应蛋白对感染性脑膜炎老年患者临床诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈壮虹; 汪利平; 林红

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the cerebrospinal fluid level of immunoglobulin (Ig) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in elderly patients with infectious meningitis ,so as to explore the clinical diagnostic value of Ig and CRP and pro-vide reference for clinical diagnosis .METHODS Totally 65 elderly cases of infectious meningitis from Jul .2012 to Feb .2015 in our hospital were selected as the observation group which was subdivided into the bacterial suppura-tive meningitis group (n = 20) ,the viral meningitis group (n = 23) and the tuberculous meningitis group (n =22) .Another 65 elderly hospitalized headache patients during the same time in our hospital were selected as the control group .The two groups were compared for immunoglobulin (IgA ,IgM and IgG) and C-reactive protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids .RESULTS Compared with the control group ,each related indicator of immunoglobu-lin and C-reactive protein levels in cerebrospinal fluids were significantly higher in the observation group (P < 0 . 05) .Compared with the bacterial suppurative meningitis patients and the viral meningitis patients ,IgA and IgM levels in patients with tuberculous meningitis were significantly increased (P < 0 .05) .Compared with bacterial suppurative meningitis and tuberculous meningitis patients ,IgG levels in viral meningitis patients were increased significantly (P <0 .05) .In terms of cerebrospinal fluid level of C-reactive protein ,the comparison had significant differences among the patients with 3 types of infecions meningitis ,there was significant difference (P <0 .05) . CONCLUSION In elderly patients with septic meningitis ,immunoglobulin and C-reactive protein levels in cerebro-spinal fluids were significantly elevated .Early detection of immunoglobulin and C-reactive protein in cerebrospinal fluids has an important clinical value for diagnosis of geriatric infectious meningitis .%目的:检测老年感染性脑膜炎患者的脑脊液免疫球蛋白及C-反应蛋白(CRP)水平

  4. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  5. Gout: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuljasri Albar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from monosodium urate (MSU crystal deposition in tissues or from supersaturation of uric acid in extracellular fluids. Clinical manifestations include 1 Recurrent attacks of articular and periarticular inflammation, also called gouty arthritis; 2 Accumulation of articular, osseous, soft tissue, and cartilaginous crystalline deposits, called tophi; 3 Uric acid calculi in the urinary tract; and 4 Interstitial nephropathy with renal function impairment, called gouty nephropathy. Gout predominantly is a disease of adult men, with a peak incidence in the fifth decade. In women usually found after menopause. The metabolic disorder underlying gout is hyperuricaemia. The duration and magnitude of hyperuricemia directly correlate with the likelihood of developing gouty arthritis and uric acid urolithiasis, and with age at onset of initial clinical gouty manifestations. The urate crystals induce phagocytes and synovial cells to generate and release such mediators as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, phospholipase A2-activating protein, lysosomal proteases, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. Definitive diagnosis of gout needs the demonstration of MSU crystals in synovial fluid or tophus. Gout is frequently associated with comorbidity such as obesity, hypertension, renal disease and dyslipidaemia. Therapeutic goals include terminating acute attacks; providing rapid, safe relief of pain and inflammation; averting future attacks; and preventing such complications as formation of tophi, kidney stones, and destructive arthropathy. Colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid are drugs used for treating acute gouty arthritis. Colchicine is also used for prophylaxis. Urate lowering drugs also play a role in prophylactic management of gout. With early intervention, careful monitoring, and patient education, the prognosis is

  6. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  7. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  8. Neurocryptococcosis: diagnosis by PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Regina Célia; Hirata, Mário Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosário Crespo; Melhem, Márcia de Souza Carvalho; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans detection was optimized using PCR technique with the objective of application in the clinical laboratory diagnosis. The amplification area was ITS and 5,6S which encodes the ribosomal RNA (rRNA). A total of 72 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were used, obtained from cases with and without AIDS. The patients had cryptococcal meningitis (n = 56) and meningitis caused by other agents (n = 16). The results demonstrated that PCR test had the highest sensitivity rates, superior to culture (85.7%) and to India ink test (76.8%). PCR was found to be sensitive in detecting 1 cell/mL and highly specific since it did not amplify other fungal DNA. The comparative analysis of the methods showed that PCR is more sensitive and specific and is applicable as an important laboratorial resource for neurocryptococcosis diagnosis.

  9. The differential diagnosis value of CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and LDH in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion%CEA、CYFRA21-1、NSE、LDH在良恶性胸腔积液中的鉴别诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩强进; 吕志; 吴丹; 胡先纬; 胡杰贵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the differential diagnosis value of the tumor markers Carcinoembryonic Antigen( CEA ), Cy-tokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1 ),Neuron Specific Enolase( NSE ) and LDH in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion. Methods We prospectively evaluated the value of CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and LDH in the blood and pleural fluid of 108 patients with pleural effusion. Of which, 55 were diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion, and 53 were diagnosed with benign effusion. The optimum cut-off points resulting from the best sensitivity-specificity balance in the ROC curves were constructed. Results There were significant differences between malignant and benign cases for CEA and CYFRA21-1, in blood,and for CYFRA21-1、NSE、 CEA、LDH in pleural fluid . In the pleural fluid, the sensitivity and specificity of CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and LDH was 90. 9、63. 6、 72.7、36.4% and 98. K83、67. 9、88.1% .respectively. In the blood, the sensitivity and specificity was 89. K87. 3、32. K25. 5% and 92. 5、79. 2、90. 6、92. 5% for CEA, CYFRA21-1, NSE and LDH, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that these markers might be useful in the differentiation between malignant and benign pleural effusion.%目的 探讨血清及胸腔积液中癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白19片段(CYFRA21-1)、神经特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)在良恶性胸腔积液鉴别诊断价值.方法 分析我院55例肺癌患者和53例良性胸腔积液患者的血清及胸腔积液中CEA、CYFRA21-1、NSE、LDH检测水平,并根据受试者工作特性(ROC)曲线建立合理的临床判断临界值及检测的敏感性和特异性.结果 恶性患者胸水CYFRA21-1、NSE、CEA、LDH的水平高于良性患者(P<0.05).胸水CEA、CYFRA21-1、NSE、LDH的敏感性和特异性分别为90.9、63.6、72.7、36.4%和98.1、83、67.9、88.7%.血清CEA、CYFRA21-1、NSE、LDH的敏感性和特异性分别为89.1、87.3 、32.1

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

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    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  11. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takeo; Kamei, Keiko; Araki, Mariko; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Yamazaki, Mitsuo; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Nakai, Takuya; Takeyama, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy) was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl) was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum), but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  12. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Yasuda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum, but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  13. CYTOLOGICAL STUDY OF PLEURAL FLUIDS AND ITS CLINICOBIOCHEMICAL CORRELATION

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    Shikha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of analysis of 50 pleural fluids was carried out at major teaching hospital, in Mumbai over a period of three years . Of these 50 fluids were 33 were transudates and 17 exudates. Male predominance (72% was observed with the majority in 3 rd decade. Tuberculosis (30 cases was the commonest conditions associated with exudates followed by synpneumonic effusions. Majority of the tuberculous cases (80% showed WBC count between 1000 - 5000 cells/cmm. Polymorphs were predominant in synpneumonic effusions. Of the 2 cases of malignant effusion, malignant cells (well differentiated adenocarcinoma were detected in both the cases, with total WBC counts ranging between 1000 - 5000cell/cmm. The correct diagnosis of the fluid as transudate or exudate is important be cause if the fluid is exudative then further diagnostic procedures like cytopathology , pleural biopsy and other invasive procedure can be done for definite diagnosis . On the other hand, if the fluid is transudative then treatment for underlying conditions like CCF, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis is given. The presence of cancer cells in the fluid is a proof positive of malignancy related fluid but in 30 to 60 percent of cancer cases, cancer cells are not detected. Exfoliative cytology for malignant cells is highly specific though less sensitive (40 - 60%. Definitive diagnosis may depend upon clinical correlation and histological examination

  14. Diagnóstico laboratorial da mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I: métodos para análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano Laboratorial diagnosis of HTLV-I associated myelopathy: methods for the cerebrospinal fluid analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Cristina Alves Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    . Apenas um trabalho possui análise estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Existe a necessidade da padronização de métodos para o diagnóstico imunológico do LCR na PET/MAH, com base em testes de elevadas sensibilidade e especificidade.The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I may cause HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, an incapacitating chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord. The detection of IgG anti-HTLV-I antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been an important parameter for the laboratorial diagnosis of HAM/TSP. OBJECTIVE: critical evaluation of the methods applied to detect the presence and intrathecal production of total antibodies and anti-HTLV-I in the CSF for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of medical articles by using the key words: "cerebrospinal fluid, intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, HTLV-I associated myelopathy, HTLV-I, HAM/TSP". The used databases included: PubMed, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles were selected: five studies were related to the presence of specific IgG antibody in the CSF and nine studied the intrathecal synthesis of total antibodies (IgG or IgG/IgA/IgM and specific anti-HTLV-I (IgG or IgM. DISCUSSION: The isolated study of the presence of IgG antibody anti-HTLV-I in the CSF does not show the fraction produced in the central nervous system, which represents low specificity (40% for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP. The demonstration of the intrathecal synthesis of IgG anti-HTLV-I antibodies is more relevant due to its high specificity (89% and sensibility (83%. According to Reiber & Felgenhauer (1987, the index IgG anti-HTLV-I, which is based on ELISA test with simultaneous CSF and serum analysis, stands out from the other methods applied to evaluate the intrathecal synthesis of specific antibody. Other studies use small samples and do not demonstrate the sensibility and specificity of the test in the CSF. Only

  15. Investigation on the diagnosis significance of C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid among children with meningitis%脑脊液C反应蛋白和腺苷脱氨酶检测在小儿脑膜炎中的诊断价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁荣; 张慧华; 朱华丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid,and to investigate the clinical diagnosis significance for tuberculosis meningitis,purulent meningitis and viral meningitis. Methods A total of 31 5 children with meningitis (1 02 cases of tuberculosis meningitis,1 08 cases of purulent meningitis and 1 05 cases of viral meningitis)were enrolled,96 children undergoing operation without meningitis were enrolled as control group,and their cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected.The levels of C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase were determined,and the results were compared.Results C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase in control and viral meningitis groups were significantly lower than those in tuberculosis and purulent meningitis groups (P 0.05 ).C reactive protein in purulent meningitis group was higher than that in tuberculosis meningitis group(P <0.05 ),and adenosine deaminase was lower than that in tuberculosis meningitis group (P <0.05).C reactive protein in purulent meningitis group was positive,and the positive rate was 1 00%.There were 63 positive cases in tuberculosis meningitis group,and the positive rate was 61 .76%.That in viral meningtis was negative.Conclusions In cerebrospinal fluid,C reactive protein and adenosine deaminase determinations have important reference significance for the differential diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (purulent meningitis and tuberculosis meningitis)and viral meningitis.Adenosine deaminase may be a good indicator for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis,in order to provide the reference for the early diagnosis of various types of meningitis.%目的:探讨小儿脑脊液C反应蛋白和腺苷脱氨酶在结核性脑膜炎、化脓性脑膜炎和病毒性脑膜炎早期诊断中的临床意义。方法分别检测315例小儿脑膜炎患儿(包括结核性脑膜炎102例、化脓性脑膜炎108例、病毒性脑膜炎105例)及96例非脑膜炎外科手术

  16. 脑脊液腺苷脱氨酶在AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎诊断及疗效评估中的价值%Value of adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis and efficacy evaluation of AIDS complicated with tuberculous meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃华; 陆宁; 林艳荣; 刘升; 兰江

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脑脊液腺苷脱氨酶( ADA)测定对AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎的诊断及疗效评估价值。方法回顾性分析该院收治的AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎30例(结核性脑膜炎组)的临床资料,其中CD4+T淋巴细胞>200个/μl者14例;CD4+T淋巴细胞≤200个/μl者16例,于入院1周内治疗前、治疗后2周、4周、6周检测其脑脊液的ADA值。选择同期AIDS合并新型隐球菌性脑膜炎26例(隐球菌性脑膜炎组),AIDS合并弓形虫脑炎12例(弓形虫脑炎组),检测其入院治疗前脑脊液ADA。结果结核性脑膜炎组患者治疗前脑脊液ADA水平均高于其他两组( P<0.05);不同CD4+T淋巴细胞水平的AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎患者脑脊液ADA水平比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎患者治疗后2周、治疗后4周及治疗后6周的ADA水平均低于入院时ADA水平(P<0.05),治疗后4周的ADA水平低于治疗后2周( P<0.05),治疗后6周的ADA水平亦低于治疗后4周(P<0.05)。结论脑脊液ADA在AIDS合并结核性脑膜炎的早期诊断及疗效评估中具有重要意义。%Objective To investigate the value of detecting denosine deaminase ( ADA) in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis and efficacy evaluation of AIDS complicated with tuberculous meningitis .Methods The clinical data of 30 patients with AIDS complicated with tuberculosis meningitis ( tuberculous meningitis group ) were retrospectively analyzed .The 30 cases included 14 cases of CD4 +T lymphocytes >200/μl and 16 cases of CD4 +T lymphocytes ≤200/μl.And the levels of ADA in cerebrospinal fluid were detected in 30 patients before treatment and within one week after admission,2,4 and 6 weeks after treatment.Twenty-six cases of AIDS complicated with novel cryptococcal meningitis ( cryptococcal meningitis group ) and 12 of AIDS complicated with toxoplasmic encephalitis ( toxoplasmic

  17. Electrorheological fluid and its applications in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limu; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics is a low-cost technique for fast-diagnosis and microsynthesis. Within a decade it might become the foundation of point-of-care and lab-on-a-chip applications. With microfluidic chips, high-throughput sample screening and information processing are made possible. The picoliter droplet runs in microfluidic chips are ideal miniaturized vessels for microdetection and microsynthesis. Meanwhile, individual manipulation of microdroplets remains a challenge: the shortcomings in automatic, reliable, and scalable methods for logic control prevent further integration of microfluidic applications. The giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is a kind of "smart" colloid, has tunable viscosity under the influence of external electric field. Therefore, GERF is introduced as the active controlling medium, with real-time response in on-chip fluid control. This review article introduces the working principles and fabrication methods of different types of electrorheological fluid, and extensively describes the strategies of GERF-assisted microfluidic controlling schemes.

  18. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target...... engagement for future clinical trials. We here review candidate fluid biomarkers for MSA and provide considerations for further developments and harmonization of standard operating procedures. A PubMed search was performed until April 24, 2015 to review the literature with regard to candidate blood...... and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for MSA. Abstracts of 1760 studies were retrieved and screened for eligibility. The final list included 60 studies assessing fluid biomarkers in patients with MSA. Most studies have focused on alpha-synuclein, markers of axonal degeneration or catecholamines. Their results...

  19. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  20. Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Daily, Jennifer P; Pohlgeers, Katherine M

    2016-11-15

    Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities. A delay in diagnosis and treatment, particularly in septic arthritis, can have catastrophic results including sepsis, bacteremia, joint destruction, or death. The history and physical examination can help guide the use of laboratory and imaging studies. The presence of focal bone pain or recent trauma requires radiography of the affected joint to rule out metabolic bone disease, tumor, or fracture. If there is a joint effusion in the absence of trauma or recent surgery, and signs of infection (e.g., fever, erythema, warmth) are present, subsequent arthrocentesis should be performed. Inflammatory synovial fluid containing monosodium urate crystals indicates a high probability of gout. Noninflammatory synovial fluid suggests osteoarthritis or internal derangement. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and early treatment of acute monoarthritis include failure to perform arthrocentesis, administering antibiotics before aspirating the joint when septic arthritis is suspected (or failing to start antibiotics after aspiration), and starting treatment based solely on laboratory data, such as an elevated uric acid level.

  1. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  2. The Fluids RAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo

    2016-11-01

    After fifteen years of experience in rap, and ten in fluid mechanics, "I am coming here with high-Reynolds-number stamina; I can beat these rap folks whose flows are... laminar." The rap relates fluid flows to rap flows. The fluid concepts presented in the song have varying complexity and the listeners/viewers will be encouraged to read the explanations on a site dedicated to the rap. The music video will provide an opportunity to share high-quality fluid visualizations with a general audience. This talk will present the rap lyrics, the vision for the video, and the strategy for outreach. Suggestions and comments will be welcomed.

  3. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  4. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  5. Significance of different ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to plasm protein, glucose and chlorides in differential diagnosis tubercolous meningitis and virus meningitis%脑脊液与血浆的蛋白、糖、氯化物不同比值鉴别诊断结核性脑膜炎与病毒性脑膜炎的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 郭洪志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of different ratio of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) to plasma (P) protein ( Pro ), glucose ( G ) and chlorides ( C ) in differential diagnosis tubercolous meningitis and virus meningitis. Methods The cerebrospinal fluid and plasma concentrations of Pro, G and C were measured in 102 patients with tubercolous meningitis and 107 patients with virus meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the 3 ratio of CSF/P Pro,G and C (CSF/P Pro≥0.2,G≤0.5,C≤0.7; CSF/P Pro≥O. 1 ,G≤0.6,C≤ 1.1; CSF/P Pro 0. 3 ,G ≤ 0. 4, C ≤ 0. 6) in diagnosing tubercolous meningitis and virus meningitis was calculated. Results The positive rate of the 3 ratios were significantly higher in tubercolous meningitis group than those in vires meningitis group ( P ≤ 0. 05 - 0. 01 ). As an index for diagnosing tubereolous meningitis: CSF/P Pro ≥ 0. 2, G ≤ 0.5, C ≤ 0.7 respectively had higher sensitivity ( 96. 1%, 97. 1%, 99.0% ) and specificity ( 97.2%, 98. 1%, 99. 1% ). The CSF/P Pro≥0.1 ,G≤0.6,C≤ 1.1 had lower specificity( 66.4% ,69.2% ,75.7% respectively) ,and CSF/P Pro≥ 0.3,G≤0.4,C≤0.6 had lower sensitivity( 48.0%,44. 1%,42.2% respectively ). Conclusion The ratio of CSF/P Pro≥0.2, G ≤0.5, C≤0.7 have important significance in differential diagnosis tubereolous meningitis and vires meningitis.%目的 研究脑脊液(CSF)与血浆的蛋白、糖、氯化物含量不同比值鉴别诊断结核性脑膜炎(结脑)与病毒性脑膜炎(病脑)的意义.方法 检测102例结脑和107例病脑患者CSF和血浆的蛋白、糖、氯化物含量,计算CSF与血浆的蛋白、糖、氯化物含量3种不同比值(CSF/血浆蛋白≥0.2、糖≤0.5、氯≤0.7,CSF/血浆蛋白≥0.1、糖≤0.6、氯≤1.1,CSF/血浆蛋白≥0.3、糖≤0.4、氯≤0.6)诊断结脑的敏感性和特异性.结果 结脑组CSF与血浆的蛋白、糖、氯化物含量3种比值的阳性率均显著高于病脑组(P10.1

  6. 脑脊液C反应蛋白及免疫球蛋白对儿童感染性脑膜炎临床诊断的意义%Significance of C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid for clinical diagnosis of infectious meningitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷卫兵; 严鸣光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulin in the clinical diagnosis of infectious meningitis in children.Methods A total of 150 children with infectious meningitis were selected as the research group, while there were 50 healthy children as the control group. Related factors of CRP and immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG) in cerebrospinal fluid were detected in the two groups.Results The detection results of clinical biochemical criterions in the research group were all higher than those in the control group (allP0.05).Conclusion The detection of CRP and immunoglobulin can be used as the effective indicator for meningitis detection, and it has great application value in clinic.%目的:探讨C反应蛋白(CRP)及免疫球蛋白检测在儿童感染性脑膜炎临床诊断中的应用价值。方法150例感染性脑膜炎患儿作为研究组,同期健康儿童50例作为对照组,分别检测两组儿童的脑脊液CRP和免疫球蛋白(IgA、IgM、IgG)相关指标。结果研究组临床生化指标检测结果均高于对照组(均P0.05)。结论 C反应蛋白和免疫球蛋白检测可作为脑膜炎检测的有效指标,具有较大的临床使用价值。

  7. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  8. Bloody cerebrospinal fluid: traumatic tap or child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolo, J O

    1987-06-01

    A central nervous system dysfunction of nontraumatic etiology was initially suspected in three cases of shaken baby syndrome. Blood contaminating the cerebrospinal fluid was attributed to a traumatic lumbar puncture. Failure to detect retinal hemorrhages contributed to the misdiagnosis. Emergency physicians must consider the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome in a critically ill infant with bloody cerebrospinal fluid. Ophthalmoscopy should be done routinely in these patients.

  9. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; N. Bam; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameter...

  10. Differentiating Pleural Effusions: Criteria Based on Pleural Fluid Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Srinath Dhandapani; Sivakumar Reddy; Rajalakshmi Rajagopalan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudates and exudates as compared with Light’s criteria. Methods: Patients with pleural effusion during a 6-month period were enrolled in the study and underwent thoracentesis. Pleural fluid was analyzed for the levels of protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cholesterol. Etiological diagnosis, which was established after considering clinical and biochemical factors, was the gold standard for com...

  11. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess variables

  12. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Various innovative diagnostic methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been developed in view of the increasing preva-lence and consequences of later-life dementia. Biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood for AD are primarily based on the detection of components derived from amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Published reports on CSF and blood biomarkers in AD indicate that although biomarkers in body fluids may be utilized in the clinical diagnosis of AD, there are no specific markers that permit accurate and reliable diagnosis of early-stage AD or the monitoring of disease pro-gression.

  13. Clinical value of detecting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis%脑脊液中γ-干扰素检测对结核性脑膜炎的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 杨瑞霞; 凌芸; 江静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To approach the diagnostic value of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis(TBM). Methods A total of 87 patients with meningitis of this hospital from May 2013 to February. 2014 were divided into the TBM group(35 cases) and the viral meningitis group(52 cases),additionally,60 healthy physical examinees of this hospital were selected as the control group. IFN-γlevels in the serum and CSF of the two groups were compared and analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results The IFN-γlevels[(486.0±35.0)ng/L] in CSF in tuberculous meningitiswere significantly higher than those in the virus meningitis group [ (94.0 ±40.0)ng/L],and the diffrence was statistcally significant (P0.05). The IFN-γlevel in serum of the TBM group and the viral meningitis group were higher than that of the control group[ (13.9± 6.8)ng/L],whose difference was statistcally significant(P0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of IFN-γin CSF in the diagnosis of TMB were 84.2%and 96.5%respectively. Conclusion Detection of IFN-γlevels in CSF is helpful for the diagnosis of TMB.%目的:探讨脑脊液(CSF)中γ-干扰素(IFN-γ)水平对结核性脑膜炎(TBM)的临床诊断价值。方法选取该院2013年5月至2014年2月收治的脑膜炎患者87例,分为TBM组(35例)和病毒性脑膜炎组(52例)。另选择同期在该院进行健康体检者60例为对照组。应用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)方法对各组患者血清、CSF中及对照组人员血清中IFN-γ水平进行检测及比较分析。结果 TBM组患者CSF中IFN-γ水平[(486.0±35.0)ng/L]明显高于病毒性脑膜炎组[(94.0±40.0)ng/L],差异有统计学意义(P0.05),但两组患者血清IFN-γ水平均高于对照组[(13.9±6.8)ng/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);TBM组患者CSF中INF-γ水平明显高于血清,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。CSF中IFN

  14. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary

  15. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  16. Applications of fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.R.; Garg, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes flexible and practical approach to learning the basics of fluid dynamics. Each chapter is a self-contained work session and includes a fluid dynamics concept, an explanation of the principles involved, an illustration of their application and references on where more detailed discussions can be found.

  17. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  18. Fluid blade disablement tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G [Albuquerque, NM; Todd, Steven N [Rio Rancho, NM

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  19. [Guideline-based diagnosis of dementia etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, W

    2012-12-01

    Dementia encompasses a variety of underlying conditions among which Alzheimer's disease represents the most common cause and in addition, vascular and Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. All the current guidelines specify a two-step procedure for the diagnostics of dementia. The first step entails performing a comprehensive description, diagnosis and confirmation of the syndrome. The presented article focuses on the second step: diagnosis of the etiology. This review gives an overview of the current diagnostic approaches including the new proposals of the biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid.

  20. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  1. Usefulness and limit of CT diagnosis on appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchiki, Megumi; Takanashi, Toshiyasu [Sakata Municipal Hospital, Yamagata (Japan); Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1997-08-01

    CT was performed in 104 patients with abdominal pain suspected appendicitis. CT showed positive finding (abnormal appendix, appendicolith, pericecal inflammatory change, fluid collection, LN swelling, abscess) and complication of appendicitis clearly. CT diagnosis showed high accuracy than clinical diagnosis. CT proved its usefulness especially only CT imaging showed the correct diagnosis. On the other hand, diverticulitis and terminal ileitis common diagnostic disease of appendicitis showed similar clinical appearance and CT image, caused to be difficult to diagnose correctly. In the cases showing similar image to appendicitis or atypical image, CT also proved its limit of the diagnosis on appendicitis. (author)

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in a child with neuroborreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Piotr; Zawadka, Konrad; Wadowska-Kłopotek, Weronika; Smorczewska-Kiljan, Anna; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Książyk, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia is rare and usually associated with eosinophilic meningitis caused by helminthic infections. It is also observed in bacterial or fungal meningitis (syphilis, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis), in patients with malignancies, ventriculoperitonial shunts, hypereosinophilic syndrome or allergy to some medications. Here we present a case of an 8-year-old boy admitted with fever and clinical signs of meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed marked eosinophilia. Basing on further serological CSF testing the diagnosis of borreliosis was established. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in Borrelia burgdorferi infection has never been reported before.

  3. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  4. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  5. Applied fluid mechanics; Mecanique des fluides appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, P.L.; Chabard, J.P.; Esposito, P.; Laurence, D. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    2002-07-01

    Computational hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics, and hydro-informatics have invaded virtually all domains of research and application in hydro-science and fluids engineering. To the extent that this invasion has led to improved understanding of complex fluid phenomena and provided a frame of reference for testing and verifying designs and operational schemes, we have all benefited from it. But to the extent that it has shifted attention away from fundamental descriptions and understanding of fluid phenomena, and toward computational and numerical issues, this invasion has left avoid in the scientific and technical literature. This void exists somewhere between student exposure to first principles of solid and fluid mechanics on the one hand, and advanced-student and researcher/practitioner exposure to computational techniques and applications on the other. This new text naturally and refreshingly steps in to fill this void, and as such is a most welcome addition to the literature and to personal and institutional libraries. The text is refreshing in its innovative and careful attention to setting the historical framework of general and specific topics. This is most notable in the first chapter, which very gracefully and efficiently leads the reader through historical developments to contemporary mathematical statements of basic fluid phenomena. Once the authors have established this foundation of fundamental principles, they tie each succeeding chapter back into the introduction with appropriate and supportive historical contexts. Although the text does not shy away from rigorous analytical descriptions of fluid phenomena, it is unique in providing this delightful historical context for each topic. The authors have also made a special effort to tie the chapters together into a unified whole, with ample references forward and back; this is indeed rare, and much appreciated, in a text of multiple authorship. The topics treated and chapter structures reflect

  6. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  7. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Periodic motion of three stirrers in a two-dimensional flow can lead to chaotic transport of the surrounding fluid. For certain stirrer motions, the generation of chaos is guaranteed solely by the topology of that motion and continuity of the fluid. Work in this area has focused largely on using physical rods as stirrers, but the theory also applies when the "stirrers" are passive fluid particles. We demonstrate the occurrence of topological chaos for Stokes flow in a two-dimensional lid-driv...

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  10. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  11. Serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines level in children with meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Taskın

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in children with bacterial or viral meningitis and to document the use of these parameters in differential diagnosis.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea: a case report and review of the management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolo, J O

    1988-12-01

    A case of a complicated penetrating nasal injury is presented. The rapid diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, with appropriate bedside tests and imaging techniques, is essential for the prevention of bacterial meningitis.

  13. Saliva: a fluid of study for OMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Córdoba, Betzaida; Santiago-García, Juan

    2014-02-01

    Saliva is a fluid that can be collected easily and noninvasively. Its functions in the oral cavity are well known. Advances in molecular biology and technology, as well as research conducted by the various disciplines of omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics) have contributed to the identification and characterization of salivary components, including DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microorganisms. These biomolecules enter the saliva through extracellular and intracellular routes, providing information from several organs and systems and raising the possibility of their use as disease biomarkers. In recent years, these factors have expanded the potential use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for oral and systemic diseases. This review integrates information regarding salivary biomolecules studied through omics and explores their utility as biomarkers for the diagnosis of several infectious and noninfectious diseases, and the opportunity they represent for the development of point of care devices for clinical application. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges to be overcome in order to establish saliva as a useful fluid for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of diseases.

  14. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peritoneal fluid glucose, amylase, tumor markers, bilirubin, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Microscopic examination – may be performed if infection or cancer is suspected; a laboratory professional may use a ...

  15. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  16. Pericardial fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the thin sac that surrounds the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You ... may be due to an infection of the pericardium. The specific organism causing the infection may be ...

  17. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  18. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  20. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  1. [Endoscopic diagnosis of enterobiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, N; Petersen, H D

    2000-02-28

    This article describes two cases of worm-infestation with symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. The cases are discussed in respect to the other cases in the literature emphasizing symptomatology and diagnosis by endoscopy.

  2. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...

  4. CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GELATINOUS ASCITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a condition characte rized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity (gela tinous ascites. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an uncommon condition in which mucinous ascites causes progressive abdominal distension and gastrointestina l dysfunction. We present a case of 44 year old female who presented with gradually progres sive abdominal distension since 6 months. An ascitic tap was performed and the fluid wa s sent for cytological study. Cytology showed pools of acellular mucin. On laparotomy there was mucinous material in the abdomen that was evacuated. Appendix and omentum were found t o be thickened, hence appendicectomy was done and omental biopsy taken. Histopathological diagnosis of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix with rupture and mucinous ascitis was made.

  5. Saliva: A fluid in search of a diagnostic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since saliva has been studied for more than 50 years and is relatively easy to collect, it is reasonable to ask why saliva is not in wider use as a diagnostic fluid. Here we discuss the criteria for diagnostic tests for diseases, barriers to use saliva for diagnostic testing, and the possibility of overcoming barriers to acceptance of saliva for diagnosis.

  6. Well-differentiated liposarcoma of the retroperitoneum with a fat-fluid level: US, CT, and MR appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi (Japan)

    1998-03-27

    We report a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma with a fat-fluid level that has not been previously described. A 36-year-old man presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasonography, CT, and MR imaging showed a tumor with a fat-fluid level; nondependent fluid was characteristic of fat. Liposarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors exhibiting a fat-fluid level. (orig.) With 1 fig., 11 refs.

  7. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho [School of Medicine Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted.

  8. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  9. The validation of a diagnostic rule for gout without joint fluid analysis: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhorst, L.B.; Janssens, H.J.; Fransen, J.; Janssen, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gold standard for diagnosing gout is the identification of MSU crystals in joint fluid. In secondary care, the facilities or expertise to analyse joint fluid are not always available and gout is diagnosed clinically. To improve the predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of gout in

  10. Postpartal nursing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, T M

    1986-01-01

    The responsibility of nurses for postpartal patients has changed greatly in the past few years. No longer is it adequate to assess and manage only those physical problems that occur during the hospital stay. Today, potential psychosocial problems and consequences of parental knowledge deficit are part of nursing's domain of diagnosis and management. A review of the purpose of nursing diagnosis is important. Clarifying the difference between medical diagnosis and nursing diagnosis is also essential if one is to be comfortable with the process. Careful scrutiny of the unique needs of new parents will form the basis for formulating meaningful postpartal nursing diagnosis.

  11. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  12. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light’s criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19 and exudates (43. The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP, pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were for exudates, for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (. It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.

  13. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; Bam, N.; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion. PMID:23365740

  14. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  15. Vorticity in holographic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, Marco M; Petkou, Anastasios C; Petropoulos, P Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos

    2012-01-01

    In view of the recent interest in reproducing holographically various properties of conformal fluids, we review the issue of vorticity in the context of AdS/CFT. Three-dimensional fluids with vorticity require four-dimensional bulk geometries with either angular momentum or nut charge, whose boundary geometries fall into the Papapetrou--Randers class. The boundary fluids emerge in stationary non-dissipative kinematic configurations, which can be cyclonic or vortex flows, evolving in compact or non-compact supports. A rich network of Einstein's solutions arises, naturally connected with three-dimensional Bianchi spaces. We use Fefferman--Graham expansion to handle holographic data from the bulk and discuss the alternative for reversing the process and reconstruct the exact bulk geometries.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  17. Fluids in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new

  19. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Recommendations to standardize preanalytical confounding factors in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Campo, M.; Mollenhauer, B.; Bertolotto, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Hampel, H.; Simonsen, A.H.; Kapaki, E.; Kruse, N.; Bastard, N. le; Lehmann, S.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Parnetti, L.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Saez-Valero, J.; Saka, E.; Urbani, A.; Vanmechelen, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Visser, P.J.; Teunissen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) is needed to slow down or halt the disease at the earliest stage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can be a good tool for early diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice is challenging du

  1. Recommendations to standardize preanalytical confounding factors in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Campo, M.; Mollenhauer, B.; Bertolotto, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Hampel, H.; Simonsen, A.H.; Kapaki, E.; Kruse, N.; Bastard, N. le; Lehmann, S.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Parnetti, L.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Saez-Valero, J.; Saka, E.; Urbani, A.; Vanmechelen, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Visser, P.J.; Teunissen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) is needed to slow down or halt the disease at the earliest stage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can be a good tool for early diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice is challenging du

  2. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  3. Proteomics of body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis we present newly developed methods for biomarker discovery. We applied these methods to discover biomarkers of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from breast cancer patients and in serum from patients with prostate cancer. Early diagnos

  4. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  5. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  6. Fluid resuscitation in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate fluid replacement is an essential component of trauma fluid resuscitation. Once hemorrhage is controlled, restoration of normovolemia is a priority. In the presence of uncontrolled haemorrhage, aggressive fluid management may be harmful. The crystalloid-colloid debate continues but existing clinical practice is more likely to reflect local biases rather than evidence based medicine. Colloids vary substantially in their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics,and the experimental finding based on one colloid cannot be extrapolated reliably to another. In the initial stages of trauma resuscitation the precise fluid used is probably not important as long as an appropriate volume is given. Later, when the microcirculation is ′leaky′, there may be some advantages to high or medium weight colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch. Hypertonic saline solutions may have some benefit in patients with head injuries. A number of hemoglobin solutions are under development, but one of the most promising of these has been withdrawn recently. It is highly likely that at least one of these solutions will eventually become routine therapy for trauma patient resuscitation. In the meantime, contrary to traditional teaching, recent data suggest that restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion may improve outcome in some critically ill patients.

  7. Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embolisms are rare, which makes it difficult to identify risk factors. It's estimated that there are between 1 ... Kramer MS, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism: Incidence, risk factors, and impact on perinatal outcome. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2012;119:874. Baskett ...

  8. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  9. A Difficult Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primholdt, Nina; Primdahl, Jette; Hendricks, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of 5.4 years. The analysis resulted in the following three themes: 'Daily living and psychological reactions', 'A difficult diagnosis' and 'Working life and identity'. CONCLUSIONS: It took a long time to make the correct diagnosis, and the period before diagnosis...... framework was grounded in critical psychology, and the analysis was based on Kvale and Brinkmann's meaning condensation. RESULTS: The five men interviewed were 21-37 years old. At the time of the interview, the participants had been diagnosed with AS for an average of 2.6 years, with an average time from...

  10. Pitfalls in Serological Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, Kathrin; Hagen, Ferry; Han, Chang Ok; Seibold, Michael; Rickerts, Volker; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-01-01

    The detection of cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination tests (LATs), enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA), or lateral flow assay (LFA) is an important tool for diagnosis of a Cryptococcus infection. Cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum samples of 10 patients with cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus

  11. Pitfalls in Serological Diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, Kathrin; Hagen, Ferry; Han, Chang Ok; Seibold, Michael; Rickerts, Volker; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-01-01

    The detection of cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination tests (LATs), enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA), or lateral flow assay (LFA) is an important tool for diagnosis of a Cryptococcus infection. Cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum samples of 10 patients with cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus g

  12. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  13. Significance of Ratios of Cerebrospinal Fluid to Plasma Protein, Glucose and Chlorides in the Diagnosis of Children's Central Nervous System Infections%脑脊液与血浆蛋白、糖及氯化物含量比值在儿童中枢神经系统感染诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂丹娜; 许慧; 夏治; 周小勤; 陈雪丽; 张佳佳; 邓晓霞; 舒小兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of ratios of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma protein, glucose and chlorides in early and differential diagnosis of children's central nervous system infections. Methods-. The content of CSF and plasma's protein, glucose and chlorides were detected in children diagnosed as purulent meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, and viral meningitis/encephalitis as well as non-central nervous system infections children in our hospital from Feb, 2011 to Mar, 2012. And the ratios of CSF to plasma protein, glucose and chlorides were calculated. Results: The ratio of CSF to plasma protein was increased in purulent meningitis children, however the ratio of CSF to glucose was decreased (P<0. 01). The ratio of CSF to plasma protein was increased in purulent tuberculous meningitis children, while the ratios of glucose and chlorides were decreased (P<0. 01). The ratios of CSF to plasma protein, glucose and chlorides had no obviously changed in viral meningitis/encephalitis children (P>0. 05). When CSF to plasma protein ratio was higher than 1. 0, the sensitivity was 91. 14% and 70. 59% in diagnosing pu-rulent meningitis and tuberculous meningitis, respectively. When CSF to plasma glucose ratio was lower than 0. 5, the sensitivity and specificity reached to 88. 61% and 88. 46% in diagnosing purulent meningitis. And when CSF to plasma chlorides ratio was lower than 1.1, the sensitivity and specificity was 97. 06% and 96. 64% respectively in diagnosing tuberculous meningitis. Conclusion: The difference of ratios in CSF to plasma protein, glucose and chlorides can be used for the early and differential diagnosis of central nervous system infections in children.%目的:研究脑脊液(CSF)与血浆中的蛋白、糖及氯化物含量比值对儿童中枢神经系统感染早期诊断及鉴别诊断的意义.方法:检测2011年2月至2012年3月在我院住院确诊为化脓性脑膜炎(化脑)、结核性脑膜炎(结脑)和病毒性脑

  14. [Cluster headache differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan-Massardier, Evelyne; Laubier, Cécile

    2015-11-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by disabling stereotyped headache. Early diagnosis allows appropriate treatment, unfortunately diagnostic errors are frequent. The main differential diagnoses are other primary or essential headaches. Migraine, more frequent and whose diagnosis is carried by excess, trigeminal neuralgia or other trigemino-autonomic cephalgia. Vascular or tumoral underlying condition can mimic cluster headache, neck and brain imaging is recommended, ideally MRI.

  15. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...

  16. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...

  17. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas and elevated cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Nilanjana; Rollins, Katie; Wu, Jessie; Kaye, Phillip; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-09-28

    Pancreatic lymphoepithelial cysts are rare, benign cysts which can present diagnostic difficulties. Non-invasive imaging alone is unreliable in distinguishing between benign and malignant cysts. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) with analysis of cyst fluid is more reliable, but invasive. In addition, tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) can be grossly elevated in cyst fluid of benign cysts. We present the case of a 67 year old man with an incidental finding of a pancreatic cyst. EUS and FNA-guided aspiration of cyst fluid was performed. Fluid CEA was grossly elevated and resectional surgery was performed. On histological examination the diagnosis was confirmed as lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas. Tumor markers such as CEA can be elevated in the cyst fluid of benign pancreatic conditions such as lymphoepithelial cyst. Although the diagnosis is challenging preoperatively, if a systematic algorithm is followed, these conditions can be managed safely and efficiently.

  18. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  19. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...

  20. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  1. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  2. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  3. Zinc Determination in Pleural Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan DEMİR; DEMİR, Yaşar

    2000-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic zinc determination method was applied to pleural fluid, the basis of which was the regaining of the activity of apo carbonic anhydrase by the zinc present in the sample. The method was used for pleural fluid zinc determination in order to show the application to body fluids other than serum. For this purpose, pleural fluids were obtained from 20 patients and zinc concentrations were determined. Carbonic anhydrase was purified by affinity chromatography from bovine ...

  4. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  5. The diagnosis and treatment of arthritis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R J

    1983-01-01

    In this paper on the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis in horses, both degenerative arthritis and septic arthritis are considered. Diagnosis should be made on the combination of clinical examination together with the use of diagnostic aids such as radiology, intra-articular local anaesthesia and synovial fluid analysis. Intra-articular therapy appears to be the most effective in the treatment of degenerative arthritis. Excellent responses to therapy have been reported with corticosteroids, sodium hyaluronate, orgotein and synovial fluid transfer, where joints showed an absence of degenerative changes on radiographs. In septic arthritis, systemic treatment with the appropriate antibiotic, following bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, can produce good results if prompt diagnosis is made.

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P; Bergese, Sergio D.; Thomas J Papadimos; Gracias, Vicente H.; Adolph, Michael D.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outline...

  7. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy ...

  8. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Luton, J. A.; Ragab, Saad A.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of vortices passing near a solid surface has been examined using direct numerical simulation. The configuration studied is a counter-rotating vortex pair approaching a wall in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The focus of these simulations is on the three-dimensional effects, of which little is known. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first three-dimensional simulation that lends support to the short-wavelength instability of the secondary vortex. It has been shown how this ...

  9. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  10. Fluid Dynamics and Viscosity in Strongly Correlated Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low energy, long wavelength theory of many body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the notion of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio $\\eta/s$ of shear viscosity to entropy density of order $\\hbar/k_B$ or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and review the current experimental situation with regard to measurements of $\\eta/s$ in strongly coupled quantum fluids.

  11. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  12. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  13. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  14. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  15. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  16. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ván, P.

    2017-01-01

    Single-component nonrelativistic dissipative fluids are treated independently of reference frames and flow-frames. First the basic fields and their balances are derived, then the related thermodynamic relations and the entropy production are calculated and the linear constitutive relations are given. The usual basic fields of mass, momentum, energy and their current densities, the heat flux, pressure tensor and diffusion flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third-order mass-momentum-energy density-flux four-tensor. The corresponding Galilean transformation rules of the physical quantities are derived. It is proved that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic frame theory, including the thermostatic Gibbs relation and extensivity condition and also the entropy production, is independent of the reference frame and also the flow-frame of the fluid. The continuity-Fourier-Navier-Stokes equations are obtained almost in the traditional form if the flow of the fluid is fixed to the temperature. This choice of the flow-frame is the thermo-flow. A simple consequence of the theory is that the relation between the total, kinetic and internal energies is a Galilean transformation rule.

  17. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  18. CT of retrorenal fluid collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, L.; Demos, T.C.; Posniak, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fluid collections dorsal to one or both kidneys are often observed on CT. Most of these collections are located in the posterior pararenal space, but occasionally fluid collections that do not originate in this space also occur. The authors review retrorenal fluid collections with explanations for their occurrence.

  19. Basic concepts of fluid responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.V. Cherpanath (Thomas); B.F. Geerts (Bart); W.K. Lagrand (Wim); M.J. Schultz (Marcus); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPredicting fluid responsiveness, the response of stroke volume to fluid loading, is a relatively novel concept that aims to optimise circulation, and as such organ perfusion, while avoiding futile and potentially deleterious fluid administrations in critically ill patients. Dynamic param

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration in chronic neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumani, Hayrettin; Teunissen, Charlotte; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Otto, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Brettschneider, Johannes

    2008-07-01

    Chronic neurological diseases (CND) like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), dementia or multiple sclerosis (MS) share a chronic progressive course of disease that frequently leads to the common pathological pathway of neurodegeneration, including neuroaxonal damage, apoptosis and gliosis. There is an ongoing search for biomarkers that could support early diagnosis of CND and help to identify responders to interventions in therapeutic treatment trials. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising source of biomarkers in CND, since the CSF compartment is in close anatomical contact with the brain interstitial fluid, where biochemical changes related to CND are reflected. We review recent advances in CSF biomarkers research in CND and thereby focus on markers associated with neurodegeneration.

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T

    2012-02-03

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  2. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  3. Neurofibromatoses: part 1 ? diagnosis and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatoses (NF are a group of genetic multiple tumor growing predisposition diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 and schwannomatosis (SCH, which have in common the neural origin of tumors and cutaneous signs. They affect nearly 80 thousand of Brazilians. In recent years, the increased scientific knowledge on NF has allowed better clinical management and reduced complication morbidity, resulting in higher quality of life for NF patients. In most cases, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, clinical geneticists, oncology and internal medicine specialists are able to make the differential diagnosis between NF and other diseases and to identify major NF complications. Nevertheless, due to its great variability in phenotype expression, progressive course, multiple organs involvement and unpredictable natural evolution, NF often requires the support of neurofibromatoses specialists for proper treatment and genetic counseling. This Part 1 offers step-by-step guidelines for NF differential diagnosis. Part 2 will present the NF clinical management.

  4. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Naumenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD is one of the most important tasks of modern medicine. Even before its obvious clinical symptoms develop, AD can be now identified from the data of functional neuroimaging, including that with the Pittsburgh compound, which can detect amyloid protein accumulation in the brain structures, and from those of an analysis of biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid. If there are clinical symptoms, a diagnosis can be established by the correct evaluation of mnestic disorders; the latter in BA are so-called hippocampal. Treatment for AD should be initiated as early as possible; methods for pathogenetic therapy are being actively developed. When treating AD, one should adhere to a comprehensive approach involving the use of drugs for basic symptomatic treatment and those enhancing its efficiency, and non-drug treatments (cognitive and motor training. It is important to timely identify and eliminate potentially reversible conditions and to work with caregivers and guardians.

  5. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  6. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  7. Fluid-fluid versus fluid-solid demixing in mixtures of parallel hard hypercubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Luis; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that increase of the spatial dimensionality enhances the fluid-fluid demixing of a binary mixture of hard hyperspheres, i.e. the demixing occurs for lower mixture size asymmetry as compared to the three-dimensional case. However, according to simulations, in the latter dimension the fluid-fluid demixing is metastable with respect to the fluid-solid transition. According to the results obtained from approximations to the equation of state of hard hyperspheres in higher dimensions, the fluid-fluid demixing might become stable for high enough dimension. However, this conclusion is rather speculative since none of these works have taken into account the stability of the crystalline phase (by a minimization of a given density functional, by spinodal calculations or by MC simulations). Of course, the lack of results is justified by the difficulty of performing density functional calculations or simulations in high dimensions and, in particular, for highly asymmetric binary mixtures. In the present work, we will take advantage of a well tested theoretical tool, namely the fundamental measure density functional theory for parallel hard hypercubes (in the continuum and in the hypercubic lattice). With this, we have calculated the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid spinodals for different spatial dimensions. We have obtained, no matter what the dimensionality, the mixture size asymmetry or the polydispersity (included as a bimodal distribution function centered around the asymmetric edge lengths), that the fluid-fluid critical point is always located above the fluid-solid spinodal. In conclusion, these results point to the existence of demixing between at least one solid phase rich in large particles and one fluid phase rich in small ones, preempting a fluid-fluid demixing, independently of the spatial dimension or the polydispersity.

  8. Karyotype analysis of 12 841 cases of amniotic fluid cells and risk assessment of missed diagnosis in molecular techniques%12841例羊水染色体核型分析与分子技术应用漏诊风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇宁; 吕时铭; 陈雁; 李帅; 周丽琴; 马裕

    2015-01-01

    karyotype ( fetal cell collected from amniotic fluid ) in Prenatal Diagnosis Center of Zhejiang Province between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed on distribution according to 7 different referral indication:positive screening for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, advanced maternal age , abnormal history of pregnancies , abnormal family history , fetal structural abnormalities and others.The combination of trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 ( T21/18/13 Group) and the aneuploidies of chromosome 21, 18, 13, X, Y (21/18/13/X/Y Group) were further analyzed based on the current molecular target detection range.Results There were 462 cases out of 12 481 with chromosomal abnormality (3.60%, 462/12 841), with 215 cases of high risk (detection rate 1.67%, 215/12 841) and 247 cases of low risk (detection rate 1.92%, 247/12 841).Under different indications , the detection rate on abnormal chromosome of high risk (high-risk CA) is different,“abnormal fetal ultrasound” is the highest(27.27%,24/88).Among the high-risk CA, T21/18/13 Group accounted for 72.56%(156/215), while the 21/18/13/X/Y Group accounted for 94.88%(204/215).For the 7 regular indications , the high-risk CA distribute different;Except the T21/18/13 Group and 21/18/13/X/Y Group, the rates of other abnormal chromosome karyotype in the high risk CA were 0.28%( 2/719 )-12.5%( 11/88 ) and 0.06%( 4/6 915 )-1.14%( 1/88 ) according to different indication, respectively.Conclusions The distribution of abnormal karyotype were different under different referral indication;the detection power and possible misdiagnosis risks were varied under different indication for each molecular technique.It was suggested that doctors should select suitable molecular technique according to different clinical indications and each molecular method has its own limitations .

  9. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  10. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  11. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  12. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X N; Arratia, P E

    2011-05-20

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to up to 35% slower propulsion. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  13. Differentiating Pleural Effusions: Criteria Based on Pleural Fluid Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Dhandapani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudates and exudates as compared with Light’s criteria. Methods: Patients with pleural effusion during a 6-month period were enrolled in the study and underwent thoracentesis. Pleural fluid was analyzed for the levels of protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and cholesterol. Etiological diagnosis, which was established after considering clinical and biochemical factors, was the gold standard for comparison. Cut-off values for pleural fluid cholesterol were taken as 60 mg/dL and 45 mg/dL. Results: A total of 53 patients were included for final analysis. Of them, 19 were with transudates and 34 with exudates in their pleural fluids. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the pleural fluid cholesterol (cut-off >45 mg/dL were 97.06%, 94.74%, 97.06%, and 94.74%, respectively, for identifying exudates. These values were differentiating better than those obtained by Light’s criteria for pleural fluid cholesterol (cut-off >60 mg/dL (p45 mg/dL gave a higher specificity (100% and positive predictive value (100% but a lower sensitivity (82.93% and negative predictive value (63.16%. Conclusion: Pleural fluid cholesterol is better than Light’s criteria for the differentiation of transudates and exudates and is less cumbersome as it does not require a simultaneous blood sampling. Cut-off value of pleural fluid cholesterol for differentiating transudates and exudates should be 45 mg/dL. Further studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of the combination of pleural fluid protein and cholesterol as criteria for classifying effusions.

  14. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  15. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems....... These inputs are disturbance inputs, reference inputs and auxilary inputs. The diagnosis of the system is derived by an evaluation of the signature from the inputs in the residual outputs. The changes of the signatures form the external inputs are used for detection and isolation of the parametric faults....

  16. Peritoneal tuberculosis: radiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ospina-Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB is an extrapulmonary form of presentation of tuberculosis. HIV infection is a primary risk factor for this condition. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathological confirmation in addition to supporting radiological imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT are useful to obtain a radiographic diagnosis, with typical findings including diffuse peritoneal thickening, presence of ascites in varying volumes, adenopathies, and caseating nodes. We report 2 cases of patients with ascites and nodular peritoneal thickening on diagnostic images, as well as high CA-125 levels in laboratory tests. In both patients, a diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was reached following a US-guided peritoneal biopsy.

  17. Differential diagnosis of tonsillolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Schertel Cassiano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tonsillolith is a rare type of dystrophic calcification in the palatine tonsils or in the peritonsilar region, which can mimics several intraosseous radiopaque lesions when evaluated by two-dimensional or overlapping images.This may lead to an erroneous diagnosis and to invasive and unnecessary procedures.This study reports a case of tonsillolith that was wrongly diagnosed as an odontoma. Case report: A patient with primary diagnosis of odontoma in the mandibular ramus was referred to surgical treatment of this lesion. Conclusion: Computed tomography (CT scans are fundamentally important to establish differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment for the patient.

  18. ARDS诊治进展%Advance in the diagnosis and treatment of ARDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春学; 蒋进军

    2004-01-01

    There are still some questions in the consensus for diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), such as the differential diagnosis with pneumonia, left heart failure. Therefore, it is essential to measure the protein in alveolar fluid and plasma, the ratio of the two parameters could help the differential diagnosis. In recent years, many managements showed various effects for ARDS, like smallt idal volume mechanical ventilation, protective mechanical ventilation, blood purification, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, improving alveolar fluid clearance, vasodilator, corticosteroid and other anti inflammation drugs. However, all of them need meta-analysis, except protective mechanical ventilation.

  19. Fluid viscosity under confined conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

  20. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  1. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  2. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  3. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics.

  4. Value of detecting MMP-9,ADA and TNF-α cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis%脑脊液基质金属蛋白酶-9、腺苷脱氨酶及肿瘤坏死因子-α检测对结核性脑膜炎诊断价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑛; 谢服役; 毛倩倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究脑脊液基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9),腺苷脱氨酶(ADA)肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平对结核性脑膜炎诊断的临床价值.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测MMP-9和TNF-α的水平,用酶动力学终点法检测ADA水平,并与对照组进行比较分析.结果 结核性脑膜炎组MMP-9,ADA和TNF-α水平分别为(87.5±16.2)ng/ml、(15.0±6.9)U/L和(82.6±14.2)μg/L,化脓性脑膜炎组3项指标分别为(50.4±13.1)ng/ml、(4.7±2.1)U/L和(91.5±16.4)μg/L,病毒性脑膜炎组3项指标分别为(40.1±10.5)ng/m1、(3.9±1.4)U/I和(53.2±11.3)μg/L;结核性脑膜炎组MMP-9和ADA水平显著高于另外3组;化脓性脑膜炎组和病毒性脑膜炎组MMP-9显著高于对照组;结核性脑膜炎组、化脓性脑膜炎组TNF-α水平显著高于病毒性脑膜炎组,病毒性脑膜炎组TNF-α水平显著高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 脑脊液MMP-9,ADA和TNF-α水平对结核性脑膜炎具有一定的辅助鉴别诊断价值.%OBJECTIVE To study the clinical value of detecting cerebrospinal fluid MMP-9, ADA and TNF-α in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. METHODS MMP-9 and TNF-α were detected by ELISA, ADA was detected by the end-point analysis, and the results were compared with control cases. RESULTS The levels of MMP-9,ADA and TNF-α in CSF of the tuberculous meningitis were (87.5±16.2)ng/ml, (15.0±6.9)U/L and(82.6±14.2)μg/L, their levels were ( 50.4 ± 13.1 ) ng/ml, (4.7 ± 2.1 ) U/L and ( 91.5 ± 16.4 ) μg/L in purulent meningitis, their levels were (40.1 ±10.5) ng/ml, (3.9 ±1.4) U/L and (53.2 ±11.3) μg/L in viral meningitis.The levels of MMP-9 and ADA in the patients with tuberculous meningitis were significantly higher than that in other three groups. The level of MMP-9 in the patients with purulent meningitis and viral meningitis was significantly higher than that in control group, the level of TNF-αin tuberculous meningitis and purulent meningitis was significantly higher than that in viral

  5. Frontotemporal Dementias: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies Observational Studies Sharing our Stories Stories and Poems Blogs Art and Multimedia Published Tributes Resources Comstock ... diagnosis of FTD. This often results in a long and frustrating process of testing for other disorders ...

  6. Diagnosis of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Early recognition of osteoporosis is difficult because symptoms are lacking and there are no distinct, readily accessible diagnostic features. This article reviews the standard approach, radiographic and laboratory diagnosis, bone mass measurement techniques, and interpretation of bone mineral data. (MT)

  7. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  8. DSS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FROWEIN, JC; POSTMA, TJBM

    1992-01-01

    Information technology in relation to organizational diagnosis and organizational change is the subject of extensive and increasing discussion. A condition for change is insight into organizational problems. This paper discusses the relation between the concepts ''problem'', ''decision making'' and

  9. Physical Therapy Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimny, Nancy J; Goodman, Catherine C; Orest, Marianne; Delitto, Anthony; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    ...: Examples in Orthopedic Physical Therapy" (March 1995). I believe the article raised multiple issues that are important to address to move the discussion of diagnosis within the physical therapy profession forward...

  10. Diagnosis of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Diagnosis of Ataxia Being diagnosed with Ataxia can be overwhelming. Below ... help you to understand ataxia better. What is Ataxia? The word "ataxia", comes from the Greek word, " ...

  11. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the United States cannot diagnose parasites? How are parasitic diseases diagnosed? Many kinds of lab tests are available ...

  12. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  13. Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Gout may be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be vague and could be from other ...

  14. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  15. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  16. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  17. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  18. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  19. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2017-08-15

    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  20. C-Reactive Protein, Sialic Acid and Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Serum and Pleural Fluid from Patients with Pleural Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woon; Yang, In Ae; Oh, Eun A; Rhyoo, Young Gun; Jang, Young Ho; Ryang, Dong Wook; Yoo, JooYong

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of pleural fluids is essential to determine underlying diseases. The authors evaluated the clinical significance of C-reactive protein (C-RP), sialic acid (SA), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) determinations in sera and pleural fluids from 37 patients with pleural effusion. (FP12)C-RP and sialic acid levels and ADA activities were higher in exudates than in transudates of pleural fluids. Serum and pleural fluid C-RP levels were high in patients with pyothorax. Determinations of serum sialic acid and the pleural fluid to serum ratio were useful for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and malignancy. ADA activities of pleural fluid and serum are useful for the differentiation of malignancy from tuberculosis and nonspecific pyothorax. C-RP concentrations of pleural fluid correlated to serum levels. However, concentrations of sialic acid and ADA activities were not correlated to serum levels and only correlated to protein concentrations of pleural fluids. PMID:3154188

  1. Image diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    森川, 満; 佐賀, 裕司; 渡部, 嘉彦; 藤沢, 真; 金子, 茂男; 徳中, 荘平; 八竹, 直

    1989-01-01

    Between January, 1983 and January 1988, the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was made on 14 patients (8 primary and 6 secondary), and was identified operatively in all. The procedures for image diagnosis were computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography and scintigraphy. Scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m and Tl-201 by a subtraction technique. For primary hyperparathyroidism, the accuracy of localization was 100% by CT, 87.5% by ultrasonography, 100% by scintigraphy, and 100% by the combina...

  2. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M B F; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, X C;

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires the detection of toxigenic C. difficile or its toxins and a clinical assessment. We evaluated the performance of four nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) detecting toxigenic C. difficile directly from faeces compared to routine...... of PCR ribotypes 066 and 078. Furthermore, the presence of the PCR enhancer bovine serum albumin (BSA) was found to be related to high sensitivity and low inhibition rate. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic C. difficile by RT PCR was accurate....

  3. Diagnosis of urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepke, Nicole; Doumoulakis, Georgios; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-05-01

    Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Autologous serum skin test is a simple office procedure for diagnosis of auto reactive urticaria. Closed ball point pen tip is a simple test to diagnose dermographism.

  4. Diagnosis of urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Autologous serum skin test is a simple office procedure for diagnosis of auto reactive urticaria. Closed ball point pen tip is a simple test to diagnose dermographism.

  5. Diagnosis of urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Schoepke; Georgios Doumoulakis; Marcus Maurer

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Autologous serum skin test is a simple office procedure for diagnosis of auto reactive urticaria. Closed ball point pen tip is a simple test to diagnose dermographism.

  6. Diagnosis of urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepke, Nicole; Doumoulakis, Georgios; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Autologous serum skin test is a simple office procedure for diagnosis of auto reactive urticaria. Closed ball point pen tip is a simple test to diagnose dermographism. PMID:23723473

  7. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  8. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  9. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  10. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  11. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs.

  12. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  13. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  14. Conformal fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, P D

    2006-01-01

    We present a conformal theory of a dissipationless relativistic fluid in 2 space-time dimensions. The theory carries with it a representation of the algebra of 2-$D$ area-preserving diffeomorphisms in the target space of the complex scalar potentials. A complete canonical description is given, and the central charge of the current algebra is calculated. The passage to the quantum theory is discussed in some detail; as a result of operator ordering problems, full quantization at the level of the fields is as yet an open problem.

  15. Reliability of fluid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopáček Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  16. [Prognosis in tumor diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, G

    1983-01-01

    This essay on prognosis in tumor diagnosis pathology resp. tumor etiology, cancerogenesis and molecular oncology is the authors personal opinion. Generally tumor diagnosis improves with progress in histo- and cytological methods for example in tumors of the APUD-system and precancerous lesions especially of the breast. Fundamental principle of developed tumor diagnosis is the knowledge of malignant transformation. Its profits favours the etiology in cancerogenesis and e.g. non Hodgkin lymphomas (Burkitt lymphoma, adult T-cell lymphoma) and to result from new methods in molecular biology and viral genetics (DNS-hybridizing, -recombination and gene technology). With the beginning century a stepwise fitted diagnosis of malignant lymphomas is evident up to monoclonal dedifferentiated lymphoid cells and their multifarious phenotypical markers. This concept may be of general significance in tumor diagnosis already indicated in prelymphomas. Finally the present prognosis of tumor diagnosis is evaluated by contents, tasks and strategies of its corresponding research lines in clinical and experimental tumor pathology resp. its organization.

  17. Oral fluid and hepatitis A, B and C: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Nima; Porter, Stephen R; Karayiannis, Peter; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2012-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a significant global health problem that, depending upon the virus, affects individuals of the developing and/or developed world. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in whether oral fluids can be considered as a source of viral hepatitis transmission and whether oral fluid, in particular, whole saliva, may be a useful source for viral detection as part of the diagnosis and monitoring of viral hepatitis. The aim of this article was to review current data concerning the possible carriage of the hepatitis A, B and C viruses within saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. Such knowledge will indicate if (i) oral fluid is a possible source of infection and (ii) whether oral fluid can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of viral hepatitis. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), EMBASE/Excerpta medica, the Cochrane database and Scopus. The results were limited to published material after 2000. Relevant material was evaluated and reviewed. There is some evidence that hepatitis viruses A, B and C are present in oral fluids, particularly whole saliva and gingival crevicular fluid and may thus be possible sources of viral detection in clinical diagnosis and monitoring. However, the data are inconsistent and warrant the need for well-planned longitudinal studies to explore the precise frequency of oral carriage of such viruses and to determine the virological and host factors that may influence the oral presence of hepatitis A, B and C viruses. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Null Fluids - A New Viewpoint of Galilean Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash

    2015-01-01

    This article is a detailed version of our short letter `On equilibrium partition function for non-relativistic fluid' [arXiv:1505.05677] extended to include an anomalous $U(1)$ symmetry. We construct a relativistic system, which we call null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincare symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce $U(1)$ anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean Fluid.

  19. Null fluids: A new viewpoint of Galilean fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study a Galilean fluid with a conserved U (1 ) current up to anomalies. We construct a relativistic system, which we call a null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in the derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce U (1 ) anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis: an urgent diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Maya, Silvia; Dualde Beltran, Delfina [Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Lemercier, Pierre; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos [Hospital Politecnico y Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare, life-threatening soft-tissue infection and a medical and surgical emergency, with increasing incidence in the last few years. It is characterized by a rapidly spreading, progressive necrosis of the deep fascia and subcutaneous tissue. Necrotizing fasciitis is often underestimated because of the lack of specific clinical findings in the initial stages of the disease. Many adjuncts such as laboratory findings, bedside tests - e.g., the ''finger test'' or biopsy - and imaging tests have been described as being helpful in the early recognition of the disease. Imaging is very useful to confirm the diagnosis, but also to assess the extent of the disorder, the potential surgical planning, and the detection of underlying etiologies. The presence of gas within the necrotized fasciae is characteristic, but may be lacking. The main finding is thickening of the deep fasciae due to fluid accumulation and reactive hyperemia, best seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  1. The history of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Livramento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in neurological diagnosis has always been considered to be a strong point among the main complementary examinations in Brazil. The present paper reviews the main events in the history of CSF in the neurological sciences, with emphasis on the founders of several CSF schools in our country from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time.

  2. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Álamo, Silvia; Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis - much the same as blood analysis - aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren's syndrome and cɶliac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing's syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis.

  3. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Abses Retrofaring pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novialdi .

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pendahuluan: Abses retrofaring adalah terkumpulnya nanah di ruang retrofaring yang merupakan salah satu daerah potensial di leher dalam. Abses retrofaring merupakan kasus yang jarang tetapi dapat menyebabkan kematian terutama pada umur di bawah 5 tahun. Sejak ditemukannya antibiotika, angka kesakitan dan kematian akibat abses menurun drastis. Metode: Dilaporkan satu kasus abses retrofaring dengan riwayat ketulangan pada anak gizi kurang umur 9 tahun. Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik dan pemeriksaan radiologi. Pada pemeriksaan foto polos jaringan lunak leher, terlihat gambaran pelebaran ruang retrofaring dan air fluid level. Diskusi: Penatalaksanaan meliputi pemberian antibiotika, drainase dan eksplorasi abses serta perbaikan keadaan umum. Kata kunci: abses retrofaring, benda asing, drainase Abstract Introduction: Retropharyngeal abscess is defined as accumulation pus in retropharyngeal space which is a potential area in deep neck space. Retropharyngeal abscess is a rare case but it can cause death especially in children under five years old. Since antibiotics were found, morbidity and mortality of this case was drastically decreased. Methods: A retropharyngeal abscess of child 9 years old with history of swallowed foreign body (fishbone and lack of nutrition has been reported. Diagnosis was based on anamnesis, physical examination and radiographic finding. In soft tissue cervical radiograph we found, widening of retropharyngeal space with air fluid level. Discussion: Management for abscess is intravenous antibiotics, drainage and exploration abscess and improve general condition has been performed Keywords:Retropharyngeal abscess, foreign body, drainage

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Pleural Transudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; Porcel, José M; Valdés, Luis

    2017-06-19

    Various clinical trials have been published on the optimal clinical management of patients with pleural exudates, particularly those caused by malignant tumors, while little information is available on the diagnosis and treatment of pleural transudates. The etiology of pleural transudates is wide and heterogeneous, and they can be caused by rare diseases, sometimes constituting a diagnostic challenge. Analysis of the pleural fluid can be a useful procedure for establishing diagnosis. Treatment should target not only the underlying disease, but also management of the pleural effusion itself. In cases refractory to medical treatment, invasive procedures will be necessary, for example therapeutic thoracentesis, pleurodesis with talc, or insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. Little evidence is currently available and no firm recommendations have been made to establish when to perform an invasive procedure, or to determine the safest, most efficient approach in each case. This article aims to describe the spectrum of diseases that cause pleural transudate, to review the diagnostic contribution of pleural fluid analysis, and to highlight the lack of evidence on the efficacy of invasive procedures in the management and control of pleural effusion in these patients. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...... within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force...

  6. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  7. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  8. [Diagnostic significance of immunologic study of cerebrospinal fluid in neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekonenko, E P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Andreeva, L S

    1985-01-01

    An increase in the antibody titre in the blood serum, previously considered sufficient for determining the etiology of neuroinfection can no longer be regarded as a satisfactory index in the light of the contemporary level of our knowledge. The literature and the authors' own data show the importance of a simultaneous examination of antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood serum in some neuroinfections. For example, the determination in the cerebrospinal fluid of antibodies to herpes simplex virus in herpetic encephalitis is considered sufficient (in the presence of the characteristic clinical picture) to make the diagnosis of this severe disease. The examination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of 35 patients with a suspected herpetic encephalitis revealed their presence in 34% of those studied. The data obtained suggest that immunoassay of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood sera should be used on a broader scale in patients with acute and chronic neuroinfections. The method plays an the early diagnosis of these diseases and early administration of the appropriate treatment.

  9. Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.

  10. Conductivity effect in electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yu; WEN; Shizhu; MENG; Yonggang

    2004-01-01

    Based on conduction model and cubic particle model, the relationship between current density and shear yield stress of electrorheological (ER) fluids was calculated and compared with some reported experimental results. The conductivity of the insulating oils is found to have been changed by the mixed particles. Several ways to decrease insulating liquid conductivity and increase the conductivity ratio of ER fluids have been proposed to prepare ER fluids with high shear yield stresses but low current densities.

  11. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  12. Working memory and fluid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole; Conway, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and which aspect of working memory span tasks– short-term storage or controlled attention - might drive the relationship. A sample of 119 children were followed from kindergarten to 2nd grade and completed assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, verbal short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but sepa...

  13. Diagnosis and Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings rely on metaphor as a primary cognitive device for interpreting the world around them. Metaphors figure especially strongly in discourse around health, illness, and medicine. It is not just that patients use metaphors to describe their personal experience of being unwell, or that medical professionals employ metaphor to convey a diagnosis, describe a treatment, or explain the function of an organ to their patients. Metaphor, it is argued, lies at the heart of the process of diagnosis. Moreover, diagnosticians employ competing metaphors in the early stages of diagnosis to speculate on alternative ways of viewing a puzzling set of symptoms. Diagnosis is often defined as a process of ordering and classifying, while metaphor is a device for playing with classifications. The medical systems of different cultures depend on different sets of fundamental metaphors. Modern Western biomedicine is organized around a series of basic metaphors: the body as machine, the body as the site of battle, and the body as a communication system. Traditional Chinese medicine, on the other hand, uses images of flow and blockage, balance and imbalance, and works by analogy with five elements: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. Psychologists are sometimes able to detect from a patient's own use of metaphor, or inability to use or recognize metaphor, clues to a diagnosis of psychosis or autism. With conditions such as anorexia nervosa, therapists may actually work to modify the dysfunctional metaphors by which patients depict themselves, with the purpose of establishing positive metaphors for envisaging recovery.

  14. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-ENDOMETRIAL MINERALIZATION IN A DOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunseok; Tan, Rommel M; Oh, Hyunsuk; Kim, Kyungeun; Choi, Yeji; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-11-01

    A 9-year-old intact female mixed breed dog was presented for mammary gland tumor surgery, and preoperative radiographs showed a tubular soft tissue opacity mass with multifocal mineralization in the caudoventral abdominal cavity. Subsequent ultrasonography demonstrated uterine dilation with echogenic fluid and endometrial acoustic shadowing consistent with mineralization. Resection of mammary gland tumors and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Pyometra was diagnosed on cytologic examination of uterine fluid. Histopathology of the uterine tissue confirmed a diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia with uterine mineralization. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  16. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  17. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevernage, Jan; Hens, Bart; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The current study reports on supersaturation, precipitation and excipient mediated precipitation inhibition of five poorly soluble drugs (loviride, glibenclamide, itraconazole, danazol, and etravirine) in human and simulated gastric fluids. Upon induction of supersaturation in human gastric fluids (HGFs), simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) using a solvent shift method, supersaturation and precipitation were assessed as a function of time. In addition, the precipitation inhibitory capacity of three polymers (Eudragit® E PO, HPMC-E5, and PVP K25) was investigated. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids was observed for all model compounds, but proved to be relatively unstable (fast precipitation), except for itraconazole. Only modest excipient-mediated stabilizing effects on supersaturation were observed using HPMC-E5 and Eudragit® E PO whereas PVP K25 exerted no effect. In contrast to SGF, the observed precipitation behavior in FaSSGF was similar to the behavior in human gastric fluids. The present study demonstrates that supersaturation stability of drugs in human gastric fluids is in general inferior to supersaturation stability in intestinal fluids. As the potential for excipient mediated precipitation inhibition in gastric fluids was only limited, our data suggest that supersaturation should preferably be targeted to the intestine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  19. Assessing and documenting fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnington, Sarah; Ingleby, Sarah; Hanumapura, Prasanna; Waring, Deryn

    2016-12-07

    Concerns about inadequate patient hydration and suboptimal monitoring of fluid balance have been documented in recent reports. The Fluid Balance Improvement Project at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to identify risk factors influencing hydration and to implement a revised process to manage these risks, resulting in the development of a hydration pathway. This new approach to monitoring patient hydration, together with staff education and support, has resulted in improved compliance with fluid balance monitoring standards, as well as significant improvements in identifying patients at risk of dehydration, and an increase in patients with acute kidney injury commencing appropriate fluid balance monitoring.

  20. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S

    2003-01-01

    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  1. Supercritical fluid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  2. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  3. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-01-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite ra...

  4. Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruholla Jafari-Marandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA has been one of the most popular methods for many challenging optimization problems when exact approaches are too computationally expensive. A review of the literature shows extensive research attempting to adapt and develop the standard GA. Nevertheless, the essence of GA which consists of concepts such as chromosomes, individuals, crossover, mutation, and others rarely has been the focus of recent researchers. In this paper method, Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA, some of these concepts are changed, removed, and furthermore, new concepts are introduced. The performance of GA and FGA are compared through seven benchmark functions. FGA not only shows a better success rate and better convergence control, but it can be applied to a wider range of problems including multi-objective and multi-level problems. Also, the application of FGA for a real engineering problem, Quadric Assignment Problem (AQP, is shown and experienced.

  5. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  6. Hydrocele fluid: Can it be used for immunodiagnosis of lymphatic filariasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis using serum has been established but the utility of hydrocele fluid for the purpose is not exactly known. Since, hydrocele is a chronic form of the disease manifestation in a variety of situations and often poses difficulty in diagnosing its origin, we have evaluated the usefulness usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filarial origin of hydrocele in this study. Methods: Paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 51 individuals with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti were assessed. Circulating filarial antigen, filarial specific antibody and cytokine assay were performed in both serum and hydrocele fluid of patients. Results: Og4C3 assay detected circulating filarial antigen (CFA in serum and corresponding hydrocele fluids. The level of IgG, IFN-γ and IL-10 were found to be high in CFA-negative, while IgM and IgE were high in CFApositive hydrocele fluid and serum samples associated with hydrocele. On the other hand neither CFA-positive nor CFA-negative hydrocele fluid and serum samples associated with hydrocele showed any difference in IgG4 level. Interpretation & conclusion: This study showed that the filaria related antigens and antibodies found in serum can be detected with equal sensitivity in hydrocele fluid. Therefore, it can be used as an alternative to serum for immunodiagnosis of filariasis, and help monitoring the filarisis elimination programme.

  7. Results and Pitfalls in Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lillian Y. F.; Dubin, Elyse C.; Kerenyi, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Since 1969, we have cultured over 200 diagnostic amniotic fluids. Of these, 183 were for cytogenetic diagnosis. The chromosome analysis was successful in 168 cases. The indications and the results of the affected fetuses (followed by therapeutic abortion) are: (1) previous child with Down's syndrome: 62 cases (1:47,XX,+21); (2) advanced maternal age: 54 cases (1:47,XXY; 1:45,X/46,XY mosaicism; 1:47,+18); (3) previous child with multiple anomalies: 12 cases; (4) previous child with 47,XY,+18 or 47,+13: five cases; (5) translocation carrier: two cases; (6) parental mosaicism: three cases; (7) X-linked disorders: six cases (3:XY); (8) others: 24 cases. We have found firstly, that for prenatal sex determination, karyotype analysis of the cultured amniotic fluid cells is the only accurate means and that caution must be taken if sex chromatin and Y-fluorescent body determination from the uncultured amniotic fluid cells is used. Secondly, that diagnosis of chromosomal mosaicism can be problematic as exemplified by our case of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, where only 45,X cells were recovered from the first culture. Thirdly, that in cases with enlarged satellites, cells of late prophase or early metaphase must be used to eliminate confusion with translocations. We encountered three cases of enlarged satellites—one in the D group and two in the G group—and all three resulted in normal infants. Fourthly, that the karyotype may be altered by contamination and/or treatment or other unknown factors. We have observed two such cases where each mother delivered a normal infant. Images PMID:4268389

  8. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    of the methods used in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle biopsy is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool in the evaluation of muscle disease. However, experience has shown that relying solely on visualizing a periodic acid-Schiff-positive vacuolar myopathy...... will improve patient outcomes as care standards including enzyme replacement therapy can be applied and complications can be anticipated. Increased awareness of the clinical phenotype of Pompe disease is therefore warranted to expedite diagnostic screening for this condition with blood-based enzymatic assays.......The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some...

  9. Hints for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy requires responses to two important questions: Does the patient have a food allergy? If so, which foods will elicit allergic symptoms? The first question will most often have to be answered following a physical examination and an interview with the patient and....../or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis...... is highly important in selecting which tests and, ultimately, oral food challenges the patient should undergo to reach the final diagnosis. For the diagnosing doctor, it is important to know and consider the regional pattern of inhalation and food allergies, the food consumption patterns in the local...

  10. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  11. [Polar body diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; van der Ven, H

    2009-01-01

    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. The paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis by blastomere biopsy. The fast development in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence PBD and probably allow a more general diagnosis in the future.

  12. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  13. Diagnosis of acute neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subacute polyneuropathies present diagnostic challenges since many require prompt initiation of treatment in order to limit axonal degeneration and since an exact and detailed diagnosis is a prerequisite for making the correct choice of treatment. It is for instance of utmost importance...... to recognize whether the underlying pathological changes are due to demyelination or to axonal degeneration and electrodiagnostic tests can thus in most cases contribute considerably to the securing of an exact diagnosis. The specific and characteristic electrophysiological findings in the different types...

  14. An excluded diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghiringhelli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 50-years-old patient with septic fever of unidentifiable source, following resection for rectal adenocarcinoma. He has been in treatment for sepsi two months before. Blood coltures, an accurate amanestic analysis and a transesophageal echocardiography were the major tools for the diagnosis of this disease. After the diagnosis of infective endocarditis had been excluded, antibiotic treatment (with teicoplanin and rifampicine was given for the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The previous pacemaker system was removed and a DDD pacemaker was implanted.

  15. Quantitative determination of cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin on a high throughput chemistry analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Said Ahmed, Degmo

    2009-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a condition with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The diagnosis requires an urgent cerebral computed tomography scan and also a lumbar puncture if the scan fails to demonstrate intracranial blood. In Sweden the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is analyzed by spectrophotometric scanning for the presence of hemoglobin and bilirubin. The aim of the study was to develop a quantitative diazo reagent based analysis of cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin as a replaceme...

  16. Diagnosis of periodontal diseases: reaction paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M J

    1991-12-01

    With the recent description of 12 different forms and sub-forms of periodontitis by the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics (1989), increased emphasis has been placed on diagnosis. Dr. Ranney's review addressed the specificity and sensitivity of current diagnostic tests with respect to their ability to differentiate between health and disease and between the individual disease states. Although considerable microbiologic and immunologic data have been accumulated in the past decade, very little of this information has proved to be sufficiently sensitive to be of use in differential diagnosis. Clinical measurements provide us with an insensitive, retrospective analysis of what has already occurred but allow us to diagnose disease based on its natural history. Measures of attachment levels, by use of conventional probes, are only sufficiently sensitive indicators of periodontitis when as much as 20-30% of attachment has already been lost. Current technological improvements in probing measurements and radiographic assessment may increase sensitivity in this area. Future improvements in diagnostic techniques will occur with the advent of sensitive biochemical analyses of gingival crevicular fluid. These assays will provide a more objective analysis of inflammation and, in time, will provide sufficient sensitivity to allow for differentiation between and among the various forms of periodontal disease. Future directions in diagnosis will focus on the identification of disease-susceptible individuals and the prediction of future periodontal breakdown.

  17. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  18. Thermomolecular Orientation of Nonpolar Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, F.; Bresme, F.; Muscatello, J.; Bedeaux, D.; Rubi, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the response of molecular fluids to temperature gradients. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations we show that nonpolar diatomic fluids adopt a preferred orientation as a response to a temperature gradient. We find that the magnitude of this thermomolecular orien

  19. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  20. Prehospital fluid resuscitation in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raum, M. R.; Waydhas, C.

    2009-01-01

    The indications for and type and amount of fluid resuscitation for trauma patients in the field remains highly controversial. There is unanimity, however, that trauma victims may suffer from acute blood loss. In addition to stopping the bleeding fluid resuscitation is the second mainstay in shock th

  1. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  2. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  3. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  4. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  5. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    2000-02-01

    First published in 1967, Professor Batchelor's classic work is still one of the foremost texts on fluid dynamics. His careful presentation of the underlying theories of fluids is still timely and applicable, even in these days of almost limitless computer power. This reissue ensures that a new generation of graduate students experiences the elegance of Professor Batchelor's writing.

  6. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000112.htm Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features on ... at Home When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ...

  7. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  8. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  9. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How to make a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis. ... stability - the functional joint unit. It is ... strength. The matrix of the cartilage is formed by the chondrocytes which are ... one gets, and will affect about 80% of citizens over the age of 65. Other risk ... When is the pain maximal? .... braces, canes and physical therapy with.

  10. Differential diagnosis diphtheria adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Liashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,824 human cases of diphtheria, treated at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital SP Botkin (St. Petersburg during 1993, as well as 19 deaths in 1994. It is known that early diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially diphtheria, contributes to the favorable outcome of the disease. The diagnosis of diphtheria at the prehospital stage is always difficult. Presented in detail the differential diagnosis of the disease, clinically similar to diphtheria: Lacunal angina, angina Simanovsky, infectious mononucleosis, angina Ludwig’s angina Dugue, syphilis, non-infectious with clinical «masks» of diphtheria and other. Diphtheria epidemic of 1993–1994 in Russia and, in particular, in St. Petersburg, showed that the late admission of patients with diphtheria infection in hospitals, usually associated with irregular differential diagnosis of this dangerous disease.

  11. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  12. [The diagnosis of death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Goic, Alejandro; Lavados, Manuel; Quintana, Carlos; Rojas, Alberto; Serani, Alejandro; Vacarezza, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the scientific criteria used in the diagnosis of death and underscores the importance of intellectual rigor in the definition of medical concepts, particularly regarding such a critical issue as the diagnosis of death. Under the cardiorespiratory criterion, death is defined as "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", and the tests used to confirm this criterion (negative life-signs) are sensitive and specific. In this case, cadaverous phenomena appear immediately following the diagnosis of death. On the other hand, doubts have arisen concerning the theoretical and the inner consistency of the criterion of brain death, since it does not satisfy the definition of "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", nor the requirement of "total and irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem". There is evidence to the effect that the tests used to confirm this criterion are not specific enough. It is clear that brain death marks the beginning of a process that eventually ends in death, though death does not occur at that moment. From an ethical point of view, the conflict arises between the need to provide an unequivocal diagnosis of death and the possibility of saving a life through organ transplantation. The sensitive issue of brain death calls for a more thorough and in-depth discussion among physicians and the community at large.

  13. Multi-Disciplinary Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Gilbert B.

    The diagnosis of severely retarded pupils as an interdisciplinary concern is discussed. Descriptions of the severe reading disability syndrome given by various disciplines are presented under the following headings: Neurological Factors--minimal brain damage, lateral dominance; Physical Factors--endocrine and metabolic disorders, optical and…

  14. [Urticaria: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, A; Francès, C

    2014-09-01

    Urticaria is a common inflammatory skin disease. It is clinically defined as the occurrence of transient papular skin and/or mucosal lesions or subcutaneous lesions called angioedema. Chronic urticaria is defined as a clinical course over more than 6weeks. Different clinical forms of urticaria can coexist in the same patient. Urticaria results of mast cell activation. The diagnosis of urticaria is based on clinical examination. An allergic etiology for acute urticaria, although rare, is always to find and remove. Chronic urticaria is not allergic. Diagnosis is based on questioning and a careful clinical examination to rule out differential diagnoses. Few diagnostic tests are necessary for diagnosis and management, and are especially useful in case of doubtful diagnosis. The treatment of urticaria is symptomatic and based on anti-H1 second generation antihistamines as first-line therapy. In some chronic urticarial, antihistamines up dosing may be necessary. In the majority of patients, this treatment is sufficient to control chronic urticaria. In case of antihistamines failure, other treatment particularly immunomodulatory treatments can be offered in specialized departments.

  15. Diagnostic Relevance of microRNAs in Other Body Fluids Including Urine, Feces, and Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaz, Ivan; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Beside blood-borne circulating miRNAs, miRNAs have been identified in other body fluid and excrements including stool, bile, saliva, and urine. Given the direct link of these body fluids to certain organs, their analysis for potential diagnostic miRNA markers is plausible. Several independent findings underline the potential utility of stool-derived miRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Given the difficulties in the diagnosis of cholangiocellular cancer, biliary miRNAs might be envisaged as useful markers. Several miRNAs have been identified in the saliva that could be associated with diseases, including tumors of the oral cavity. The urinary pool of miRNAs could be exploited for the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases and some appear to enable early diagnosis. In this chapter, we present findings supporting the potential diagnostic utility of fecal, biliary, salivary, and urinary miRNAs focusing mostly on tumors.

  16. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  17. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  18. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  19. Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Children by Reagent Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Farahmand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dipstick tests (leukocyte esterase and nitrite in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP in cirrhotic patients. Forty six children with ascites hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 in Children Medical Center were enrolled in this study. Reagent strip assays for leukocyte esterase and nitrite were performed on ascetic fluid and the results were compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a polymorphonuclear ascites count of ≥ 250/mm3. Twenty children were female and twenty six were male with mean age of 3±3.9 years. The sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were all 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strip test were 100%, 97%, 90% and 100% respectively. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for the diagnosis of SBP.

  20. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  1. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  2. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinicall...

  4. Subretinal Fluid Drainage and Vitrectomy Are Helpful in Diagnosing and Treating Eyes with Advanced Coats' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Imaizumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of Coats’ disease are often associated with total retinal detachment, and a differential diagnosis from retinoblastoma is critically important. In such eyes, laser- and/or cryoablation is often ineffective or sometimes impossible to perform. We report a case of advanced Coats’ disease in which a rapid pathological examination of subretinal fluid was effective for the diagnosis, and external subretinal drainage combined with vitrectomy was effective in preserving the eye.

  5. Antenatal diagnosis of a Morgagni hernia in the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Krishan Kumar; Sen, Jyotsna; Rathee, Suresh Kanta; Saini, Jitender

    2008-02-01

    Morgagni hernia is an uncommon type of congenital hernia that is rarely diagnosed antenatally. Herniation of the liver into the fluid-filled pericardial sac resulting in a thoracic mass is a particularly rare form of Morgagni hernia; only 3 cases have been reported in the literature, all with a diagnosis made at 32 weeks' gestation or later. We report a case of Morgagni hernia diagnosed on antenatal sonography at 24 weeks' gestation.

  6. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, D; Heukels-Dully, M J

    1977-01-01

    Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-hypoxanthine incorporation in small numbers of amniotic fluid cells cultured on coverslips is a rapid and practical technique in the prenatal diagnosis of the Lesch-Nyhan mutation. An affected male fetus, a normal male fetus, and a heterozygous female fetus were identified within 14 days after amniocentesis in three pregancies at risk for the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Images PMID:856956

  7. Diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis with Bedside Ultrasound: the STAFF Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Castleberg; Natasa Jenson; Vi Am Dinh

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis is often ambiguous. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, while sensitive and specific modalities, are often time consuming or unavailable. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis that was rapidly diagnosed using bedside ultrasound evaluating for subcutaneous thickening, air, and fascial fluid (STAFF). We propose the STAFF ultrasound exam may be beneficial in the rapid evaluation of unstable patients with consideration of necrotizi...

  8. Assessment of the relationship between drowning and fluid accumulation in the paranasal sinuses on post-mortem computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Kawabata, Tomoyoshi; Sugai, Yusuke [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miho, E-mail: meifan58@m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Recent reports have detailed common computed tomography (CT) findings in drowning victims, most notably fluid accumulation in the maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. This CT finding could help forensic doctors to diagnose drowning. This study retrospectively investigated 151 subjects: 39 drowning and 112 non-drowning cases. Pearson's chi-square tests demonstrated that fluid accumulation in the maxillary or sphenoidal sinuses was associated significantly with drowning (p = 0.0001). The sensitivity of the drowning diagnosis was 97%, specificity was 35%, accuracy was 51%, positive predictive value was 34% and negative predictive value was 98%. Drowning was significantly associated with fluid accumulation in the maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses, but the specificity and positive predictive value of the drowning diagnosis were poor. Although the presence of fluid in the maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses cannot be used to diagnose drowning, the absence of the fluid can be used to virtually exclude drowning.

  9. Elementwise Business Diagnosis of Enterprise Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents methodological and indicator apparatus for elementwise business diagnosis of enterprise activity directed at achieving such elementwise diagnostic objectives: diagnosis of return on assets; diagnosis of return on equity capital; diagnosis of production profitability; diagnosis of gross profit margin of product sales; diagnosis of operating margin of product sales; diagnosis of net margin of product sales; diagnosis of absolute liquidity; diagnosis of instant liquidity; diagnosis of overall liquidity; diagnosis of coverage; diagnosis of financial independence; diagnosis of equity capital maneuverability; diagnosis of financial leverage; diagnosis of the long-term investment structure; diagnosis of accounts payable turnover; diagnosis of the accounts payable repayment period, diagnosis of receivables turnover; diagnosis of receivables repayment period; diagnosis of assets turnover; diagnosis of inventories turnover; diagnosis of the inventories turnover period; diagnosis of equity capital turnover; diagnosis of fixed assets turnover (return on assets; diagnosis of capital coefficient; diagnosis of the ratio of output value to the materials cost; diagnosis of material consumption; diagnosis of the total production cost; diagnosis of enterprise market share; diagnosis of fixed assets wear; diagnosis of fixed assets renewal; diagnosis of fixed assets retirement; performance diagnosis; diagnosis of labor intensity, diagnosis of the capital-labour ratio; diagnosis of efficiency; diagnosis of conducting the business; diagnosis of business relations; diagnosis of administrative-legal relations; diagnosis of knowledge management. The elementwise diagnostic objectives of the enterprise system of diagnostic objectives are aimed at a narrow highly detailed diagnostics of individual indicators of the enterprise activity, i.e. the evaluation of specific analytical indicators,monitoring (research of their dynamics, comparison of the planned

  10. DNA-based prenatal diagnosis for severe and variant forms of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Andresen, Brage S; Christensen, Ernst;

    2005-01-01

    , prenatal diagnosis of MADD has relied mostly on second-trimester biochemical analyses of amniotic fluid or cultured amniocytes. We report here on an alternative DNA-based approach for prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies at risk of MADD. METHODS: We used our knowledge of the mutational status in three...

  11. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-15

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  12. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  13. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C-O-H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds containing syngenetic inclusions were synthesized in multi-anvil presses employing starting mixtures of carbonates, and silicate compositions in the presence of pure water and saline fluids (H2O-NaCl). Experiments were performed at conditions compatible with the Earth's geotherm (7 GPa, 1300-1400 °C). Results show that within the timescale of the experiments (6 to 30 h) diamond growth occurs if water and carbonates are present in the fluid phase. Water promotes faster diamond growth (up to 14 mm/year at 1400 °C, 7 GPa, 10 g/l NaCl), which is favorable to the inclusion trapping process. At 7 GPa, temperature and fluid composition are the main factors controlling diamond growth. In these experiments, diamonds grew in the presence of two fluids: an aqueous fluid and a hydrous silicate melt. The carbon source for diamond growth must be carbonate (CO32) dissolved in the melt or carbon dioxide species in the aqueous fluid (CO2aq). The presence of NaCl affects the growth kinetics but is not a prerequisite for inclusion-bearing diamond formation. The presence of small discrete or isolated volumes of water-rich fluids is necessary to grow inclusion-bearing peridotitic, eclogitic, fibrous, cloudy and coated diamonds, and may also be involved in the growth of ultradeep, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic diamonds.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; ZHANG Yun-feng; TIAN Xin

    2008-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage is studied with subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme.The passage is formed with two parallel panels,one is risid and the other is flexible.The interaction between fluid flows and flexible panel is numerically studied,mainly focused on the effect of dynamic pressure and distance between two parallel panels.Subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme is utihzed to combine the vibration and fluid analysis and to stabilize long-term calculations to get accurate resuhs.It's demonstrated that the flutter characteristic of flexible panel is more complex with the increase of dynamic pressure and the decrease of distance between two parallel panels.Via analyzing the propagation and reflection of disturbance in passage,it's determined as a main cause of the variations.

  15. Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...

  16. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  17. Update on the diagnosis of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Joshua; Luraschi-Monjagatta, Carmen; Wolk, Donna M; Thompson, R; Hage, Chadi A; Knox, Kenneth S

    2014-02-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwest United States, Mexico, and South America. The disease has seen a marked increase in incidence in the western United States in the last decade and can be acquired by individuals who travel even briefly through an endemic area, presenting a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians who are not familiar with the disease. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis often mimic those of other causes of pneumonia. However, because treatment recommendations and the potential for chronic sequelae of acute infection differ substantially from those for bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, accurate, timely diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is paramount. A number of diagnostic tests are available with varying sensitivity and specificity, making the approach complex. Radiographic features, although nonspecific, sometimes demonstrate patterns more suggestive of coccidioidomycosis than bacterial community-acquired pneumonias. A routine blood count may reveal eosinophilia. Serologic testing is used most widely but may be negative early in the course of disease, potentially leading to misdiagnosis with subsequent inappropriate treatment and follow-up. The sensitivity of serologic testing is lower in immunocompromised patients, a population at the highest risk for developing severe disease. When clinically appropriate, other biologic specimens, such as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or lung biopsies, may allow for rapid, definitive diagnosis. In light of the significantly increased incidence and complexities in diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, we examine the diagnostic approach and provide examples of classic clinical and radiographic presentations, discuss the utility of serologic testing, and suggest algorithms that may aid in the diagnosis.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of meningitis using reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Ramesh

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Identification of causative agent with estimation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF glucose, protein, cells is necessary for accurate diagnosis of meningitis. Unfortunately, even these facilities are not available in many areas. Reagent strips that measure glucose and protein in blood and urine can serve this task but have been used with varying results in the past. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility and efficacy of Combur 10 strips in the diagnosis of meningitis. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND METHODS: A prospective clinical single blinded study of 63 children suspected to have meningitis undergoing CSF analysis. Each CSF sample was divided in to two and was utilised for reagent strip analysis in addition to standard laboratory evaluation and a correlation analysis were made. Statistical Method used: Results were analysed using standard statistical tests. Accuracy of the reagent strips as a screening tool was established using Godyn′s test. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of meningitis was 97.14%, 96.42%. The sensitivity, specificity for tuberculous meningitis and bacterial meningitis were 100%, and 96.55%. That for the aseptic meningitis was 70% and 96.55%. Accuracy for the diagnosis of meningitis as a whole, bacterial meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, and aseptic meningitis were 96.78%, 98.2%, 98.27% and 83.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: Combur10 strips thus can be used for the rapid CSF analysis and screening with good accuracy. In situations where facilities of routine laboratory testing are not available this can be of an immense help.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  20. Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh

    Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.

  1. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  2. [Dementia: clinic and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, C J

    2001-12-01

    Decline of the cognitive functions necessary for activities of daily living results in a spectrum ranging from benign forgetfulness and minimal cognitive impairment to dementia. The latter is characterized by personality and behavioral changes. Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia affecting almost one of two people older than 80 years. Lewy body and cerebrovascular disease are also frequent causes of cognitive decline. Recent studies have revealed genetic aspects of Alzheimer's disease and the role of certain enzymes in the pathophysiology of fibrillary amyloid deposition. The aim in cognitive disease is an early diagnosis to initiate therapy and adapting measures in the patient's daily routines. The diagnosis is basically clinical with neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests' support. The EEG, SPECT, LP and other studies are only useful in a few specific scenarios. At present, a few promising therapies are being evaluated. Family support is of vital importance.

  3. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  4. Psychological diagnosis in sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, R

    2003-01-01

    The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.

  5. Diagnosis and management of relapsing pancreatitis associated with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William R Brugge

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important causes of relapsing pancreatitis is a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.These low grade malignancies may cause pancreatitis by obstructing or communicating with a pancreatic duct.Patients with relapsing pancreatitis and a focal fluid fluid collection should be investigated for the possibility of a mucinous cystic neoplasm.Cross sectional imaging can provide a diagnosis with the imaging findings of a low attenuation cystic lesion containing mural calcification (CT scanning) or a Iobular T2 enhancing lesion (MRCP).Endoscopic ultrasound can provide more detailed imaging with the ability to guide fine needle aspiration of the cyst fluid.Cyst fluid analysis can provide a diagnosis of a mucinous cystic lesion with the combination of cytology (mucinous epithelium),elevated carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA),and the presence of DNA mutations.Management of these patients consists of surgical resection and monitoring in patients not able to withstand surgery.

  6. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  7. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  8. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  9. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  10. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  11. OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文楠

    2003-01-01

    A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.

  12. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  13. Intrasphenoid cephalocele: MRI in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, King`s Coll. Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Al Sarraj, S. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The intrasphenoid form of basal cephalocele is uncommon. We describe the clinical, CT and MRI findings in two cases presenting in middle age with persistent cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea. Emphasis is placed upon the imaging findings which aid in discrimination of intrasphenoidal cephalocele from more common causes of a sphenoid sinus mass. (orig.)

  14. [Diagnosis of hereditary angioedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillet, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare disease, potentially life-threatening. It requires a specific treatment. Angioedema without wheals associated with abdominal attacks are very specific of this disease. Antigenemy and functional C1Inhibitor assays are necessary for the diagnosis. The hereditary angioedema with normal C1Inh (type III) is a diagnostic challenge. Bradykinin, secondary to kallikrein-kinin system activation is the key mediator of hereditary angioedema. Female are more symptomatic. Attacks can be induced by menstruations, pregnancies or contraceptive pills.

  15. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  16. CT differentiation of abscess and non-infected fluid in the postoperative neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Dae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: evee0914@chollian.net; Kim, Sam Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Young-Soo; Chung, Eun-Jae [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Ilsong Memorial Inst. of Head and Neck Cancer, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Joong Sik; Lee, Jin Seo [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of infectious disease, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Background: Differentiation of postoperative neck abscess from non-infected fluid is important because the treatment is different. Purpose: To determine specific CT findings that might help to differentiate abscesses from non-infected fluid collections in the postoperative neck. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 50 patients (43 men and 7 women; mean age, 62.5 {+-} 8.9 years) who had postoperative fluid collections in the neck (26 abscesses and 24 non-infected fluid collections). Diagnosis of an abscess was determined by a positive bacteria culture from the fluid collection. Diagnoses were correlated with the following CT findings: anatomic spaces involved, the maximum transverse diameter, margin, attenuation, rim enhancement, gas bubbles, and manifestations of soft tissue adjacent to a fluid collection. Results: Rim enhancement pattern and soft tissue manifestations showed significant differences between abscess and non-infected fluid. The reliable CT findings for abscess were: (i) rim enhancement > 50% of the circumference, 54% sensitive, 71% specific, and 62% accurate; and (ii) severe soft tissue manifestations, 39% sensitive, 92% specific, and 64% accurate. There were no significant differences in the anatomic spaces involved, the maximum transverse diameter, margin, attenuation, and gas bubbles between abscess and non-infected fluid. Conclusion: CT findings that may help differentiate postoperative neck abscess from non-infected fluid were rim enhancement > 50% of the circumference and severe soft tissue manifestations.

  17. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  18. FINANCIAL DIAGNOSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial diagnosis is a part of a company’s general diagnosis. The role of the financial diagnosis is to establish the situation of the company at a given time, to see if it is viable, to help the decision-makers to take the best measures to continue or cease the activity, or to sell, buy or liquidate the company. Each entity is unique and arbitrarily applying some analysis models used by other companies can lead to significant errors. One cannot analyze in the same way a company that produces household products and a trade company. In the first one, the working capital must be positive, because permanent capitals must finance the fixed assets which have a high value, and the working capital will finance the operating cycle. In case of a trade company, a negative working capital might represent a positive activity, because the duration of the operating cycle is much shorter, and short term sources can also finance the company’s tangible assets.

  19. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  20. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common ambulatory problems to occur in women. It is a disorder responsible for > 10% of visits made to providers of women's health care. Although vaginal infections are the most common cause, other considerations include cervicitis, a normal vaginal discharge, foreign-body vaginitis, contact vaginitis, atrophic vaginitis, and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. The medical history and examination are an important source of clues to the underlying diagnosis. However, making a definitive diagnosis requires skillful performance of office laboratory procedures, including the vaginal pool wet mount examination, determination of the vaginal pH, and the whiff test. Vaginal and cervical cultures, nucleic acid tests, and point-of-care tests are available and may be required in selected patients. Once a specific diagnosis is made, effective therapy can be prescribed. Candida vaginitis is generally treated with either the vaginal administration of an imidazole or triazole antifungal agent or the prescription of oral fluconazole. Oral nitroimidazole agents, metronidazole or tinidazole, are the only effective treatments for trichomoniasis in the United States. Bacterial vaginosis, which has been linked to important gynecologic and pregnancy complications, can be treated with an available oral or topical agent containing either a nitroimidazole or clindamycin.