WorldWideScience

Sample records for fluid power tokyo

  1. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  2. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

  4. Photovoltaic power system field test program at Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, sporting facilities in a standard district; Tokyo Hikarigaoka taiyoko hatsuden system field test jigyo (hyojun chiku no sports shisetsu) Tokyo Hikarigaoka sports shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Y. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-30

    The photovoltaic power systems were installed in September in FY1994 in Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, and the field tests have been conducted, to investigate applicability of the system to sporting facilities. Described herein are the results of the field tests conducted in FY1995, following those in FY1994, for its demonstrated applicability. The sporting facilities are very large in scale, having a 24-story office building, a 2-story building for sporting facilities, a 6-story hotel building and a common and large-space atrium. The photovoltaic system, installed on the 2-story building, provides power for various purposes, including illumination, air-conditioning and driving various devices. It is integrated into a low-voltage line of 20kW with reverse flow. It produces a maximum output of 21.45kWp, the array consisting of 15 (series) by 22 (parallel) single-crystalline modules, directed to due south at an elevation angle of 20{degree}. If demonstrated commercially viable, a photovoltaic power system can be integrated into a building adjacent to an office building in the planning stage, to greatly reduce the construction cost. The photovoltaic power systems have good PR effects, because a total of approximately 160,000 people can annually use the sporting facilities, including the office and hotel, and there are Hikarigaoka apartment complex (having 38,000 residents) and 50,000 local residents around the sporting facilities.

  5. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  6. Getting Lost in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lucas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential for using alternative forms of inscriptive practice to describe the urban space of the Tokyo Subway. I begin with an account of the process of getting lost in Shinjuku Subway Station in the heart of Tokyo. This station represents a limit condition of place, being dense and complex beyond the powers of traditional architectural representation. The station is explored through serial translations, beginning with narrative, moving to a flowchart diagram, Laban dance notation, recurring motifs and archetypes, architectural drawing, photography, and cartography. As Claudia Brodsky Lacour and Tim Ingold describe, the form our inscriptive practices take are crucial to the ways in which we conceptualise those places. How much of the experience of a place is lost in the traditional inscriptive practices of the architect? This description of the urban space of the Tokyo subway forms the basis for an extended study exploring the description of this experience of place, and the power of such description to theorise space. The ultimate aim of this is to shift the focus of urban design away from geometric principles and towards the experiences that might be enjoyed in such places.

  7. Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per

    In fluid power engineering, efficiency and reliability optimization have become a major objective. The interest in using fluid power transmission in wind and wave energy applications are producing requirements concerning efficiency and reliability in order to compete with other transmission systems...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...

  8. Photovoltaic power generation field test at Hikarigaoka. Sporting facility in a standard district; Hikarigaoka Sporting Facility (Nerima Ward, Tokyo); Tokyo Hikarigaoka taiyoko hatsuden system field test jigyo (hyojun chiku no sports shisetsu). Tokyo Hikarigaoka sports shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Y. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-30

    A 20kW photovoltaic power generation system is mounted on the rooftop of the Hikarigaoka sporting facility building belonging in the large complex J-City consisting of an office building, hotel building, large-space atrium for common use, and the said sporting facility building. The power generated by the system is connected to the power distribution system for the facility, and is supplied to air conditioners, power-driven equipment, and lighting systems in the sporting facility building. Verification is carried out of the compatibility and stability of the photovoltaic power generation system as applied to meet the above-said purposes, and data are collected. In fiscal 1996, a protective glass pane was broken in a solar cell panel, but the operation was not affected and the field test was conducted smoothly. The glass was broken when a tiny defect produced in the manufacturing process grew larger due to thermal stress in the sunshine for the eventual breakdown. When a system is to be installed, upon verification of its practicability, in a building to be built in a place wherein plural buildings exist adjacent to each other, the system installation plan may be incorporated into the building as early as in its construction planning process, and this will reduce the system constructing cost. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Tokyo / Karin Thea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karin, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Tokyo vaatamisväärtused: Sky Tree teletorn, Takeshita Dori jalakäijate tänav, Asakusa linnaosa, The Gate Hotel, Tokyo metroo, Ryogoku Kokugikan, Nippon Kasgaku Miraikan ning Jaapani suurim kalaturg Tsukiji

  10. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2017-01-03

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided by a cavitating venturi that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated.

  11. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  12. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  13. Corner Flow of Power Law Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P.; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    A local analysis of the flow of power law fluids near corners is performed. The equation for the stream function is shown to allow separated solutions in plane polar coordinates. The radial behavior is shown to be algebraic and results are given for the exponent for different values of corner ang...

  14. Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article...

  15. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  16. The Tokyo axion helioscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, R., E-mail: comic@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Akimoto, Y. [School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizumoto, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Namba, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takasu, Y. [Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    The Tokyo Axion Helioscope experiment aims to detect axions which are produced in the solar core. The helioscope uses a strong magnetic field in order to convert axions into X-ray photons and has a mounting to follow the sun very accurately. The photons are detected by an X-ray detector which is made of 16 PIN-photodiodes. In addition, a gas container and a gas regulation system are adopted for recovering the coherence between axions and photons in the conversion region giving sensitivity to axions with masses up to 2 eV. In this paper, we report on the technical detail of the Tokyo Axion Helioscope.

  17. Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power

  18. Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power

  19. Challenges with Tertiary-Level Mechatronic Fluid Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dransfield, Peter; Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    As authors we take the view that mechatronics, as it relates to fluid power, has three levels which we designate as primary, secondary and tertiary. A brief review of the current status of fluid power, hydraulic and pneumatic, and of electronic control of it is presented and discussed. The focus...... is then on tertiary-level mechatronic fluid power and the challenges to it being applied successfully....

  20. Numerical Study of Plasma-Fluid Behavior and Generation Characteristics of the Closed Loop MHD Electrical Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Jun; Liberati, Alessandro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    Time dependent r-z two-dimensional numerical simulations with LES technique have been carried out in order to clarify the plasma fluid behavior and power generation characteristics of the disk MHD generator under the rated operation conditions demonstrated in the closed loop experimental facility at Tokyo Tech. The generator currently installed could suffer from the non-uniform and low electrical conductivity, and the boundary layer separation even under the rated operation conditions. The large amount of generated electric power is consumed in the boundary layer separation region, which reduces a net output power. Reducing the back pressure and improving the inlet plasma conditions surely provide the higher generator performance. The influence of 90 degree bend downstream duct on the generator performance is found to be not marked.

  1. Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-12-01

    The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.

  2. Multi functionele gebouwcomplexen in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijnsbergen, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes eight Multi Uses Complexes in Tokyo. All these buildings combine work, living, leisure and parking. In the first part of the study, there is a historical view of Tokyo concerning the infra-structure of the city. Important is that the city has still the same street pattern

  3. Optical monitoring for power law fluids during spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, P L G; Michels, A F; Horowitz, F

    2012-01-30

    Optical monitoring is applied, in situ and in real time, to non-newtonian, power law fluids in the spin coating process. An analytical exact solution is presented for thickness evolution that well fits to most measurement data. As result, typical rheological parameters are obtained for several CMC (carboximetilcelullose) concentrations and rotation speeds. Optical monitoring thus precisely indicates applicability of the model to power law fluids under spin coating.

  4. Self-Powered Magnetothermal Fluid Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in the capabilities of electronics have enabled high power density devices. However, even in light of advances in electronics efficiency figures, the...

  5. "Ruudi" võitis Tokyos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" (stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe) sai Tokyo 14. lastefilmide festivalil Kodomotachino parima mängufilmi auhinna

  6. Hydraulic fluid used for power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, M.; Pikulinsky, K.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    In early October another 50-kilowatt wind turbine was provided with new power transmission technology at the Kopparnaes Energy Park in Inkoo, Finland, west of Helsinki. The new technology is thought to make this wind turbine located on the south coast of Finland more efficient, lighter, and cheaper. Certain aspects of this new technology can be applied to older wind turbines. (orig.)

  7. Hydraulic fluid used for power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, M.; Pikulinsky, K.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    In early October another 50-kilowatt wind turbine was provided with new power transmission technology at the Kopparnaes Energy Park in Inkoo, Finland, west of Helsinki. The new technology is thought to make this wind turbine located on the south coast of Finland more efficient, lighter, and cheaper. Certain aspects of this new technology can be applied to older wind turbines. (orig.)

  8. Avoidance of Pressure Oscillations in Discrete Fluid Power Systems with Transmission Lines - An Analytical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power technology attracts great attention because it enables energy efficiency and robust system architectures. However, the discrete nature of this technology naturally brings shifting phenomenons into the picture. For fluid power system the relative high inductance of fluid...

  9. 46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and control... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control...

  10. Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2013-01-29

    United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology will evaluate and develop fundamental and component level models, conduct experiments and generate data to support the use of mixed or enhanced working fluids for geothermal power generation applications.

  11. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  12. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  13. Power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorin, Eva

    2000-05-01

    It is of great interest to improve the efficiency of power generating processes, i.e. to convert more of the energy in the heat source to power. This is favorable from an environmental point of view and can also be an economic advantage. To use an ammonia-water mixture instead of water as working fluid is a possible way to improve the efficiency of steam turbine processes. This thesis includes studies of power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid utilizing different kinds of heat sources for power and heat generation. The thermophysical properties of the mixture are also studied. They play an important role in the calculations of the process performance and for the design of its components, such as heat exchangers. The studies concern thermodynamic simulations of processes in applications suitable for Swedish conditions. Available correlations for the thermophysical properties are compared and their influence on simulations and heat exchanger area predictions is investigated. Measurements of ammonia-water mixture viscosities using a vibrating wire viscometer are also described. The studies performed show that power cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as the working fluid are well suited for utilization of waste heat from industry and from gas engines. The ammonia-water power cycles can give up to 32 % more power in the industrial waste heat application and up to 54 % more power in the gas engine bottoming cycle application compared to a conventional Rankine steam cycle. However, ammonia-water power cycles in small direct-fired biomass-fueled cogeneration plants do not show better performance than a conventional Rankine steam cycle. When different correlations for the thermodynamic properties are used in simulations of a simple ammonia-water power cycle the difference in efficiency is not larger than 4 %, corresponding to about 1.3 percentage points. The differences in saturation properties between the correlations are, however, considerable at high

  14. Present State and Future Developments in Mechatronics and it's Influence on Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This paper tries to sketch the outlines for the future of : Fluid Power Control under the influence of the rapid advances of computer hardware and software technologies. The influences, when they improve the performance of fluid power, are seen as a synergetic integration of fluid power...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or sample...

  16. Heat Transfer for Power Law Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lian-Cun; ZHANG Xin-Xin; LU Chun-Qing

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis for heat transfer in power law non-Newtonian fluid by assuming that the thermal diffusivity is a function of temperature gradient. The laminar boundary layer energy equation is considered as an example to illustrate the application. It is shown that the boundary layer energy equation subject to the corresponding boundary conditions can be transformed to a boundary value problem of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation when similarity variables are introduced. Numerical solutions of the similarity energy equation are presented.

  17. A new converter for improving efficiency of multi-actuators fluid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yong; Shang, JianZhong; Yang, JunHong; Wang Zhuo [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is concerned with the application of energy efficient fluid power in mobile robots system and proposes a new fluid power converter system which is analogous to a boost converter in power electronics. The fluid power converter system is based on the principle of pulse-width modulation. The fluid power converter has an effect akin to an electrical switched inductance transformer, wherein the output pressure or flow rate can be stepped up or down. Using an inductive reactance device (an inertia mass-block), the output flow and pressure can be varied to meet the load by a means that does not rely on dissipation of power (the resistance control). The simulation model based on the mathematics models of the components is built to analyse the performance of the fluid power converter. It is clearly shown that the fluid power converter has higher energy efficiency than conventional resistance control manners.

  18. Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

  19. Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)

  20. State of the Art Review on Theoretical Tribology of Fluid Power Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerimagic, Remzija; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years an increasing focus on efficiency and reliability in fluid power displacement machines has provided an incentive to study loss and wear mechanisms. One example is the hydrostatic fluid power transmission systems for wind and wave energy applications. The loss and wear...... mechanisms are mainly attributed to the tribological interfaces in fluid power machines. Consequently, optimization of efficiency and reliability of fluid power machines imply considerations of tribological interface design. The majority of the work done by researchers and engineers on the study of loss...... and wear mechanisms in the lubricating gaps in fluid power machines is confined to simulation models, as experimental treatments of these mechanisms are very difficult. The aim of this paper is a state of the art review on the theoretical work for the design and optimization of fluid power displacement...

  1. Fluid flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid in an internally finned tube with different fin lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Kołodziej, Jan Adam

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid in an internally finned tube with different fin length is conducted. Nonlinear momentum equation of a power-law fluid flow and nonlinear energy equation are solved using the Picard iteration method. Then on each iteration step the solution of inhomogeneous equation consists of two parts: the general solution and the particular solution. Firstly the particular solution is obtained by interpolation of the inhomogeneous term by means of the radial basis functions and monomials. Then the general solution is obtained using the method of fundamental solutions and by fulfilling boundary conditions.

  2. Working fluids of a low-temperature geothermally-powered Rankine cycle for combined power and heat generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel combined power and heat generation system was investigated in this study. This system consists of a low-temperature geothermally-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) subsystem, an intermediate heat exchanger and a commercial R134a-based heat pump subsystem. The advantages of the novel combined power and heat generation system are free of using additional cooling water circling system for the power generation subsystem as well as maximizing the use of thermal energy in the low-temperature geothermal source. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids (wet, isentropic and dry flu-ids) which may yield high PPR (the ratio of power produced by the power generation subsystem to power consumed by the heat pump subsystem) value and QQR (the ratio of heat supplied to the user to heat produced by the geothermal source) value. Parameters under investigation were evaporating temperature, PPR value and QQR value. Results indicate that there exits an optimum evaporating temperature to maximize the PPR value and minimize the QQR value at the same time for individual fluid. And dry fluids show higher PPR values but lower QQR values. NH3 and R152a outstand among wet fluids. R134a out-stands among isentropic fluids. R236ea, R245ca, R245fa, R600 and R600a outstand among dry fluids. R236ea shows the highest PPR value among the recommended fluids.

  3. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  4. A coastal acoustic tomography experiment in the Tokyo Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANEKO Arata; HACHIYA Hiroyuki; HASHIMOTO Noriaki; YAMAGUCHI Keisuke; YAMAMOTO Tokuo; GOHDA Noriaki; ZHENG Hong; SYAMSUDIN Fadli; LIN Ju; NGUYEN Hong-Quang; MATSUYAMA Masaji

    2005-01-01

    Eight sets of coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems were deployed during November 29 to December 10, 2002 at the coasts on both sides of Tokyo Bay to measure tidal current structures at 15-min interval. Sound transmission across the Tokyo Bay (between Yokohama and Chiba)was successfully traced,even under severe interference from ship generated wakes and bubbles. Tidal current fields changing from northward to southward flow are well reconstructed by the inverse analysis of travel-time difference data for a period with the best sound transmission condition. It is suggested that the CAT is the most powerful tool to continuously map tidal current fields in the coastal seas with heavy shipping traffic and fisheries activity.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Fluid Power Drive-trains for Variable Speed Wind Turbines: a Parameter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the pursuit of making wind energy technology more economically attractive, the application of fluid power technology for the transmission of wind energy is being developed by several parties all over the world. This paper presents a dynamic model of a fluid power transmission for variable speed w

  6. Dynamic Analysis of Fluid Power Drive-trains for Variable Speed Wind Turbines: a Parameter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the pursuit of making wind energy technology more economically attractive, the application of fluid power technology for the transmission of wind energy is being developed by several parties all over the world. This paper presents a dynamic model of a fluid power transmission for variable speed w

  7. Fluid Flow Phenomenon in a Three-Bladed Power-Generating Archimedes Screw Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Tineke Saroinsong; Rudy Soenoko; Slamet Wahyudi; Mega N Sasongko

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies of the Archimedes screw turbine are applied as a micro hydro power plant for low head focused on the fluid flow. Fluid flow on a screw turbine is not completely filled water flow there is still a free surface between the water fluid and atmospheric air. Except the screw geometry, the turbine screw free surface allows the flow phenomena that are important in the process of turbine screw power generation. The Archimedes screw turbine main driving force is the fl...

  8. Fluid Flow Phenomenon in a Three-Bladed Power-Generating Archimedes Screw Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies of the Archimedes screw turbine are applied as a micro hydro power plant for low head focused on the fluid flow. Fluid flow on a screw turbine is not completely filled water flow there is still a free surface between the water fluid and atmospheric air. Except the screw geometry, the turbine screw free surface allows the flow phenomena that are important in the process of turbine screw power generation. The Archimedes screw turbine main driving force is the fl...

  9. Present State and Future Developments in Mechatronics and it's Influence on Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    with electronics, software and mechanics. This synergetic integration is often called Mechatronics.The topic which is rather widespread will be treated in three sections: I) General overview of mechatronics and fluid power. In this section the general trends of mechatronics in fluid power is considered by relating...... trends in the neighbouring fields of software and electronic hardware to fluid power developments. II) Mechatronic case stories from IKS In this section the results of a conceptual design study : "Design of a frequency converter based hydraulic power supply" is presented together with a more detailed...

  10. A SECOND-ORDER MOMENT TURBULENCE MODEL FOR POWER LAW FLUID WITH PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The model of power law fluid for dense two-phase turbulent flow was developed, which combines the unified second-order moment model for two-phase turbulence with the particle kinetic theory for the inter-particle collision. This model was used to simulate the turbulent flow of power law fluid single-phase in pipe. It is shown that the model has better prediction result than the model. The model was then used to simulate the dense two-phase turbulent up flow of power law fluid with particles. With the increase of the flow exponent, the velocities of power law fluid and particles increase near the pipe centre. Comparison between the two-phase flow of power law fluid-particle and of liquid-particle indicates that the axial fluctuation velocity of fluid phase and particle phase in liquid-particle two-phase flow is smaller than that in the power law fluid two-phase flow, but the two-phase velocities of power law fluid-particle and liquid-particle are close to each other.

  11. Fractal Analysis of Power-Law Fluid in a Single Capillary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUN Mei-Juan; YU Bo-Ming; Xu Peng; CAI Jian-Chao

    2008-01-01

    The fractal expressions for flow rate and hydraulic conductivity for power-law fluids in a single capillary are derived based on the fxactal nature of tortuous capillaries.Every parameter in the proposed expressions has clear physical meaning.The flow rate and hydraulic conductivity for power-law fluids are found to be related to the tortuosity fractal dimension and the power-law index.Tjle flow rate for power-law fluids increases with the increasing power-law index but decreases with the increasing tortuosity fractal dimension.Good agreement between the model predictions for flow in a fractal capillary and in a converging-diverging duct is obtained.The results suggest that the fractal capillary model can be used to model the power-law fluids with different rheological properties.

  12. Numerical Study of Thermal Boundary Layer on a Continuous Moving Surface in Power Law Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHANG; Xinxin ZHANG; Liancun ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates flow and heat transfer of power law fluids on a continuous moving surface. The temperature distribution is obtained numerically by considering the effect of the power law viscosity on thermal diffusivity and the characteristics of the flow and heat transfer are analyzed. The results show that the distribution of the thermal boundary layer depends not only on the velocity ratio parameter of the plate, but also on the power law index and Prandtl number of fluids.

  13. Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree: History and Symbolism in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Ysela Mandujano-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tokyo Tower and the Tokyo Skytree are the two most recognizable landmarks on the skyline of Japan’s capital. By means of a documental revision, a textual interpretative analysis of media contents, participant observation and unstructured interviews, the objective of this article is to identify the development of these towers as symbols of Tokyo and Japan. It is found that, with more than half a century of existence, the Tokyo Tower represents the successful post-war Japanese society, while in just five years the Tokyo Skytree has become a symbol of Japanese national spirit and resilience in an era of multiple crises. Both broadcasting towers are regularly portrayed in Japanese media linked to narratives of romance, dreams, family and community. Also, enhanced by their special lightening at night, they stand as attractive backgrounds for locals and visitors in relevant events in their lives.

  14. Investigation and Optimisation of a Discrete Fluid Power PTO-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    recently focused research on improving the power take off (PTO) system converting the mechanical motion of the floats into electricity. This has brought attention to discrete fluid power (DFP) technology, especially secondary controlled common pressure rail systems. A novel discrete PTO-system has been...... proposed and found feasible for the Wavestar WEC. However, with a technology shift from a continuous to a discrete fluid power PTO-system, new challenges emerge. The current project investigates and optimises the novel discrete fluid power PTO-system proposed for the Wavestar WEC. Initiating from...... an investigation of energy extraction by WECs utilising a discrete PTO force, an investigation of the system configuration is conducted. Hence, the configuration of the multi-chamber cylinder and the common pressure rails are investigated for the discrete fluid power force system. A method for choosing the system...

  15. A SIMILARITY METHOD FOR LAMINAR WAKE OF POWER-LAW FLUID FLOW AROUND A FLAT PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cun-fang; Wang Mei-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on the characteristic equation for power-law fluid and the Prandtl boundary layer equation, using the similarity method similar to that of Newtonian fluids, two similarity variables were given and a normal differential equation was derived for the laminar wake of power-law fluid flow produced by a flat plate. And numerical results were obtained. The results show that the power-law index n has evident influence on the velocity distribution in the wake. In the wake, velocity gradient is larger, and the wake is narrower for larger n.

  16. Seepage Characteristics Study on Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fractal models for the flow rate, velocity, effective viscosity, apparent viscosity, and effective permeability for power-law fluid based on the fractal properties of porous media. The proposed expressions realize the quantitative description to the relation between the properties of the power-law fluid and the parameters of the microstructure of the porous media. The model predictions are compared with related data and good agreement between them is found. The analytical expressions will contribute to the revealing of physical principles for the power-law fluid flow in porous media.

  17. Fingering instability in the flow of a power-law fluid on a rotating disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Akash; Doshi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    A computational study of the flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid on a spinning disc is considered here. The main goal of this work is to examine the effect of non-Newtonian nature of the fluid on the flow development and associated contact line instability. The governing mass and momentum balance equations are simplified using the lubrication theory. The resulting model equation is a fourth order non-linear PDE which describes the spatial and temporal evolutions of film thickness. The movement of the contact line is modeled using a constant angle slip model. To solve this moving boundary problem, a numerical method is developed using a Galerkin/finite element method based approach. The numerical results show that the spreading rate of the fluid strongly depends on power law exponent n. It increases with the increase in the shear thinning character of the fluid (n 1). It is also observed that the capillary ridge becomes sharper with the value of n. In order to examine the stability of these ridges, a linear stability theory is also developed for these power law fluids. The dispersion relationship depicting the growth rate for a given wave number has been reported and compared for different power-law fluids. It is found that the growth rate of the instability decreases as the fluid becomes more shear thinning in nature, whereas it increases for more shear thickening fluids.

  18. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  19. Hydrodynamics of Newtonian and power-law fluids in microchannel with superhydrophobic wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, S. A.; Patlazhan, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The flow peculiarities of the Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda power-law fluids in a microchannel with the striped superhydrophobic wall is studied numerically. The driving forces leading to deviation of streamlines from the channel axis are analyzed.

  20. Symmetries of boundary layer equations of power-law fluids of second grade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli; Yi(g)it Aksoy; Muhammet Y(u)r(u)soy; Chaudry Masood Khalique

    2008-01-01

    A modified power-law fluid of second grade is considered. The model is a combination of power-law and second grade fluid in which the fluid may exhibit normal stresses, shear thinning or shear thickening behaviors. The equations of motion are derived for two dimensional incom-pressible flows, and from which the boundary layer equations are derived. Symmetries of the boundary layer equations are found by using Lie group theory, and then group classifica-tion with respect to power-law index is performed. By using one of the symmetries, namely the scaling symmetry, the partial differential system is transformed into an ordinary differential system, which is numerically integrated under the classical boundary layer conditions. Effects of power-law index and second grade coefficient on the boundary layers are shown and solutions are contrasted with the usual second grade fluid solutions.

  1. OBTAINING THE CRITICAL DRAW RATIO OF DRAW RESONANCE IN MELT SPINNING FOR POWER LAW POLYMER FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A direct difference method has been developed for Non-Newtonian power law fluids to solve the simultaneous non-linear partial differential equations of melt spinning,and to determine the critical draw ratio for draw resonance.The results show that for shear thin fluids,the logarithm of the critical draw ratio has a well defined linear relationship with the power index for isothermal and uniform tension melt spinning.When the power index approaches zero,the critical draw ratio points at unity,indicating no melt spinning can be processed stably for such fluids.For shear thick fluids.the critical draw ratio increases in a more rapid Way with increasing the power index.

  2. Developments in Fluid Power Control of Machinery and Manipulators (2 of 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben; Zhou, Jianjun

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses results from a Danish mechatronic research programme focusing on intelligent actuators for motion control as well as results from the ESPRIT project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems.......The paper reports and discusses results from a Danish mechatronic research programme focusing on intelligent actuators for motion control as well as results from the ESPRIT project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems....

  3. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  4. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle power plants using pure and mixed working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermalphase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cyclepower plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers whenthe......-objectiveoptimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plantsusing low-temperature heat at 90 C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomesof the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a(0.65/0.35mole...

  6. Optimization of geometry of annular seat valves suitable for Digital Displacement fluid power pumps/motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Displacement Fluid Power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency of fluid power pumps and motors. The core element of the Digital Displacement technology is high performance electronically controlled seat valves, which must exhibit very low flow...... pressure loss and switching times within a few milliseconds to enable high efficiency operation. These valves are mechatronic components and special attention to both the mechanical, electromagnetic, fluid dynamical and control system design must be paid to ensure the needed performance. In the present...

  7. A CHARITY GALA @ PARK HYATT TOKYO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    As a mark of the end of the 10th anniversary year, Park Hyatt Tokyo held a charity gala on December 4th. All restaurants, the swimming pool and banquet rooms were transformed into 7 different theater featuring by world-class entertainers including the Three Tenors, Jose Carreras, and the award-winning Broadway show, etc.

  8. Energy efficient fluid powered linear actuator with variable area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-09-13

    Hydraulic actuation systems having variable displacements and energy recovery capabilities include cylinders with pistons disposed inside of barrels. When operating in energy consuming modes, high speed valves pressurize extension chambers or retraction chambers to provide enough force to meet or counteract an opposite load force. When operating in energy recovery modes, high speed valves return a working fluid from extension chambers or retraction chambers, which are pressurized by a load, to an accumulator for later use.

  9. Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.

    2017-07-01

    In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.

  10. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    power output. Three-dimensional governing equations for the flow and the heat transfer and thermal-electrics are solved using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation environment. The results show that there is an optimal Reynolds number that provides maximum net power output in the TEG...

  11. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper G. Andreasen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low-temperature heat at 90 ∘ C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35 mole . The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32 at the same total cost of 1200 k$.

  12. Reducing Fatigue Loading Due to Pressure Shift in Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems is one of the topologies gaining focus in the pursuit of lowering energy losses in fluid power transmission systems. The cylinder based Fluid Power Force System considered in this article is constructed with a multi-chamber cylinder, a number of constant pressure...... power force system. The current paper investigates the correlation between pressure oscillations in the cylinder chambers and valve flow in the manifold. Furthermore, the correlation between the pressure shifting time and the pressure overshoot is investigated. The study therefore focus on how to shape...... the valve flow in the manifold to reduce the added fatigue loads. A simple transmission line model is developed for the analysis. Two inputs are given in the Laplace domain and the time domain solution of the cylinder pressure to the given inputs are derived through inverse Laplace transformation. Based...

  13. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  14. Study on local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Tiantian; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Liu, Xueting

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the flow characteristic and local resistance of non-Newtonian power law fluid in a curved 90° bend pipe with circular cross-sections, which are widely used in industrial applications. By employing numerical simulation and theoretical analysis the properties of the flow and local resistance of power law fluid under different working conditions are obtained. To explore the change rule the experiment is carried out by changing the Reynolds number, the wall roughness and different diameter ratio of elbow pipe. The variation of the local resistance coefficient with the Reynolds number, the diameter ratio and the wall roughness is presented comprehensively in the paper. The results show that the local resistance force coefficient hardly changes with Reynolds number of the power law fluid; the wall roughness has a significant impact on the local resistance coefficient. As the pipe wall roughness increasing, the coefficient of local resistance force will increase. The main reason of the influence of the roughness on the local resistance coefficient is the increase of the eddy current region in the power law fluid flow, which increases the kinetic energy dissipation of the main flow. This paper provides theoretical and numerical methods to understand the local resistance property of non-Newtonian power law fluid in elbow pipes.

  15. Spreading of completely wetting, non-Newtonian fluids with non-power-law rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong; Su, Ay

    2010-08-01

    Spreading non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on completely wetting surfaces are seldom investigated. This study assessed the wetting behavior of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a Newtonian fluid, two carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium solutions, a PDMS+2%w/w silica nanoparticle suspension and three polyethylene glycol (PEG400)+5-10%w/w silica nanoparticle suspensions (non-power-law fluids) on a mica surface. The theta(D)-U and R-t data for spreading drops of the six tested, non-power-law fluids can be described by power-law wetting models. We propose that this behavior is attributable to a uniform shear rate (a few tens to a few hundreds of s(-1)) distributed over the thin-film regime that controls spreading dynamics. Estimated film thickness was below the resolution of an optical microscope for direct observation. Approximating a general non-Newtonian fluid spreading as a power-law fluid greatly simplifies theoretical analysis and data interpretation.

  16. An Analysis of the Characteristics of the Thermal Boundary Layer in Power Law Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the heat transfer for the boundary layer flow on a continuous moving surface in power law fluid. The expressions of the thermal boundary layer thickness with the different heat conductivity coefficients are obtained according to the theory of the dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. And the numerical results of CFD agree well with the proposed expressions. The estimate formulas can be successfully applied to giving the thermal boundary layer thickness.

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2016-01-01

    For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers...... to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low......-temperature heat at 90 ◦C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35mole). The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32...

  18. The thermodynamic cycle models for geothermal power plants by considering the working fluid characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Adiprana, Reza; Saad, Aswad H.; M. Ridwan, H.; Muhammad, Fajar

    2016-02-01

    The scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the development of geothermal power plant in Indonesia. The main issue is how to minimize the energy loss from the geothermal working fluid so that the power generated can be increased. In some of geothermal power plant, the hot water which is resulted from flashing is flown to injection well, and steam out from turbine is condensed in condenser, while the temperature and pressure of the working fluid is still high. The aim of this research is how the waste energy can be re-used as energy source to generate electric power. The step of the research is started by studying the characteristics of geothermal fluid out from the well head. The temperature of fluid varies from 140°C - 250°C, the pressure is more than 7 bar and the fluid phase are liquid, gas, or mixing phase. Dry steam power plant is selected for vapor dominated source, single or multiple flash power plant is used for dominated water with temperature > 225°C, while the binary power plant is used for low temperature of fluid power plant can be described by thermodynamic cycle. Utilizing the heat loss of the brine and by considering the broad range of working fluid temperature, the integrated geothermal power plant has been developed. Started with two ordinary single flash power plants named unit 1 and unit 2, with the temperature 250°C resulting power is W1'+W2'. The power is enhanced by utilizing the steam that is out from first stage of the turbine by inputting the steam to the third stage, the power of the plant increase with W1''+W2" or 10% from the original power. By using flasher, the water from unit 1 and 2 is re-flashed at 200°C, and the steam is used to drive the turbine in unit 3, while the water is re-flashed at the temperature170°C and the steam is flown to the same turbine (unit 3) resulting the power of W3+W4. Using the fluid enthalpy, the calculated power of these double and triple flash power plant are 50% of W1+W2. At the last step, the steam

  19. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  20. Calculation Metho d of Power Law Fluid Equivalent Permeability Considering Capillary Shap e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Er-long; LI Huan; GAO Hui-juan; GU Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    While studying the flow of oil and gas in the reservoir, it is not realistic that capillary with circular section is only used to express the pores. It is more representative to simulate porous media pore with kinds of capillary with triangle or rectangle section etc. In the condition of the same diameter, when polymer for oil displacement flows in the porous medium, there only exists shear flow which can be expressed with power law model. Based on fluid flow-pressure drop equation in single capillary, this paper gives a calculation method of equivalent permeability of power law fluid of single capillary and capillary bundles with different sections.

  1. Gelled propellant flow: Boundary layer theory for power-law fluids in a converging planar channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynik, Andrew M.; Geller, A. S.; Glick, J. H.

    1989-10-01

    A boundary layer theory for the flow of power-law fluids in a converging planar channel has been developed. This theory suggests a Reynolds number for such flows, and following numerical integration, a boundary layer thickness. This boundary layer thickness has been used in the generation of a finite element mesh for the finite element code FIDAP. FIDAP was then used to simulate the flow of power-law fluids through a converging channel. Comparison of the analytic and finite element results shows the two to be in very good agreement in regions where entrance and exit effects (not considered in the boundary layer theory) can be neglected.

  2. Analysis of Valve Requirements for High-Efficiency Digital Displacement Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power motors have been shown to enable high-efficiency operation in a wide operation range, including the part load range where conventional fluid power motors suffers from poor efficiencies. The use of these digital displacement motors set new requirements for the valve...... technology, as very fast switching and low pressure loss is needed to obtain high-efficient motor operation. Two central parameters describing the valve operation are the valve switching time and the flow-pressure coefficient. These requirements are important inputs for the mechatronic valve design process...

  3. Power distribution transformers using natural ester fluids as dielectric and coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Silva-Ortega

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches related to the use of Natural Ester Fluids as a refrigerant of power transformers have been developed in other countries with successful results. In Colombia there is no a procedure to control the use of these esters in electrical apparatus, so the current implementations are regulated by NTC 1465 standards for mineral esters. This new proposal involves the composition and the most relevant properties (the ignition resistance, impact on the lifetime of the insulating papers and the impact on the environment, which makes the application of natural esters fluids advantageous not only to preserve the environment but also to get a better performance of power transformers.

  4. Education of MSc and PhD Students in Fluid Power and Mechatronics at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with education of MSc and PhD students in engineering areas fluid power and mechatronics at the Technical Univ of Denmark, DTU, Lyngby. The new education structure and programs for MSc and PhD students adapted to the change and development of technologies. Focus is on two of twenty...... engineering profilies:(1) Engineeing Design and Product Development and (2)Control Engineering which give possibilitie for specialisation in fluid power and mechatronics design and productdevelopment. Synthesis, design and self-learning competency have a high priority taking the importance of training...

  5. Hybrid solution for the laminar flow of power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. A.; Pereira, L. M.; Macêdo, E. N.; Chaves, C. L.; Quaresma, J. N. N.

    The so-called generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of two-dimensional fully-developed laminar flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts. The characteristic of the automatic and straightforward global error control procedure inherent to this approach, permits the determination of fully converged benchmark results to assess the performance of purely numerical techniques. Therefore, numerical results for the product Fanning friction factor-generalized Reynolds number are computed for different values of power-law index and aspect ratio, which are compared with previously reported results in the literature, providing critical comparisons among them as well as illustrating the powerfulness of the integral transform approach. The resulting velocity profiles computed by using this methodology are also compared with those calculated by approximated methods for power-law fluids, within the range of governing parameters studied.

  6. Energy Cost of Avoiding Pressure Oscillations in a Discrete Fluid Power Force System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    In secondary valve controlled discrete fluid power force systems the valve opening trajectory greatly influences the pressure dynamics in the actuator chambers. For discrete fluid power systems featuring hoses of significant length pressure oscillations due to fast valve switching is well...... converters. Further the energy losses introduced during the shifting period is investigated and compared for two valve opening algorithms. The investigation of the energy loss is utilised to quantify the importance of a fast valve switching and the energy cost of reducing pressure oscillations. The paper...... will present measurements comparing pressure dynamics for two valve opening algorithms. In addition the paper will give a theoretical investigation of the energy loss during valve shifting and finally measurements of average power output from the power take-off system in various sea states are compared...

  7. Inertial migration of elastic particles in a pressure-driven power-law fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Samuel; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Using three-dimensional computer simulations, we study the cross-stream migration of deformable particles in a channel filled with a non-Newtonian fluid driven by a pressure gradient. Our numerical approach integrates lattice Boltzmann method and lattice spring method in order to model fluid structural interactions of the elastic particle and the surrounding power fluid in the channel. The particles are modeled as elastic shells filled with a viscous fluid that are initially spherical. We focus on the regimes where the inertial effects cannot be neglected and cause cross-stream drift of particles. We probe the flow with different power law indexes including both the shear thickening and thinning fluids. We also examine migration of particles of with different elasticity and relative size. To isolate the non-Newtonian effects on particle migration, we compare the results with the inertial migration results found in the case where the channel is filled with a simple Newtonian fluid. The results can be useful for applications requiring high throughput separation, sorting, and focusing of both synthetic particles and biological cells in microfluidic devices. Financial support provided by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. CMMI1538161.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MARANGONI CONVECTION OF NON-NEWTONIAN POWER LAW FLUIDS WITH LINEAR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.

  9. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  10. Mobility of Power-law and Carreau Fluids through Fibrous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Shahsavari, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    The flow of generalized Newtonian fluids with a rate-dependent viscosity through fibrous media is studied with a focus on developing relationships for evaluating the effective fluid mobility. Three different methods have been used here: i) a numerical solution of the Cauchy momentum equation with the Carreau or power-law constitutive equations for pressure-driven flow in a fiber bed consisting of a periodic array of cylindrical fibers, ii) an analytical solution for a unit cell model representing the flow characteristics of a periodic fibrous medium, and iii) a scaling analysis of characteristic bulk parameters such as the effective shear rate, the effective viscosity, geometrical parameters of the system, and the fluid rheology. Our scaling analysis yields simple expressions for evaluating the transverse mobility functions for each model, which can be used for a wide range of medium porosity and fluid rheological parameters. While the dimensionless mobility is, in general, a function of the Carreau number an...

  11. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2013-11-01

    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  12. Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, Amir; Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran

    2016-11-01

    We study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics of non-Newtonian flow through a slender linearly elastic cylinder at the creeping flow regime. Specifically, considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a non-homogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We obtain exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions, for both shear thinning and shear thickening fluids. In particular, impulse or a step in inlet pressure yield self-similar solutions, which exhibit a compactly supported propagation front solely for shear thinning fluids. Applying asymptotic expansions, we provide approximations for weakly non-Newtonian behavior showing good agreement with the exact solutions sufficiently far from the front.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    identify the target properties of the CAMD problem for working fluids. In this study the CAMD problem for the development of novel working fluids for organic Rankine cycles (ORC) is formulated mathematically. It integrates both a system model for the ORC and property models including the Peng...... will be applied in a case study of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with a low-temperature heat source. The heat source is a hot water stream from waste heat of a chemical site. Giving this pre-exquisite the method allows to identify the most favorable working fluid along with the corresponding optimal process...... conditions in order to get the highest possible power output. The study presents a new approach for the identification of target properties of CAMD problems based on sensitivity analysis and shows its application for the development of novel working fluids of organic Rankine cycles for low temperature heat...

  14. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through ori...

  15. Cognitive Holding Power, Fluid Intelligence, and Mathematical Achievement as Predictors of Children's Realistic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored whether first and second order cognitive holding power perceived by children in mathematical classrooms, fluid intelligence, and mathematical achievement predicted their performance on standard problems, and especially realistic problems. A sample of 119 Chinese 4-6th graders were administered the word problem test, the…

  16. Cognitive Holding Power, Fluid Intelligence, and Mathematical Achievement as Predictors of Children's Realistic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored whether first and second order cognitive holding power perceived by children in mathematical classrooms, fluid intelligence, and mathematical achievement predicted their performance on standard problems, and especially realistic problems. A sample of 119 Chinese 4-6th graders were administered the word problem test, the…

  17. Computer Software for Design, Analysis and Control of Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben; Grahl-Madsen, Mads

    1999-01-01

    This Deliverable presents contributions from SWING's Task 2.3 Analysis of available software solutions. The Deliverable has focus on the results from this analysis having in mind the task objectives·to carry out a thorough analysis of the state-of the-art solutions for fluid power systems modelling...

  18. Peristaltic Motion of Power-Law Fluid with Heat and Mass Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Hayat; S.Hina; Awatif A.Hendi

    2011-01-01

    @@ The effects of wall properties and heat and mass transfer on the peristalsis in a power-law fluid are investigated.The solutions for the stream function, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained.The axial velocity, temperature and mass concentration are studied for different emerging parameters.

  19. Experiences of Using MATLAB/Simulink in Simulation and Control of Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    MATLAB and Simulink are widely used as primary software tools in teaching and research around the word. This paper presents our experiences of using MATLAB/Simulink in simulation and control of fluid power systems. The application concerned mainly in this paper is a hydraulic test robot, shown...

  20. Experiences of Using MATLAB/Simulink in Simulation and Control of Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    MATLAB and Simulink are widely used as primary software tools in teaching and research around the word. This paper presents our experiences of using MATLAB/Simulink in simulation and control of fluid power systems. The application concerned mainly in this paper is a hydraulic test robot, shown...

  1. Developments in Fluid Power Control of Machinery and Manipulators (2 of 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben; Zhou, Jianjun

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses results from a Danish mechatronic research programme focusing on intelligent actuators for motion control as well as results from the ESPRIT project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems....

  2. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  3. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  4. VISCOUS FORCES BETWEEN TWO SPHERES COLLIDING THROUGH INTERSTITIAL POWER-LAW FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Xu; Hongyan; Li; Wenbin; Huang

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between two spheres with an interstitial fluid is essential in Discrete Element modeling for simulating the behaviors of ‘wet' particulate materials. In this paper the interaction between two spheres with an interstitial Power-law fluid was approximately resolved as normal and tangential interactive models respectively, for which the governing equations were simplified on the basis of Reynolds approximation. These equations were then solved analytically together with the boundary conditions to obtain the pressure distributions for each individual model, and event ually solutions of the viscous squeeze force and the tangential viscous resistance were obtained, which provide a set of solutions for implementing into DEM code or other purposes.

  5. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    A thermo-economic model has been built and validated for prediction of project economics of Enhanced Geothermal Projects. The thermo-economic model calculates and iteratively optimizes the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for a prospective EGS (Enhanced Geothermal) site. It takes into account the local subsurface temperature gradient, the cost of drilling and reservoir creation, stimulation and power plant configuration. It calculates and optimizes the power plant configuration vs. well depth. Thus outputs from the model include optimal well depth and power plant configuration for the lowest LCOE. The main focus of this final report was to experimentally validate the thermodynamic properties that formed the basis of the thermo-economic model built in Phase 2, and thus build confidence that the predictions of the model could be used reliably for process downselection and preliminary design at a given set of geothermal (and/or waste heat) boundary conditions. The fluid and cycle downselected was based on a new proprietary fluid from a vendor in a supercritical ORC cycle at a resource condition of 200°C inlet temperature. The team devised and executed a series of experiments to prove the suitability of the new fluid in realistic ORC cycle conditions. Furthermore, the team performed a preliminary design study for a MW-scale turbo expander that would be used for a supercritical ORC cycle with this new fluid. The following summarizes the main findings in the investigative campaign that was undertaken: 1. Chemical compatibility of the new fluid with common seal/gasket/Oring materials was found to be problematic. Neoprene, Viton, and silicone materials were found to be incompatible, suffering chemical decomposition, swelling and/or compression set issues. Of the materials tested, only TEFLON was found to be compatible under actual ORC temperature and pressure conditions. 2. Thermal stability of the new fluid at 200°C and 40 bar was found to be acceptable after 399

  6. Stability of Natural Convection of Power-law Fluid and non-Darcy Flow in Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiangyan; Chen Guoquan; Wu Jianbing; Li Peichao; Lu Detang; Xu Xianzhi

    2001-01-01

    In the present work the effect of the power law exponent of power-law fluid and non-Darcy number of non-Darcy flow on stability of natural convection in porous media are studied. The computation analysis of effect of power law exponent of power-law fluid and non-Darcy number of non-Darcy flow in the rectangular duct on the transition Rayleigh number Ra*, which means the convective model transiting from stationary state to periodic solution. The duct has filled a porous medium saturated with the power-law non-Newtonian fluid or Newtonian fluid for non-Darcy flow, in which there is uniform internal heat generation per unit volume q. In this paper the relationship between the transition Rayleigh number Ra* and the power-law exponent n, Ra* and non-Darcy number Be, are shown .To these two aspects, the transition route from steady to chaotic convection is also obtained.

  7. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    A thermo-economic model has been built and validated for prediction of project economics of Enhanced Geothermal Projects. The thermo-economic model calculates and iteratively optimizes the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for a prospective EGS (Enhanced Geothermal) site. It takes into account the local subsurface temperature gradient, the cost of drilling and reservoir creation, stimulation and power plant configuration. It calculates and optimizes the power plant configuration vs. well depth. Thus outputs from the model include optimal well depth and power plant configuration for the lowest LCOE. The main focus of this final report was to experimentally validate the thermodynamic properties that formed the basis of the thermo-economic model built in Phase 2, and thus build confidence that the predictions of the model could be used reliably for process downselection and preliminary design at a given set of geothermal (and/or waste heat) boundary conditions. The fluid and cycle downselected was based on a new proprietary fluid from a vendor in a supercritical ORC cycle at a resource condition of 200°C inlet temperature. The team devised and executed a series of experiments to prove the suitability of the new fluid in realistic ORC cycle conditions. Furthermore, the team performed a preliminary design study for a MW-scale turbo expander that would be used for a supercritical ORC cycle with this new fluid. The following summarizes the main findings in the investigative campaign that was undertaken: 1. Chemical compatibility of the new fluid with common seal/gasket/Oring materials was found to be problematic. Neoprene, Viton, and silicone materials were found to be incompatible, suffering chemical decomposition, swelling and/or compression set issues. Of the materials tested, only TEFLON was found to be compatible under actual ORC temperature and pressure conditions. 2. Thermal stability of the new fluid at 200°C and 40 bar was found to be acceptable after 399

  8. Tokyo XX videofestival ja kohtumine Suure Hiirega / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    JVC Tokyo XX videofestivalist. Peapreemia Jon Alpertile dokumentaalse videoga "Life of Crime : Deleris's Sad Story". R. Kelomehe videost "Maja". Interaktiivse kunsti muuseumist ICC (Inter Communication Center) Tokyo Opera Citys. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 72-75

  9. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government i

  10. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Weaver, Samuel P [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  11. Analysis on optimal working fluid flowrate and unstable power generation for miniaturized ORC systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克涛; 朱家玲; 胡开永; 吴秀杰

    2016-01-01

    For efficient utilization of a limited geothermal resource in practical projects, the cycle parameters were comprehensively analyzed by combining with the heat transfer performance of the plate heat exchanger, with a variation of flowrate of R245fa. The influence of working fluid flowrate on a 500W ORC system was investigated. Adjusting the working fluid flowrate to an optimal value results in the most efficient heat transfer and hence the optimal heat transfer parameters of the plate heat exchanger can be determined. Therefore, for the ORC systems, optimal working fluid flowrate should be controlled. Using different temperature hot water as the heat source, it is found that the optimal flowrate increases by 6−10 L/h with 5 ℃ increment of hot water inlet temperature. During experiment, lower degree of superheat of the working fluid at the outlet the plate heat exchanger may lead to unstable power generation. It is considered that the plate heat exchanger has a compact construction which makes its bulk so small that liquid mixture causes the unstable power generation. To avoid this phenomenon, the flow area of plate heat exchanger should be larger than the designed one. Alternatively, installing a small shell and tube heat exchanger between the outlet of plate heat exchanger and the inlet of expander can be another solution.

  12. Transputers in Fluid Power - Design and Applications. Chapter 5 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with results and trends on mechatronics in fluid power and intelligent control of machines and robots. New results are presented concerning transputer-basen distributed control of machines and robots. Experimental results with the DTU mechatronic test facility are presented and discussed. S....... Several adaptive control algoritms are investigated and evaluated. Promissing results are obtained with Computed Valve-Input Control (CIC), Adaptive Model-based Actuator Control (AMAC) and Linear Pertubation Adaptive Control (LPAC).......Deals with results and trends on mechatronics in fluid power and intelligent control of machines and robots. New results are presented concerning transputer-basen distributed control of machines and robots. Experimental results with the DTU mechatronic test facility are presented and discussed...

  13. Small geothermic heat and power station with power plants on organic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, W.; Wos, M. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech. (Poland). Chair of Heat Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of the calculations of heat-flow heats and power stations were introduced in the work geothermic with one circulation, with two circulations and with three circulations. They are reinforced network water heated up in the geothermic heat exchanger to temperatures 100 C and stream. In this solution the temperature of water force to the geothermic hest exchanger changes and amount out suitably 39,35 C (one circulation), 49,83 C (two circulations), 58,91 C (three circulations). He results that the solution of heat and power station is the most profitable variant with three circulations from the analysis of the received results of calculations. He keeps the highest power of the circulation C.R. from three considered variants. (orig.)

  14. Multibody Dynamics of a Fluid Power Radial Piston Motor Including Transient Hydrodynamic Pressure Models of Lubricating Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    is a multibody dynamics model of a radial piston fluid power motor, which connects the rigid bodies through models of the transient hydrodynamic lubrication pressure in the joint clearance. A finite volume approach is used to model the pressure dynamics of the fluid film lubrication. The model structure......The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present...... fully coupled thermo-elastic models has been used to simulate and study loss mechanisms in various tribological interfaces. Consequently, a reasonable focus of further development is to couple the interface models and the rigid body mechanics of fluid power machinery. The focus of the current paper...

  15. Computer Software for Design, Analysis and Control of Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben; Grahl-Madsen, Mads

    1999-01-01

    This Deliverable presents contributions from SWING's Task 2.3 Analysis of available software solutions. The Deliverable has focus on the results from this analysis having in mind the task objectives·to carry out a thorough analysis of the state-of the-art solutions for fluid power systems modelli...... and modelling IT tools in the implementation planning (WP3) and pilot implementation (WP4), in particular training programme for key people in the individual SME and/or cluster....

  16. Endoscope effects on MHD peristaltic flow of a power-law fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the influence of an inserted endoscope and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD power-law fluid on peristaltic motion, an attempt has been made for flow through tubes. The magnetic field of uniform strength is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The analysis has been performed under long wavelength at low-Reynolds number assumption. The velocity fields and axial pressure gradient have been evaluated analytically. Numerical results are also presented and discussed.

  17. CDIO-Concept for Enginering Education in Fluid Power, Motion Control and Mechatronic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    of mechatronics solutions with fluid power actuators for motion control of machines and robots. The idea of CDIO-Concept is to take care of that the students are learning by doing and learning while doing when the students are active to generate new products and solutions by going through the phases from...... mechatronics design, and advantages as well as challenges are identified and discussed. An IT-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed....

  18. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.

  19. Determining Rheological Parameters of Generalized Yield-Power-Law Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryczek Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The principles of determining rheological parameters of drilling muds described by a generalized yield-power-law are presented in the paper. Functions between tangent stresses and shear rate are given. The conditions of laboratory measurements of rheological parameters of generalized yield-power-law fluids are described and necessary mathematical relations for rheological model parameters given. With the block diagrams, the methodics of numerical solution of these relations has been presented. Rheological parameters of an exemplary drilling mud have been calculated with the use of this numerical program.

  20. Similarity solutions to a laminar boundary layer problem in power law fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A suitable similarity transformation is introduced to reduce the laminar boundary layer equations of power law fluids to a class of singular nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The skin friction and shear stress distributions for boundary layer flow over a moving flat plate are investigated by utilizing the shooting technique. Results indicate that for each fixed value of the power law exponent n or the velocity ratio parameter (, the skin friction and shear stress decrease with the increasing of n or ( respectively.

  1. The simulation of organic rankine cycle power plant with n-pentane working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhilal, Otong; Mulyana, Cukup; Suhendi, Nendi; Sapdiana, Didi

    2016-02-01

    In the steam power plant in Indonesia the dry steam from separator directly used to drive the turbin. Meanwhile, brine from the separator with low grade temperature reinjected to the earth. The brine with low grade temperature can be converted indirectly to electrical power by organic Rankine cycle (ORC) methods. In ORC power plant the steam are released from vaporization of organic working fluid by brine. The steam released are used to drive an turbine which in connected to generator to convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. The objective of this research is the simulation ORC power plant with n-pentane as organic working fluid. The result of the simulation for brine temperature around 165°C and the pressure 8.001 bar optained the net electric power around 1173 kW with the cycle thermal efficiency 14.61% and the flow rate of n-pentane around 15.51 kg/s. This result enable to applied in any geothermal source in Indonesia.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations of pressure drop in a rectangular duct with modified power law fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Simsoo; Lee, Dong-Ryul

    2003-09-01

    Numerical solutions are presented for fully developed laminar flow for a modified power law fluid (MPL) in a rectangular duct. The solutions are applicable to pseudoplastic fluids over a wide shear rate range from Newtonian behavior at low shear rates, through a transition region, to power law behavior at higher shear rates. The analysis identified a dimensionless shear rate parameter which, for a given set of operating conditions, specifies where in the shear rate range a particular system is operating, i.e. in the Newtonian, transition, or power law regions. The numerical results of the friction factor times Reynolds number for the Newtonian and power law region are compared with previously published results showing agreement within 0.05% in the Newtonian region, and 0.9% and 5.1% in the power law region. Rheological flow curves were measured for three CMC-7H4 solutions and were found to be well represented by the MPL constitutive equation. The friction factor times Reynolds number values were measured in the transition region for which previous measurements were unavailable. Good agreement was found between experiment and calculation thus confirming the validity of the analysis.

  3. Deux expositions au Palais de Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Glicenstein, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Les expositions « Hardcore » et « GNS », organisées respectivement par Jérôme Sans et Nicolas Bourriaud au Palais de Tokyo début 2003, fournissent une occasion de voir s’exprimer les positions respectives des deux co-directeurs du lieu quant à la pratique du commissariat d’exposition, tout en permettant de jeter un regard sur la première année d’existence de cette nouvelle institution parisienne. En dépit de la différence des démarches adoptées par Sans et Bourriaud – et de la différence des...

  4. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  5. Fluid Flow Phenomenon in a Three-Bladed Power-Generating Archimedes Screw Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Saroinsong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of the Archimedes screw turbine are applied as a micro hydro power plant for low head focused on the fluid flow. Fluid flow on a screw turbine is not completely filled water flow there is still a free surface between the water fluid and atmospheric air. Except the screw geometry, the turbine screw free surface allows the flow phenomena that are important in the process of turbine screw power generation. The Archimedes screw turbine main driving force is the fluid-gravity weight, which is affected by the inflow depth, inflow velocity and the turbine shaft’s slope. The dimensionless parameter Froude number (Fr is connected to analyze the screw turbine efficiency. The purpose of this study is to figure out the fluid flow role when power generated by a three blades Archimedes screw turbine observed visualized, and also observed the turbine rotation and torque. The observed parameters are varied in inflow depth as the characteristic length (y of Froude Number, inflow velocity (co, and the turbine shaft slope (α. The screw turbine model, were made under a laboratory scale and made from acrylic material. The geometric form is the three bladed screws which have seven screw respectively, the number of helix turns is 21, the angle of screw blade is 30°, radius ratio of 0.54 with a pitch distance of 2,4 Ro. The result from this study revealed a phenomenon of fluid flow between the screw blades a whirlpool wave occurs or vortex due to the linear momentum in a form of the hydrostatic force against the blade screw which occurs in two opposite directions and the effect of the turbine shaft angular momentum. The vortex would affect the screw turbine power generation process as most of the kinetic energy that goes into the screw turbine sucked into the vortex between the screw blades, but this phenomenon can be reduced by reducing the turbine shaft slope. The highest turbine efficiency of 89% occurred in the turbine shaft’s slope of 25

  6. Unconfined Unsteady Laminar Flow of a Power-Law Fluid across a Square Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid, directed normally to a horizontal cylinder with square cross-section (two-dimensional flow is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a very large calculation domain in order that the flow could be considered unconfined. The investigation covers the power-law index from 0.1 up to 2 and the Reynolds number ranges from 60 to 160. Over this range of Reynolds numbers the flow is unsteady. It is found that the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number are higher in a confined flow compared to those of an unconfined flow. In addition some flow characteristics are lost in a confined flow. Complete results for the drag coefficient and Strouhal number in the entire shear-thinning and shear-thickening region have been produced. In shear-thinning fluids chaotic structures exist which diminish at higher values of power-law index. This study represents the first investigation of unsteady, non-Newtonian power-law flow past a square cylinder in an unconfined field.

  7. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  8. Forced convection of power-law fluids flow over a rotating nonisothermal body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Essemyi, A. J.

    1993-10-01

    Presented is an analysis of steady laminar flow of power-law fluids past a rotating body with nonisothermal surfaces. A coordinate transformation combined with the Merk-type series expansion is employed to transform the governing momentum equations into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The equations are numerically integrated to obtain the axial and tangential velocity gradients for determining the friction coefficient. For forced convection, a generalized coordinate transformation is used to analyze the temperature field of the power-law flow. Solutions to the transformed energy equations are obtained in the form of universal functions. The heat transfer coefficients in terms of NuRe(sup 1/(n + 1)) are presented for a rotating sphere. The effects of power-law index, rotation sphere, Prandtl number, and the location of step discontinuity in surface temperature on the local Nusselt number are fully investigated and demonstrated.

  9. Similarity solutions for non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.M.WEI; S.AL-ASHHAB

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the boundary layer flow of power law non-Newtonian fluids with a novel boundary condition is studied. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions are examined, which are found to depend on the curvature of the solutions for different values of the power law index n. It is established with the aid of the Picard-Lindel¨of theorem that the nonlinear boundary value problem has a unique solution in the global domain for all values of the power law index n but with certain conditions on the curva-ture of the solutions. This is done after a suitable transformation of the dependent and independent variables. For 0 1, the solution has a negative or zero curvature on some part of the global domain. Some solutions are presented graphically to illustrate the results and the behaviors of the solutions.

  10. Pressure falloff behavior in vertically fractured wells: Non-Newtonian power-law fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vongvuthipornchai, S.; Raghauan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1984-09-01

    This paper examines pressure falloff behavior in fractured wells following the injection of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid. Results are presented in a form suitable for field application. Responses at wells intercepting infinite-conductivity and uniformflux fractures are considered. Procedures to identify flow regimes are discussed. The solutions presented here are new and to our knowledge not available in the literature. The consequences of neglecting the non-Newtonian characteristics of the injected fluid are examined. The results of this work were obtained by a finite difference model. Procedures to compute the apparent viscosity of power-law fluids for twodimensional flow through porous media are discussed. The formulation given here avoids numerical problems (multiple solutions, cross over, etc.) reported in other studies. Although, the main objective of the work is to examine pressure falloff behavior at fractured wells, the authors also examine responses at unfractured wells. The main objective of this part of a study is to examine the validity of using the superposition principle to analyze pressure falloff data. (The pressure distribution for this problem is governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation.) If the solutions given in the literature are used, then correction factors are needed to analyze pressure falloff data. The results of this phase of the work can also be used to analyze data in fractured wells provided that pseudoradial flow conditions exist.

  11. Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow in a power transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Wakil, N.; Padet, J. [Laboratoire de Thermomecanique UTAP, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne Moulin de la housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Chereches, N.C. [H. Asachi Technical University of Iasi (Romania)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we study the heat transfer and fluid flow in a step-down 3-phase power transformer. In order to simplify the study we choose an element composed of two windings wound around a core. The Joule effect and the Foucault currents produce an undesirable heat in the different components of the transformer. From an economical and security point of view, there is a need to cool the transformer to preserve it from destruction. Our main objective is the cooling optimization of the power transformer. In order to attain this goal, a numerical study has been conducted for six different geometric configurations with six different flow rates of the cooling oil at the entrance. The physical properties of the fluid are supposed to be function of the temperature. The control volume method has been used to resolve the continuity, the momentum and the energy equations in the steady state. The obtained results show that the structure of the flow is somehow complex and according to the case some rolls appear at the top and the bottom of the windings, these rolls contribute to a good mixing of the fluid leading to a nearly homogeneous temperature. (author)

  12. Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Dilatant Power Law Fluids in Square and Rectangular Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vinogradov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional natural convection in fluid filled cavities is numerically investigated for the case of non- Newtonian shear thickening power law liquids. The conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy under the assumption of a Newtonian Boussinesq fluid have been solved using the finite volume method for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The computations were performed for a Rayleigh number, based on cavity height, of 105 and a Prandtl number of 100. In all of the numerical experiments, the channel is heated from below and cooled from the top with insulated side-walls and the inclination angle is varied. The simulations have been carried out for aspect ratios of 1 and 4. Comparison between the Newtonian and the non-Newtonian cases is conducted based on the dependence of the average Nusselt number on angle of inclination. It is shown that despite significant variation in heat transfer rate both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids exhibit similar behavior with the transition from multi-cell flow structure to a single-cell regime.

  13. The flow of power law fluids in elastic networks and porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2015-01-01

    The flow of power law fluids, which include shear thinning and shear thickening as well as Newtonian as a special case, in networks of interconnected elastic tubes is investigated using a residual based pore scale network modeling method with the employment of newly derived formulae. Two relations describing the mechanical interaction between the local pressure and local cross sectional area in distensible tubes of elastic nature are considered in the derivation of these formulae. The model can be used to describe shear dependent flows of mainly viscous nature. The behavior of the proposed model is vindicated by several tests in a number of special and limiting cases where the results can be verified quantitatively or qualitatively. The model, which is the first of its kind, incorporates more than one major non-linearity corresponding to the fluid rheology and conduit mechanical properties, that is non-Newtonian effects and tube distensibility. The formulation, implementation and performance indicate that the...

  14. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M [Principal Investigator; Erlach, Celeste [Communications Mgr.

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  15. Flow of power-law fluids in fixed beds of cylinders or spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2012-10-29

    An ensemble average of the equations of motion for a Newtonian fluid over particle configurations in a dilute fixed bed of spheres or cylinders yields Brinkman\\'s equations of motion, where the disturbance velocity produced by a test particle is influenced by the Newtonian fluid stress and a body force representing the linear drag on the surrounding particles. We consider a similar analysis for a power-law fluid where the stress τ is related to the rate of strain e by τ = 2m en-1e, where m and n are constants. In this case, the ensemble-averaged momentum equation includes a body force resulting from the nonlinear drag exerted on the surrounding particles, a power-law stress associated with the disturbance velocity of the test particle, and a stress term that is linear with respect to the test particle\\'s disturbance velocity. The latter term results from the interaction of the test particle\\'s velocity disturbance with the random straining motions produced by the neighbouring particles and is important only in shear-thickening fluids where the velocity disturbances of the particles are long-ranged. The solutions to these equations using scaling analyses for dilute beds and numerical simulations using the finite element method are presented. We show that the drag force acting on a particle in a fixed bed can be written as a function of a particle-concentration-dependent length scale at which the fluid velocity disturbance produced by a particle is modified by hydrodynamic interactions with its neighbours. This is also true of the drag on a particle in a periodic array where the length scale is the lattice spacing. The effects of particle interactions on the drag in dilute arrays (periodic or random) of cylinders and spheres in shear-thickening fluids is dramatic, where it arrests the algebraic growth of the disturbance velocity with radial position when n≥ 1 for cylinders and n≥ 2 for spheres. For concentrated random arrays of particles, we adopt an

  16. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  17. Delta-Sigma Modulated Displacement of a Digital Fluid Power Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2015-01-01

    chambers of the pump are operated in full-stroke mode and a pulse density modulation method is used to approximate a desired displacement output. This pulse density modulation is performed with delta-sigma modulation, whereby the chamber activation pattern is determined. The method is implemented......Successful application of digital fluid power displacement pumps rely on proper control of the actively controlled high pressure and low pressure manifold valves. This paper concerns a method, where the valve timing control and the overall displacement modulation are separated. The displacement...

  18. Reliability Based Design of Fluid Power Pitch Systems for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    in a case study of a fluid power pitch system applied to wind turbines. The results show a good agreement to recent field failure data for offshore turbines where the dominating failure modes are related to valves, accumulators and leakage. The results are further used for making design improvements...... Priority Number. The Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis is based on past research concerning failure analysis of wind turbine drive trains. Guidelines are given to select the severity, occurrence and detection score that make up the risk priority number. The usability of the method is shown...

  19. Drag characteristics of power law fluids on an upstream moving surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liancun Zheng; Xinxin Zhang; Jicheng He

    2005-01-01

    The specific problem to be considered here concerns the boundary layer problem of a non-Newtonian fluid on a flat plate in length, whose surface has a constant velocity opposite in the direction to that of the mainstream with Uw >> U∞, or alternatively when the plate surface velocity is kept fixed but the stream speed is reduced to zero. A theoretical analysis for a boundary layer flow is made and the self-similar equation is determined. Solutions are presented numerically for special power index and the associated transfer behavior is discussed.

  20. Reliability Based Design of Fluid Power Pitch Systems for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    pitch system applied to wind turbines. The results show a good agreement to recent field failure data for offshore turbines where the dominating failure modes are valve, accumulator and leakage. The results are further used for making design improvements to lower the overall risk of the pitch system......This paper presents a qualitative design tool for evaluation of the risk for fluid power pitch systems. The design tool is developed with special attention to industry standard failure analysis methods and is aimed at the early phase of system design. Firstly, the concept of Fault Tree Analysis...

  1. The Transient Elliptic Flow of Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋付权; 刘慈群

    2002-01-01

    The steady oil production and pressure distribution formulae of vertically fractured well for power-law non-Newtonian fluid were derived on the basis of the elliptic flow model in fractal reservoirs. The corresponding transient flow in fractal reservoirs was studied by numerical differentiation method: the influence of fractal index to transient pressure of vertically fractured well was analyzed. Finally the approximate analytical solution of transient flow was given by average mass conservation law. The study shows that using elliptic flow method to analyze the flow of vertically fractured well is a simple method.

  2. Utilization of genetic algorithm in on-line tuning of fluid power servos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, J.

    1997-12-31

    This study describes a robust and plausible method based on genetic algorithms suitable for tuning a regulator. The main advantages of the method presented is its robustness and easy-to-use feature. In this thesis the method is demonstrated by searching for appropriate control parameters of a state-feedback controller in a fluid power environment. To corroborate the robustness of the tuning method, two earlier studies are also presented in the appendix, where the presented tuning method is used in different kinds of regulator tuning situations. (orig.) 33 refs.

  3. Thermodynamic Cycles using Carbon Dioxide as Working Fluid : CO2 transcritical power cycle study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The interest in utilizing the energy in low‐grade heat sources and waste heat is increasing. There is an abundance of such heat sources, but their utilization today is insufficient, mainly due to the limitations of the conventional power cycles in such applications, such as low efficiency, bulky size or moisture at the expansion outlet (e.g. problems for turbine blades). Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely investigated for use as a working fluid in refrigeration cycles, because it has no ozo...

  4. Application of Modelling and Simulation in Mechatronics and Fluid Power System Design - Education and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The development within the engineering industry is ever more in the direction of an integration of electronics both on the component level and system level. This implies improved and more intelligentcomponents with increased funtionality at the same time as the variant creation is made in the ele...... and control can be useful in analysis, synthesis, design and application of mechatronic systems with fluid power actuation. The focus is on system aspects and describes several projects from education and research that utilises the mentioned methods and techniques....

  5. Widom line and noise-power spectral analysis of a supercritical fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungho; Yu, Clare C

    2012-05-01

    We have performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study noise-power spectra of density and potential energy fluctuations of a Lennard-Jones model of a fluid in the supercritical region. Emanating from the liquid-vapor critical point, there is a locus of isobaric specific heat maxima, called the Widom line, which is often regarded as an extension of the liquid-vapor coexistence line. Our simulation results show that the noise-power spectrum of the density fluctuations on the Widom line of the liquid-vapor transition exhibits three distinct 1/f^{γ} behaviors with exponents γ=0, 1.2, and 2, depending on the frequency f. We find that the intermediate frequency region with an exponent γ∼ 1 appears as the temperature approaches the Widom temperature from above or below. On the other hand, we do not find three distinct regions of 1/f^{γ} in the power spectrum of the potential energy fluctuations on the Widom line. Furthermore, we find that the power spectra of both the density and potential energy fluctuations at low frequency have a maximum on the Widom line, suggesting that the noise power can provide an alternative signature of the Widom line.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Active Power Control in Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Aho, Jake; Gebraad, Pieter; Pao, Lucy; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis performed on a wind plant's ability to provide active power control services using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics-based wind plant simulator. This approach allows examination of the impact on wind turbine wake interactions within a wind plant on performance of the wind plant controller. The paper investigates several control methods for improving performance in waked conditions. One method uses wind plant wake controls, an active field of research in which wind turbine control systems are coordinated to account for their wakes, to improve the overall performance. Results demonstrate the challenge of providing active power control in waked conditions but also the potential methods for improving this performance.

  7. Design of Bidirectional Check Valve for Discrete Fluid Power Force System for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power force systems consisting of a multichamber cylinder, a witching manifold and common pressure lines have been proposed as a technology for increasing the efficiency of the power take off system in ocean wave energy converters. However the force shifting of these discrete systems...... enables passive force switching under minimal pressure difference, hence minimal energy loss. The bidirectional check valve is designed with a rated flow in the range of 1000L/min@5bar. The flow direction of the bidirectional check valve is set by the setting the pilot pressure. This paper presents...... a functionality test of a 125 L/min@5bar bidirectional check, leading to the design and modelling of a bidirectional check valve for ocean wave energy. It shows that a feasible bidirectional check valve may be configured by employing a multi-poppet topology for the main stage and utilising a 3/2 switching valve...

  8. Effect of Yield Power Law Fluid Rheological Properties on Cuttings Transport in Eccentric Horizontal Narrow Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ntow Ofei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrow annular drilling such as casing-while-drilling technique is gaining popularity due to its ability to mitigate nonproductive time during oil and gas drilling operations. However, very little is known about the flow dynamics in narrow annular drilling. In this study, the Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model was used to examine the influence of Yield Power Law fluid rheological properties on cuttings transport in eccentric horizontal narrow annulus. The flow was assumed as fully developed, laminar, and transient state. The present simulation model was validated against experimental data, where a mean percent error of −1.2% was recorded. Results revealed an increase in the radial distribution of cuttings transport velocity in the wide annular region as the consistency index, K, and the flow behavior index, n, increase. Nonetheless, increasing the yield stress, τo, had insignificant effect on the cuttings transport velocity. Three-dimensional profiles showed how cuttings preferred to travel in less resistant flow area, whereas cuttings concentration builds up in the narrow annular region. Furthermore, annular frictional pressure losses also increased as K, n, and τo increased. This study serves as a guide to properly optimize drilling fluid rheological properties for efficient cuttings transport and equivalent circulating density (ECD management in narrow annular drilling.

  9. Numerical analysis of the transient conjugated heat transfer in a circular duct with a power-law fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, N. [Secretaria de Energia, Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico DF (Mexico); Bautista, O. [ITESM, Division de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-05-01

    We treat numerically in this paper, the transient analysis of a conjugated heat transfer process in the thermal entrance region of a circular tube with a fully developed laminar power-law fluid flow. We apply the quasi-steady approximation for the power-law fluid, identifying the suitable time scales of the process. Thus, the energy equation in the fluids is solved analytically using the well-known integral boundary layer technique. This solution is coupled to the transient energy equation for the solid where the transverse and longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the average temperature of the tube wall, {theta}{sub av,} is plotted for different nondimensional parameters such as conduction parameter, {alpha}, the aspect ratios of the tube, {epsilon} and {epsilon}{sub 0} and the index of power-law fluid, n. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary Experimental Investigation on MHD Power Generation Using Seeded Supersonic Argon Flow as Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.

  11. Approximate analytical solutions and approximate value of skin friction coefficient for boundary layer of power law fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiao-hong; ZHENG Lian-cun; JIANG Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis for laminar boundary layer flow in a power law non-Newtonian fluids.The Adomian analytical decomposition technique is presented and an approximate analytical solution is obtained.The approximate analytical solution can be expressed in terms of a rapid convergent power series with easily computable terms.Reliability and efficiency of the approximate solution are verified by comparing with numerical solutions in the literature.Moreover,the approximate solution can be successfully applied to provide values for the skin friction coefficient of the laminar boundary layer flow in power law non-Newtonian fluids.

  12. Stability of core-annular flow of power-law fluids in the presence of interfacial surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The shear-thinning influence on the core-annular flow stability of two immiscible power-law fluids is considered by making a linear stability analysis.The flow is driven by an axial pressure gradient in a straight pipe with the interface between the two fluids occupied by an insoluble surfactant.Given the basic flow for this core-annular arrangement,the analytical solution is obtained with respect to the power-law fluid model.The linearized equations for the evolution of infinitesimal disturbances are derived and the stability problem is formulated as a generalized matrix eigenvalue problem,which is solved by using the software package Matlab based on the QZ algorithm.The shear-thinning property is found to have marked influence on the power-law fluid core-annular flow stability,which is reflected in various aspects.First,the capillary instability is magnified by the shear-thinning property,which may lead to an essential difference between power-law and Newtonian fluid flows.Especially when the interface is close to the pipe wall,the power-law fluid flow may be unstable while the Newtonian fluid flow is stable.Second,under disturbances to the interface a velocity discontinuity at the interface appears which is destabilizing to the flow.The magnitude of this velocity discontinuity is affected by the power-law index and the flow stability is influenced correspondingly.Besides,the shear-thinning property may induce new stability modes which do not appear in the Newtonian fluid flow.The flow stability shows much dependence on the interface location,the role of which was neglected in most previous studies.The shear-thinning fluid flow is more unstable to long wave disturbances when the interface is close to the pipe wall,while the Newtonian fluid flow is more unstable when the interface is close to the pipe centerline.But this trend is changed by the addition of interfacial surfactant,for which the power-law fluid flow is more stable no matter where the interface is

  13. Static Analysis of High-Performance Fixed Fluid Power Drive with a Single Positive-Displacement Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Nikitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the static calculations in designing a high-performance fixed fluid power drive with a single positive-displacement hydraulic motor. Designing is aimed at using a drive that is under development and yet unavailable to find and record the minimum of calculations and maximum of existing hydraulic units that enable clear and unambiguous performance, taking into consideration an available assortment of hydraulic units of hydraulic drives, to have the best efficiency.The specified power (power, moment and kinematics (linear velocity or angular velocity of rotation parameters of the output element of hydraulic motor determine the main output parameters of the hydraulic drive and the useful power of the hydraulic drive under development. The value of the overall efficiency of the hydraulic drive enables us to judge the efficiency of high-performance fixed fluid power drive.The energy analysis of a diagram of the high-performance fixed fluid power drive shows that its high efficiency is achieved when the flow rate of fluid flowing into each cylinder and the magnitude of the feed pump unit (pump are as nearly as possible.The paper considers the ways of determining the geometric parameters of working hydromotors (effective working area or working volume, which allow a selection of the pumping unit parameters. It discusses the ways to improve hydraulic drive efficiency. Using the principle of holding constant conductivity allows us to specify the values of the pressure losses in the hydraulic units used in noncatalog modes. In case of no exact matching between the parameters of existing hydraulic power modes and a proposed characteristics of the pump unit, the nearest to the expected characteristics is taken as a working version.All of the steps allow us to create the high-performance fixed fluid power drive capable of operating at the required power and kinematic parameters with high efficiency.

  14. Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using

  15. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  16. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  17. Friction losses in valves and fittings for power-law fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Polizelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on pressure drop were obtained in stainless steel, sanitary fittings and valves during laminar and turbulent flow of aqueous solutions of sucrose and xanthan gum, which were selected as model fluids. The rheological properties of these solutions were determined and the power-law model provided the best fit for experimental data. Friction losses were measured in fully and partially open butterfly and plug valves, bends and unions. Values of loss coefficients (k f were calculated and correlated as a function of the generalized Reynolds number by the two-k method. The model adjustment was satisfactory and was better in the laminar flow range (0.976 < r² < 0.999 than in the turbulent flow range (0.774 < r² < 0.989. In order to test the adequacy of the results for predicting loss coefficients during flow of real fluids, experiments were conducted with coffee extract. Comparison between experimental and predicted loss coefficients showed very good agreement.

  18. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  19. Thermal analysis of a reactive generalized Couette flow of power law fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, O. D.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the steady generalized axial Couette flow of Ostwald-de Waele power law reactive fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes is investigated. It is assumed that the outer cylinder is stationary and exchanges heat with the ambient surrounding following Newton's law of cooling, while the inner cylinder with isothermal surface is set in motion in the axial direction. The model nonlinear differential equations for the momentum and energy balance are obtained and tackled numerically using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique. The effects of various embedded thermophysical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields including skin friction, Nusselt number and thermal criticality conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.

  20. Mass transport in a thin layer of power-law fluid in an Eulerian coordinate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 白玉川

    2016-01-01

    The mass transport velocity in a thin layer of muddy fluid is studied theoretically. The mud motion is driven by a periodic pressure load on the free surface, and the mud is described by a power-law model. Based on the key assumptions of the shallowness and the small deformation, a perturbation analysis is conducted up to the second order to find the mean Eulerian velocity in an Eulerian coordinate system. The numerical iteration method is adopted to solve these non-linear equations of the leading order. From the numerical results, both the first-order flow fields and the second-order mass transport velocities are examined. The verifications are made by comparing the numerical results with experimental results in the literature, and a good agreement is confirmed.

  1. On energy boundary layer equations in power law non-Newtonian fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑连存; 张欣欣

    2008-01-01

    The hear transfer mechanism and the constitutive models for energy boundary layer in power law fluids were investigated.Two energy transfer constitutive equations models were proposed based on the assumption of similarity of velocity field momentum diffusion and temperature field heat transfer.The governing systems of partial different equations were transformed into ordinary differential equations respectively by using the similarity transformation group.One model was assumed that Prandtl number is a constant,and the other model was assumed that viscosity diffusion is analogous to thermal diffusion.The solutions were presented analytically and numerically by using the Runge-Kutta formulas and shooting technique and the associated transfer characteristics were discussed.

  2. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Research within digital fluid power (DFP) transmissions is receiving an increased attention as an alternative to conventional transmission technologies. The use of DFP displacement machines entail a need for applicable control algorithms. However, the design and analysis of controllers...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  3. Numerical Comparison of NASA's Dual Brayton Power Generation System Performance Using CO2 or N2 as the Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownens, Albert K.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hervol, David S.

    2010-01-01

    A Dual Brayton Power Conversion System (DBPCS) has been tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center using Nitrogen (N2) as the working fluid. This system uses two closed Brayton cycle systems that share a common heat source and working fluid but are otherwise independent. This system has been modeled using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment. This paper presents the results of a numerical study that investigated system performance changes resulting when the working fluid is changed from gaseous (N2) to gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2).

  4. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  5. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  6. Tindak Tutur Permintaan Dalam Film Tokyo Love Story

    OpenAIRE

    Syahri, Rosmita

    2011-01-01

    Rosmita Syahri. 2011. Speect acts found in the Tokyo Love Story Film. School Student. Medan. Postgraduate Program North Sumatera University. This thesis deals with speect acts in Japanese found in the Tokyo Love Story Film. The objective of the study is to describe and explain the function of speect acts in the film. The study is based on the theory of speect acts as proposed by Rahardi (2009 : 19) in which two kinds of speect acts are elaborated to analyze the speect act function, re...

  7. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  8. Sensitivity analysis of Computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    allows the ranking ofsignificance of properties and also the identification of a set of properties which are relevant for the design of a workingfluids.In this study the CAMD problem for the development of novel working fluids for organic Rankine cycles (ORC) isformulated as a mathematical optimization...... technical tool to convert this waste heat into usable energy. So far the low-temperature heat cannot be utilized efficiently for electricity generation.In order to optimize the heat transfer process and the power generation, the influence of the working fluid, the cycledesigns and the operating conditions...... is vital. Multi-criteria database search and Computer Aided Molecular Design(CAMD) can be applied to generate, test and evaluate promising pure component/mixture candidate as process fluids to help optimize cycle design and performance. The problem formulation for the development of novel working fluids...

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of School Libraries: Comparisons from Tokyo and Honolulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuriko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses and compares results of a survey of teacher's perceptions of school libraries in Tokyo, Japan and in Honolulu, Hawaii that showed differences in policies, availability of trained school library personnel, and in the nature of school library development. Copies of the questionnaires used are appended. (Author/LRW)

  10. Sounding moves: flamenco, gender, and meaning in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ede, Y.; Dunin, E.I.; Stavělová, D.; Gremlicová, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex interactions between gender and localization of a world dance by focusing on the signification strategies of flamenco dance in Tokyo, Japan. Key in understanding these strategies are the senses. Sensory structures are the cultural incentive; embedded in local

  11. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  12. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  13. First China-Japan Governors Forum Held in Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The First China-Japan Governors Forum jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC, the China-Japan Friendship Association and the Japan National Governors’ Association was held in Tokyo on April 18. Over 100 delegates took part. Key members of the Chinese Delegation

  14. Global warming and urbanization affect springwater temperatures in Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, H.

    2014-02-01

    Due to global warming and urbanization, air temperature in Tokyo has risen 1.6 degrees in the past 30-40 years which has also affected springwater temperatures. From 2005, we have proceeded with the observations of springs in Tokyo metropolis, Japan which had been conducted by Environment of Tokyo from the end of the 1980s to 2001. In the rainy season (October) and dry season (February), we have observed springwater temperatures in 25 springs. The field surveys have revealed that most springwater temperatures has steadly risen in the past 30 years. As of February 2013, water temperatures of 19/11 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season. As of February 2006, water temperatures of 10/13 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season, i.e., 9/2 springs have acquired/lost the significance as of February 2013. One possible reason is the recent hot summer/cold winter in Tokyo.

  15. Sounding moves: flamenco, gender, and meaning in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ede, Y.; Dunin, E.I.; Stavělová, D.; Gremlicová, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex interactions between gender and localization of a world dance by focusing on the signification strategies of flamenco dance in Tokyo, Japan. Key in understanding these strategies are the senses. Sensory structures are the cultural incentive; embedded in local cultura

  16. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  17. Multilingualism in Tokyo: A Look into the Linguistic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about multilingual signs in Tokyo. It is based on empirical research conducted in 2003. Special attention is given to the distinction between official and nonofficial multilingual signs. It will be demonstrated that the two types of signs exhibit some essentially different characteristics with regard to the languages contained and…

  18. Elastic recoil can either amplify or attenuate muscle-tendon power, depending on inertial vs. fluid dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2012-11-21

    Frog jumps exceed muscle power limits. To achieve this, a muscle may store elastic energy in tendon before it is released rapidly, producing 'power amplification' as tendon recoil assists the muscle to accelerate the load. Do the musculoskeletal modifications conferring power amplification help or hinder frog swimming? We used a Hill-type mathematical model of a muscle-tendon (MT) with contractile element (CE) and series elastic element (SEE) properties of frogs. We varied limb masses from 0.3 to 30 g, foot-fin areas from 0.005 to 50 cm(2) and effective mechanical advantage (EMA=in-lever/out-lever) from 0.025 to 0.1. 'Optimal' conditions produced power amplification of ~19% greater than the CE limit. Yet, other conditions caused ~80% reduction of MT power (power attenuation) due to SEE recoil absorbing power from (rather than adding to) the CE. The tendency for elastic recoil to cause power amplification vs. attenuation was load dependent: low fluid drag loads, high limb mass and EMA=0.1 caused power amplification whereas high drag, low mass and low EMA (=0.025) caused attenuation. Power amplification emerged when: (1) CE shortening velocity is 1/3V(max), (2) elastic energy storage is neither too high nor too low, and (3). peak inertial-drag force ratio ≥ ~1.5. Excessive elastic energy storage delayed the timing of recoil, causing power attenuation. Thus our model predicts that for fluid loads, the benefit from a compliant tendon is modest, and when the system is 'poorly tuned' (i.e., inappropriate EMA), MT power attenuation can be severe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ice Shelves as Floating Channel Flows of Viscous Power-Law Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Banik, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    We attempt to better understand the flow of marine ice sheets. Treating ice as a viscous shear-thinning power law fluid, we develop an asymptotic (late-time) theory in two cases - the presence or absence of contact with sidewalls. Most real-world situations fall somewhere between the two extreme cases considered. When sidewalls are absent, we obtain the equilibrium grounding line thickness using a simple computer model and have an analytic approximation. For shelves in contact with sidewalls, we obtain an asymptotic theory, valid for long shelves. Our theory is based on the velocity profile across the channel being a generalised version of Poiseuille flow, which works when lateral shear dominates the force balance. We determine when this is. We conducted experiments using a laboratory model for ice. This was a suspension of xanthan in water, at a concentration of 0.5% by mass. The lab model has $n \\approx 3.8$ (similar to that of ice). The experiments agreed extremely well with our theories for all relevant p...

  20. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2016-09-01

    A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A numerical model was developed to capture the relevant physics from the dynamic interaction between different turbines coupled to a common hydraulic network and controller. This paper presents two examples of the time-domain simulation results for an hypothetical hydraulic wind farm subject to turbulent wind conditions. The performance and operational parameters of individual turbines are compared with those of a reference wind farm with conventional technology turbines, using the same wind farm layout and environmental conditions. For the presented case study, results indicate that the individual wind turbines are able to operate within operational limits with the current pressure control concept. Despite the stochastic turbulent wind input and wake effects, the hydraulic wind farm is able to produce electricity with reasonable performance in both below and above rated conditions.

  1. CDIO-Concept for Enginering Education in Fluid Power, Motion Control and Mechatronic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents significant Danish experiment results of a developed CDIO-Concept and approach for active and integrated learning in today’s engineering education of MSc Degree students, and research results from using IT-Tools for CAE/CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and desig...... mechatronics design, and advantages as well as challenges are identified and discussed. An IT-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed.......The paper presents significant Danish experiment results of a developed CDIO-Concept and approach for active and integrated learning in today’s engineering education of MSc Degree students, and research results from using IT-Tools for CAE/CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design...... of mechatronics solutions with fluid power actuators for motion control of machines and robots. The idea of CDIO-Concept is to take care of that the students are learning by doing and learning while doing when the students are active to generate new products and solutions by going through the phases from...

  2. Effect of magnetic field in power-law fluid with mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Amira Husni; Abdullah, Ilyani; Sabri, Izzati

    2017-08-01

    Study of non-Newtonian blood flow under the influence of magnetic field through a stenosed artery is carried out. Blood stream is modelled by power-law fluid since the rate of shear stress for blood and shear strain is not linear. Mass transfer refers to the movement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) between the blood flow and arterial wall. The process of LDL movement brings up to localization of stenosis in the arterial segment. Magnetic field is applied to decrease blood velocity and reduce the risk of stenosis ruptures. The governing equations of blood flow are coupled with convection-diffusion equation of mass transfer. Marker and Cell (MAC) method is used in solving the problem in order to obtain the quantities of the axial velocity (w), radial velocity (u), mass concentration (C) and pressure (p) are calculated at different locations. The results are presented in the graph and discussed in details. The application of magnetic field decreases the axial velocity and mass concentration profiles.

  3. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  4. Computer Simulations of Contributions of Néel and Brown Relaxation to Specific Loss Power of Magnetic Fluids in Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Pham Thanh; Nguyen, Luu Huu; Manh, Do Hung; Lee, In-Ja; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the degree of the contribution of particular relaxation losses to the specific loss power are calculated for a number of magnetic fluids, including Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, MnFe2O4, FeCo, FePt and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles in various viscosities. We found that the specific loss of every fluid studied increases linearly with particle saturation magnetization. The competition between Néel and Brownian relaxation contributions gives rise to a peak at a critical diameter in the plot of specific loss power versus diameter. The critical diameter does not change with saturation magnetization but monotonically decreases with increasing magnetic anisotropy. If particle diameter is smaller than 6-11 nm, the maximum loss power tends to diminish and the heating effect to switch off. According to how the materials respond to viscosity change, the hyperthermia materials can be classified into two groups. One is hard nanoparticles with high anisotropy of which the critical diameter decreases with viscosity and the specific loss power versus saturation magnetization rate decreases strongly. The other is soft nanoparticles with low anisotropy of which the properties are insensitive to the viscosity of the fluid. We discuss our simulated results in relation to recent experimental findings.

  5. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.

    2006-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Unlike California's seismic environment of shallow and largely strike-slip faults, Tokyo lies 200 km from a triple junction with two subduction zones, and 80 km from a front of active volcanoes. Further, some of the region's megathust faults are seismically coupled, some undergo episodic slip events, and others appear to be permanently aseismic. To reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates, and estimate their earthquake frequency, we analyzed the 7,000-yr record of seventeen M~8 shocks preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits, and 150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years from Japan's GeoNet array. We also digitized 10,000 observations of historical shaking recorded over the past 400 years, and examined 300,000 earthquakes registered by the dense NIED/JMA network in a 3D geographic information system. In a principal departure from previous work, we propose that a 100-km-wide, 25-km-thick dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and argue that the this fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior, including the damaging 1855 M~7.1 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, we estimate that events with magnitude and location similar to the Ansei-Edo event have a 20% likelihood in an average 30-yr period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for great M~7.9 megathrust shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is just 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (~0.9 g peak ground acceleration) in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ~30%, and the annual probability is 1.3%.

  6. On the Influence of Piston and Cylinder Density in Tribodynamics of a Radial Piston Digital Fluid Power Displacement Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.;

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades an increasing amount of research has been performed in the field of tribodynamics of fluid power pumps and motors. The main incentives for this research are optimization of reliability and eciency through the study of loss and wear mechanisms. These mechanisms are very d...... assessment of the applicability, of the force balance condition, if it is used in multibody tribodynamic simulations of radial piston digital fluid power displacement motors....... analysis or optimization. The coupling between multibody dynamics and fluid mechanics depend on the formulation of the solid body motion equations, where two approaches have historically been used. One approach is where the external forces on any lubricated joint are balanced by the fluid forces......, such that solid body inertia is neglected. The other approach includes the inertia terms in the calculation of microdynamics. The inclusion of inertia terms entails a need for smaller time steps in comparison to the force balance approach, wherefore it is of interest to analyze the influence of the inertia term...

  7. Morphological topology generation of a digital fluid power displacement unit using Chebychev-Grübler-Kutzbach constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    piston topologies. The morphological approach is combined with the Chebychev- Grübler-Kutzbach criterion, a fully rotatable shaft condition and a straight line path generation condition in order to obtain one degree of freedom single closed chain mechanisms applicable for wind turbines and wave energy...... converters. In conclusion it follows, that six single closed chain planar, one degree of freedom, mechanisms are suitable for digital fluid power displacement units in wind and wave energy applications....

  8. Influence of Orbital Motion of Inner Cylinder on Eccentric Taylor Vortex Flow of Newtonian and Power-Law Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shun-Xin; FU Song

    2007-01-01

    The effects of inner cylinder orbital motion on Taylor vortex flow of Newtonian and power-law fluid are studied numerically. The results demonstrate that when the eccentricity is not small, the orbital motion influences the stability of the flow in a non-monotonic manner. The variations of the flow-induced forces on the inner cylinder versus orbital motion are also different from the cases in which the flow is two-dimensional and laminar.

  9. Modulation Equations for Roll Waves of a liquid film Down an Inclined Plane as a Power-Law Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan.ZHU; Abdelaziz.Boudlal; Gilmar.Mompean.Mompean

    2014-01-01

    Roll waves of finite amplitude on a thin layer of non-Newtonian fluid modeled as a power-law fluid are considered. In the long wave approximation, the flow is governed by a non-homogeneous hyperbolic system of equations. As the linearized instability analysis of a uniform flow delivers only a diagnosis of instability, the nonlinear stability is investigated and the criterion for roll waves based on the hyperbolicity of the modulation equation is suggested. The main problem in defining the roll wave stability region on a roll wave diagram is due to the singularities of functions for the mean values and their derivatives near the boundaries of roll wave existence. Asymptotic formulae for nonlinear stability of roll waves of small and maximal amplitudes are derived. Numerical calculation reveals that for a Newtonian fluid, as the bottom inclination decreases downwardly the amplitude of admissible waves diminishes, and the stability domain reduces until it disappears. These results remain valid for a slightly non-Newtonian fluid. For highly non-Newtonian fluid, a transition in the nature of stability is observed.

  10. Free convection heat and mass transfer in a power law fluid past an inclined surface with thermophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat M. Helal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat and mass transfer in a power law, two-dimensional, laminar, boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid over an inclined plate with heat generation and thermophoresis is investigated by the characteristic function method. The governing non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and heat transfer problem are transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equation which was solved using Runge–Kutta shooting method. Exact solutions for the dimensionless temperature and concentration profiles, are presented graphically for different physical parameters and for the different power law exponents 0  0.5.

  11. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to suicide (e.g. 30 to suicide mortality in Tokyo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  13. Squeezing Force of the Magnetorheological Fluid Isolating Damper for Centrifugal Fan in Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological (MR disk-type isolating dampers are the semi-active control devices that use MR fluids to produce controllable squeezing force. In this paper, the analytical endeavor into the fluid dynamic modeling of an MR isolating damper is reported. The velocity and pressure distribution of an MR fluid operating in an axisymmetric squeeze model are analytically solved using a biviscosity constitutive model. Analytical solutions for the flow behavior of MR fluid flowing through the parallel channel are obtained. The equation for the squeezing force is derived to provide the theoretical foundation for the design of the isolating damper. The result shows that with the increase of the applied magnetic field strength, the squeezing force is increased.

  14. A Strategy for Passive Control of Natural Roll-Waves in Power-Law Fluids through Inlet Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Cristo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of the inlet boundary condition on the spatial evolution of natural roll-waves in a power-law fluid flowing in steep slope channels. The analysis is carried out numerically, by solving the von Kármán depth-integrated mass and momentum conservation equations, in the long-wave approximation. A second-order accurate scheme is adopted and a small random white-noise is superposed to the discharge at the channel inlet to generate the natural roll-waves train. Both shear-thinning and shear-thickening power-law fluids are investigated, considering uniform, accelerated and decelerated hypercritical profiles as the unperturbed condition. Independently of the unperturbed profile and of the fluid rheology, numerical simulations clearly enlighten the presence of coalescence, coarsening and overtaking processes, as experimentally observed. All the considered statistical parameters indicate that the natural roll-waves spatial evolution is strongly affected by the unperturbed profile. Compared with the uniform condition, at the beginning of roll-waves development an accelerated profile reduces the growth of the roll-waves with a downstream shift of the non-linear wave interaction. The opposite behavior is observed if the roll wave train develops over a decelerated profile. The comparison with the theoretical outcomes of the linearized near wave-front analysis allows the interpretation of this result in terms of stability of the base flow. It is shown that once the coarsening process starts to take place, the roll-waves spatial growth rate is independent of the unperturbed profile. Present results suggest that an appropriate selection of the flow depth at the channel inlet may contribute to control, either enhancing or inhibiting, the formation of a roll-waves train in power-law fluids.

  15. Fluid dynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded Centrifugal rotor for mini orc power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, S.; Pini, M.; Ghidoni, A.; Colonna di Paliano, P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power systems are a well-established technology for the conversion of thermal energy sources in the small-to-medium power range. In the last few years, efforts have been devoted to the development of mini ORC (mORC) power systems (5- 30 kWe) for waste heat recovery from t

  16. Fluid dynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded Centrifugal rotor for mini orc power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, S.; Pini, M.; Ghidoni, A.; Colonna di Paliano, P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power systems are a well-established technology for the conversion of thermal energy sources in the small-to-medium power range. In the last few years, efforts have been devoted to the development of mini ORC (mORC) power systems (5- 30 kWe) for waste heat recovery from

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic thin film and heat transfer of power law fluids over an unsteady stretching sheet with variable thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yanhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the MHD thin film flow and heat transfer of a power law fluid over an unsteady stretching sheet. The effects of power law viscosity on a temperature field are taken into account with a modified Fourier’s law Proposed by Zheng by assuming that the temperature field is similar to the velocity field. The governing equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solutions are obtained by using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of the Hartmann number, the power law exponent, the unsteadiness parameter, the thickness parameter and the generalized Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature fields are presented graphically and analyzed. Moreover, the critical formula for parameters are derived which indicated that the magnetic field has no effect on the critical value.

  18. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  19. Models and simulation of non-ideal fluid flows in unconventional turbomachinery: Toward highly efficient next-generation green power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, E.

    2015-01-01

    The new generation of power plants based on innovative thermodynamic cycles operating with unconventional working fluids, such as CO2 close to its thermodynamic critical point or organic fluids close to their vapour saturation line, is an attractive option for high efficiency conversion of sustainab

  20. Models and simulation of non-ideal fluid flows in unconventional turbomachinery: Toward highly efficient next-generation green power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, E.

    2015-01-01

    The new generation of power plants based on innovative thermodynamic cycles operating with unconventional working fluids, such as CO2 close to its thermodynamic critical point or organic fluids close to their vapour saturation line, is an attractive option for high efficiency conversion of

  1. Influence of fluid density on the statistics of power fluctuations in von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flows

    CERN Document Server

    Opazo, A; Bustamante, G; Labbé, R

    2015-01-01

    We report experimental results for fluctuations of injected power in confined von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flows with constant external torque applied to the stirrers. Two experiments were performed at nearly equal Reynolds numbers in geometrically similar experimental setups, using air in one of them and water in the other. We found that the probability density function of power fluctuations is strongly asymmetric in air, while in water it is closer to a Gaussian, showing that the effect that a big change on the fluid density has on the flow-stirrer interaction is not reflected merely by a change in the amplitude of stirrers' response. In the case of water, with a density roughly 830 times greater than air density, the forcing exerted by the flow on the stirrers is stronger, so that they follow more closely the locally averaged rotation of the flow. When the fluid is air, the forcing is much weaker, resulting not only in a smaller stirrer response to the torque exerted by the flow, but also in power fluctuations ...

  2. Solidarity and the city: The case of modern Tokyo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    is that of architecture. Architects have more than any other profession worked on, and with, the urban condition theoretically as well as practically and solution-oriented. Returning Japanese architects have been confronted with the art of rebuilding cities from the bottom, not least in the case of Tokyo . The second...... of places of urban sociability. But whereas one school - ‘the city planning’ or ‘anti-city planning’ - is in look after places linked to community through local culture, another one - - detects the in-between places of urban sociability that run outwards. At these places society shows itself as emergent...

  3. Bi-orthogonality conditions for power flow analysis in fluid-loaded elastic cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledet, Lasse; Sorokin, Sergey V.; Larsen, Jan Balle

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the classical problem of time-harmonic forced vibrations of a fluid-loaded cylindrical shell considered as a multi-modal waveguide carrying infinitely many waves. Firstly, a modal method for formulation of Green’s matrix is derived by means of modal decomposition. The method...

  4. SOLUTION OF THE RAYLEIGH PROBLEM FOR A POWER-LAW NON-NEWTONIAN CONDUCTING FLUID VIA GROUP METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina B.Abd-el-Malek; Nagwa A.Badran; Hossam S.Hassan

    2002-01-01

    An investigation is made of the magnetic Rayleigh problem where a semi-infinite plate is given an impulsive motion and thereafter moves with constant velocity in a nonNewtonian power law fluid of infinite extent. The solution of this highly non-linear problem is obtained by means of the transformation group theoretic approach. The one-parameter group transformation reduces the number of independent variables by one and the governing partial differential equation with the boundary conditions reduce to an ordinary differential equation with the appropriate boundary conditions. Effect of the some parameters on the velocity u ( y, t) has been studied and the results are plotted.

  5. MHD mixed convection flow of power law non-Newtonian fluids over an isothermal vertical wavy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei Nejad, Mehrzad; Javaherdeh, K.; Moslemi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Mixed convection flow of electrically conducting power law fluids along a vertical wavy surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied numerically. Prandtl coordinate transformation together with the spline alternating direction implicit method is employed to solve the boundary layer equations. The influences of both flow structure and dominant convection mode on the overall parameters of flow and heat transfer are well discussed. Also, the role of magnetic field in controlling the boundary layers is investigated. The variation of Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are studied as functions of wavy geometry, magnetic field, buoyancy force and material parameters. Results reveal the interrelation of the contributing factors.

  6. Global sensitivity analysis of computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    study involving the design of a working fluid for an Organic Ranking Cycle (ORC) design for power generation. Morris Screening is found to be favorable over Monte Carlo based standard regression. Monte Carlo based standard regression cannot be applied, because the current model cannot be sufficiently......This study compares two methods for global sensitivity analysis as a new approach for the identification and ranking of target properties in molecular design problems: A modified Morris Screening technique and Monte Carlo based standard regression. The two methodologies are highlighted in a case...

  7. Electronics, Controls, and a 3D-printed Soft Actuator Design for a Travel-Sized Fluid Power Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Yixian; Costas, Alfonso; Dabiri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    A 3D-printed soft actuator is developed as a critical subsystem for a miniature forklift. The scope of this project gears towards increasing students’ interest in STEM education, particularly in the fluid power field. The actuator is made in a stereolithography-type 3D-printer (Formlabs’ Form2 and Autodesk’s Ember) and is composed of different resin types which will provide the adequate actuation motion. This project tries to do the material analysis for the mixed resins and then compared to ...

  8. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively.

  9. Difusora de TV y diario de Shizuoka –Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tange, Kenzo

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available This building has a central shaft of 7.70 m diameter and 57 m height, made of steel and reinforced concrete, and it involves a basement and 12 floors. In spite of the small area of the site this building has become an outstanding feature of the urban landscape, and serves as a reference point to visitors to Tokyo who arrive along the motor roads or in the high speed Shinkauzen train, reputedly the fastest in the world.El edificio está organizado alrededor de un eje vertical constituido por una columna central —de 7,70 m de diámetro y 57 m de altura—, a base de estructura mixta —metálica y de hormigón armado—, y que consta de: sótano y doce plantas de altura. No obstante las extremadamente reducidas dimensiones del solar, el edificio «destaca» del conjunto urbano y sirve como punto de referencia a los viajeros que acceden al centro de Tokyo procedentes de las autopistas o del super-expreso Shinkauzen (el más rápido del mundo.

  10. Energy efficient fluid powered linear actuator with variable area and concentric chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-11-15

    Hydraulic actuation systems having concentric chambers, variable displacements and energy recovery capabilities include cylinders with pistons disposed inside of barrels. When operating in energy consuming modes, high speed valves pressurize extension chambers or retraction chambers to provide enough force to meet or counteract an opposite load force. When operating in energy recovery modes, high speed valves return a working fluid from extension chambers or retraction chambers, which are pressurized by a load, to an accumulator for later use.

  11. Heat Transfer Fluid Temperature Control in a Thermoelectric Solar Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric solar plants transform solar energy into electricity. Unlike photovoltaic plants, the sun’s energy heats a fluid (heat transfer fluid (HTF and this, in turn, exchanges its energy, generating steam. Finally, the steam generates electricity in a Rankine cycle. One of the main advantages of this double conversion (sun energy to heat in the HTF-Rankine cycle is the fact that it facilitates energy storage without using batteries. It is possible to store the heat energy in melted salts in such a way that this energy will be recovered when necessary, i.e., during the night. These molten salts are stored in containers in a liquid state at high temperature. The HTF comes into the solar field at a given temperature and increases its energy thanks to the solar collectors. In order to optimize the sun to HTF energy transference, it is necessary to keep an adequate temperature control of the fluid at the output of the solar fields. This paper describes three different algorithms to control the HTF output temperature.

  12. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  13. The axisymmetric long-wave interfacial stability of core-annular flow of power-law fluid with surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Wei Sun; Jie Peng; Ke-Qin Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The long wave stability of core-annular flow of power-law fluids with an axial pressure gradient is investigated at low Reynolds number.The interface between the two fluids is populated with an insoluble surfactant.The analytic solution for the growth rate of perturbation is obtained with long wave approximation.We are mainly concerned with the effects of shear-thinning/thickening property and interfacial surfactant on the flow stability.The results show that the influence of shear-thinning/thickening property accounts to the change of the capillary number.For a clean interface,the shear-thinning property enhances the capillary instability when the interface is close to the pipe wall.The converse is true when the interface is close to the pipe centerline.For shear-thickening fluids,the situation is reversed.When the interface is close to the pipe centerline,the capillary instability can be restrained due to the influence of surfactant.A parameter set can be found under which the flow is linearly stable.

  14. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-11-27

    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  16. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines.

  17. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of gas flow characteristics of the high-power CW CO2 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyau Huang; Youqing Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ To increase the photoelectronic conversion efficiency of the single discharge tube and to meet the requirements of the laser cutting system, optimization of the discharge tube structure and gas flow field is necessary. We present a computational fluid dynamic model to predict the gas flow characteristics of high-power fast-axial flow CO2 laser. A set of differential equations is used to describe the operation of the laser. Gas flow characteristics, are calculated. The effects of gas velocity and turbulence intensity on discharge stability are studied. Computational results are compared with experimental values, and a good agreement is observed. The method presented and the results obtained can make the design process more efficient.%To increase the photoelectronic conversion efficiency of the single discharge tube and to meet the requirements of the laser cutting system, optimization of the discharge tube structure and gas flow field is necessary. We present a computational fluid dynamic model to predict the gas flow characteristics of high-power fast-axial flow CO2 laser. A set of differential equations is used to describe the operation of the laser. Gas flow characteristics, are calculated. The effects of gas velocity and turbulence intensity on discharge stability are studied. Computational results are compared with experimental values, and a good agreement is observed. The method presented and the results obtained can make the design process more efficient.

  18. Minimizing the acoustic power radiated by a fluid-loaded curved panel excited by turbulent boundary layer flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Micah R; Hambric, Stephen A

    2014-11-01

    In order to address noise control problems in the design stage, structural-acoustic optimization procedures can be used to find the optimal design for reduced noise or vibration. However, most structural-acoustic optimization procedures are not general enough to include both heavy fluid loading and complex forcing functions. Additionally, it can be difficult to determine and assess trade-offs between weight and sound radiation. A structural-acoustic optimization approach is presented for minimizing the radiated power of structures with heavy fluid loading excited by complex forcing functions. The procedure is demonstrated on a curved underwater panel excited by a point drive and by turbulent boundary layer flow. To facilitate more efficient analysis, an uncorrelated pressure assumption is made for the turbulent boundary layer forcing function. The thicknesses of groups of elements were used as the design variables with an adaptive covariance matrix evolutionary strategy as the search algorithm. The objective function was a weighted sum of total sound power and panel mass and the Pareto front was computed to show the optimum trade-off between the two objectives. The optimal designs are presented which illustrate the best methods for reducing radiated sound and mass simultaneously.

  19. MHD mixed convection analysis in an open channel by obstructed Poiseuille flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Khan Md.; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    This paper demonstrates magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a rectangular obstacle at the entrance region using non-Newtonian power law fluid. The obstacle is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas the inlet and top wall of the channel are maintained at a temperature lower than obstacle temperature. Poiseuille flow is implemented as the inlet velocity boundary condition. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method has been appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem has been solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 - 10) at a constant Reynolds number (Re = 100), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 - 100), power index (n = 0.6 - 1.6). The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study has been illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. It is observed that increment of Hartmann number (Ha) tends to decrease the heat transfer rate up to a critical value (Ha = 20) and then let increase the heat transfer performance. Thus maximum heat transfer rate has been recorded for higher Hartmann number and Rayleigh number in case of pseudo-plastic (n = 0.6) non-Newtonian fluid flow.

  20. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  1. Influence of the type of working fluid in the lower cycle and superheated steam parameters in the upper cycle on effectiveness of operation of binary power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachel Aleksander A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented have been the results of the analysis of effectiveness of operation of binary power plant consisting of combined two Clausius-Rankine cycles, namely the binary cycle with water as a working fluid in the upper cycle and organic substance as a working fluid in the lower cycle, as well as a single fluid component power plant operating also in line with the C-R cycle for superheated steam, with water as a working fluid. The influence of the parameters of superheated steam in the upper cycle has been assessed as well as the type of working fluid in the lower cycle. The results of calculations have been referred to the single-cycle classical steam power plant operating at the same parameters of superheated steam and the same mass flow rate of water circulating in both cycles. On the basis of accomplished analysis it has been shown that the binary power plant shows a greater power with respect to the reference power plant.

  2. Signal-based Gas Leakage Detection for Fluid Power Accumulators in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Sepehri, Nariman; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a signal-based fault detection method for identifying gas leakage in hydraulic accumulators used in wind turbines. The method uses Multiresolution Signal Decomposition (MSD) based on wavelets for feature extraction from a~single fluid pressure...... measurement located close to the accumulator. Gas leakage is shown to create increased variations in this pressure signal. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of the detail coefficient Level 9 from the MSD is found as the most sensitive and robust fault indicator of gas leakage. The method is verified...

  3. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  4. The flow of a power-law fluid in the near-wake of a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Ladeinde, Foluso; Bluestein, Danny

    2006-08-01

    The analysis of the near-wake flow downstream of a flat plate is reported in this paper for the case of a non-Newtonian (power-law) constitutive model. To our knowledge, the present paper is the first to address this problem, as previous work on near-wakes has been limited to the use of a Newtonian model. The motivation for this work comes from the biomedical engineering problem of blood flow around the bileaflet of a mechanical heart valve. In the present paper, the series method has been used to calculate the flow near the centerline of the wake, while an asymptotic method has been used for larger distances from the centerline. The effects of power-law inlet conditions on the wake flow are reported for various values of the power-law index n, within the range 0.7≤n ≤1.3. The present analysis has been successfully validated by comparing the results for n =1 to the near-wake results by Goldstein [Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 26, 1 (1930)]. We generalized the equations for arbitrary values of n, without any special considerations for n =1. Therefore, the accurate results observed for n =1 validate our procedure as a whole. The first major finding is that a fluid with smaller n develops faster downstream, such that decreasing n leads to monotonically increasing velocities compared to fluids with large n values. Another finding is that the non-Newtonian effects become more significant as the downstream distance increases. Finally, these effects tend to be more pronounced in the vicinity of the wake centerline compared to larger y locations.

  5. Specific heating power of fatty acid and phospholipid stabilized magnetic fluids in an alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuyper, M de; Soenen, S J H [Interdisciplinary Research Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven-Campus Kortrijk, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Hodenius, M; Ivanova, G; Baumann, M; Paciok, E; Schmitz-Rode, T [Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Eckert, T [Department of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: hodenius@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    2008-05-21

    Magnetic fluids (MFs) with a similar narrow size distribution of the iron oxide core were stabilized with lauric acid (MF 1), oleate (MF 2) or, after dialysis in the presence of liposomes, with phospholipid molecules (MF 3 and MF 4, respectively). The hydrodynamic sizes of the MF 1 and MF 3 were half those found for MF 2 and MF 4. The MFs were exposed to inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 200 kHz and a maximum magnetic field strength of 3.8 kA m{sup -1}. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 294 {+-} 42 (MF 1), 214 {+-} 16 (MF 2), 297 {+-} 13 (MF 3) and 213 {+-} 6 W g{sup -1} Fe (MF 4) were obtained. The data for MF 2 and MF 4 were identical to those found for the commercially available ferucarbotran. The biomedical relevance of the phospholipid-coated MFs is briefly discussed.

  6. Specific heating power of fatty acid and phospholipid stabilized magnetic fluids in an alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuyper, M.; Hodenius, M.; Ivanova, G.; Baumann, M.; Paciok, E.; Eckert, T.; Soenen, S. J. H.; Schmitz-Rode, T.

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic fluids (MFs) with a similar narrow size distribution of the iron oxide core were stabilized with lauric acid (MF 1), oleate (MF 2) or, after dialysis in the presence of liposomes, with phospholipid molecules (MF 3 and MF 4, respectively). The hydrodynamic sizes of the MF 1 and MF 3 were half those found for MF 2 and MF 4. The MFs were exposed to inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 200 kHz and a maximum magnetic field strength of 3.8 kA m-1. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 294 ± 42 (MF 1), 214 ± 16 (MF 2), 297 ± 13 (MF 3) and 213 ± 6 W g-1 Fe (MF 4) were obtained. The data for MF 2 and MF 4 were identical to those found for the commercially available ferucarbotran. The biomedical relevance of the phospholipid-coated MFs is briefly discussed.

  7. Sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime for a power-law fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    A scaling analysis is undertaken for the load balance in sliding friction in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, with a particular emphasis on power-law shear-thinning typical of a structured liquid. It is argued that the shear-thinning regime is mechanically unstable if the power-law index n  <  1/2, where n is the exponent that relates the shear stress to the shear rate. Consequently the Stribeck (friction) curve should be discontinuous, with possible hysteresis. Further analysis suggests that normal stress and flow transience (stress overshoot) do not destroy this basic picture, although they may provide stabilising mechanisms at higher shear rates. Extensional viscosity is also expected to be insignificant unless the Trouton ratio is large. A possible application to shear thickening in non-Brownian particulate suspensions is indicated.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there is a large availability of low-temperature heat sources in different applications such as waste heat in chemical industries and refrigeration plants as well as renewable energy sources such as biomass combustion, geothermal and solar heat sources. Power cycles are an important technology to convert such waste heat sources into usable energy. So far the low-temperature heat is not utilized efficiently for electricity generation.To optimize the heat transfer process and th...

  9. Delayed Neutrons Effect on Power Reactor with Variation of Fluid Fuel Velocity at MSR Fuji-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro Aji, Indarta; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Novitrian; Irwanto, Dwi; Waris, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    As the nuclear reactor operate with liquid fuel, controlling velocity of the fuel flow on the Molten salt reactor very influence on the neutron kinetics in that reactor system. The effect of the pace fuel changes to the populations number of neutrons and power density on vertical direction (1 dimension) from the first until fifth year reactor operating had been analyzed on this research. This research had been conducted on MSR Fuji-12 with a two meters core high, and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as fuel composition respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section obtained from ouput of SRAC (neutronic calculation code has been developed by JAEA, with JENDL-4.0 as data library on the SRAC calculation) was being used for the calculation process of this research. The calculation process of this research had been performed numerically by SOR (successive over relaxation) and finite difference methode, as well as using C programing language. From the calculation, regarding to the value of power density resulting from delayed neutrons, concluded that 20 m/s is the optimum fuel flow velocity in all the years reactor had operated. Where the increases number of power are inversely proportional with the fuel flow speed.

  10. Entropy Generation Analysis of Power-Law Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Caused by Micropatterned Moving Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Yazdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the first and second law analyses of power-law non-Newtonian flow over embedded open parallel microchannels within micropatterned permeable continuous moving surface are examined at prescribed surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient, and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are evaluated. It is noted that the presence of the shear thinning (pseudoplastic fluids creates entropy along the surface, with an opposite effect resulting from shear thickening (dilatant fluids.

  11. Kinetic modeling of a high power fast-axial-flow CO2 laser with computational fluid dynamics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for the simulation of fast-axial-flow CO2 laser is developed.The model which is solved by CFD software uses a set of dynamic differential equations to describe the dynamic process in one discharge tube.The velocity,temperature,pressure and turbulence energy distributions in discharge passage are presented.There is a good agreement between the theoretical prediction and the experimental results.This result indicates that the parameters of the laser have significant effect on the flow distribution in the discharge passage.It is helpful to optimize the output of high power CO2 laser by mastering its kinetic characteristics.

  12. Product Analysis and Design Engineering Approach for MScand PhD Students´ Research and Self-Learning Competence in Mechatronics and Fluid Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with engineering education having the focus on research skills as well as experimental based project organised didactic self-learning within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent fluid power components and systems. Experiences with inter......The paper deals with engineering education having the focus on research skills as well as experimental based project organised didactic self-learning within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent fluid power components and systems. Experiences...... working within mechatronics and fluid power in order to make successful business in companies as well as at universities. Most of the projects are in cooperation with companies....

  13. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Maraldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(PH oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4 depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage.

  14. Energy Cost of Avoiding Pressure Oscillations in a Discrete Fluid Power Force System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    -known. This paper builds upon theoretical findings on how shaping of the valve opening may reduce the cylinder pressure oscillations. The current paper extents the work by implementing the valve opening characteristics reducing the pressure oscillations on a full scale power take-off test-bench for wave energy...... converters. Further the energy losses introduced during the shifting period is investigated and compared for two valve opening algorithms. The investigation of the energy loss is utilised to quantify the importance of a fast valve switching and the energy cost of reducing pressure oscillations. The paper...

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Ventilation Study for the Human Powered Centrifuge at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2012-01-01

    The Human Powered Centrifuge (HPC) is a facility that is planned to be installed on board the International Space Station (ISS) to enable crew exercises under the artificial gravity conditions. The HPC equipment includes a "bicycle" for long-term exercises of a crewmember that provides power for rotation of HPC at a speed of 30 rpm. The crewmember exercising vigorously on the centrifuge generates the amount of carbon dioxide of about two times higher than a crewmember in ordinary conditions. The goal of the study is to analyze the airflow and carbon dioxide distribution within Pressurized Multipurpose Module (PMM) cabin when HPC is operating. A full unsteady formulation is used for airflow and CO2 transport CFD-based modeling with the so-called sliding mesh concept when the HPC equipment with the adjacent Bay 4 cabin volume is considered in the rotating reference frame while the rest of the cabin volume is considered in the stationary reference frame. The rotating part of the computational domain includes also a human body model. Localized effects of carbon dioxide dispersion are examined. Strong influence of the rotating HPC equipment on the CO2 distribution detected is discussed.

  16. Controller Development for a Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Fluid Power Valve for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian

    by a single pump the fluid is distributed through valves. A valve works by controlling a fluid stream through the valve by varying the opening of an orifice. The disadvantage by this is that when controlling the fluid flow rate a pressure drop is created across the orifice. This results in a throttle loss......, which is commonly used in many types of mobile applications, is a 4-way proportional valve. In this type of valve two fluid streams are controlled: One fluid stream from a pump to a fluid consumer and one fluid stream from the fluid consumer to a fluid reservoir. In a 4-way proportional valve...... it is necessary to use a separate control of the two fluid streams to minimise the throttling losses. The purpose of the research documented in this dissertation is to investigate how a 4-way proportional valve may be build to fulfil the increasing demands with regard to energy efficiency and functionality...

  17. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  18. Life time analysis of thermal oil used as heat transfer fluid in CSP power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grirate, H.; Zari, N.; Elmchaouri, A.; Molina, S.; Couturier, R.

    2016-05-01

    The present work describes stability testing of hydrogenated terphenyl (HT), thermal oil available in the market and considered as a potential HTF for CSP power plants. Before ageing tests, hydrogenated terphenyl was compared to Biphenyl/diphenyl oxide (DPO) at the initial state, which is the most commonly used HTF in CSP plants (SEGS VI and ANDASOL I) and included as a comparison material in the NREL HTF requirements. The (HT) stability tests were performed in sealed ampoules (stainless steel) under inert gas blanket in the range of temperature between 250°C and 350°C (max temperature of HT) for 500 hrs. After ageing, many investigations were made to track the thermal oil behavior after extended time over a range of temperature, such as chemical composition, flash point, viscosity, acid value…. Laboratory testing indicated that the hydrogenated terphenyl (HT) is stable after ageing process at a temperature of about 250°C. Nevertheless, it has shown signs of serious thermal cracking at elevated temperature which is reflected by low flash point temperature. Therefore, the system must be purged effectively to purge the volatile decomposition products.

  19. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  20. Lessons from Japan: Resilience after Tokyo and Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 1995 Japan experienced the world’s first major terrorist attack using chemical weapons by a little-known religious cult called Aum Shinrikyo. The attack on the Tokyo subway, which killed 13 people, was the first lethal case of a non-state actor using a chemical agent against a civilian population. In March 2011, following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor experienced a full meltdown releasing radiation into the surrounding area. The seemingly unhurried government reaction provided conflicting information to Japanese citizens, slowing evacuation and protective actions. Government failure is cited as a significant factor in the severity of the nuclear disaster in three investigations conducted after the incident. This article defines resilience and raises the question of whether the U.S. government has the ability to address the issues raised by the two case studies. There are four primary lessons of these two case studies from Japan: Trust is essential; two-way communications are vital; someone or something will always unexpectedly fail to act appropriately, while others will provide surprising support and; finally, recovery is long-term.

  1. [Discussion of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhong, Ding-Wen; Xu, Da-Zhao; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Li, Jing; Shu, Fu-Zheng; Liu, Yu-Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    The contents of 2011 Tokyo Declaration on Japanese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Declaration for short) and its effect on development situation, current status, features, opportunities and challenges of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion are introduced, some proposals brought up in the Declaration are analyzed as well. The Declaration summarizes six characteristics of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, including paying great attention to palpation techniques such as pulse and abdominal diagnosis, always selecting response point in the meridian during acupuncture treatment, etc. Also six proposals have been brought up to promote the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, such as being devoted to spread the latest knowledge of acupuncture and moxibustion to medical professionals and the public in order to get correct understanding and proper evaluation, etc. What's more, the Declaration makes a prospection of improving international academic exchange and promoting the globalization of acupuncture and moxibustion and so on. The Declaration is served as a link between past and future in the history and developing process of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion, which has a great meaning to the development of Japanese acupuncture and moxibustion. We should have a clear understanding of weakness and strength in the development of acupuncture and moxibustion, seize the opportunity and develop science of acupuncture and moxibustion with our own characteristics, which makes more contribution to development of international acupuncture and moxibustion.

  2. Urban earthquake simulation of Tokyo metropolis using full K computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kohei; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Reflecting detailed urban geographic information data to earthquake simulation of cities is expected to improve the reliability of damage estimates for future earthquakes. Such simulations require high resolution computation of large and complex domains and thus fast and scalable finite element solver capable of utilizing supercomputers are needed. Targeting massively parallel scalar supercomputers, we have been developing a fast low-ordered unstructured finite element solver by combining multi-precision arithmetic, multi-grid method, predictors, and techniques for utilizing multi-cores and SIMD units of CPUs. In this talk, I will show the developed method and its scalability/performance on the K computer. Together, I will show some small scale measurement results on Intel Haswell CPU servers for checking performance portability. As an application example, I will show an urban earthquake simulation targeted on a 10 km by 9 km area of central Tokyo with 320 thousand structures. Here the surface ground is modeled by 33 billion elements and 133 billion degrees-of-freedom, and its seismic response is computed using the whole K computer with 82944 compute nodes. The fast and scalable finite element method can be applied to earthquake wave propagation problems through earth crust or elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses and is expected to be useful for improving resolution of such simulations in the future.

  3. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  4. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  5. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  6. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  7. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  8. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  9. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  10. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  11. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  12. Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mines, Gregory L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bloomfield, K. Kit (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.

  13. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan.

  14. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  15. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined.

  16. On/off multi-poppet valve for switching manifold in discrete fluid power force system PTO in wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    Fluid power systems are the leading technology for power take off systems in ocean wave energy converters. However, fluid power systems often suffer from poor efficiency, especially in part loads. This degrades the PTO system efficiency and therefore lowers the energy production. To overcome...... less than 10 ms. The pilot stage is directly actuated and utilises internal valve pressure as supply and an external tank connection as drain. The current paper presents the multi-disciplinary design process leading to the final valve design. This includes the geometric design of the main stage......, the choice of pilot valve, structural mechanical issues and modelling and simulation of various valve configurations. Hence, a mechatronic design process is utilised to choose the best valve configuration....

  17. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of CO2 emission from a thermal power plant in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toja-Silva, Francisco; Chen, Jia; Hachinger, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, a societal challenge for the European Union, is affecting all regions in Europe and has a profound impact on society and environment. It is now clear that the present global warming period is due to the strong anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, occurring at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, the identification and control of the greenhouse gas sources has a great relevance. Since the GHG emissions from cities are the largest human contribution to climate change, the present investigation focuses on the urban environment. Bottom-up annual emission inventories are compiled for most countries. However, a rigorous approach requires to perform experimental measurements in order to verify the official estimates. Measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of GHG (XGHG) can be used for this. To comprehensively detect and quantify GHG emission sources, these punctual column data, however, have to be extended to the surrounding urban map, requiring a deep understanding of the gas transport. The resulting emission estimation will serve several practical purposes, e.g. the verification of official emission rates and the determination of trends in urban emissions. They will enable the administration to make targeted and economically efficient decisions about mitigation options, and help to stop unintentional and furtive releases. With this aim, this investigation presents a completely new approach to the analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel thermal power plants in urban environments by combining differential column measurements with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in order to deeply understand the experimental conditions. The case study is a natural gas-fueled cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) thermal power plant inside the city of Munich (Germany). The software used for the simulations (OpenFOAM) was modified in order to use the most advanced RANS turbulence modeling (i.e. Durbin) and

  18. Effect of power-law fluid damping in a shock isolation system%幂律流体阻尼的隔冲特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春辉; 汪玉; 杜俭业; 温肇东

    2015-01-01

    基于幂律流体阻尼特性,建立了单自由度冲击隔离系统数学模型,分析了幂律流体的分段阻尼力特性与隔冲耗能特性,并讨论了速度相关指数、固有频率、冲击载荷幅值等因素对系统隔冲性能的影响。研究结果表明:当激励信号产生的流体相对速度较小时,剪切稀化流体的隔冲性能优于线性阻尼和剪切稠化流体阻尼,流体相对速度较大时,剪切稠化流体的隔冲性能优于线性阻尼和剪切稀化流体。幂律流体的参数影响分析为幂律流体阻尼器的设计和实际应用提供了一定的参考。%Based on damping characteristics of power-law fluid, a mathematical model of single-freedom shock isolation system was established. Segmental damping force characteristics and absorption character-istics of power-law fluid were analyzed. Besides, the numerical analysis related to the effects of these pa-rameters (velocity index, natural frequency and shock excitation amplitude) on shock isolation performance was carried out. The results show that the impact resistance performance of shear thinning fluid shock iso-lation system is better than the linear damping and shear thickening fluid shock system at the lesser rela-tive velocity. The impact resistance performance of shear thickening fluid shock isolation system is better than the linear damping and shear thinning fluid shock system at the biggist relative velocity. The paramet-ric influence analyses of the power-law fluid provide a feasible theoretical basis for the design and appli-cation of the power-law fluid damper.

  19. e8 Tokyo summit 2010 : smart grid technology innovation group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States); Ratnayake, A.; Patel, A. [Duke Energy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bornstain, D.; Hercberg, S. [Electricity de France, Paris (France); Wright, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Stein, D.; Stromsather, J. [Ente Nazionale per l' Energia eLettrica, Rome (Italy); Simard, G.; Parent, D.; Menard, B. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Michiko, N.; Takayuki, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fest, C. [RWE AG, Pulheim (Germany); Okamoto, H.; Shibata, N. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The Tokyo summit on smart grid technology was attended by members of the e8 to promote the smart use of electricity in climate change mitigation. A list of initiatives was presented to maximize the benefits of the smart use of electricity to advance global solutions to climate change. The smart grid uses the basic design of today's electrical system, however, it has many more monitors, sensors, switching devices, and sophisticated communications that will allow it to be a highly automated power delivery system. The purpose of this report was to examine e8 member company experiences in Smart Grid deployment and provide recommendations that could help speed up the deployment of smart grid across e8 members and the world in general. The regulatory, financial, technical, policy and public communication/education issues that could accelerate or inhibit deployment of the smart grid were presented. The subsections of the report were entitled: drivers to adopt the smart grid; leading the world to a low carbon society; empowering the customer; improving system/network performance; improving system power flow and energy; and barriers to adoption of the smart grid. The report also discussed the achievement of a smart grid and its applicable components, such as meter technology; telecommunications technologies; demand-side technologies; distributed energy resources; grid intelligence and tools; customer offers; policy and regulatory needs; and financial commitment. The major successes and challenges of the plan and process were also identified. Recommendations were targeted at the role of the utility industry; research and development/technology needs; policy and regulations; customer-side recommendations; business models or opportunities; stakeholders; public-private partnerships; and developing nations. It was concluded that the e8 can play a role in overcoming barriers faced by all member countries and accelerating the development and the deployment of the smart grid

  20. Exact power series solutions of the structure equations of the general relativistic isotropic fluid stars with linear barotropic and polytropic equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Obtaining exact solutions of the spherically symmetric general relativistic gravitational field equations describing the interior structure of an isotropic fluid sphere is a long standing problem in theoretical and mathematical physics. The usual approach to this problem consists mainly in the numerical investigation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and of the mass continuity equations, which describes the hydrostatic stability of the dense stars. In the present paper we introduce an alternative approach for the study of the relativistic fluid sphere, based on the relativistic mass equation, obtained by eliminating the energy density in the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite its apparent complexity, the relativistic mass equation can be solved exactly by using a power series representation for the mass, and the Cauchy convolution for infinite power series. We obtain exact series solutions for general relativistic dense astrophysical objects described by the linear barotropic and the polytropic equations of state, respectively. For the polytropic case we obtain the exact power series solution corresponding to arbitrary values of the polytropic index n. The explicit form of the solution is presented for the polytropic index n=1, and for the indexes n=1/2 and n=1/5, respectively. The case of n=3 is also considered. In each case the exact power series solution is compared with the exact numerical solutions, which are reproduced by the power series solutions truncated to seven terms only. The power series representations of the geometric and physical properties of the linear barotropic and polytropic stars are also obtained.

  1. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested. PMID:28373991

  2. Coupled optical-thermal-fluid and structural analyses of novel light-trapping tubular panels for concentrating solar power receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius E.; Ho, Clifford K.

    2015-09-01

    Traditional tubular receivers used in concentrating solar power are formed using tubes connected to manifolds to form panels; which in turn are arranged in cylindrical or rectangular shapes. Previous and current tubular receivers, such as the ones used in Solar One, Solar Two, and most recently the Ivanpah solar plants, have used a black paint coating to increase the solar absorptance of the receiver. However, these coatings degrade over time and must be reapplied, increasing the receiver maintenance cost. This paper presents the thermal efficiency evaluation of novel receiver tubular panels that have a higher effective solar absorptance due to a light-trapping effect created by arranging the tubes in each panel into unique geometric configurations. Similarly, the impact of the incidence angle on the effective solar absorptance and thermal efficiency is evaluated. The overarching goal of this work is to achieve effective solar absorptances of ~90% and thermal efficiencies above 85% without using an absorptance coating. Several panel geometries were initially proposed and were down-selected based on structural analyses considering the thermal and pressure loading requirements of molten salt and supercritical carbon-dioxide receivers. The effective solar absorptance of the chosen tube geometries and panel configurations were evaluated using the ray-tracing modeling capabilities of SolTrace. The thermal efficiency was then evaluated by coupling computational fluid dynamics with the ray-tracing results using ANSYS Fluent. Compared to the base case analysis (flat tubular panel), the novel tubular panels have shown an increase in effective solar absorptance and thermal efficiency by several percentage points.

  3. Dissolved platinum in rainwater, river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Tsutsumi, Makoto; Ferrer i Santos, Antoni; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2016-10-01

    Platinum, among the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in various products such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Consequently, the concentration of Pt in urban aquatic environments might be increasing. However, little is known about the distributions and geochemical cycles of Pt in aquatic environments because its overall concentration remains low. In this study, we examined dissolved Pt in river water and seawater around Tokyo Bay and Otsuchi Bay (Iwate Prefecture, Japan) and rainwater in the Tokyo area. To determine sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt, we used isotope-dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. We observed seasonal variation in the dissolved Pt concentrations in Tokyo rainwater in 2002; higher concentrations were found from January to March, which might be related to the pH of rainwaters. At the source of the Arakawa River in the greater Tokyo area, the dissolved Pt concentration was found to be similar to that in rainwater. Further downstream, the dissolved Pt concentration increased sharply, which seemingly reflects the anthropogenic input of Pt into the river. In a rural area in Japan (Otsuchi Bay), the dissolved Pt concentrations were lower than in Tokyo Bay. In this area, a sharp increase in dissolved Pt concentrations was observed in a high salinity region. Contrasting Pt distribution patterns between urban and rural areas indicate that strong anthropogenic Pt sources exist in urban estuaries and that geochemical processes within estuaries affect the Pt distribution.

  4. Integrated working fluid-thermodynamic cycle design of organic Rankine cycle power systems for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables...... and otherwise highresource demands, which through conventional methods cannot be addressed. The global optimal designwas a 1.2MW cycle with 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorohexane as the new fluid. The fluid has no ozone depletionpotential and a global warming potential under the regulatory limit. By using...... the simultaneousdesign approach the optimum solution was found in 5.04 s, while a decomposed approach found thesame solution in 5.77 h. However, the decomposed approach provided insights on the correlationbetween the fluid and cycle design variables by analyzing all possible solutions. It was shown that thehigh...

  5. Exact power series solutions of the structure equations of the general relativistic isotropic fluid stars with linear barotropic and polytropic equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, T

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining exact solutions of the spherically symmetric general relativistic gravitational field equations describing the interior structure of an isotropic fluid sphere is a long standing problem in theoretical and mathematical physics. The usual approach to this problem consists mainly in the numerical investigation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and of the mass continuity equations, which describes the hydrostatic stability of the dense stars. In the present paper we introduce an alternative approach for the study of the relativistic fluid sphere, based on the relativistic mass equation, obtained by eliminating the energy density in the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite its apparent complexity, the relativistic mass equation can be solved exactly by using a power series representation for the mass, and the Cauchy convolution for infinite power series. We obtain exact series solutions for general relativistic dense astrophysical objects described by the linear barotropic and the polytropic equa...

  6. Comment on Effects of transverse magnetic field on mixed convection in wall plume of power-law fluids, by Gorla, Lee, Nakamura and Pop, IJES, 1993

    CERN Document Server

    Pantokratoras, Asterios

    2007-01-01

    Comment on Effects of transverse magnetic field on mixed convection in wall plume of power-law fluids, by Rama Subba Reddy Gorla, Jin Kook Lee, Shoichiro Nakamura and Ioan Pop [International Journal of Engineering Science, 31 (1993) 1035-1045]. In the above paper the authors treat the boundary layer mixed convection flow of a power-law fluid along a vertical adiabatic surface in a transverse magnetic field with a steady thermal source at the leading edge. The governing non-similar equations are solved by means of a novel finite difference scheme. However, there are two fundamental errors in this paper and the presented results do not have any practical value.

  7. Electro-osmotic flow of power-law fluid and heat transfer in a micro-channel with effects of Joule heating and thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, G. C.; Mondal, A.; Sinha, A.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for studying the electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer of bio-fluids in a micro-channel in the presence of Joule heating effects. The flow of bio-fluid is governed by the non-Newtonian power-law fluid model. The effects of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been examined in the case of hydrophobic channel. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation governing the electrical double layer field and a body force generated by the applied electric potential field are taken into consideration. The results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the channel is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the Stern and diffuse layers. The expressions for flow characteristics such as velocity, temperature, shear stress and Nusselt number have been derived analytically under the purview of the present model. The results estimated on the basis of the data available in the existing scientific literatures are presented graphically. The effects of thermal radiation have an important bearing on the therapeutic procedure of hyperthermia, particularly in understanding the heat transfer in micro-channel in the presence of electric potential. The dimensionless Joule heating parameter has a reducing impact on Nusselt number for both pseudo-plastic and dilatant fluids, nevertheless its impact on Nusselt number is more pronounced for dilatant fluid. Furthermore, the effect of viscous dissipation has a significant role in controlling heat transfer and should not be neglected.

  8. Study on flow of power-law fluid through an infinite array of circular cylinders with immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ye-Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct forcing method for the simulation of particulate flows based on immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the flow of power-law fluid through an infinite array of circular cylinders with cylinder separations of 20a (a is the cylinder radius with laminar shedding behind cylinders. Time averaged drag coefficient, maximum of lift coefficient and Strouhal number are given out with the power-law index in the range of 0.4 ≤ n ≤ 1.8 and Re in the range of 50 ≤ Re ≤ 140.

  9. Simultaneous Effects of MHD and Thermal Radiation on the Mixed Convection Stagnation-Point Flow of a Power-Law Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Hayat; M. Mustafa; S. Obaidat

    2011-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection stagnation-point flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids towards a stretching surface is investigated.The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used in finding the series solution for a nonlinear problem.Closed form solutions for velocity and temperature fields are presented in the limiting cases.Graphical results are shown.It is found that velocity and temperature are decreasing functions of power law index.Numerical computations for shear stress coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported.The present results are also compared with the existing numerical solution in a limiting sense.

  10. The use of organic zeotropic mixture with high temperature glide as a working fluid in medium-temperature vapor power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the idea of using organic substances as working fluids in vapor power plants, in order to convert the low and medium temperature thermal energy sources into electrical energy. The calculation results of the power plant efficiency for butane-ethane zeotropic mixtures of different mass compositions, for the power plant supplied with hot water having a temperature of 120°C. Based on the results of thermal-flow calculations it was found that the use of zeotropic mixture does not allow to increase the efficiency and output of the power plant (these values appeared as slightly lower ones. However, it was found that, through the selection of a mixture of sufficiently large temperature glide, the heat exchange surface of the condenser can be reduced or a co-generation system can be implemented.

  11. Maximum power output of a class of irreversible non-regeneration heat engines with a non-uniform working fluid and linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Maximum power output of a class of irreversible non-regeneration heat engines with non-uniform working fluid,in which heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obey the linear phenomenological heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T-1)],are studied in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the upper bounds of power of the heat engine for the lumped-parameter model and the distributed-parameter model,respectively. The results show that the maximum power output of the heat engine in the distributed-parameter model is less than or equal to that in the lumped-parameter model,which could provide more realistic guidelines for real heat engines. Analytical solutions of the maximum power output are obtained for the irreversible heat engines working between constant temperature reservoirs. For the irreversible heat engine operating between variable temperature reservoirs,a numerical example for the lumped-parameter model is provided by numerical calculation. The effects of changes of reservoir’s temperature on the maximum power of the heat engine are analyzed. The obtained results are,in addition,compared with those obtained with Newtonian heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T)].

  12. Magneto-Hydro Dynamic Flow and Heat Transfer of Nonnewtonian Power-Law Fluid Over a Non-Linear Stretching Surface with Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of an electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid flowing over a non-linear stretching surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field taking into consideration viscous dissipation effects is investigated. The stretching velocity, the temperature and the transverse magnetic field are assumed to vary in a power-law with the distance from the origin. The flow is induced due to an infinite elastic sheet which is stretched in its own plane. The governing equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformations. By using quasi-linearization techniques first linearize the non linear momentum equation is linearized and then the coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme. The numerical solution is found to be dependent on several governing parameters, including the magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Eckert number, velocity exponent parameter, temperature exponent parameter, modified Prandtl number and heat source/sink parameter. A systematic study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these parameters on the fluid velocity and the temperature distribution in the boundary layer. The results for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are tabulated and discussed.

  13. Survey of Properties of Key Single and Mixture Halide Salts for Potential Application as High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Jen Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high energy efficiency in a concentrated solar thermal power plant, more and more high concentration ratio to solar radiation are applied to collect high temperature thermal energy in modern solar power technologies. This incurs the need of a heat transfer fluid being able to work at more and more high temperatures to carry the heat from solar concentrators to a power plant. To develop the third generation heat transfer fluids targeting at a high working temperature at least 800 ℃, a research team from University of Arizona, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Arizona State University proposed to use eutectic halide salts mixtures in order to obtain the desired properties of low melting point, low vapor pressure, great stability at temperatures at least 800 ℃, low corrosion, and favorable thermal and transport properties. In this paper, a survey of the available thermal and transport properties of single and eutectic mixture of several key halide salts is conducted, providing information of great significance to researchers for heat transfer fluid development.

  14. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  15. Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae in crabs collected along the Arakawa River in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Hiromu; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kameoka, Yosuke; Arakawa, Kyoko; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2004-08-01

    Brackish water crabs infected with Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae have been reported in various regions in Japan. However, infected crabs have not been identified in Tokyo. We therefore collected the crab, Chiromantes dehaani, between August 2002 and July 2003 from 12 locations along the Arakawa River that flows through Tokyo. Of the 922 captured crabs, 177 (19%) from 6 locations were infected with Paragonimus metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae at these 6 locations ranged from 5 to 89%. The number of metacercariae per infected crab ranged from 1 to 190, with an average of 13.1. The morphological features of the metacercariae and of adult worms recovered from test rats infected with metacercariae showed that the metacercariae in the infected crabs were P. ohirai Miyazaki, 1939. The ITS2 sequence data support this conclusion. This paper is the first description of P. ohirai infection of crabs in Tokyo.

  16. Management and application of Geotechnical Data: The Geotechnical Data Information System of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Motomu; Ishimura, Kenji; Nakayama, Toshio

    1992-05-01

    In the Tokyo metropolis many geological surveys are carried out in conjunction with building construction work and urban base improvement undertakings. Furthermore, the Institute of Civil Engineering (ICE) of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has been conducting surveys on urban geology, land subsidence, and geodetics. Thus, ICE of TMG keeps a lot of geological data. In order to plan for a more effective use of these data, the Geotechnical Data Information System of Tokyo Metropolitan Government was organized in 1985, and since 1986, it has become fully implemented. This Geotechnical Data Information System has incorporated a relational data base into a mainframe computer, the NEC ACOS System 430, and as of March 1989 it can retrieve and graphically present borehole, deep-well, and groundwater data. The authors wish to introduce in this article the organizational structure of the Geotechnical Data Information System of TMG, a summary of the data base system, standards of input data, and applicable examples of the data base.

  17. Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution, source, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, H.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1987-09-01

    The distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in river sediments, suspended river particles, domestic wastes, and waste effluents around the Tokyo city area was investigated. LABs as well as LASs with alkyl carbon chain lengths in the range from 10 to 14 were found in all environmental samples and LAS-type synthetic detergents examined. These results indicate that LABs are carried into aquatic environments as a result of the use of synthetic detergents around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Further results are (1) LABs in urban river sediments originate predominantly from untreated domestic wastes, final effluents contributing only a minor portion of the LABs in sediments, (2) the isomeric composition of the LABs changes systematically during biodegradation, and (3) the ratio of LAS to LAB decreases as follows: commercial synthetic detergents > suspended particles in domestic wastes > river sediments > Tokyo Bay sediments.

  18. Final Technical Report: Using Solid Particles as Heat Transfer Fluid for use in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Aaron [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hrenya, Christine [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In today’s industrial economy, energy consumption has never been higher. Over the last 15 years the US alone has consumed an average of nearly 100 quadrillion BTUs per year [21]. A need for clean and renewable energy sources has become quite apparent. The SunShot Initiative is an ambitious effort taken on by the United States Department of Energy that targets the development of solar energy that is cost-competitive with other methods for generating electricity. Specifically, this work is concerned with the development of concentrating solar power plants (CSPs) with granular media as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) from the solar receiver. Unfortunately, the prediction of heat transfer in multiphase flows is not well understood. For this reason, our aim is to fundamentally advance the understanding of multiphase heat transfer, particularly in gas-solid flows, while providing quantitative input for the design of a near black body receiver (NBB) that uses solid grains (like sand) as the HTF. Over the course of this three-year project, a wide variety of contributions have been made to advance the state-of-the art description for non-radiative heat transfer in dense, gas-solid systems. Comparisons between a state-of-the-art continuum heat transfer model and discrete element method (DEM) simulations have been drawn. The results of these comparisons brought to light the limitations of the continuum model due to inherent assumptions in its derivation. A new continuum model was then developed for heat transfer at a solid boundary by rigorously accounting for the most dominant non-radiative heat transfer mechanism (particle-fluid-wall conduction). The new model is shown to be in excellent agreement with DEM data and captures the dependence of heat transfer on particle size, a dependency that previous continuum models were not capable of. DEM and the new continuum model were then employed to model heat transfer in a variety of receiver geometries. The results provided crucial

  19. A Computational Fluid Dynamic and Heat Transfer Model for Gaseous Core and Gas Cooled Space Power and Propulsion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, S.; Chen, G.

    1996-01-01

    A computational model based on the axisymmetric, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is developed to predict the convective, radiation and conductive heat transfer in high temperature space nuclear reactors. An implicit-explicit, finite volume, MacCormack method in conjunction with the Gauss-Seidel line iteration procedure is utilized to solve the thermal and fluid governing equations. Simulation of coolant and propellant flows in these reactors involves the subsonic and supersonic flows of hydrogen, helium and uranium tetrafluoride under variable boundary conditions. An enthalpy-rebalancing scheme is developed and implemented to enhance and accelerate the rate of convergence when a wall heat flux boundary condition is used. The model also incorporated the Baldwin and Lomax two-layer algebraic turbulence scheme for the calculation of the turbulent kinetic energy and eddy diffusivity of energy. The Rosseland diffusion approximation is used to simulate the radiative energy transfer in the optically thick environment of gas core reactors. The computational model is benchmarked with experimental data on flow separation angle and drag force acting on a suspended sphere in a cylindrical tube. The heat transfer is validated by comparing the computed results with the standard heat transfer correlations predictions. The model is used to simulate flow and heat transfer under a variety of design conditions. The effect of internal heat generation on the heat transfer in the gas core reactors is examined for a variety of power densities, 100 W/cc, 500 W/cc and 1000 W/cc. The maximum temperature, corresponding with the heat generation rates, are 2150 K, 2750 K and 3550 K, respectively. This analysis shows that the maximum temperature is strongly dependent on the value of heat generation rate. It also indicates that a heat generation rate higher than 1000 W/cc is necessary to maintain the gas temperature at about 3500 K, which is typical design temperature required to achieve high

  20. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: A route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, N.J. [School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Johal, R.K. [Division of Immunology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Glover, Z. [School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reinwald, Y.; White, L.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ghaemmaghami, A.M. [Division of Immunology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Queen' s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Morgan, S.P. [Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Rose, F.R.A.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Povey, M.J.W. [School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Parker, N.G., E-mail: nick.parker@ncl.ac.uk [School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the structural and fluidic properties of polymer foam tissue scaffolds, post-fabrication but prior to the introduction of cells, can be engineered via exposure to high power ultrasound. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is performed with a frequency of 30 kHz, average intensities up to 80,000 Wm{sup −2} and exposure times up to 20 h. The treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with negligible loss of scaffold integrity and mass, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is highly targeted towards flow obstructions in the scaffold architecture, thereby providing an efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds. - Highlights: • We expose thick PLA foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound. • This treatment both accelerates and enhances the uptake of fluid into the scaffold. • It leads to significant increases in the mean pore size, pore interconnectivity and porosity. • The ultrasonic treatment is most effective when the scaffold is pre-wet with ethanol. • We demonstrate the use of acoustic microscopy to characterize the scaffold microstructure.

  1. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  2. How fast do Tokyo and New York stock exchanges respond to each other? An analysis with high-frequency data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Tsutsui; K. Hirayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses one-min returns on the TOPIX and S&P500 to examine the efficiency of the Tokyo and New York Stock Exchanges. Our major finding is that Tokyo completes reactions to New York within six min, but New York reacts within fourteen min. Dividing the sample period into three subperiods, we f

  3. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  4. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  5. [How do we cure the medical divide between northern Tohoku district and Tokyo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2010-11-01

    What is required to provide high quality medical service to anybody, anytime and anywhere? We have investigated health care in neurology as provided by national health insurance in Aomori, Akita and Iwate prefectures compared to health care in Tokyo. We have conducted hearing surveillance to patients and doctors. Most of the patients have to drive to hospital for more than 100 kms as there is no licensed neurologist in their neighborhood and public transportation is poor. There are only a few medical facilities that can satisfy their needs even in prefectural cities. Neurologists who work alone at general hospitals face difficulties as they cannot consult with other neurologist about diagnosis and treatment and have rare opportunity to attend academic conferences. A licensed neurologist at northern Tohoku district has to be in charge of a half of Tokyo 23 districts area and twice as many people as Tokyo. We have concluded that medical divide due to the more or less of quantity of selection exists between northern Tohoku and Tokyo. How do we cure this medical divide? Creating a new framework of patients transporting system, increasing the number of doctors who work at general hospitals and opening satellite clinics at regional towns should be considered.

  6. Changes in the therapeutic strategy for acute cholecystitis after the Tokyo guidelines were published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Koji; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoaki; Kodama, Hajime; Dotai, Kojiro; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Okamoto, Yasushi; Saida, Yoshihisa; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) for acute cholecystitis (AC) according to the Tokyo guidelines severity grade, and analyzed the changes in the therapeutic strategy for AC after the Tokyo guidelines were published. A total of 225 patients were enrolled in this study. The therapeutic period was divided into two periods: before and after the publication of the Tokyo guidelines (prior to and including 2007, and from 2008, respectively). Comparing the surgical strategy between ELC and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC), significant differences were found in the length of preoperative hospital stay and total hospital stay for cases of mild AC compared with moderate AC. With conversion to open surgery, postoperative complications including postoperative bile leak were not significantly different. Since ELC was performed significantly more often after publication of the guidelines, preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stays were significantly shorter in the later period. ELC is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for both mild and moderate AC. The Tokyo guidelines resulted in a significant increase in the performance of ELC and significantly reduced preoperative and total hospital stays without increasing intra- and postoperative complications.

  7. Tokyo elanikud pagevad linnast. Poed kaubast tühjad / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo poole liigub radiatsioon, mitmed elanikud lahkuvad linnast. Peaminister Naoto Kani sõnul edasise radioaktiivsuse lekke võimalus kasvab ning tehakse kõik, et vältida lekke levikut. Fukushima Daiichi tuumajaama ümbrusest on inimesed evakueeritud

  8. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  9. Diasporic identity and media consumption among Korean-Chinese diaspora : the case of Shanghai and Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    李, 光鎬; 李, 津娥

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionMedia Consumption in Diasporic Context: Korean Diaspora and Their Changing Social and Media EnvironmentResearch Purpose and MethodDiasporic Identity and Media Use of the Korean-Chinese in ShanghaiDiasporic Identity and Media Use of the Korean-Chinese in TokyoDiscussions

  10. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  11. Failure analysis of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping used in hydraulic control system at oil-fired thermal power generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study regarding frequent forced outages in an oil-fired power generating station due to failure of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping of material ASTM A-304. This analysis was done to find out the most probable cause of failure and to rectify the problem. Methods for finding and analyzing the cracks include nondestructive testing techniques such as visual testing (VT and dye penetrant testing (PT along with that periodic monitoring after rectification of problem. The study revealed that pitting and pit to crack transitions were formed in stainless steel piping containing high pressure (system pressure 115 bars fire resistant fluid. However, after replacement of piping the pitting and cracking reoccurred. It was observed that due to possible exposure to chlorinated moisture in surrounding environment pitting was formed which then transformed into cracks. The research work discussed in this paper illustrates the procedure used in detection of the problem and measures taken to solve the problem.

  12. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  13. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  14. Numerical Study of the Magnetic Field Effects on the Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation Aspects of a Power Law Fluid over an Axisymmetric Stretching Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hooshmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of the effects of magnetic field strength, thermal radiation, Joule heating, and viscous heating on a forced convective flow of a non-Newtonian, incompressible power law fluid in an axisymmetric stretching sheet with variable temperature wall is accomplished. The power law shear thinning viscosity-shear rate model for the anisotropic solutions and the Rosseland approximation for the thermal radiation through a highly absorbing medium are considered. The temperature dependent heat sources, Joule heating, and viscous heating are considered as the source terms in the energy balance. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved numerically in terms of similarity variable. A parameter study on the Nusselt number, viscous components of entropy generation, and thermal components of entropy generation in fluid is performed as a function of thermal radiation parameter (0 to 2, Brinkman number (0 to 10, Prandtl number (0 to 10, Hartmann number (0 to 1, power law index (0 to 1, and heat source coefficient (0 to 0.1.

  15. Education for fluid power in department of mechanical engineering of Sophia University; Jochi Daigaku Kikai kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyooiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiji, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-15

    Curricular guidelines are that importance be attached in the educating policy to the primary subjects of study and that compulsory subjects are to be acquired through practice. Out of primary subjects, those which should better be learned by all the students are set as compulsory subjects. Related subjects are divided into fluid-related subjects and control-related subjects. Experiments are conducted of the 'inspection of orifice flowmeter and Bourdon tube pressure gage,' 'fluid friction in round tube,' and 'servo-mechanism.' In a lesson on drafting, hydraulic equipment provided by business corporations is used. It is hoped that educating units be provided. Subjects of research for graduation and master's theses are the turbine-driven pump, constant pressure source system, hydraulic drive system, application of control theory to an injection molding machine, highly intelligent fluid, noise reduction for an automotive compressor, state of fluid in a hydraulic control valve, analysis of flow in pneumatic equipment elements, and cavitation in a vane pump. More than half of these subjects are pursued in collaboration with industrial or Government circles. It is expected that the Society will be an organization to benefit the students. (NEDO)

  16. Low-temperature Waste Heat Powered Supercritical Thermal Power Generation Cycle Using Low-boiling Point Fluids%低温余热驱动的低沸点工质超临界动力循环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉涛; 王华; 黄晓艳

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the thermal power generation cycle driven by low-temperature waste heat, the system should be constructed to make the temnperature of the heated working fluid match the changing temperature of the fluid carrying waste heat, the supercritical Rankine cycle using organic fluid HFC125 as the working fluid is proved to be the best promising system driven by waste heat. The energy efficiency method should be used to evaluate the overall performance of the cyde.%低温余热动力回收热动循环应与余热流的变温特性很好地匹配才能获得较高的转化效率,采用低沸点有机工质HFC125实现超临界动力循环,能很好地逼近变温热源下的理想循环,从而获得较好的效果.采用效率来评价余热回收动力循环时,可以得到相对全面的结论.

  17. Estimation of the light output power and efficiency of Xe barrier discharge excimer lamps using a one-dimensional fluid model for various voltage waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akinori; Sugawara, Hirotake; Sakai, Yosuke; Akashi, Haruaki

    2000-06-01

    Xe dielectric barrier discharges at different gap lengths under applied pulse voltages with trapezoidal and sinusoidal waveforms were simulated using a self-consistent one-dimensional fluid model. In both waveforms, the light output power depended not only on the amplitude of voltage waveforms but also on the discharge gap length. At the narrower discharge gap, the light output efficiency was improved by increasing the time gradient of the applied voltage when the trapezoidal pulse is applied, and by decreasing the duty ratio in the sinusoidal case. In the present simulation, we adopted a fast numerical method for calculation of electric field introducing an exact expression of the discharge current.

  18. What trend for mechatronics ? - R&D teams mechatronics design engineering approach for research and self-learning competence in mechatronics and fluid power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with R&D teams mechatronics design engineering and education. The focus is on need of teams members research skills as well as experimental hardware skills. A key to improve the analysis, modelling, synthesis and hardware skills is based project organised didactic self-learning...... within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent control, mechanical and fluid power components and systems. Experiences with interactive methods for improving of MSc- and PhD-students¿ research and self-learning competence at the Technical University of Denmark...

  19. Control rod drop analysis by finite element method using fluid-structure interaction for a pressurized water reactor power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 1045 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Ku, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: khyoon@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Kim, H.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 1045 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Ku, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The control rod drop analysis is very important for safety analysis. For seismic and loss of coolant accident event, the control rod assemblies shall be capable of traveling from a fully withdrawn position to 90% insertion without any blockage and within specified time and displacement limits. The analysis has been executed by analytical method using in-house code. In this method, several field data are needed. These data are obtained from nuclear, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design groups, peculiar codes, those work groups need to cooperate together. Following the enhancement of a computer and development of the multi-physics analysis code, a new method for the control rod drop analysis is proposed by finite element method. This analysis model incorporates the structure and fluid parts, termed as a fluid and structure interaction (FSI). Because a control rod is submerged inside a guide tube of a fuel assembly, the FSI boundary condition is applied. In this model, it is assumed that the fluid is incompressible laminar flow. The structures are modeled with the solid elements because there is no deformation due to the fluid flow. The analysis two-dimensional plane model is created in the analysis with considering an axi-symmetric geometry. Therefore, the proposed analysis model will be very simple and the design data from other fields will be unnecessary. The analysis results are compared with those of the in-house code, which have been used for a commercial design. After validation, it is found that the present analysis gives a useful tool in the design of the control rod and fuel assembly.

  20. MHD Effects on Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Past a Continuously Moving Porous Flat Plate with Heat Flux and Viscous Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, N.; Shashidar Reddy, B.

    2013-06-01

    The problem of a magneto-hydro dynamic flow and heat transfer to a non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow past a continuously moving flat porous plate in the presence of sucion/injection with heat flux by taking into consideration the viscous dissipation is analysed. The non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations and then solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme. The solution is found to be dependent on various governing parameters including the magnetic field parameter M, power-law index n, suction/injection parameter ƒw, Prandtl number Pr and Eckert number Ec. A systematical study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these major parameters on the velocity profiles, temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer and the local Nusslet number.

  1. Sacchi, Livio (2004. Tokyo: City and Architecture. 249 p. ISBN: 0-7893-1212-3. Nueva York: Universe Publishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The book by the Italian author Livio Sacchi, focuses on the analysis on the spatial development of the city of Tokyo and the way in which the socioeconomic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries influenced the conformation of the urban structure on which millions of Tokyo citizens develop their daily life. During the text, the author underlines the impact of the modern architectural movement on the urban landscape of Tokyo. Furthermore, it is important to mention that this work serves as a translator for the western readers, because it deciphers the social and spatial characteristics that constitute the most populous city in the world.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the coal combustion in a boiler of a thermal power plant using different kinds of the manufactured coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da; Lazzari, Luis Carlos; Ziemniczak, Aline; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, arthur@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numerical studies of combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. has been used to study the combustion of pulverized coal into the boiler of a thermal power plant. The objective of this work is to obtain new information for process optimization. Different kinds of manufactured coals were numerically tested in a thermal power plant installed at the southeast region of Brazil. The simulations were made using the actual burning conditions of the boiler. Results include the residence time of the fuel into the combustion chamber, temperature fields, flow fluid mechanics, heat transfer and pollutant formation, as well as the CO and NOx concentrations, aiming to determinate the best conditions to burn the investigated coals. The numerical investigation of the phenomena involved on the coal combustion processes are used to complete the experimental information obtained in operational tests. Considering the characteristics of different kinds of manufactured coals used, with this study is possible to achieve the most efficient boiler operation parameters, with decreasing costs of electricity production and reduction of environmentally harmful emissions. It was verified that the different kinds of manufactured coals demand different operation conditions, and the kind of manufactured coal used on the combustion process has a significant effect on the pollutant formation, mainly in rel action with ash concentration. (author)

  3. What trend for mechatronics ? - R&D teams mechatronics design engineering approach for research and self-learning competence in mechatronics and fluid power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with R&D teams mechatronics design engineering and education. The focus is on need of teams members research skills as well as experimental hardware skills. A key to improve the analysis, modelling, synthesis and hardware skills is based project organised didactic self-learning wi......The paper deals with R&D teams mechatronics design engineering and education. The focus is on need of teams members research skills as well as experimental hardware skills. A key to improve the analysis, modelling, synthesis and hardware skills is based project organised didactic self......-learning within the area of design of mechatronic products and systems, in particular intelligent control, mechanical and fluid power components and systems. Experiences with interactive methods for improving of MSc- and PhD-students¿ research and self-learning competence at the Technical University of Denmark......, including testing, evaluation and validation. The objective is to educate candidates with high-level professional engineering skills for research and integrated product development teams working within mechatronics and fluid power in order to make successful business in companies as well as at universities...

  4. Social, not physical, infrastructure: the critical role of civil society after the 1923 Tokyo earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel P

    2012-07-01

    Despite the tremendous destruction wrought by catastrophes, social science holds few quantitative assessments of explanations for the rate of recovery. This article illuminates four factors-damage, population density, human capital, and economic capital-that are thought to explain the variation in the pace of population recovery following disaster; it also explores the popular but relatively untested factor of social capital. Using time-series, cross-sectional models and propensity score matching, it tests these approaches using new data from the rebuilding of 39 neighbourhoods in Tokyo after its 1923 earthquake. Social capital, more than earthquake damage, population density, human capital, or economic capital, best predicts population recovery in post-earthquake Tokyo. These findings suggest new approaches for research on social capital and disasters as well as public policy avenues for handling catastrophes.

  5. Compton scattering monochromatic X-ray source based on X-band multi-bunch linac at the University of Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, F.; Uesaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Natsui, T.; Hashimoto, E.; Woo, L. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshida, M.; Higo, T.; Fukuda, S.; Kaneko, N.; Nose, H.; Sakae, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yamamoto, M.

    2009-09-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron Compton scattering for the purpose of medical applications at the University of Tokyo. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly stable system, we adopt an X-band (11.424 GHz) multi-bunch linear accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun and an alpha magnet. So far, we have continued high-power experiment and beam generation on X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun. However, breakdown was frequently occurred at coaxial structure around the thermionic cathode. In order to resolve the breakdown, we adopt a choke structure around the thermionic cathode. In this paper, the details of Compton scattering X-ray source the University of Tokyo, the experimental results of the X-ray generation, and upgrade of the X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun will be presented.

  6. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 4, Number 4, October-December 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Cavaliere of Istituto di Fisica dell’Universita, Roma. The luminosity of these objects is l043 to l0’ ergs/sec, much of it emitted as energetic x...Tokyo 106 Japan -Iucci, N. Istituto di Fisica dell’Universita Piazzale Deile Scienze, 5 00185 Roma Italy -Jokipii, J. R. Dept. of Planetary Sciences...Reutrakul, Department of Medical Plants and Spices Chemistry, Faculty of Science Mahidol University, Rama VI Road Bangkok 4 September 22-25 Eighth

  7. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  8. Antibacterial Therapy of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis (According to Tokyo Guidelines2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotics should be used wisely in antimicrobial therapy in each institution, region and country. The recent global spread of antibiotic resistance gives us a warning in the modern practice. Tokyo Guidelines 2013 provide practical guidance for physicians and surgeons involved in the treatment of community-acquired and hospital acute biliary infection. Much remains uncertain in this view. Continuous monitoring of local resistance to antibiotics and further studies in acute cholecystitis and cholangitis should be justified.

  9. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    烏田, 直哉

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  10. Changes in Hydrological Cycle Due to Urbanization in the Suburb Of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, Akihiko; Nishiyama, J

    1998-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolitan area has been experiencing heavy land use/cover changes followed by modernization of Japan. The stages of land surface alteration can be precisely monitored by satellite remote sensing data and printed maps. Image processing system and Geographic Information System are used to draw land use/cover maps, and the changes in it was discussed. After delineating the urbanization process, the changes in hydrological cycle are assessed. In this paper, chan...

  11. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  12. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Beggiatoa spp. from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2003-07-01

    Nitrate-accumulating filamentous bacteria from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, morphologically similar to Beggiatoa species, were phylogenetically analyzed. From several sites in Tokyo Bay, Beggiatoa-like bacteria were collected. Each sample contained narrower or wider type (10 and 30 microns, respectively) of trichomes. With the nested PCR using specific primers for Beggiatoa, fragments of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Sequencing and the following phylogenetic analysis indicated that they are related to large Beggiatoa species. The wider type was related to uncultured Beggiatoa clones of other geographical localities and distinct from the narrower type in Tokyo Bay. Among the narrower types, a sample from a tidal flat was genetically distinct from the sample from sites of 10 and 20 m water depth. These narrower types form a new branch in Beggiatoa/Thioploca cluster. The result of phylogenetic analysis was in accordance with the previous studies that indicate possession of nitrate-accumulation capability is congruent with phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences.

  14. Influence of paint chips on lead concentration in the soil of public playgrounds in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Michie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    Lead concentration in the surface soils from 31 playgrounds in a ward in Tokyo was measured to examine if paint chips, peeled off from playing equipment installed in the playgrounds, contribute to elevated Pb concentration in the soil of public playgrounds. Lead concentration in the paint chips sampled from playgrounds ranged from 0.003 to 8.9%. Lead concentration in the surface soil ranged from 15.2 to 237 mg kg(-1) (average, 55.5 mg kg(-1)) and higher Pb concentration was found in the soil near painted playing equipment indicating that paint chips from playing equipment contributed to increase soil Pb level of playgrounds in Tokyo. The degree of peeling-off of paint on the surface of playing equipment in the public playground (peeling-off index: POI) positively correlated with Pb concentration in the soil (Spearman rank-correlation coefficient, r = 0.366, p = 0.043). The stronger correlation between Pb concentration and isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb and Pb conc., r = 0.536, p = 0.002, 208Pb/206Pb and Pb conc. r = 0.600, p playground-to-playground variation in soil Pb concentration. It was concluded that both gasoline Pb of the past and paint chips contributed to increased Pb concentration in the surface soil of playgrounds in Tokyo, though the contribution of paint chips is smaller than gasoline Pb.

  15. Influence of successive badminton matches on muscle strength, power, and body-fluid balance in elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Castanedo, Adrián; Abian, Pablo; Gonzalez-Millan, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players' renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.

  16. International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.

  17. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  18. A Japanese-American Sam Spade: The Metaphysical Detective in Death in Little Tokyo, by Dale Furutani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portilho Carla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to discuss the legacy of the roman noir in contemporary detective fiction produced outside the hegemonic center of power, here represented by the novel Death in Little Tokyo (1996, written by Japanese-American author Dale Furutani. Starting from the concept of the metaphysical detective (Haycraft 76; Holquist 153-156, characterized by deep questioning about narrative, interpretation, subjectivity, the nature of reality and the limits of knowledge, this article proposes a discussion about how these literary works, which at first sight represent a traditionally Anglo-American genre, constitute narratives that aim to rescue the memory, history and culture of marginalized communities. Typical of late modernity detective fiction, the metaphysical detective has none of the positivistic detective’s certainties, as he does not share in his Cartesian notion of totality, being presented instead as a successor of the hardboiled detective of the roman noir. In this article I intend to analyze the paths chosen by the author and discuss how his re-reading of the roman noir dialogues with the texts of hegemonic noire detective fiction, inscribing them in literary tradition and subverting them at the same time.

  19. MHD Flow of a Non-Newtonian Power Law Fluid over a Vertical Stretching Sheet with the Convective Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem SHAHZAD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the power law model of steady state, viscous, incompressible MHD flow over a vertically stretching sheet. Furthermore, heat transfer is also addressed by using the convective boundary conditions. The coupled partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs using similarity transformations. The transformed highly non-linear ODEs are solved by using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The influence of different parameters on the velocity and temperature fields are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Guo; Wei He; García-Naranjo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a ...

  1. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  2. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  3. Comparison between s-CO2 and other supercritical working Fluids (s-Ethane, s-SF6, s-Xe, s-CH4, s-N2) in Line-Focusing Solar Power Plants with supercritical Brayton power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Coco Enríquez, Luis; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Thermosolar power plants with linear solar collectors and Rankine or Brayton power cycles are maturing as a competitive solution for reducing CO2 emissions in power plants as an alternative to traditional fossil and nuclear fuels. In this context, nowadays a great effort is being invested in supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton (s-CO2) power cycles for optimizing the line-focusing solar plants performance and reducing the cost of renewable energy. However, there are other working fluids with ...

  4. Joule heating effects on MHD mixed convection of a Jeffrey fluid over a stretching sheet with power law heat flux: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. Harish; Narayana, P. V. Satya

    2016-08-01

    An analysis has been carried out to study the Joule heating effect on MHD heat transfer of an incompressible Jeffrey fluid due to a stretching porous sheet with power law heat flux and heat source. A constant magnetic field is applied normal to the stretching surface. The basic governing equations are reduced into the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by shooting method with fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. The effects of various physical parameters entering into the problem on dimensionless velocity and temperature distribution are discussed through graphs and tables. The results reveal that the momentum and thermal boundary layer thickness are significantly influenced by Deborah number (β), ratio of relaxation and retardation times parameter (λ), heat generation parameter (β*), Eckert number (Ec) and magnetic field parameter (M). A comparison with the previously published works shows excellent agreement.

  5. Capillary rise of a non-Newtonian power law liquid: impact of the fluid rheology and dynamic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M

    2008-12-02

    The impact of non-Newtonian behavior and the dynamic contact angle on the rise dynamics of a power law liquid in a vertical capillary is studied theoretically and experimentally for quasi-steady-state flow. An analytical solution for the time evolution of the meniscus height is obtained in terms of a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which in the case of a Newtonian liquid reduces to the Lucas-Washburn equation modified by the dynamic contact angle correction. The validity of the solution is checked against experimental data on the rise dynamics of a shear-thinning cmc solution in a glass microcapillary, and excellent agreement is found.

  6. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  7. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone, Tokyo (∼230 km, and Osaka (∼580 km after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario. The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1 and 2700 µSv (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1 and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1 and 11%-25% (Case 2 in Fukushima City [corrected].

  8. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1) and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1) and 11%-25% (Case 2) in Fukushima City [corrected].

  9. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    -shipped to company headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark from factories in China, stocked in the head office and delivered to 400 retail partners —small fashion boutiques, big department stores and online shops — who then sell to consumers in Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Canada. The two partners who...

  10. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kubo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  11. Investment Horizon and the Cross Section of Expected Returns: Evidence from the Tokyo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pin-Huang Chou; Yuan-Lin Hsu; Guofu Zhou

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, we study how beta, size, and ratio of book to market equity (BE/ME) account for the cross-section of expected stock returns over different lengths of investment horizons. We find that $\\beta$, adjusted for infrequent trading or not, fails to explain the cross-section of monthly expected returns, but does a much better job for horizons over half- and one-year. However, either the size or the BE/ME alone is still a significant factor in explaining the c...

  12. The Earthquake Proof ‘Tokyo Sky-Tree‘- Bringing New Possibilities for Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sai Shiva Prasad,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pagodas have always fascinated the people who see them. Not only are they interesting, but they also represent the essence of science and architecture which was used in the olden days. Thus, bringing new possibilities for modern architecture. The world’s tallest tower and Japan’s biggest new landmark, The Tokyo Sky-tree is one among them which remains unaffected when the earthquake strikes. In our paper, we are going to review the construction technologies used in building this massive tower and compare it to the traditional Chinese pagodas.

  13. The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal, Tokyo 2000: a feminist response to revisionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the emergence in the 1990s of the issue of “Comfort women” and the conditions that led to the holding of The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal for the Trial of Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery. It argues that it was a response both to victims’ needs and to the prevailing revisionism concerning the violence committed during the Asian-Pacific war by the Japanese army, which had been the subject of the Tokyo war crimes trials of 1946-1948. The women’s tribunal represe...

  14. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  15. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the 2012-2013 epidemics in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Shimatani, Naotaka; Katow, Shigetaka; Takahashi, Takuri; Hori, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A large rubella outbreak has been observed since June 2012 in Tokyo, Japan, and a rapid increase in the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases have also been reported in Japan since October 2012. All the clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed rubella cases reported in Tokyo from January 2012 to December 2013 and all the laboratory-confirmed CRS cases from January 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed. In total, 4,116 rubella cases were reported in Tokyo. Of these, 77.2% (n=3,176) were male; the highest number of cases occurred in males aged 35-39 years and in females aged 20-24 years. Complications included arthralgia/arthritis (19.4%), thrombocytopenic purpura (0.5%), hepatic dysfunction (0.3%), and encephalitis (0.1%). The circulating rubella virus in Tokyo was genotype 2B. The most possible site of transmission was the workplace. Because of the rubella epidemic, 16 CRS cases were reported in Tokyo from March 2013 to February 2014. Domestic infection with rubella was proven for all mothers of 16 cases. This situation suggests that Japan is still working to achieve rubella elimination.

  17. Assessing clinical outcomes of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis in addition to the Tokyo grading: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute cholecystitis is still based on clinical expertise. This study aims to investigate whether the outcome of acute cholecystitis can be related to the severity criteria of the Tokyo guidelines and additional clinical comorbidities. A total of 103 patients with acute cholecystitis were retrospectively enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. They were all classified according to therapeutic modality, including early cholecystectomy and antibiotic treatment with or without percutaneous cholecystostomy. The impact of the Tokyo guidelines and the presence of comorbidities on clinical outcome were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. According to Tokyo severity grading, 48 patients were Grade I, 31 patients were Grade II, and 24 patients were Grade III. The Grade III patients had a longer hospital stay than Grade II and Grade I patients (15.2 days, 9.2 days, and 7.3 days, respectively, p < 0.05. According to multivariate analysis, patients with Grade III Tokyo severity, higher Charlson’s Comorbidity Score, and encountering complications had a longer hospital stay. Based on treatment modality, surgeons selected the patients with less severity and fewer comorbidities for cholecystectomy, and these patients had a shorter hospital stay. In addition to the grading of the Tokyo guidelines, comorbidities had an additional impact on clinical outcomes and should be an important consideration when making therapeutic decisions.

  18. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kanai, Yutaka [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan); Masunaga, Shigeki, E-mail: masunaga@ynu.ac.j [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend. - This study reports the time trends of the concentrations of 24 species of PFCs, including FTCA, FTUCA and FOSAA, in a sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  19. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  20. Self-tuning pressure-feedback control by pole placement for vibration reduction of excavator with independent metering fluid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruqi; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Junhui; Cheng, Min

    2017-08-01

    Independent metering control systems are promising fluid power technologies compared with traditional valve controlled systems. By breaking the mechanical coupling between the inlet and outlet, the meter-out valve can open as large as possible to reduce energy consumptions. However, the lack of damping in outlet causes stronger vibrations. To address the problem, the paper designs a hybrid control method combining dynamic pressure-feedback and active damping control. The innovation resides in the optimization of damping by introducing pressure feedback to make trade-offs between high stability and fast response. To achieve this goal, the dynamic response pertaining to the control parameters consisting of feedback gain and cut-off frequency, are analyzed via pole-zero locations. Accordingly, these parameters are tuned online in terms of guaranteed dominant pole placement such that the optimal damping can be accurately captured under a considerable variation of operating conditions. The experiment is deployed in a mini-excavator. The results pertaining to different control parameters confirm the theoretical expectations via pole-zero locations. By using proposed self-tuning controller, the vibrations are almost eliminated after only one overshoot for different operation conditions. The overshoots are also reduced with less decrease of the response time. In addition, the energy-saving capability of independent metering system is still not affected by the improvement of controllability.

  1. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  2. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...

  3. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7829 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US...ARL-TR-7829 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled

  4. Improvement of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kenta, E-mail: murakami@tokai.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo, E-mail: iwai@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Yamagata-shi 990-9585 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto, E-mail: sekimura@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the modification of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo (HIT). The HIT facility was severely damaged during the 2011 earthquake, which occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. A damaged 1.0 MV tandem Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was replaced with a 1.7 MV accelerator, which was formerly used in another campus of the university. A decision was made to maintain dual-beam irradiation capability by repairing the 3.75 MV single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator and reconstructing the related beamlines. A new beamline was connected with a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) to perform in-situ TEM observation under ion irradiation.

  5. Mass psychogenic systemic illness in school children in relation to the Tokyo photochemical smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, S.; Honma, T.

    1986-05-01

    To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of epidemics with acute systemic neurobehavioral illness associated with photochemical air pollution in Japan, we re-examined our past records in sixteen junior high school children, and compared them with major epidemics that occurred in 1970-1972 during which time Japanese society faced a new and unusual type of air pollution (Tokyo smog). Dysfunction of alveolar-arterial gas exchange, together with respiratory alkalosis, was newly found in these children, who suffered from chest discomfort, ocular irritation, emotional distress, tetany, and unconsciousness. It was concluded that anxiety reaction, precipitated by the physical effects of photochemical oxidants and athletic performance, possibly led to many outbreaks of mass psychogenic systemic illness (hyperventilation syndrome) among school children.

  6. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  7. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-07-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  8. Analisis Kinerja Kontrak Berjangka Komoditi pada Tokyo Grain Exchange – Jepang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy G. Soemapradja

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Futures contract is one of derivative instruments in which its value depends on underlying asset’s price fluctuation in the future. At the beginning, the futures contracts were traded with hedging motive, but now they are traded with speculative motive also. As an agricultural nation, finally, Indonesia has a commodity futures exchange (BBJ by the end of 2000. Low volume of transactions and less futures alternative on BBJ made Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE as the object of this research. The statistical test concluded: The average rate of return of futures portfolio model is greater than average of forex trading of USD, and the risk of futures portfolio model is greater than forex trading of USD.

  9. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  10. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  11. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)).

  12. Tokyo et les campagnes: la progression de la banlieue à Toride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Desbois

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace périurbain japonais se distingue de ce que l'on observe en Europe ou aux États-Unis. La ville progresse en conservant dans son tissu même des éléments agro-ruraux. Nous utilisons ici un SIG réalisé pour deux quartiers de la commune de Toride, située dans la lointaine banlieue de Tokyo ; il permet de quantifier l'extension urbaine et de mieux en saisir le rythme depuis 1945. Il permet aussi de mettre en évidence le paysage très bigarré et, à certains égards, désordonné des grandes banlieues japonaises contemporaines.

  13. Built heritage vulnerability: synergies between the Universities of Naples and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of natural disasters and their extraordinary impact on built heritage are the foundations of a research synergy started since 2008, between the Recovery and Maintenance Laboratory, University of Naples Federico II, and the Matsumura and Fujita Laboratory, Tokyo University. Broadening the idea of vulnerability to the relationship between buildings and environment, several Unesco sites are assumed as case studies. The scientific synergy flows into the promotion of a learning network among the actors of local management processes, rethinking procedures and priorities for mitigating the vulnerability of settlements. The originality of the outcomes can be traced in creating a dedicated community, able to acquire competence by doing. The learning network brings into play an active approach towards site's management, rethinking the dynamics of interaction between people and places, through the recovery of  local sedimented cultures.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  15. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  16. Isolation and identification of arabinose mycolates of Cell Wall Skeleton (CWS) derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Yuko; Kusunose, Naoto; Yano, Ikuya; Sunagawa, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    A unique hydrolysis method using a two-layer solution, consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and toluene was developed to isolate whole arabinose mycolates from the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) in order to reveal its pivotal role in enhancing immune responses against tumors.

  17. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro [Department of Life Environment Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kotaro [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige, E-mail: shige@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems. Highlights: ► PBDEs were less biomagnified than PCBs in low-trophic-level organisms in Tokyo Bay. ► Depletion of PBDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. ► BDE99 and 153 were debrominated in in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of fish. ► BDE47, 100, and 154 as well as PCB congeners were not transformed in vitro. ► Both in vitro and field results suggested selective meta-protonation of PBDEs.

  18. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  19. Sensitivity analyses of OH missing sinks over Tokyo metropolitan area in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ishii

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OH reactivity is one of key indicators which reflect impacts of photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. An observation campaign has been conducted in the summer of 2007 at the heart of Tokyo metropolitan area to measure OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity measured directly by the laser-induced pump and probe technique was higher than the sum of the OH reactivity calculated from concentrations and reaction rate coefficients of individual species measured in this campaign. And then, three-dimensional air quality simulation has been conducted to evaluate the simulation performance on the total OH reactivity including "missing sinks", which correspond to the difference between the measured and calculated total OH reactivity. The simulated OH reactivity is significantly underestimated because the OH reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and missing sinks are underestimated. When scaling factors are applied to input emissions and boundary concentrations, a good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured concentrations of VOCs. However, the simulated OH reactivity of missing sinks is still underestimated. Therefore, impacts of unidentified missing sinks are investigated through sensitivity analyses. In the cases that unknown secondary products are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, they tend to suppress formation of secondary aerosol components and enhance formation of ozone. In the cases that unidentified primary emitted species are assumed to account for unidentified missing sinks, a variety of impacts may be observed, which could serve as precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA and significantly increase SOA formation. Missing sinks are considered to play an important role in the atmosphere over Tokyo metropolitan area.

  20. Unconditioned behavioral effects of the powerful kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A in nonhuman primates: fast onset and entry into cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelman, Eduardo R; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Deng, Haiteng; Rus, Szymon; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-02-01

    Salvinorin A is the main active component of the widely available hallucinogenic plant, Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is a selective high-efficacy kappa-agonist in vitro, with some unique pharmacodynamic properties. Descriptive reports show that salvinorin A-containing products produce robust behavioral effects in humans. However, these effects have not been systematically characterized in human or nonhuman primates to date. Therefore, the present studies focused on the characterization of overt effects of salvinorin A, such as sedation (operationally defined as unresponsiveness to environmental stimuli) and postural relaxation, previously observed with centrally penetrating kappa-agonists in nonhuman primates. Salvinorin A was active in these endpoints (dose range, 0.01-0.1 mg/kg i.v.) in nonhuman primates (n = 3-5), similar to the synthetic kappa-agonist U69,593 [(+)-(5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]-dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide], used for comparison herein. Salvinorin A effects could be prevented by a clinically available opioid antagonist, nalmefene (0.1 mg/kg), at doses known to block kappa-receptor-mediated effects in nonhuman primates. When injected intravenously, salvinorin A (0.032 mg/kg) could enter the central nervous system (as reflected in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid) within 1 min and reach concentrations that are in the reported range of the affinity (K(i)) of this ligand for brain kappa-receptors. Consistent with this finding, specific translationally viable behavioral effects (e.g., facial relaxation and ptosis) could also be detected within 1 to 2 min of injection of salvinorin A. These are the first studies documenting rapid unconditioned effects of salvinorin A in a primate species, consistent with descriptive reports of rapid and robust effects of this powerful hallucinogen in humans.

  1. An ex post cost-benefit analysis of the nitrogen dioxide air pollution control program in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A S; Araki, S; Sakai, R; Sato, H

    2000-03-01

    The benefits and costs of past nitrogen dioxide (NO2) control policies were calculated for Tokyo, Japan, using environmental, economic, political, demographic, and medical data from 1973 to 1994. The benefits of NO2 control were estimated as medical expenses and lost work time due to hypothetical no-control air concentrations of NO2. Direct costs were calculated as annualized capital expenditures and 1 year's operating costs for regulated industries plus governmental agency expenses. The major findings were as follows: (1) Using Tokyo's average medical cost of pollution-related illness, the best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of phlegm and sputum in adults was 730 billion yen ($6.08 billion; 1 U.S. dollar = 120 yen). (2) The best net estimate of the avoided medical costs due to incidence of lower respiratory illness in children was 93 billion yen ($775 million). (3) Using Tokyo's average duration of pollution-related illness and average wages, the best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in workers was 760 billion yen ($6.33 billion). (4) The best net estimate of the avoided costs of lost wages in mothers caring for their sick children was 100 billion yen ($833 million). (5) Using Tokyo-specific data, the best net costs were estimated as 280 billion yen ($2.33 billion). (6) Using human health and productivity benefits, and annualized capital cost and operating cost estimates, the best net benefits-to-costs ratio was 6:1 (upper limit 44:1; lower limit 0.3:1). Benefit calculations were sensitive to assumptions of mobile source emissions and certain health impacts that were not included. Cost calculations were highly dependent on assumptions of flue gas volume and fuel use. For comparative purposes, we identified other studies for air pollution-related illness. Assumptions that formed the basis for most of the inputs in the present study, such as duration of illness, medical treatment costs, per person illness in children, and

  2. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukekr@gmail.com [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Michio [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oguma, Kumiko [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takizawa, Satoshi [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  3. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope: project overview and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, T.; Sako, S.; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, T.; Kato, N.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Koshida, S.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Garay, G.

    2016-07-01

    The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory Project is to construct a 6.5m infrared telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in northern Chile, promoted by the University of Tokyo. Thanks to the dry climate (PWV 0.5mm) and the high altitude, it will achieve excellent performance in the NIR to MIR wavelengths. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci where the facility instruments are installed and two folded-Cassegrain foci for carry-in instruments. All these four foci can be switched by rotating a tertiary mirror. The final focal ratio is 12.2 and the telescope foci have large field-of-view of 25° in diameter. We adopted the 6.5m light-weighted borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and its support system that are developed by Steward Observatory Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab. The dome enclosure has the shape of carousel, and large ventilation windows with shutters control the wind to flush heat inside the dome. The operation building with control room, aluminizing chamber and maintenance facilities is located at the side of the dome. Two cameras, SWIMS for spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared and MIMIZUKU in the mid-infrared, are being developed as the first-generation facility instruments. The operation of the telescope will be remotely carried out from a base facility at San Pedro de Atacama, 50km away from the summit. The construction of the telescope is now underway. Fabrication of the telescope mount has almost finished, and the pre-assembly has been carried out in Japan. The primary, secondary, and tertiary mirrors and their cells have been also fabricated, as well as their cells and support systems. Fabrication of the enclosure is now underway, and their pre-assembly in Japan will be carried out in 2016. Construction of the base facility at San Pedro de Atacama has been already completed in 2014, and operated for the activities in Atacama. The telescope is now scheduled to see the first light at the beginning of 2018.

  4. Clinical features of uveitis in children and adolescents at a tertiary referral centre in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayo; Taki, Wakako; Nakayama, Makiko; Nakamura, Tomoko; Yan, Kunimasa; Okada, Annabelle A

    2017-04-01

    To analyse clinical features, systemic associations, treatment and visual outcomes of uveitis in children and adolescents at a tertiary centre in Tokyo. Clinical records of 64 patients under the age of 20 years who presented between 2001 and 2013 to the Ocular Inflammation Service of the Kyorin Eye Center, Tokyo were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 64 patients, there was a predominance of girls (70%) and bilateral disease (81%). Mean age at presentation was 12.9 years (4-19 years). Mean follow-up was 46 months (3-144 months). Anterior uveitis was present in 56.3% of patients, panuveitis in 28.1% and posterior uveitis in 15.6%. No patients had intermediate uveitis. The most common diagnostic designation was unclassified uveitis (57.8%). Systemic associations were observed in 10.9% and no patients were diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ocular complications were observed in 71.9% of patients, including optic disc hyperemia/oedema (40.6%), vitreous opacification (23.4%), posterior synechia (18.7%), increased intraocular pressure (17.1%) and cataract (14.1%). Six patients underwent intraocular surgery, five for cataract extraction and two for glaucoma control. Twelve patients (18.7%) received some form of systemic therapy either corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs or biologic agents. The percentage of eyes with a visual acuity of 1.0 or better was 87.1% at baseline, 91.3% at 6 months, 89.6% at 12 months and 87.5% at 36 months. The majority of children and adolescents who presented to us with uveitis had bilateral disease and no systemic disease associations. Only one-fifth of patients required systemic therapy to control their ocular inflammation, and most eyes had a good visual outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  6. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  7. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  8. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  9. Construction and preoperational test of Kashiwasaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Nobuo; Noda, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Unit 6 of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the world`s first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), is progressing ahead of the originally established schedule since the start of its construction in September 1991, and commercial operation is scheduled to start before the end of 1996.

  10. [Textbook of surgery by W. Schultze, used at the Tokyo Medical Academy in the early Meiji era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, T

    1993-06-01

    Wilhelm Schultze, Professor of Surgery of the Tokyo Medical Academy, wrote "Vortraege der Allgemeine Chirurgie" for the benefit of his students in about 1880. The author examined this book and concluded that it was based upon "Lehrbuch der Chirurgie und Operationslehre" by Prof. Adolf Bardeleben, his teacher at the Charité in Berlin. Schultze's textbook was translated into Japanese and published by G. Yamazaki and U. Ishiguro, his students at the Tokyo Medical Academy, in 1884. This version was widely used as a textbook in many medical schools at that time, as well as S. Sato's translation of "Die Allgemeine Chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie" written by Prof. Theodor Billroth. The author found and introduced two different Japanese versions of Schultze's textbook printed without permission.

  11. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  12. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human–wildlife conflicts in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human–wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management. PMID:27481578

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human–wildlife conflicts in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human–wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management.

  15. Geochemical and stable isotope characteristics of urban heavy rain in the downtown of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ryunosuke; Okochi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Hiroko; Katsumi, Naoya; Asai, Daisuke; Nakano, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    In order to make clear the impact of air pollution on the formation of sudden and locally-distributed heavy rain in urban area (hereafter Urban Heavy Rain: UHR), we analyzed inorganic ion concentration and stable isotope ratio of water (δD and δ18O) in rainwater. Rainwater samples were collected in Shinjuku, which is a representative downtown of Tokyo, Japan, during four years from October 2012 to December 2015. The concentration and wet deposition fluxes of acidic components (H+, NH4+, NO3-, and nss-SO42 -) in UHR were especially higher than those in other types of rain events, i.e. normal rain, typhoon heavy rain, and frontal heavy rain. UHR had distinctly lower stable isotope ratios than those in other urban rains with same rainfall amount and summer precipitation systems. There was a high negative correlation between δ18O and the distances from the sampling point to the formation area of UHR within 10 km, while there were high positive correlations between δ18O and the concentration of acidic components in UHR. These findings indicate that UHR could effectively scavenge acidic substances within cloud and suggest the use of stable isotope ratios as tracers of an urban heavy rain's water and in-cloud scavenging process.

  16. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor.

  17. Dominant aerosol processes during high-pollution episodes over Greater Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Sartelet, Karine; Sportisse, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies two high-pollution episodes over Greater Tokyo: 9 and 10 December 1999, and 31 July and 1 August 2001. Results obtained with the chemistry-transport model (CTM) Polair3D are compared to measurements of inorganic PM2.5. To understand to which extent the aerosol processes modeled in Polair3D impact simulated inorganic PM2.5, Polair3D is run with different options in the aerosol module, e.g. with/without heterogeneous reactions. To quantify the impact of processes outside the aerosol module, simulations are also done with another CTM (CMAQ). In the winter episode, sulfate is mostly impacted by condensation, coagulation, long-range transport, and deposition to a lesser extent. In the summer episode, the effect of long-range transport largely dominates. The impact of condensation/evaporation is dominant for ammonium, nitrate and chloride in both episodes. However, the impact of the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption is limited. The impact of heterogeneous reactions is large for nitrate and amm...

  18. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  19. Perbandingan Pengelolaan Pendidikan Agama Pada Sekolah di Indonesia dan Sekolah Republik Indonesia Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education is a mandate of national legislation that should be implemented in every school based on the Legislation of National Education System, and as the right of every studentto receive religious education in accordance with their own religion. This research is aimed to get sufficient data and information on the management of religious education in school of the Republic of Indonesia in Tokyo Japan. Specifically this study is expected to be a policy matter, Firstly, students’ right fulfillment aspect to receive religious education as stated in Legislation Number 20/2003 About the National Education System Article 12 Verse (1 point a. Government Regulation Number 55/2007 aboutreligious education and Religious affair education, and also the Minister of Religious Affairs Regulation Number 16/2010 on the Management of Religious Education in Schools; Secondly, the management of religious teachers and religious education learning in order to meet the Education National Standards as the authority of the Ministry of Religious Affairs that must be implemented optimally in every educational unit.

  20. 东京审判与南京大屠杀%Tokyo trial and Nanjing massacre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文奇

    2008-01-01

    南京大屠杀无疑是第二次世界大战日军暴行中最突出的一个事件,它的残酷程度令全世界感到震惊.时至今日,日本国内仍有人要否认这段历史.二战后,东京国际法庭通过公开审判,将日本军国主义分子的滔天罪行记录在案,将日寇在南京的暴行永远钉在历史的耻辱柱上,昭示后代,永志不忘.%Nanjing massacre is undoubtedly an outstanding event that indicates the savage acts of the Japanese soldiers during World War Ⅱ, and its cruelty shocked the whole world. But up to now, there are still some people in Japan denying this period of history. The Trial by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East ("Tokyo International Tribunal") puts the monstrous crimes committed by the Japanese militarists in record, nails their violence in Nanjing to the history's pillar of shame for ever, and declares publicly to the later generations that such violence shall never be forgot.

  1. Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.

  2. Ambulance Transport of the Oldest Old in Tokyo: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Abe, Toshikazu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Hinohara, Shigeaki

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated ambulance utilization in people aged 85 years or older, ie, the oldest old. Methods We conducted a 1-year population-based observational study of patients transported by ambulance to emergency departments in Tokyo, Japan, which has a population of about 12 million. Demographic data, symptoms/events associated with ambulance transport, and the proportion of hospital admissions were recorded. Transport rates by age and sex were calculated using data for the background population and ambulance transports, and the 10 most frequent symptoms/events requiring transport were compared between the oldest old and those aged 65 to 84 years. Results Of the 642 764 patients who were transported to hospitals by ambulances, 59 570 (9%) were aged ≥85 years; 64% were women. The annual ambulance transport rate for this population was 250 per 1000/year and was significantly greater than the rate (90 per 1000/year) for those aged 65 to 84 years. The highest rate was for men aged 85 to 99 years (292 per 1000/year). Among the oldest old, the most frequent reason for ambulance transport was fall (38.5 per 1000/year), and the symptom most likely to result in hospital admission was dyspnea. Conclusions The ambulance transport rate for the oldest old was high, particularly among men aged ≥95 years. To reduce the need for ambulance transport among the oldest old, preventive care is needed to reduce falls and acute exacerbations of cardiac and respiratory disorders. PMID:20814165

  3. Surgical periodontal therapy at Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital: a statistical profile in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Ota, Kei; Ida, Atsushi; Fujinami, Koushu; Furusawa, Masahiro; Makiishi, Takemi; Nikaido, Masahiko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Saito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the profile of surgical periodontal therapy performed at the Suidobashi Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, during the period of April 2010 through March 2011. A total of 112 periodontal surgeries in 69 patients (mean age: 51.4 years; 28 men and 41 women) were registered for the data analysis. The surgical interventions performed by 17 dentists comprised 79 cases of open flap debridement, 27 cases of periodontal regenerative therapy with enamel matrix derivative and 6 cases of periodontal plastic surgery. Eighty percent of the surgical sites were in the molar region and 41 cases had furcation involvement. In these patients, an improvement in oral hygiene status was observed prior to surgery: the mean plaque score of 45% at initial visit was significantly reduced to 31% after initial periodontal therapy (p<0.01). At sites that subsequently received open flap debridement or periodontal regenerative therapy, the mean probing depth and clinical attachment level after initial therapy was 6.4 mm and 7.6 mm, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those at initial visit (p<0.01). Lower prevalence of sites with positive bleeding on probing was observed after initial therapy. The initial periodontal therapy performed was considered to be effective in improving the periodontal condition of the sites prior to surgery. More effort, however, is indicated in improvement of patient oral hygiene status.

  4. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Chemical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Sakakibara, Koji [Hitachi Zosen Co., Konohana, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment:day{sup -1}. The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment.day{sup -1}, whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10{sup -2}, and 1.2 x 10{sup -2} -9.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment day{sup -1}, respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  5. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kagawa; Furuno, K; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artifi...

  6. Engineering technologies for steel structure applied to Trans-Tokyo bay highway project; Tokyowan odan doro ni okeru kokozo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumuro, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway is a 15.1 km toll road that spans the Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki City in Kanagawa Prefecture to Kisarazu City in Chiba Prefecture by a bridge, an undersea shield tunnel, and two man-made islands. Many new technologies and methods were introduced to construct a large-scale structure safely, rationally, and in a short time on the weak ground under the depth of water in a seismic region such as Tokyo Bay. Kawasaki Steel participated in this project in: (1) development and construction of a revetment structure to which the technology of an oil drilling jacket was applied, (2) design and construction of a large-sized bridge with long-span and multi-span continuous girders on the sea, and (3) design and installation of a mud water treatment module for the shield tunnel constructed on the sea. As a result, the bearing-capacity measurement technology based on the dynamic method of a large diameter steel pipe pile was developed in item (1). The long-term corrosion-proof method using titanium clad steel was developed in item (2), and the way to construct the treatment facilities of approximately 5100 tons in item (3). 3 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  8. Power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  9. Flow of polymer fluids through porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Zami-Pierre, Frédéric; Davit, Yohan; Loubens, Romain de; Quintard, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Non-Newtonian fluids are extensively used in enhanced oil recovery. However, understanding the flow of such fluids in complex porous media remains a challenging problem. In the presented study, we use computational fluid dynamics to investigate the creeping flow of a particular non-Newtonian fluid through porous media, namely a power-law fluid with a newtonian behavior below a critical shear rate. We show that the nonlinear effects induced by the rheology only weakly impact the topological st...

  10. Study on sustainable redevelopment of a densely built-up area in Tokyo by introducing a distributed local energy supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Huang, Hong [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Iwamura, Kazuo [Musashi Institute of Technology, UIA, JIA, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshizawa, Nobufusa; Miisho, Kiyoshi [IWAMURA Atelier Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Satoshi [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Namatame, Sanae; Sakakura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Syunichi [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    'Distributed local energy systems' had been expected to rationalize the supply of energy to built-up areas, but until now very little research has been performed to estimate the effect of their application to actual cities. In this research, therefore, a future vision for the year 2030 in the Sancha Area (SANCHA VISION 2030), a typical densely built-up area in Tokyo, has been elaborated including a simulation to estimate benefits from the application of distributed energy systems in terms of reduced energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions as well as mitigation of the heat-island phenomenon. As a result, it was demonstrated that a 'distributed local energy system', which provides a district with both electrical power and heat through an integrated distribution system, may contribute to a considerable improvement in energy efficiency for those areas. In addition, it may also provide other benefits, including enhancement of living amenity and urban security in times of emergency. (author)

  11. Characterization of NOx emission in the suburbs of Tokyo based on simultaneous and real-time observations of atmospheric Ox and NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    .1 ppbv for Ox and 0.5 ppbv for NOx (60-s integration, S/N = 3). The observation test in the suburbs of Tokyo was conducted in April 2013 at Tokorozawa Campus, Waseda University. During the campaign, 48 cases of ';NOx spikes', for which NOx levels significantly varied in the second time scale due to local NOx emission, were captured. NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gas was estimated as the slope of regression line between 1-s series data of Ox and those of NOx observed during each spike. The average of acquired NO2/NOx ratio was 0.10. Thus, as a result of observations of real atmosphere, the present NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gases in the suburbs of Tokyo was 0.10 as average, which was mainly due to exhausts of automobiles. However, when the individual cases were considered, NO2/NOx could vary from 0.00 to 0.30. Such a wide range of NO2/NOx ratio may be due to (1) difference of source types (eg. automobiles, power generator) and (2) difference of conditions of sources (eg. engines, filters of exhaust). For example, NO2/NOx ratio for hybrid electric vehicles may be different from those for conventional cars. When diffusion of such new model cars can change NOx emission in near future, the present method of simultaneous and real-time monitoring of Ox and NOx in the atmosphere can be useful and promising for characterization of NOx emission.

  12. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The Tokyo Lowland is situated in a Neogene sedimentary basin near the triple junction of the North American, Pacific, and Philippine tectonic plates. The basin is filled with Neogene and Quaternary sediments up to a thickness of 3 km. In the upper 70 m of the basin, thick sequences of soft Holocene sediments occur which are assumed to have played a key role in the spatial variation of damage intensity during the 1923 Kanto earthquake (Magnitude 7.9 to 8.3). Historical records show this earthquake destroyed large parts of the Tokyo urban area which in that time was largely made up by wooden houses. Although the epicentre was 70 km to the southwest of Tokyo, severe damage occurred north of the city centre, presumably due to ground motion amplification in the soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface. In order to assess the presumed relation between the damage pattern of the 1923 earthquake and the occurrence of soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface, we constructed a 3D geological voxel model of the central part of the Tokyo Lowland. The model was constructed using a methodology originally developed for the lowlands of the Netherlands. The modelling workflow basically consists of three steps. First, some 10,000 borehole descriptions (gathered for geomechanical purposes), were subdivided into geological units that have uniform sediment characteristics, using both lithological and geomechanical (N-value) criteria. Second, 2D bounding surfaces were constructed, representing tops and bases of the geological units. These surfaces were used to place each voxel (100 by 100 by 1 m) within the correct geological unit. The N-values and lithological units in the borehole descriptions were subsequently used to perform a 3D stochastic interpolation of N-value and lithological class within each geological unit. Using a vertical voxel stack analysis, we were able to create a map showing the accumulated thickness of soft muds in the Holocene succession. A

  13. Decreasing trends of suspended particulate matter and PM2.5 concentrations in Tokyo, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kunio; Homma, Junichi; Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Mariko; Karita, Kanae; Yano, Eiji

    2013-06-01

    In Tokyo, the annual average suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM2.5 concentrations have decreased in the past two decades. The present study quantitatively evaluated these decreasing trends using data from air-pollution monitoring stations. Annual SPM and PM2.5 levels at 83 monitoring stations and hourly SPM and PM2.5 levels at four monitoring stations in Tokyo, operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, were used for analysis, together with levels of co-pollutants and meteorological conditions. Traffic volume in Tokyo was calculated from the total traveling distance of vehicles as reported by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. High positive correlations between SPM levels and nitrogen oxide levels, sulfur dioxide levels, and traffic volume were determined. The annual average SPM concentration declined by 62.6%from 59.4 microg/m3 in 1994 to 22.2 microg/m3 in 2010, and PM2.5 concentration also declined by 49.8% from 29.3 microg/m3 in 2001 to 14.7 microg/m3 in 2010. Likewise, the frequencies of hourly average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations exceeding the daily guideline values have significantly decreased since 2001 and the hourly average SPM or PM2.5 concentrations per traffic volume for each time period have also significantly decreased since 2001. However SPM and PM2.5 concentrations increased at some monitoring stations between 2004 and 2006 and from 2009 despite strengthened environmental regulations and improvements in vehicle engine performance. The annual average SPM and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with traffic volumes and in particular with the volume of diesel trucks. These results suggest that the decreasing levels of SPM and PM2.5 in Tokyo may be attributable to decreased traffic volumes, along with the effects of stricter governmental regulation and improvements to vehicle engine performance, including the fitting of devices for exhaust emission reduction.

  14. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    2000-02-01

    First published in 1967, Professor Batchelor's classic work is still one of the foremost texts on fluid dynamics. His careful presentation of the underlying theories of fluids is still timely and applicable, even in these days of almost limitless computer power. This reissue ensures that a new generation of graduate students experiences the elegance of Professor Batchelor's writing.

  15. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  16. Older Adults Looking for a Job through Employment Support System in Tokyo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushio Minami

    Full Text Available This study aims to clarify the job seeking process of the elderly people through the local employment support facility known as the Active Senior Employment Support Center (ASESC"AKUTIBU SINIA SHUGYO SIEN SENTAA" in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and evaluate the performance as a complement to the national support systems.We conducted 6 waves of longitudinal mail surveys over 38 weeks to 235 older job seekers (146 males and 89 females, average age 63.7, SD 5.6, who visited two ASESCs for the first time, to clarify their living situation, health condition, and changes in their job seeking process.These older job seekers tended to be at a relatively low education level and on low income, as well as tended to seek jobs for earning living expenses rather than for well-being. Half of them found employment in 35.0 days; however, 23.8% couldn't find any job in 38 weeks, especially those who were younger and with higher education.ASESCs are functioning to assist older job seekers who are mainly seeking jobs for earning living expenses, which can be attained in a short time span and enable them to earn some money. These facilities are expected to be consulting services, not only for employment support but also for general living, because it is important to maintain contact with people who are at risk of social isolation, serious financial difficulty, or suicide. We consider it very helpful to encourage and re-activate these mismatched people, by supporting them to engage in highly contributional services to our society and the next generation, such as providing child-care support or daily life support, the demands for which are rapidly increasing due to recent governmental policies.

  17. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems.

  18. Progression of Tokyo Guidelines and Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Someya, Kazuki; Ootubo, Hiroki; Takama, Tatsuo; Kido, Takashi; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download.

  19. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  20. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak.

  1. [Lifestyle and health status of homeless people around Shibuya Station, Tokyo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, S; Minowa, M

    1999-09-01

    The number of homeless people in Tokyo is estimated to be 3,200-3,300. While studies on the health status of homeless people, including illness, injury and deaths have been previously reported, most of these reports concern the homeless who resided in housing facilities for the homeless or who admitted to hospitals. We undertook a comparison of lifestyle and health status between homeless people and people who live in houses (as a control group). Health status was also analyzed for differences among homeless people. Subjects were asked by questionnaire regarding their age, the length of being homeless, former and present employment, sleeping condition, food, whether they have friends or not, the amount of smoking per day, and Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36). As objective findings, measurement of blood pressure and blood testing were also performed. Fifty-three homeless people, 49 male, 4 female, average age 52, from the areas around Shibuya station and Yoyogi park, were enrolled. While 98% of the homeless people had previous employment, 73% were not working when the study was performed. Compared with control group, the homeless had fewer meals per day, fewer friends, excessive smoking, greater history of gastro-duodenal ulcer and injury, greater limitation due to physical problems, and higher general mental health as measured by SF36. The diastolic blood pressure of the homeless was higher than that of the control. The blood testing showed higher white blood cell counts and platelet counts. It was suggested that changes in the social structures were largely influential in causing life, and that access to health care was limited because of financial and social barriers. Further studies with more samples, survey of social volunteers involved in care of homeless and qualitative data would be necessary to find and develop better support system for the homeless.

  2. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-04-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  3. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  4. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  5. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  6. Development and application of computational fluid dynamics approaches within the European project THINS for the simulation of next generation nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Roelofs, Ferry; Shams, Afaque [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Lecrivain, Gregory [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ambrosini, Walter [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal–hydraulic crosscutting issues related to Generation IV reactor concepts have been investigated within the European Project THINS. • New nuclear systems are characterized by various non-unity Prandtl number coolants. • Improvements in the turbulence modeling for innovative coolants have been achieved. • Extensive development and validation work has been done. - Abstract: Today computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is widely used in industrial companies, research institutes and technical safety organizations to supplement the design and analysis of diverse technical components and large systems. Such numerical programs are applied to better understand complex fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena. In the last decades there is an increasing interest in the nuclear community to utilize such advanced programs for the evaluation of different nuclear reactor safety issues, where traditional analysis tools show deficiencies. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), CFD and coupled 1D-3D thermal–hydraulic simulations are being carried out. These are dedicated to the analysis of the thermal–hydraulics of gas, liquid metal and supercritical water cooled reactors. Such concepts utilize innovative fluids, which have different properties from the ones used in the current nuclear reactors. In order to improve the thermal–hydraulic predictions of their behavior, CFD development, application and validation activities are performed within THINS. This overview paper highlights some of the CFD related work within the European project.

  7. Numerical analysis of the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid over a rotating disk%幂律流体在旋转盘上的流动与传热数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明春英; 郑连存; 张欣欣

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional steady laminar flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian power-law fluid over a rotating infinite disk with heat transfer was studied. The governing partial differential equations, including the continuity equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation, were transformed to ordinary differential equations by utilizing the generalized Karman similarity transformation. The corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problem was solved by the multi-shooting method. Numerical re- sults were obtained for the shear-thinning fluid, the Newtonian fluid and the shear-thickening fluid. It is shown that the power-law character index and the Prandtl number affect the velocities in all directions and the temperature of the fluid in the boundary layer. The results are compared with those of Andersson et al. without considering heat transfer.%针对非牛顿幂律流体在无限大旋转圆盘上层流边界层内三维流动与传热问题,在普朗特数为常数的条件下,利用广义Karman相似变换,将连续方程、动量方程及能量方程形成的偏微分方程组化成常微分方程组,再采用多重打靶法数值求解非线性两点边值问题.分别针对剪薄型流体、牛顿流体和剪厚型流体,得到不同幂律指标下的速度和温度分布及不同普朗特数下温度场的结果.结果表明径向速度分量的峰值随幂律指标的增大而增大,轴向速度受边界层厚度的影响较突出,盘表面的传热随幂律指标和普朗特数都呈现递增趋势.最后将本文流场结果与Andersson等在不考虑传热情况下的结果进行比较表明吻合性较好.

  8. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  9. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from <4.9 to 1700ng/L (mean: 220ng/L). The individual mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs in surface waters were; 10ng/L for D3, 13ng/L for D4, 180ng/L for D5, and 18ng/L for D6. The concentrations of ΣVMS determined in STP effluents varied widely from 99 to 2500ng/L and the individual mean concentrations were 21ng/L for D3, 27ng/L for D4, 540ng/L for D5, and 45ng/L for D6. D5, which is widely used in personal-care products, was found to be the most abundant compound in both river water and STP effluent. Linear VMSs were detected at much lower frequency and concentrations than those of cyclic VMSs. The measured concentrations of D4 were below the no-observed effect concentration (NOEC). The annual emission of ΣVMS through STPs into Tokyo Bay watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment.

  10. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  11. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  12. Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

  13. An ex post cost-benefit analysis of the nitrogen dioxide air pollution control program in Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Public Health and Occupational Medicine

    2000-03-01

    The benefits and costs of past nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) control policies were calculated for Tokyo, Japan, using environmental, economic, political, demographic, and medical data from 1973 to 1994. The benefits of NO{sub 2} control were estimated as medical expenses and lost work time due to hypothetical no-control air concentrations of NO{sub 2}. Direct costs were calculated as annualized capital expenditures and 1 year's operating costs for regulated industries plus governmental agency expense. 46 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  15. Linkages among the non-genetically modified soybean, conventional soybean, and corn futures markets in the Tokyo Grain Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The market linkages among the non-genetically modified (non-GM) soybean, conventional soybean, and cor futures markets at the Tokyo Grain Exchange are investigated to find out if the two soybean futures markets and the corn futures market share price information in the presence of unknown breaks. The results reveal that there are market linkages between the non-GM and conventional soybean futures prices and between the non-GM soybean and corn futures prices and that these markets do influence...

  16. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  17. Solar multiple optimization for a solar-only thermal power plant, using oil as heat transfer fluid in the parabolic trough collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Pita, María José; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria; Valdes del Fresno, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Usual size of parabolic trough solar thermal plants being built at present is approximately 50 M We. Most of these plants do not have a thermal storage system for maintaining the power block performance at nominal conditions during long non-insolation periods. Because of that, a proper solar field size, with respect to the electric nominal power, is a fundamental choice. A too large field will be partially useless under high solar irradiance values whereas a small field will mainly make the p...

  18. 外形任意的多孔介质轴对称物体中充满非Newton幂律流体时的自然对流%Natural Convection of Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Over Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Bodies of Arbitrary Shape in a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S·M·阿布德尔-盖德; M·R·伊德

    2011-01-01

    在一个轴对称、外形任意的多孔介质二维体中,充满了有屈服应力的非Newton幂律流体时,数值分析其自由对流及其传热/传质问题,利用相似变换,将边界层控制方程及其边界条件变换为无量纲形式,然后用有限差分法求解该方程组.所研究的参数为流变常数、浮力比和Lewis数.给出并讨论了典型的速度、温度及浓度曲线,发现屈服应力参数值和非Newton流体的幂律指数对结果有着显著的影响.%Numerical analysis of free convection coupled heat and mass transfer was presented for non-Newtonian power-law fluids with yield stress flowing over two-dimensional or axisymmetric body of arbitrary shape in a fluid-saturated porous medium.The governing boundary layer equations and boundary conditions were cast into a dimensionless form by similarity transformation and the resulting system of equations was solved by a finite difference method.The parameters studied were the rheologicai constants, the buoyancy ratio, and the Lewis number.Representative velocity as well as temperature and concentration profiles were presented and discussed.It was found that the result depend strongly on the values of the yield stress parameter, and the power-law index of non-Newtonian fluid.

  19. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  20. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  1. Music and Space From 20th Century to the Present Time: The Performing Arts Buildings at Tokyo & Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Gündem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that the technical facilities of the performing arts building in Istanbul city are insufficient when it is compared with the examples from the world. The reason of this problem depends on the fact of the tremendous developing constructions of housing, shopping malls or public spaces instead of concert halls, opera houses or theatre buildings which require big investments with high cost. The visitors and artists complain about this a lot in order to have spaces which mainly serve for art. Performing arts architecture is still not a primary subject in the competitive platform of design in Turkey and stays behind as an architectural symbol of the city. The aim of this paper is to show how the musical spaces in Istanbul can be more functional and more closer to the technical standarts of the ideal examples around the world by the analysing the buildings in Europe, America and especially the ones from Tokyo to bring solutions to the current problems in the context of the relationship of music and space. The suggestions for providing architectural development of the performing arts buildings consist in Istanbul which present lower standarts of spatial volumes and technical qualities compared to Tokyo are stated at the results section of the thesis in order to create an awareness and make people conscious of art to encourage the usage and construction of these types of structures filled with art.

  2. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMrespiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued.

  3. Partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Lam, Paul K S; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-15

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C or = 11) were found only in sediment The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment The maximum SigmaPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm(-2) yr(-1). Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  4. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)]. E-mail: kotoku@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp; Kataoka, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kuramoto, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10x10x20cm{sup 3} box with a total mass of 3.6kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the 'satellite-core' concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT.

  5. Evaluation of a virtual reality simulation system for porcelain fused to metal crown preparation at Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hirono; Ikeda, Masaomi; Araki, Koji

    2013-06-01

    The use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) is a new teaching modality in dentistry, and there is scope for further research evaluating its use under different educational programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how VRS with or without instructor feedback influenced students' learning and skills related to porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown preparation. In this study, forty-three dental students in their fifth year of study at Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, were randomly divided into three groups: the first group used VRS (DentSim) with the instructor's feedback (DSF) (n=15), the second group used VRS without the instructor's feedback (DS) (n=15), and the third group neither used features of VRS (NDS) (n=13) nor received the instructor's feedback. All the students performed PFM crown preparation under the same setup once a week for four weeks. Total scores, preparation time, and twelve evaluation items were compared among the three groups and four experiments. The total scores of students in the DSF and DS groups were significantly higher than those in the NDS group. The presence of the instructor did not result in significant difference when VRS was used for training, while it shortened the preparation time at early stages. The results of this study suggested that the use of the VRS system improved student training for PFM crown preparation.

  6. Vertical profiles of dioxin-like and estrogenic activities associated with a sediment core from Tokyo Bay, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Yamashita, N.; Imagawa, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miyazaki, A.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (USA). Dept. of Zoology

    2000-09-01

    In vitro bioassays were used to measure dioxin-like and estrogenic activities associated with florisil fractions of extracts from a sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan. Florisil fractions 2(F2) and 3(F3) elicited significant dioxin-like responses in vitro. Dioxin-like activity of F2 samples were correlated with the vertical profile of PAH concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.85). Contribution of PAHs to Ah receptor-mediated activities in sediments was greater than those by PCDDs/DFs, PCBs, and PCNs. The dioxin-like activity of F3 samples suggests the presence of relatively polar, Ah receptor-active compounds in the Tokyo Bay sediment core. Significant estrogenic activities, which may be related to the presence of certain estrogenic PAHs, were observed for F2 samples. Estrogen equivalents (E2-EQs) calculated from the concentrations and relative potencies of known estrogenic compounds in F2 were greater than bioassay-derived E2-EQs. This suggests that complex interactions between estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds (PAHs, PCDD/DFs, and PCNs) may have modulated the activity. F3 samples were toxic to MVLN cells; therefore, their estrogenic activities could not be estimated. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  8. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration.

  9. Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models

  10. Computational fluid dynamic simulation (CFD) for hydrogen emission in batteries rooms of new technologic safeguards system of nuclear power plant Vandellos II; Simulacion de dinamica de fluidos computacional (CFD) para la emision de hidrogeno en las salas de baterias de nuevo sistema de salvaguardias tecnologicas de C.N. Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, A.; Arino, X; Colomer, C.

    2010-07-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology is a powerful tool used when traditional methods of engineering are not sufficient to address the complexity of a problem and want to avoid the construction of prototypes. Natural ventilation and transport of hydrogen gas, is a problem where there are no models based on experimental data or analytical expressions that can reflect, the complex behaviour, of the fluid, but which can be addressed by use of CFD. (Author). 3 Refs.

  11. Hands-On Activities: A New Instructional Method for a Fluid Mechanics Course---Never Underestimate the Teaching Power of Jell-O RTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Lynn Alwine

    Background In order to eliminate the fear-factor associated with learning FluidMechanics, a new instructional method was created. The new method is neatly packaged into hands-on activities (as defined in this dissertation) in order to ease implementation and dissemination into an engineering class. Because of variations in learning and teaching styles of students and lecturers [34], the hands-on activities are designed to help the lecturer communicate key concepts to a wider spectrum of students. Typically engineering lectures are biased towards intuitive, verbal, reflective and sequential learners whereas few engineering students fall into these categories. [35] The hands-on activities are meant to bridge the communication gap resulting in a positive educational experience. Purpose In order to assess the impact of the new instructional method, a new engineering education experimental design was created. Engineering Education research is very interdisciplinary in nature and therefore requires cooperation from multiple Colleges including, but not limited to, Engineering, Education, and Science (Statistics). Design/Method Two groups of engineering students were allocated to test the hypothesis, "Does being exposed to hands-on activities (a new instructional method) in a section of MAE 308 - Fluid Mechanics result in higher student achievement?" Comparison of the quiz results between the control group and experimental group assessed the effectiveness of the hands-on activities. The problems within each quiz correlated to a level of Bloom's Taxonomy. A comparison of the results on the problems assessed which level of Bloom's were impacted. NHST was performed to determine statistical significance while the effect size was calculated to determine practical significance. Results The hands-on activities have a positive effect on learning. 3.30% more students per class perform better on each problem on each quiz. The hands-on activity, Rainbow Layer Cake, was a superstar

  12. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  13. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  14. Flexible, Hybrid Piezoelectric Film (BaTi(1-x)Zr(x)O3)/PVDF Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Fluid Velocity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) constructed using a hybrid (or composite) film composed of highly crystalline BaTi(1-x)Zr(x)O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) nanocubes (abbreviated as BTZO) synthesized using a molten-salt process embedded into a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix solution via ultrasonication. The potential of a BTZO/PVDF hybrid film is realized in fabricating eco-friendly devices, active sensors, and flexible nanogenerators to interpret its functionality. Our strategy is based on the incorporation of various Zr(4+) doping ratios into the Ti(4+) site of BaTiO3 nanocubes to enhance the performance of the PNG. The flexible nanogenerator (BTZO/PVDF) exhibits a high electrical output up to ∼11.9 V and ∼1.35 μA compared to the nanogenerator (BTO/PVDF) output of 7.99 V and 1.01 μA upon the application of cyclic pushing-releasing frequencies with a constant load (11 N). We also demonstrate another exciting application of the PNG as a self-powered sensor to measure different water velocities at an outlet pipe. The average maximum peak power of the PNG varies from 0.2 to 15.8 nW for water velocities ranging from 31.43 to 125.7 m/s during the water ON condition. This study shows the compositional dependence approach, fabrication of nanostructures for energy harvesting, and self-powered devices in the field of monitoring for remote area applications.

  15. Base isolation of fluid containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Cygna Group Inc./ICF Kaiser International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design.

  16. Electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Cunlu

    2010-01-01

    Owing to frequent processing of biofluids in Lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices, electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated numerically. The general Cauchy momentum equation governing the electroosmotic velocity is simplified by incorporation of the Gouy-Chapman solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Carreau fluid constitutive model. Then the finite element method for solving the simplified version of Cauchy momentum equation is validated through comparisons with two exact solutions, i.e., Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids. Analyses shows that different from Newtonian fluids with a constant dimensionless electroosmotic mobility of unit one, dimensionless electroosmotic mobilities for non-Newtonian Carreau fluids are dependent on four dimensionless groups, such as dimensionless surface zeta potential , Weissenberg number Wi, fluid power-law exponent n and transitional parameter {\\beta}. It is found out that with increasing and decreasing of n and {\\beta}, electroosmotic ...

  17. Helical propulsion in shear-thinning fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Saul; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms often have to propel in complex, non-Newtonian fluids. We carry out experiments with self-propelling helical swimmers driven by an externally rotating magnetic field in shear-thinning, inelastic fluids. Similarly to swimming in a Newtonian fluid, we obtain for each fluid a locomotion speed which scales linearly with the rotation frequency of the swimmer, but with a prefactor which depends on the power index of the fluid. The fluid is seen to always increase the swimming speed of the helix, up to 50% faster and thus the strongest of such type reported to date. The maximum relative increase for a fluid power index of around 0.6. Using simple scalings, we argue that the speed increase is not due to the local decrease of the flow viscosity around the helical filament but hypothesise instead that it originates from confinement-like effect due to viscosity stratification around the swimmer.

  18. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  19. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of 26Al in Antarctic ice with the MALT-AMS system at the University of Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Aoi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2007-06-01

    We have attempted to determine the 26Al concentration of Antarctic ice sampled from the vicinity of the Dome Fuji Research Station using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at MALT (MicroAnalysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator) of the University of Tokyo. Because the expected concentration of 26Al in ice is very low, our standard procedure for the AMS measurement was re-examined and refined. The observed 26Al concentration ranged between 160 and 210 atoms g-1. The averaged value of the 26Al/10Be ratio from two samples was 1.75 ± 0.19 × 10-3, which agrees well with recently reported values for the meteoric 26Al/10Be ratio from Antarctic ice and air filter residues. This result implies the possibility of future 26Al/10Be dating of old Antarctic ice.

  1. The Tokyo Trials and “Pal Myth”%东京审判与“帕尔神话”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志勇

    2016-01-01

    东京审判是战后对日本战争犯罪的总决算,意在通过惩治战争犯罪,防止历史悲剧重演。东京审判具有充分的法律依据,其管辖权中“破坏和平罪”和“反人道罪”的设立,既是对传统国际法的继承,也是对国际法的发展,具有重要意义。而帕尔在其个人意见书中对全体被告的无罪判定,既是对罪刑法定原则的固守,更是缘于其民族主义的政治偏见和东西方对立的意识形态偏见,以及对共产主义的仇视,缺乏科学性和合理性。日本右翼夸大渲染帕尔个人意见,创造了“帕尔神话”,意在借此否定日本侵略战争的历史性质。因此,应该以发展的眼光看待东京审判,不仅要看到其对传统国际法的继承,更要到其对未来国际法发展的贡献。%The Tokyo Trials or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal was convened after the Second World War to try the war criminals of Japan. The trials aimed at punishing the war crimes and preventing the recurrence of similar tragedies. The Tokyo Trials was not only fully justified but also significant in inheriting and advancing the traditional international law because of the legislation of “crime against peace” and “crime against humanity”. Pal‘s dissenting opinion of exoneration for all the defendants was neither scientific nor reasonable. It was a banality of the principle of legally prescribed punishment, a political prejudice stemmed from the nationalism and the distinctive ideologies of the East and the West, and, of course, it was hostile to communism. To conceal the fact of aggression, Japanese right-wing force overstated Pal‘s dissenting opinion and fabricated the “Pal myth” in Japan. Therefore, the Tokyo Trials should be regarded in a developing view and recognized both as the inheritance of the traditional international law and as the contribution to the advancement of international law in the future.

  2. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  3. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  4. Tokyo Tech–Hitotsubashi Interdisciplinary Conference : New Approaches to the Analysis of Large-Scale Business and Economic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki; Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis

    2010-01-01

    The new science of econophysics has arisen out of the information age. As large-scale economic data are being increasingly generated by industries and enterprises worldwide, researchers from fields such as physics, mathematics, and information sciences are becoming involved. The vast number of transactions taking place, both in the financial markets and in the retail sector, is usually studied by economists and management and now by econophysicists. Using cutting-edge tools of computational analysis while searching for regularities and “laws” such as those found in the natural sciences, econophysicists have come up with intriguing results. The ultimate aim is to establish fundamental data collection and analysis techniques that embrace the expertise of a variety of academic disciplines. This book comprises selected papers from the international conference on novel analytical approaches to economic data held in Tokyo in March 2009. The papers include detailed reports on the market behavior during the finan...

  5. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  6. Risk assessment of TBT in the Japanese short-neck clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) of Tokyo Bay using a chemical fate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Fumio; Nakata, Kisaburo; Ito, Naganori; Okawa, Ken

    2006-12-01

    A risk assessment of Tributyltin (TBT) in Tokyo Bay was conducted using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) method at the species level using the Japanese short-neck clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect R. philippinarum in Tokyo Bay from TBT (growth effects). A No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for this species with respect to growth reduction induced by TBT was estimated from experimental results published in the scientific literature. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Tokyo Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. MOEs for this species were estimated for the years 1990, 2000, and 2007. Estimated MOEs for R. philippinarum for 1990, 2000, and 2007 were approximately 1-3, 10, and 100, respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse growth effects. A simplified software package called RAMTB was developed by incorporating the chemical fate model and the databases of seasonal flow fields and distributions of organic substances (phytoplankton and detritus) in Tokyo Bay, simulated by the hydrodynamic and ecological model, respectively.

  7. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  8. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  9. Risk perception and risk attitudes in Tokyo: A report of the first administration of DOSPERT+M in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT has been used to measure risk perceptions and attitudes in several nations and cultures. Takahashi translated DOSPERT to Japanese but DOSPERT responses from Japan have never been reported. Butler et al. (2012 developed an additional medical risk domain subscale to be added to DOSPERT to form DOSPERT+M. Objective: To describe the translation of the medical risk domain subscale to Japanese and to characterize domain-specific risk attitudes in Tokyo. Methods: Members of a probability-weighted online panel representative of the Tokyo metro area were randomized to complete pairs of DOSPERT+M tasks (risk attitude, risk perception, benefit perception. We explored relationships among domains through correlational and factor analysis; we tested the hypothesis that the medical risk domain and DOSPERT's health/safety domains were uncorrelated. Participants: One hundred eighty panelists. Results: Six of the original DOSPERT items (two each in the ethics, health/safety, and financial domains are not useable in Japan according to the Japanese Marketing Research Association code because they ask about participation in illegal activities; we thus used abbreviated versions of those domains leaving out these items. The DOSPERT+M items generally did not cluster cleanly into the expected domains, although items within the same domain usually were intercorrelated. Participants demonstrated domain-specific conventional risk attitudes, although nearly half of those assessed were perceived-risk neutral in all domains. Unlike our recently reported findings in the U.S. population, DOSPERT+M medical domain scores were associated with health/safety domain scores, although they were often more strongly associated with scores in other domains, such as recreational activities. Conclusion: The DOSPERT (and DOSPERT+M instruments are problematic in Japan but Japanese citizens may also differ from those of other nations

  10. A retrospective quality assessment of the 7119 call triage system in Tokyo - telephone triage for non-ambulance cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Morimura, Naoto; Takeda, Munekazu; Miura, Kunihisa; Kiyotake, Naoshi; Ishihara, Toru; Aruga, Tohru

    2014-07-01

    Summary We assessed the accuracy of telephone triage at the 7119 telephone consultation centre in Tokyo. We evaluated walk-in patients at primary care facilities in a clinic or hospital. Nurses asked all patients calling 7119 to join the study and gave them a specific identification number (ID no) at the end of the telephone consultation. The outcome of the consultation was defined as discharge to home (home), admittance to hospital (hospitalization), referral, or transfer to another hospital. After matching consultation records and patient data by ID no, emergency medical physicians reviewed the protocol for problems. During the study, consultation nurses issued an ID no in 17,141 cases, and hospitals and clinics sent back the data on 1205 patients. Among these patients, 1119 cases (93%) were home, 59 cases (5%) were hospitalization, 18 cases (2%) were referral and 9 cases (1%) were transfer. Of the 86 cases which had an outcome of hospitalization, referral or transfer, there were 56 cases with matched patient data. Among these 56 cases, review showed no significant problems with 37 cases. However, there were 11 cases with patient refusal to comply with the triage recommendation, 4 cases with 7119 staff education problems and 4 cases with problems with the protocol itself. We were able to evaluate the 7119 telephone triage system in Tokyo. The study identified three types of problems with the triage process: refusal of telephone triage recommendations, problems with staff education and problems with the protocol itself. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  12. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    own Governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives. JAMES MADISON to W, T. BARRY August 4, 1822 REDEFINING THE U.S.-JAPAN...SDF facilities for such purposes as Waining centers and advance depots for materials and equipment for peacekeeping operations, and supply by Japan of

  13. Change of photovoltaic module conversion efficiency with the environmental factors in different site. Comparison of the conversion efficiency in Tokyo with the one in Nagano; Kotonaru chiten ni okeru taiyo denchi module no shutsuryoku tokusei no henka. Tokyoto Shinjukuku to Naganoken Chinoshi tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T.; Tani, T.; Hirata, Y.; Inasaka, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Assuming that photovoltaic power systems were installed at two points, Shinjuku Tokyo and Chino Nagano, a study was conducted of difference in generated output of the systems caused by the difference in environmental factors. In the study, it was assumed that two of the photovoltaic power system with rated capacity of 3kW were installed at the two points, and the annual generated output was calculated and compared by the conventional method considering only cell temperature and the output estimation method considering intensity of solar radiation, cell temperature, and spectral distribution of solar radiation. The result of the study was as follows: the difference in output ratio at the two points was 1.7% or lower under the influence of intensity of solar radiation and cell temperature. On the other hand, under the influence of the distribution of spectral solar radiation, the difference is larger than under other environmental factors, 2.4% in polycrystalline Si and 5.5% in amorphous Si. The generated output estimated by the conventional method and the spectral method produced a difference between 81 kWh in Tokyo and 258 kWh in Nagano in amorphous Si. This is because environmental factors such as intensity of solar radiation and distribution of spectral solar radiation are different between the two points. 1 ref., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 5, Number 1, January-March 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    chemical oceanography include analysis of seawater, plankton pigments, oxygen-deficient and sulfide-bearing environments in the ocean, and...the Atomic Energy Commission (A.F.C.) are deeply concerned about the ecological effects of tie nuclear power plants, and a program of seaweed surveys...oceanography on aquaculture, especially along the southern half of the west coast. Cultured organisms include oysters, prawns, fish, and the seaweed

  15. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  16. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  17. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  18. Study of Heat Dissipation of the Power Transformer with Nano Oil-based Magnetic Fluid%纳米磁液在电力变压器中散热效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王信平; 郑敏华

    2015-01-01

    Oil-immersed power transformer is one of important electric power equipment in power supply and distribution system of the industrial and mining enterprises and civil building. Because the gap between different parts in the transformer oil tank has the effect of cooling and heat dissipation , the performance of the transformer depends on the oil to a large extent. The stable transformer oil-based magnetic liquid was made through adding about 10% ferromagnetic particles by surfactant packages with nanoscale to the transformer oil in this study. The results showed that nano oil-based magnetic fluid can significantly improve the heat dissipation capability of transformer oil, reduce the volume, lower the cost and power loss, improve the working efficiency based on without changing the insulation performance and the physical and chemical properties of transformer oil.%油浸式电力变压器是工矿企业与民用建筑供配电系统中的重要电力设备之一,变压器油充满油箱内各部件之间的间隙起到冷却和散热的作用,因此油的好坏很大程度上也决定了变压器的性能。通过在变压器油中添加10%左右纳米级的经表面活性剂包裹的铁磁性微粒制成稳定的变压器油基磁性液体。实验表明:在不改变变压器油的绝缘性能和理化性能的基础上,能明显提高变压器油的散热效果,减少体积,降低成本,降低电能损耗,提高工效。

  19. Future Projection of Storm Surge at Tokyo Bay under RCP 8.5 Scenario by Meteorological-Ocean-Tide Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, T.; Nakamura, R.; Takagawa, T.; Shibayama, T.

    2016-12-01

    It is clearly valuable to accomplish well-reproduced storm surge model and conduct future projection for disaster prevention. In this study, the reproducibility of Meteorological-Ocean-Tide coupled model was validated by simulating typhoon Roke (2011) storm surge, which was recorded as the highest anomaly (119cm) at Tokyo tide station (JMA) in Tokyo Bay over the last 10 years. Furthermore, the future projection (2050) under global warming scenario (RCP8.5) was conducted. The coupled model was composed of 3 models; ARW-WRFV3 (Skamarock et al., 2008), FVCOM (Chen et al., 2011) and WXTide32. WRF firstly calculated downscaled meteorological field by using FiNal anaLysis (FNL) as initial/boundary (I/B) condition. In this calculation, single layer urban canopy model (Kusaka et al., 2001) and topography data from SRTM3 (90m mesh) and GSI (50m mesh) were applied. Then the output was used as I/B condition to FVCOM, which calculated storm surge. Finally tide level was calculated by adding storm surge to astronomical tide calculated by WXTide32. For 2050 case, sea surface temperature (SST) from 26 GCM under RCP8.5 was used for constructing pseudo global warming meteorological fields. In details, ensemble average of SST variation between 2006-2015 and 2041-2060 was added to FNL's SST by following Oya et al (2016). In this case, calculating astronomical tide is omitted due to the limitation of WXTide32. The reproduced result of typhoon Roke shows that the difference of maximum tide level (first peak) to the observation is less than 10cm, the difference of second peak is about 50cm. The future projection result shows that the increase of storm surge at Tokyo tide station is about 20cm and that at Funabashi is about 30cm. This intensification is mainly caused by wind speed increment, since the variation of low pressure due to higher SST is relatively small. Moreover, Funabashi is located in front of the open space at inner part of Tokyo Bay, Tokyo tide station is similar however

  20. Survey on the consciousness structure toward nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, T. (Nomura Research Institute, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    A survey on the popular consciousness toward nuclear power generation was carried out by direct means of questionnaire to 1600 persons, ages from 20 to 69, in power demand areas (Tokyo and Osaka) and power supply areas (sites of nuclear power generation) from early February to early March, 1980, and the recovery rate was 74.4% (1190 persons). The results are described by way of their explanation. The purpose is to clarify the structure of popular consciousness toward nuclear energy, in particular nuclear power generation, and the nature of its acceptance. That is, it was surveyed how general people in the power supply and the power demand areas are taking nuclear power generation concerning its need and safety, and further how the attitudes are constituted and vary.

  1. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  2. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  3. Gray's paradox: A fluid mechanical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Hao, Max; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Patel, Namrata; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Gray reported that the drag power experienced by a dolphin was larger than the estimated muscle power – this is termed as Gray's paradox. We provide a fluid mechanical perspective of this paradox. The viewpoint that swimmers necessarily spend muscle energy to overcome drag in the direction of swimming needs revision. For example, in undulatory swimming most of the muscle energy is directly expended to generate lateral undulations of the body, and the drag power is balanced not by the muscle power but by the thrust power. Depending on drag model utilized, the drag power may be greater than muscle power without being paradoxical. PMID:25082341

  4. Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Takizawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume celebrates the work of Tayfun E. Tezduyar on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation (AFSI 2014) conference, also dedicated to Prof. Tezduyar and held at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan on March 19-21, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Organized into seven distinct parts arranged by thematic topics, the papers included cover basic methods and applications of CFD, flows with moving boundaries and interfaces, phase-field modeling, computer science and high-performance computing (HPC) aspects of flow simulation, mathematical methods, biomedical applications, and FSI. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students working on CFD, FSI, and related topics will find this collection to be a defi...

  5. PRESERVATION OR DEGRADATION OF LOCAL CULTURAL ASSETS IN CENTRAL TOKYO – THE CASE OF THE PLANS TO RELOCATE THE TSUKIJI FISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Ursic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cultural-led redevelopment projects in today’s global cities are devised with the clear objective of stimulating their economic growth. Redevelopment schemes usually aim to develop consumption services and urban settings to make the city more attractive for investors. In many cases, redevelopment has led to a diminishment in diversity of local cultural spaces in the inner-city areas. Historically and socially important services and institutions like Tokyo’s Tsukiji Fish Market tend to be relocated and replaced by less traditional and culturally less attractive spaces. This short-term strategy cannot really succeed in preserving or integrating local cultures, which may in the long run help Tokyo to become distinctively different from other global competing cities and to benefit from these advantages. The article analyses the plans to renovate or redevelop specific local consumption spaces in Tokyo, and explores what mechanisms and strategies are being used by the involved actors to accomplish their goals.

  6. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sugiura, Hitomi

    2005-04-01

    The proportion of having keitai (Japanese mobile phone) has increased rapidly in young children. To research how junior high school students use their own keitai and to examine the impact of using it on their psychology, especially on their friendship, we recruited 651 students, grade 8, from five public junior high schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Each student participant completed a questionnaire that we had created. The response rates were 88.8% (n = 578) for participants. The proportion of having their own keitai was 49.3% (n = 285) and that of not having it was 50.7% (n = 293). We found that they used it much more frequently for e-mail than as a phone. Most of them exchanged e-mails between schoolmates, and more than a half of them exchanged e-mails more than 10 times a day. Sociable students estimated that their own keitai was useful for their friendship. But they experienced some insecurity or started staying up late at night engaged in e-mail exchanges, and they thought that they could not live without their own keitai. Our findings suggest that keitai having an e-mail function play a big part in the junior high-school students' daily life, and its impact on students' friendships, psychology, or health should be discussed among students to prevent keitai addiction.

  7. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  8. Fusing moving average model and stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection: case study of Tokyo Expressway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a growing problem in urban areas all over the world. The transport sector has been in full swing event study on intelligent transportation system for automatic detection. The functionality of automatic incident detection on expressways is a primary objective of advanced traffic management system. In order to save lives and prevent secondary incidents, accurate and prompt incident detection is necessary. This paper presents a methodology that integrates moving average (MA model with stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection, in which parameters of layer coefficient are extracted from the difference between the upstream and downstream occupancy. Unlike other wavelet-based method presented before, firstly it smooths the raw data with MA model. Then it uses stationary wavelet to decompose, which can achieve accurate reconstruction of the signal, and does not shift the signal transfer coefficients. Thus, it can detect the incidents more accurately. The threshold to trigger incident alarm is also adjusted according to normal traffic condition with congestion. The methodology is validated with real data from Tokyo Expressway ultrasonic sensors. Experimental results show that it is accurate and effective, and that it can differentiate traffic accident from other condition such as recurring traffic congestion.

  9. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.

  10. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  11. Purification of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo antigens by chromatofocusing, lectin-affinity chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, E A; Stilwell, K; Watson, D C; Rohonczy, E B; Martineau, P

    1996-09-01

    A combination of chromatofocusing, lectin-affinity chromatography, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in a simple purification of protein antigens of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo culture filtrate. Identification was established on the basis of chromatographic separation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis determination of molecular weights, and N-terminal amino acid determination. Chromatofocusing on PBE 94 accomplished the separation of BCG85B from other BCG85 complex antigens and partial separation of MPB64 and MPB70 antigens. Subsequently, MPB64 and MPB70 were completely separated on a high-performance liquid chromatography TSK Phenyl 5PW hydrophobic interaction chromatography column. This column also separated BCG85B from a 17-kDa protein with an N-terminal amino acid sequence of A-V-P-I-T-G-K-L-G-S-E-L-T-M-T-D-( )-V-G-Q, which is similar to the sequence of MPT63. Concanavalin A-Sepharose-affinity chromatography separated MPB64 from a 43- and 47-kDa doublet with an amino acid sequence of D-P-E-P-A-P-P-V-P-P-V-P-A-( )-A-A-S-P, which is similar to the sequence of MPT32 and which appears to be glycosylated.

  12. Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Norihide; Tanishima, Toshikatsu; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kiri, Kentaro; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-10-01

    We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and naproxen showed poor removal (crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

  13. Radiocarbon-based source apportionment of black carbon (BC) in PM 10 aerosols from residential area of suburban Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masao; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Koike, Yasuyo; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Uchida, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Kitao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The AMS technique was applied to analyse black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), and previously reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 aerosols from a residential area, suburban Tokyo, to determine natural abundance of radiocarbon ( 14C), an ideal tracer to distinguish fossil fuel ( 14C-free) from modern biomass combustion sources of pyrolytic products. The 14C concentrations in BC, isolated using the CTO-375 method, were 42% and 30% pMC (in terms of percent Modern Carbon: pMC) in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C concentrations in BC were also compared with those of compound-class specific 14C content of PAHs previously reported for the same samples: they were 45% and 33% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C signals of BC were identical to those of high molecular weight (MW ⩾ 226, 5-6 rings) PAHs. The resemblance between 14C signals of BC and PAHs can be referred as a 'certificate' for the validity of the BC isolation method employed in this study. Also, it suggests that 14C-BC approach can be a surrogate for PAHs specific 14C analyses to monitor seasonal source variation of combustion-derived pyrolytic products. On the other hand, 14C contents of total organic carbon in 2004 were 61% and 42% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. This is likely attributed to higher contribution of plant activity in summer.

  14. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (river-estuaries and Tokyo Bay are presented. Unique shale-normalized REE patterns with a distinct positive Gd anomalies and a strong heavy-REE enrichment were seen throughout the data. The dissolved Gd anomaly is caused by local anthropogenic input mainly due to recent use of Gado-pentetic acid as a medical agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. The heavy-REE enrichment may be attributed to fractionation during weathering and transport in the upstream of the rivers, and only partially to removal of light- and middle-REE enriched river colloids by the use of a new ultrafiltration technique. Dissolved In concentrations in the Japanese rivers are extraordinarily high as compared to those in the pristine Chao Phraya river of Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  15. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  16. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection.

  17. Perception of acoustic cues to Tokyo Japanese pitch-accent contrasts in native Japanese and naive English listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shport, Irina A

    2015-07-01

    This study examines how native language shapes the perception of a prosodic contrast. In Tokyo Japanese, a high-low pitch accent is a lexical property of a word, and the F0 fall after the peak associated with the accented syllable is the fundamental cue to accent perception. In English, pitch accents do not create lexically contrastive F0 patterns. A hypothesis that English listeners naive to Japanese use the F0 fall cue less than Japanese listeners was tested in two experiments. The alignment of F0 peak, the presence and magnitude of F0 fall were manipulated in a trisyllabic nonword to resynthesize Japanese 1st-syllable accented, 2nd-syllable accented, and unaccented patterns. In an AX-discrimination experiment, both listener groups showed sensitivity to the presence of F0 fall at every peak location. In a categorization experiment, the English group did not use the F0 fall cue in decisions about whether the 1st or the 2nd syllable sounded more prominent. The Japanese group relied on the F0 fall information, some listeners much heavily than others. These findings suggest that one's native language constrains how much attention the prosodic dimension of F0 change receives and that individual listeners may have qualitatively different perceptual strategies.

  18. An intervention analysis on the Tokyo Grain Exchange non-genetically modified and conventional soybean futures markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaka Aruga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how efficiently the price premium for non-genetically modified (non-GM soybeans at the Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE reacts to an announcement to change the contract unit, suppliers, and expiration date on the conventional soybean futures contract. An intervention analysis is used for this purpose. The results reveal that the price premium for non-GM soybeans increases after the change and this effect did not disappear immediately. This implies that the two soybean futures markets did not respond quickly to the announcement and there was an informational inefficiency after the announcement. The TGE non-GM soybean futures market is one of the first segregated markets for a non-GM commodity. An intervention of clearing houses on such newly opened markets can often lead to market inefficiency so a further study is necessary in order to understand what causes such inefficiency and to find out how clearing houses can minimize the effects of intervention.

  19. Numerical analysis of laminar pulsating flow for power-law fluid in concentric annulus%幂律流体同心环空内层流脉动流的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄善波; 李兆敏

    2011-01-01

    建立幂律流体环空内层流脉动流的数学模型,采用SIMPLE算法进行数值求解,得到幂律流体环空脉动层流的流动特性.结果表明:幂律流体环空脉动流的流动特性与稳态流动时差异较大;环空脉动流在距入口非常短的一段距离内就可达到充分发展,且不同时刻的人口段长度随时间而变化;低脉动频率下速度分布曲线类似于稳态时的抛物形分布,高频率下壁面附近的速度分布曲线发生扭曲,振荡速度的最大值出现在壁面附近;内、外壁面的摩擦系数和轴向压力梯度均近似满足正弦变化规律,脉动频率、振幅和流体流性指数的增加均会使壁面摩擦系数和轴向压力梯度及其变化幅度增大.%A mathematical model for laminar pulsating flow of power-law fluid in annulus was set up and solved by SIMPLE method. The results show that the flow behavior of pulsating flow is quite different from that of steady flow. Fully developed lamilar flow can be achieved in a small distance from the annulus entrance. and the hydrodynamic entrance length varies with time. The transient pulsating velocity curve at low pulsating frequency is similar to parabolic distribution of steady flow. The influence of pulsation is distinct at high frequency and the maxmum oscillating velocity component appears near the wall.The wall friction coefficient and the axial pressure gradient vary with time approximately in sinusoidal manner. The friction coefficient at inner and outer wall and the axial pressure gradient and their variation range all increase with the increase of pulsating frequency, amplitude and the flow index of fluid.

  20. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Oi

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs. T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P < 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233 in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104 in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219 and 1.9% (2 of 106, respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P < 0.05. These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of T. gondii exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  1. Self-Powered Magnetothermal Fluid Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to successfully manage thermal loads is increasingly a primary design constraint for many emerging engineered systems. Systems ranging from military...

  2. Takeshi Sasaki (center), president of the University of Tokyo, visited CERN on 29 July when the renewal of the memorandum for the academic exchange agreement between the university and CERN was signed

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Takeshi Sasaki (center), president of the University of Tokyo, visited CERN on 29 July when the renewal of the memorandum for the academic exchange agreement between the university and CERN was signed

  3. Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  5. PREFACE: Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsuya

    2011-08-01

    This issue includes a special section on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in memory of the late Professor Kunio Kuwahara, who passed away on 15 September 2008, at the age of 66. In this special section, five articles are included that are based on the lectures and discussions at `The 7th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD: To the Memory of Professor Kuwahara' held in Tokyo on 23 and 24 September 2009. Professor Kuwahara started his research in fluid dynamics under Professor Imai at the University of Tokyo. His first paper was published in 1969 with the title 'Steady Viscous Flow within Circular Boundary', with Professor Imai. In this paper, he combined theoretical and numerical methods in fluid dynamics. Since that time, he made significant and seminal contributions to computational fluid dynamics. He undertook pioneering numerical studies on the vortex method in 1970s. From then to the early nineties, he developed numerical analyses on a variety of three-dimensional unsteady phenomena of incompressible and compressible fluid flows and/or complex fluid flows using his own supercomputers with academic and industrial co-workers and members of his private research institute, ICFD in Tokyo. In addition, a number of senior and young researchers of fluid mechanics around the world were invited to ICFD and the Nobeyama workshops, which were held near his villa, and they intensively discussed new frontier problems of fluid physics and fluid engineering at Professor Kuwahara's kind hospitality. At the memorial Nobeyama workshop held in 2009, 24 overseas speakers presented their papers, including the talks of Dr J P Boris (Naval Research Laboratory), Dr E S Oran (Naval Research Laboratory), Professor Z J Wang (Iowa State University), Dr M Meinke (RWTH Aachen), Professor K Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor U Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor F Hussain (University of Houston), Professor M Farge (École Normale Superieure), Professor J Y Yong (National

  6. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  7. Refrigerating fluids. Options. A manufacturer selects three HFC fluids; Fluides Frigorigenes. Options. Un fabricant retient trois fluides HFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haentjens, H.

    1999-12-01

    Because of the scheduled replacement of CFC and HCFC fluids in refrigerating systems, the Carrier company, number one in the manufacturing of air conditioning systems, has retained 3 hydro-fluorocarbon refrigerants: R 134a, R 407C and R 410A. Each fluid has different thermodynamical properties and is specifically used for a given range of powers: above 300 kW for R 134a, between 15 and 300 kW for R 407C and below 15 kW for R 410A. The choices made by other manufacturers are given as a comparison. (J.S.)

  8. Estimation of thyroid doses and health risks resulting from the intake of radioactive iodine in foods and drinking water by the citizens of Tokyo after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2012-06-01

    The release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 poses health risks. In this study, the intake of iodine 131 (I-131) in drinking water and foods (milk, dairy products, and vegetables) by citizens of Tokyo was estimated. The effects of countermeasures (restrictions on the distribution of foods and the distribution of bottled water for infants) on reducing intake were also evaluated. The average thyroid equivalent doses without countermeasures from 21 March 2011 were 0.42 mSv in adults, 1.49 mSv in children, and 2.08 mSv in infants. Those with countermeasures were 0.28, 0.97, and 1.14 mSv respectively, reductions of 33%, 35%, and 45%. Drinking water contributed more to intake by adults and children than foods. The intake of I-131 within the first 2 weeks was more than 80% of the estimated intake, owing to its short half-life, indicating that rapid countermeasures are important in reducing intake. The average risks of cancer incidence and mortality due to I-131 for infants were estimated to be 3×10(-5) and 0.2×10(-5), respectively, lower than the annual risks of traffic accidents, naturally occurring radioactive material (potassium 40), and environmental pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles.

  9. PERFORMANCE COMPARRIONS OF SOLAR CENTRAL RECEIVERS AND WORKING FLUIDS FOR SOLAR POWER TOWER SYSTEMS%塔式太阳能热发电吸热器性能及工作介质的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏林; 杨晓西; 张珊珊

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,comparisons of different receivers were made on the performance of solar power tower systems. Cavity receiver features higher heat efficiency than external receiver but has drawback in economic performance. Direct absorption receiver is obviously superior to indirect absorption receiver by reducing start-up losses,lowering thermal losses and improving absorptance. As the heat transfer fluid,molten salt has higher thermal capacity and better performance in economic and safety aspects,but the receiver needs accurate heliostat tracking and its working temperature is restrictedly restrained. On the contrary,air has no limitations on the working temperature and is quite friendly to the environment. But it has small thermal capacity,which leads to a reduction in the economic capability.Water/steam receiver has good features in efficiency and thermal capacity but the piping and vessels need to tolerate high pressure.%比较了各种吸热器在塔式太阳能系统中的表现,结果发现腔式吸热器比外热式吸热器具有更高的吸热效率,但经济性略差;在工作介质方面,熔盐介质具有热容量大及经济性、安全性较好的优点,但工作温度受限,对反射镜的控制精度要求高;而空气没有温度限制,并且对环境友好,但其热容量较小,导致经济性不好;水/蒸汽式吸热器有较高的效率及热容量,但管路及容器等需承受高压.

  10. Low power test of IHQ linac for heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Isokawa, Katsushi; Hattori, Toshiyuki [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.; Schubert, H.

    1997-12-31

    At Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT), An Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application of high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate the particles with charge to mass ratio grater than 1/16 from 0.48 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for {sup 16}O{sup +}). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz and the shunt impedance is 252 M{Omega}/m. Therefore, required power to accelerate {sup 16}O{sup +} ion is 39.5 kW. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  12. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20... Items § 2902.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric...

  13. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  14. The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserole, J. S.; Collins, Frank G.; Jones, Ogden; Antar, Basil; Menzel, Reinhard; Gray, Perry

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Spacecraft Propulsion (CASP) is a subcontractor to Boeing Aerospace Corporation to provide support for the concept definition and design of a subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment (SOFTE). SOFTE is an experiment that will look at the fluid mechanics of the process of transfer of a saturated fluid between two tanks. The experiment will be placed in two get away special (GAS) can containers; the tanks will be in one container and the power and electronics will be in a second container. Since GAS cans are being used, the experiment will be autonomous. The work during the present year consisted of examining concepts for visual observation of the fluid transfer process, methods for accurately metering the amount of fluid transferred between the two tanks, possible test fluids, and materials for the elastomeric diaphragm.

  15. Unsteady fluid flow in smart material actuated fluid pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Shaju; Cadou, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Smart materials' ability to deliver large block forces in a small package while operating at high frequencies makes them extremely attractive for converting electrical to mechanical power. This has led to the development of hybrid actuators consisting of co-located smart material actuated pumps and hydraulic cylinders that are connected by a set of fast-acting valves. The overall success of the hybrid concept hinges on the effectiveness of the coupling between the smart material and the fluid. This, in turn, is strongly dependent on the resistance to fluid flow in the device. This paper presents results from three-dimensional unsteady simulations of fluid flow in the pumping chamber of a prototype hybrid actuator powered by a piezo-electric stack. The results show that the forces associated with moving the fluid into and out of the pumping chamber already exceed 10% of the piezo stack blocked force at relatively low frequencies ~120 Hz and approach 40% of the blocked force at 800 Hz. This reduces the amplitude of the piston motion in such a way that the volume flow rate remains approximately constant above operating frequencies of 500 Hz while the efficiency of the pump decreases rapidly.

  16. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  18. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls in blood of children and adults living in a dioxin-contaminated area in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Chiharu; Uchiyama, Iwao; Hoshi, Shuji; Hijiya, Masaki; Miyata, Hideaki; Nagai, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Yauchi, Mariko; Ohkubo, Satsuki

    2011-01-01

    The soil of a residential area in Tokyo was found to contain dioxins, namely polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like biphenyls, the levels of which exceeded the environmental guideline [1,000 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g] by up to 6.8 times. To assess the exposure levels of people living in this area and to study the possible relationship of blood dioxin concentrations of children with breast milk and/or formula feeding, a health survey was carried out in 2006, involving a total of 138 people, including 66 children aged 3-15 years, and blood dioxin concentrations and the characteristics and lifestyles of these people were analyzed. Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of blood dioxin concentrations (pg/g-lipid) of group 1 (3-6 years old), group 2 (7-15 years old), and group 3 (≥16 years old) were 13 ± 1.9, 6.6 ± 0.65, and 10 ± 0.54, respectively. The congener/isomer profile of dioxins in blood samples differed markedly from that of the contaminated soil samples. According to the feeding mode of children, blood dioxin concentrations (pg/g-lipid) were 17 ± 2.9 for breast milk only, 7.4 ± 0.82 for both breast milk and formula, and 4.7 ± 1.1 for formula only, with a significant difference from one another. We conclude that people living in the dioxin-contaminated area are less likely to be exposed to excessive amounts of dioxins, and that blood dioxin concentrations of children aged 3-15 years seem to be strongly affected by breast feeding duration.

  19. Lifestyle constraints, not inadequate nutrition education, cause gap between breakfast ideals and realities among Japanese in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Melissa K; Takeda, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    Japanese public health nutrition often promotes 'traditional' cuisine. In-depth interviews with 107 Japanese adults were conducted in Tokyo from 2009 to 2011, using free-listing methods to examine dietary ideals and realities to assess the extent to which realities reflect inadequate nutrition education or lifestyle constraints. Ideal-reality gaps were widest for breakfast. Most people reported Japanese ideals: rice and miso soup were prototypical foods. However, breakfast realities were predominantly western (bread-based). While those aged 40-59 were more likely to hold Japanese ideals (P=0.063), they were less likely to achieve them (P=0.007). All those reporting western ideals achieved them on weekdays, while only 64% of those with Japanese ideals achieved them (PJapanese ideals were positively correlated with proportion of cooking-related housework, and negatively correlated with living standard and income. Ideal menu content was in line with current Japanese nutrition advice, suggesting that more nutrition education may not change dietary ideals or behavior. Participant-reported reasons for ideal-reality discordance demonstrate that work-life balance issues, especially lack of time and family structure/life rhythm, are the largest obstacles to the attainment of dietary ideals. People reporting 'no time' as a primary reason for ideal-reality gaps were less likely to achieve their Japanese ideals (odds ratio=0.212). Time realities of people's lives may undermine educational efforts promoting Japanese breakfasts. When dietary reality/behavior departs from guidelines, it is often assumed that people lack knowledge. If ideals are in line with dietary guidelines, then lack of knowledge is not the likely cause and nutrition education is not the optimal solution. By asking people about the reasons for gaps between their ideals and realities, we can identify barriers and design more effective policies and programs to achieve dietary ideals.

  20. How Did the Dengue Fever Outbreak Progress in Yoyogi Park, Tokyo, in 2014?-Evaluation Based on a Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Shimogawara, Rieko; Fueda, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, an outbreak of autochthonous dengue fever occurred in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity, Tokyo, Japan. In this study, we investigated how the dengue fever outbreak progressed in Yoyogi Park using a mathematical model. This study was limited to the transmission of the dengue virus in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity. We estimated the distributions of the intrinsic incubation period and infection dates on the basis of epidemiological information on the dengue outbreak in 2014. We searched for an assumption that satisfactorily explains the outbreak in 2014 using rough estimates of secondary and tertiary infection cases. We constructed a mathematical model for the transmission of the dengue virus between humans and Aedes albopictus. We carried out 1,000-trial stochastic simulations for all combinations of three kinds of assumption about Ae. albopictus and asymptomatic infection with each of three levels. Simulation results showed that the scale of the outbreak was markedly affected by the daily survival rate of Ae. albopictus. The outbreak involved a small number of secondary infection cases, reached a peak at tertiary infection, and transformed to termination at the fourth infection. Under some assumptions, the daily progress of onset cases was within a range between the 1st-3rd quartiles of 1,000 trials for 87% of dates and within a range between the minimum and maximum for all dates. It is important to execute plans to detect asymptomatic cases and reduce the survival rate of Ae. albopictus to prevent the spread of tertiary infections unless an outbreak is suppressed at the secondary infection stage.