WorldWideScience

Sample records for fluid inclusion leachates

  1. The sources and evolution of mineralising fluids in iron oxide-copper-gold systems, Norrbotten, Sweden: Constraints from Br/Cl ratios and stable Cl isotopes of fluid inclusion leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, S. A.; Smith, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    We have analysed the halogen concentrations and chlorine stable isotope composition of fluid inclusion leachates from three spatially associated Fe-oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralising systems in Norrbotten, Sweden. Fluid inclusions in late-stage veins in Fe-oxide-apatite deposits contain saline brines and have a wide range of Br/Cl molar ratios, from 0.2 to 1.1 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values from -3.1‰ to -1.0‰. Leachates from saline fluid inclusions from the Greenstone and Porphyry hosted Cu-Au prospects have Br/Cl ratios that range from 0.2 to 0.5 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values from -5.6‰ to -1.3‰. Finally, the Cu-Au deposits hosted by the Nautanen Deformation Zone (NDZ) have Br/Cl molar ratios from 0.4 to 1.1 × 10 -3 and δ 37Cl values that range from -2.4‰ to +0.5‰, although the bulk of the data fall within 0‰ ± 0.5‰. The Br/Cl ratios of leachates are consistent with the derivation of salinity from magmatic sources or from the dissolution of halite. Most of the isotopic data from the Fe-oxide-apatite and Greenstone deposits are consistent with a mantle derived source of the chlorine, with the exception of the four samples with the most negative values. The origin of the low δ 37Cl values in these samples is unknown but we suggest that there may have been some modification of the Cl-isotope signature due to fractionation between the mineralising fluids and Cl-rich silicate assemblages found in the alteration haloes around the deposits. If such a process has occurred then a modified crustal source of the chlorine for all the samples cannot be ruled out although the amount of fractionation necessary to generate the low δ 37Cl values would be significantly larger. The source of Cl in the NDZ deposits has a crustal signature, which suggests the Cl in this system may be derived from (meta-) evaporites or from input from crustal melts such as granitic pegmatites of the Lina Suite.

  2. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  3. Fluid inclusions in salt: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is presented which was compiled while searching the literature for information on fluid inclusions in salt for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's study on the deep-geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The migration of fluid inclusions in a thermal gradient is a potential hazard to the safe disposal of nuclear waste in a salt repository. At the present time, a prediction as to whether this hazard precludes the use of salt for waste disposal can not be made. Limited data from the Salt-Vault in situ heater experiments in the early 1960's (Bradshaw and McClain, 1971) leave little doubt that fluid inclusions can migrate towards a heat source. In addition to the bibliography, there is a brief summary of the physical and chemical characteristics that together with the temperature of the waste will determine the chemical composition of the brine in contact with the waste canister, the rate of fluid migration, and the brine-canister-waste interactions

  4. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  5. Magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graney, J.; Kesler, S. (University of Michigan, MI (United States))

    1992-08-31

    In this study, magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits have been analyzed. The gas composition of fluid inclusions from a wide range of extinct hydrothermal systems as represented by different ore deposit types was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Most samples used for analysis consisted of transparent quartz, although barite, jasperoid, opal, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite were also analyzed. H2O was the dominant volatile component in fluid inclusions, and composed 95-99 mole percent of the inclusion fluid. CO2 comprised most of the remaining volatile component and the other gases were generally present in amounts smaller than 0.1 mole percent. Analysis from porphyry and acid-sulfate deposits, in which magmatic gas contributions are considered to be largest, plotted closest to the fumarolic gas compositions. These inclusion fluid volatile component comparisons have shown that there are systematic differences in inclusion fluids from different hydrothermal systems. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Deciphering fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons van den Kerkhof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks is especially challenging as the host minerals have been normally subjected to deformation, recrystallization and fluid-rock interaction so that primary inclusions, formed at the peak of metamorphism are rare. The larger part of the fluid inclusions found in metamorphic minerals is typically modified during uplift. These late processes may strongly disguise the characteristics of the “original” peak metamorphic fluid. A detailed microstructural analysis of the host minerals, notably quartz, is therefore indispensable for a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions. Cathodoluminescence (CL techniques combined with trace element analysis of quartz (EPMA, LA-ICPMS have shown to be very helpful in deciphering the rock-fluid evolution. Whereas high-grade metamorphic quartz may have relatively high contents of trace elements like Ti and Al, low-temperature re-equilibrated quartz typically shows reduced trace element concentrations. The resulting microstructures in CL can be basically distinguished in diffusion patterns (along microfractures and grain boundaries, and secondary quartz formed by dissolution-reprecipitation. Most of these textures are formed during retrograde fluid-controlled processes between ca. 220 and 500 °C, i.e. the range of semi-brittle deformation (greenschist-facies and can be correlated with the fluid inclusions. In this way modified and re-trapped fluids can be identified, even when there are no optical features observed under the microscope.

  7. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  8. Fluid inclusion investigations in Nagra's boreholes of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Fluid inclusions studied in quartz and calcite from 6 Nagra-boreholes and the oil exploration well Pfaffnau in northern Switzerland were used to evaluate the evolution of fluid composition and trapping conditions. The studied boreholes covered representative sections of the Tertiary, Mesozoic and Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in addition to the underlying crystalline basement. Two fluid groups were identified, one containing salt-poor NaCl-(KCl) fluids of Upper Carboniferous age, and a second group containing salt-rich to salt-poor CaCl 2 -NaCl-(MgCl 2 ) fluids trapped between Permian and Tertiary times. The inclusions of the first group were trapped at relatively high temperatures (100 degrees to 350 degrees C, rarely up to 400 degrees C) and low pressures (probably below 1 kbar). Their widespread occurrence along healed fractures in rock forming minerals of the crystalline basement and in detrital quartz grains of the Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones imply a tectonic/thermic event on a regional scale during late Variscan orogeny. The second group of fluids comprises early salt-rich and late salt-poor inclusions. The inclusions were trapped between 30 degrees and 140 degrees C and are detected preferentially in fissure minerals and porefilling cements. The widespread occurrence of the salt-poor fluids along healed fractures inside the host minerals imply major tectonic events especially during Tertiary times. These tectonic events are probably responsible for increased fluid migration and possibly also for brine dilution. The two fluid groups display a considerable similarity with the high-temperature/low-saliniferous Variscan fluid system of the Black Forest and Oberpfalz. (author) 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  10. Nuclear microscopy of fluid inclusions at the CSIRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Win, T.T.; McInnes, B.; Cripps, G.; Suter, G.; Liu, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The deep penetration of a MeV energy proton beam and the predictable nature of X-ray production using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) make the nuclear microprobe ideally suited to the imaging and analysis of fluid and melt inclusions in minerals. MeV protons interact with a target through electronic interactions with a loss of ∼100 eV per collision. Such small energy loss leads to a smooth and predictable slowing down behaviour with a small energy uncertainty. Furthermore, the small momentum transfers in these collisions result in negligible spreading of the beam (e.g. ∼1 μm at 40 μm depth in quartz). Hence, the proton path can be regarded as linear. The principle mechanisms for proton energy loss, proton-induced ionization, secondary fluorescence and X-ray absorption and detection are understood and well characterized. This enables the integration of expected PIXE X-ray yields along the path of the proton beam and provides the foundation for a standardless microanalytical method. A strength of standardless PIXE analysis enables the approach to be extended to complex problems where the production of standards becomes impractical or unrepresentative of natural samples. One such problem is the study of ore metal transport and ore formation processes using the non-destructive analysis of fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals using a raster-scanned proton probe. In this case, the integration of PIXE X-rays can be confined to the volume of the fluid inclusion in order to calculate the yield of elemental X-rays per ppm of an element. This calculation is illustrated, which shows one volume element of the fluid inclusion excited by the beam and the X-ray path to a detector. The CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe can focus a 3 MeV proton beam into a 1.3 μm beam spot for fluid inclusion analysis and intense beams for mineral imaging at 1.8 μm resolution (Ryan et al., 2001a). Quantitative elemental images are projected using the Dynamic Analysis

  11. 3D Volumetric Analysis of Fluid Inclusions Using Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A.; Mulukutla, G.; Sahagian, D.; Bodnar, B.

    2009-05-01

    Fluid inclusions preserve valuable information regarding hydrothermal, metamorphic, and magmatic processes. The molar quantities of liquid and gaseous components in the inclusions can be estimated from their volumetric measurements at room temperatures combined with knowledge of the PVTX properties of the fluid and homogenization temperatures. Thus, accurate measurements of inclusion volumes and their two phase components are critical. One of the greatest advantages of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) in application to fluid inclsion analsyis is that it is affordable for large numbers of samples, given the appropriate software analysis tools and methodology. Our present work is directed toward developing those tools and methods. For the last decade LSCM has been considered as a potential method for inclusion volume measurements. Nevertheless, the adequate and accurate measurement by LSCM has not yet been successful for fluid inclusions containing non-fluorescing fluids due to many technical challenges in image analysis despite the fact that the cost of collecting raw LSCM imagery has dramatically decreased in recent years. These problems mostly relate to image analysis methodology and software tools that are needed for pre-processing and image segmentation, which enable solid, liquid and gaseous components to be delineated. Other challenges involve image quality and contrast, which is controlled by fluorescence of the material (most aqueous fluid inclusions do not fluoresce at the appropriate laser wavelengths), material optical properties, and application of transmitted and/or reflected confocal illumination. In this work we have identified the key problems of image analysis and propose some potential solutions. For instance, we found that better contrast of pseudo-confocal transmitted light images could be overlayed with poor-contrast true-confocal reflected light images within the same stack of z-ordered slices. This approach allows one to narrow

  12. Fluid inclusion study of the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions, preserved in quartz pebbles of the uraniferous and auriferous Precambrian oligomictic conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin, provide a unique insight into the genesis of the ores. Using differences in inclusion characteristics in conjunction with intra- and inter-deformational textures for adjacent pebbles, a distinction is made between pre- and post-depositional inclusions. Excluding those related to subsequent brittle fracture, the former comprise five principal types; two of which are distinguished by the development of liquid carbon dioxide. Collectively they indicate a moderate to high pressure-temperature environment of vein quartz formation. Systematic variation in the relative abundance of these inclusion assemblages for different sections of the orefield demonstrates the importance of well-defined provenance areas or multiple entry points into the basins. A marked sympathetic relationship between uraniferous banket ores and the presence of vein quartz rich in liquid carbon dioxide inclusions, together with a corresponding antipathetic relationship for gold, strongly suggests separate sources for the metals. The temporal and spatial aspects of the association 'U-CO 2 ' also imply a uranium influx into the basin from discrete areas of the hinterland contemporaneous with the sediments. Post-depositional inclusions are subordinate and offer no support for the alternative epigenetic model and show only a later interaction of relatively cool circulating groundwaters. A discussion is given of the probable nature and origin of uranium in the source rocks and its mode of transportation. In conclusion, a proposal is made for the use of applied fluid inclusion research in the evaluation of and exploration for similar deposits. (author)

  13. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K.; Oro, John

    1984-01-01

    Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping.These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels.We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC—MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature.Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC—MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed.

  14. Fluid inclusions study in thermal gradient wells, Nevado del Ruiz Volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruena Suarez, Cindy L; Zuluaga, Carlos A; Molano, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A fluid inclusions study in the Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system allowed to characterize fluids involved in the evolution of the geothermal system. Fluid inclusions hosted in quartz, plagioclase and carbonate from samples of the deepest parts of three thermal gradient wells were analyzed to understand fluid-rock interaction. Fluid inclusions hosted in carbonate veins with coloform microestructure represent hydrothermal fluids with temperatures higher than 250 Celsius degrade. This interpretation is supported by microprobe and cathodoluminescence analysis that also indicate a hydrothermal origin for the veins. Fluid inclusions hosted in quartz (mylonite) were originated by metamorphic fluids and fluid inclusions hosted in plagioclase (andesitic lavas) are considered to be originated from magmatic fluids (H 2 O + CO 2 system).

  15. Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusions from Mississippi Valley-type deposits, Appalachian Basin: Constraints on solute origin and migration paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; Martini, A.M.; Appold, M.S.; Walter, L.M.; Huston, T.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Furman, F.C. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusion-hosted brines in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits from the Appalachian Basin. Unlike other geochemical tracers such as lead and strontium isotopes which constrain metal sources, Na-Cl-Br systematics identify sources of brine salinity. Saline formation waters can vary systematically within and between basins with regard to their Na-Cl-Br compositions depending on the importance of halite dissolution relative to retention of subaerially evaporated seawater for the halogen budget. Oil field brine compositions from the Illinois and Appalachian basins are quite distinct in their Na-Cl-Br systematics. Compositions of saline fluid inclusions in MVT deposits generally are consistent with these regional differences. These results shed new light on the extent of regional flow systems and on the geochemical evolution of saline fluids responsible for mineralization. Nearly all fluid inclusions analyzed from the Appalachian MVT deposits have Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios less than modern seawater, consistent with ratios observed in marine brines involved in halite precipitation. The Na-Cl-Br systematics of the brines responsible for Appalachian MVT deposits may be inherited from original marine brines refluxed into the porous carbonate shelf sediments that host these deposits. The Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of most fluid inclusion-hosted brines from Appalachian MVT sphalerites and fluorites fall into two compositional groups, one from the Lower Cambrian paleoaquifer and another from the Lower Ordovician paleoaquifer. Leachates from most MVT barite deposits form a third compositional group having lower Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios than the other two. Appalachian MVT leachate compositions differ significantly from those in MVT deposits in the Cincinnati arch-midcontinent region suggesting that these two MVT provinces formed from brines of different origin or flow path. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  17. RAMAN SPECTRA OF AQUEOUS FLUID INCLUSIONS: EFFECT OF MINERAL BIREFRINGENCE AND METASTABILITY ON SALINITY MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Caumon , Marie-Camille; Tarantola , Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Introduction: Crustal fluids play a major role in ore deposits, basin diagenesis and metamorphic reactions, among others. The knowledge of the chemical composition of individual fluid inclusions is essential for the understanding of past fluid transport and circulations. Microthermometry, by the observation of specific phase transitions as a function of temperature, is the general approach to determine salinity in aqueous fluid inclusions [1]. However in some cases, th...

  18. On modifications of fluid inclusions in quartz : re-equilibration experiments and thermodynamical calculations on fluids in natural quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Fluids in rocks can be traced to great depths, and are found in crustal rocks as well as in mantle rocks. Information about the deep fluid which is obtained from fluid inclusions must be handled with care, for the way up after entrapment in a crystal is long and full of interferences at different

  19. [Application of in situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopy to analysis of fluid inclusions in reservoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Lin, Cheng-yan; Yu, Wen-quan; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Ai-guo

    2010-01-01

    Identification of salts is a principal problem for analysis of fluid inclusions in reservoirs. The fluid inclusions from deep natural gas reservoirs in Minfeng sub-sag were analyzed by in situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopy. The type of fluid inclusions was identified by Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. The Raman spectra show that the inclusions contain methane-bearing brine aqueous liquids. The fluid inclusions were analyzed at -180 degrees C by in situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopy. The spectra show that inclusions contain three salts, namely NaCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2. Sodium chloride is most salt component, coexisting with small calcium chloride and little magnesium chloride. The origin of fluids in inclusions was explained by analysis of the process of sedimentation and diagenesis. The mechanism of diagenesis in reservoirs was also given in this paper. The results of this study indicate that in situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopy is an available method to get the composition of fluid inclusions in reservoirs. Based on the analysis of fluid inclusions in reservoirs by in situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopy with combination of the history of sedimentation and diagenesis, the authors can give important evidence for the type and mechanism of diagenesis in reservoirs.

  20. The fluid inclusion study in petroleum exploration; O estudo de inclusoes fluidas na exploracao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Eduardo Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia da Geoquimica]. E-mail: cescoelho@petrobras.com.br

    2005-05-01

    Several oil companies and research centers have been studying petroleum fluid inclusions in reservoirs since the 1980's. The first works have used the fluid inclusion microthermometry technique in order to interpret the thermal history and petroleum migration in relation to the burial history and diagenesis. Lately, the micro thermometric data is being used as a calibration parameter for thermal history modeling in sedimentary basins and reservoirs. Recently, new fluid inclusion study techniques are being used in petroleum exploration. Geochemical data of low molecular weight (up to C{sub 15}) oil-bearing fluid inclusions has been used with the purpose of pinpointing oil-bearing intervals in wells that have not revealed the presence of oil by conventional techniques. Molecular geochemical analyses of oils inside the inclusions technique enable oil-source correlations, oil-oil correlations, and maturity determination. (author)

  1. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G; Van Achterbergy, E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C A [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Fluid Characteristics in the Giant Quartz Reef System of the Bundelkhand Craton, India: Constraints from Fluid Inclusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, D.; Panigrahi, M. K.; Pati, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Giant quartz reefs are anomalous features indicating extensive mobilization of silica in the crust. Such reefs in the Abitibi belt, Canada and elsewhere are believed to be the result of activity of fluid of diverse sources on terrain boundaries. The Bundelkhand granitoid complex constituting a major part of the Bundelkhnad Craton in north-Central India is traversed by numerous such quartz reefs all across for a length of about 500 km. There are about 20 major reefs having dimensions of 35 to 40 km in length, 50 to 60 m in width standing out as prominent ridges in the region. Almost all are aligned parallel to each other in a sub-vertical to vertical manner following the NE-SW to NNE-SSW trend. Fluid inclusion petrography in quartz from these reefs reveal four types of inclusions viz. aqueous biphase (type-I), pure carbonic (type-II), aqueous carbonic (type-III) and polyphase (type-IV) inclusions. The type-I aqueous biphase inclusions are the dominant type in all the samples studied so far. Salinities calculated from temperature of melting of last ice (Tm) values are low to moderate, ranging from 0.18 to 18.19 wt% NaCl equivalents. Temperature of liquid-vapor homogenization (Th) values of these inclusions show a wide range from 101 ºC to 386 ºC (cluster around 150-250 ºC) essentially into liquid phase ruling out boiling during its course of evolution. Besides, aqueous Biphase inclusions, some data on pure CO2 inclusions furnish a near constant value of TmCO2 at -56.6 ºC in the Bundelkhand Craton indicating absence of CH4. Bivariate plot between Th and salinity suggest three possible water types which are controlling the overall activity of fluid in quartz reefs of Bundelkhand Craton viz. low-T low saline, high-T low saline and moderate-T and moderate saline. A low saline and CO2-bearing and higher temperature nature resembles a metamorphic fluid that may be a source for these giant quartz reefs. The low temperature low-salinity component could be a meteoric

  4. The Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system revealed by microthermometry of fluid and melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, J.; Kurz, W.; Krenn, K.

    2017-12-01

    Microthermometric analyses of fluid and melt inclusions in hydrothermal veins and in the Cocos Ridge (CCR) basalt were used to reveal the CCR thermal history at IODP Site 344-U1414 and to constrain fluid source and flow. Hydrothermal veins are hosted by lithified sediments and CCR basalt . Site 344-U1414, located 1 km seaward of the Middle American Trench offshore Costa Rica, serves to evaluate fluid/rock interaction, the hydrologic system and geochemical processes linked with the tectonic evolution of the incoming Cocos Plate from the Early Miocene up to recent times. The veins in the sedimentary rocks are mainly filled by blocky calcite, containing numerous fluid inclusions, and sometimes crosscut fibrous quartz/chalcedony veins. The veins in the basalt can be differentiated into three types: antitaxial fibrous calcite veins, composite veins with fibrous calcite and clay minerals at the vein margins and spherulitic quartz in the center, and syntaxial blocky aragonite veins surrounded by a clay selvage in the uppermost CCR basalt sections. Secondary minerals, clay minerals, fibrous calcite, quartz/chalcedony and pyrite also filled vesicles in the basalt. Fluid inclusions were mainly found in the aragonite veins and rarely in quartz in the composite veins and vesicles. Blocky veins with embedded wall rock fragments appear in the sediments and in the basalt indicate hydraulic fracturing. The occurrence of decrepitated fluid inclusions show high homogenization temperatures up to 400 °C. Decrepitated fluid inclusions are formed by increased internal overpressure, related to isobaric heating. Elongated fluid inclusion planes, arc-like fluid inclusions and low homogenization temperatures indicate subsequent isobaric cooling. The results obtained so far from Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry indicate CO2 inclusions and petrographic observations suggest the presence of silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts in the basalt (mainly in clinopyroxene and plagioclase

  5. Trace element analyses of fluid inclusions using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-ying Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions are records of the physico-chemical conditions of fluid–rock interactions during magmatism, mineralization and fluid percolation and mixing processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS is a powerful tool for in situ analyses of small samples at micrometer levels. Here we report in situ analyses of fluid inclusions using LA-ICP-MS method. NIST SRM glasses and 23Na are generally used as external and internal standards for LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusion, respectively, although the RSD of microthermometric estimation of 23Na is about 20% and even worse, the background signal of Na is high for most ICP-MS. Using well-characterized natural fluids inclusion, we show that RESOlution S-155 laser system analyze fluid inclusions in quartz and determine the trace element concentrations. Resonetics RESOlution S-155 laser has the advantage of the motorized Z stage can be used to accommodate variation of sample height or sample topography and height difference between samples, which is very important for analyzing the fluid inclusion in quartz. Our results suggest laser energy density is 25 J/cm2, laser pulse repetition rates are commonly between 6 and 10 Hz to avoid the fissuring of quartz and obtain adequate results. For this LA-ICP-MS analysis, uncertainty on 35Cl content is around 40% because of intensity of the 35Cl signal is three orders of magnitude less intense than the intensity of the 23Na signal. Nevertheless, it is still a useful reference for fluid inclusion analyses in addition to 23Na. This technique can be applied to a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of fluid and melt inclusions of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Data of melt and fluid inclusions obtained by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry techniques represent an important investigation complement to understand geological processes which took place in Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil). Melt inclusions found in augite structure, which reveals the previous presence of U in the syenitic magma. Primary fluid inclusions in magmatic augite of the albitites contain Na, denoting once more its presence in original magma. The formation of andradite from augite during shear events that generated the metamorphosed syenite (uraniferous albitite) was certified by the ICP-MS signals and uranium released by magmatic titanite (U source mineral)during the 1.9 Ga metamorphism was recorded in the fluid inclusions found in andradite, mineral that was formed in this same metamorphic event which recrystallized titanite crystals. Such uranium was responsible by precipitation of the disseminated uraninite found inside andradite. (author)

  7. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedder, E.; Whelan, J.F.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at fourth depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid ratios: most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at 2 vapor phase at open-quotes 100 degrees Cclose quotes. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface

  8. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedder, E.; Whelan, J.F.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at 2 vapor phase at ''<100 degrees C''. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface

  9. Pressure–Temperature–Fluid Constraints for the Poona Emerald Deposits, Western Australia: Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marshall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerald from the deposits at Poona shows micrometre-scale chemical, optical, and cathodoluminescence zonation. This zonation, combined with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, indicates early emerald precipitation from a single-phase saline fluid of approximately 12 weight percent NaCl equivalent, over the temperature range of 335–525 °C and pressures ranging from 70 to 400 MPa. The large range in pressure and temperature likely reflects some post entrapment changes and re-equilibration of oxygen isotopes. Secondary emerald-hosted fluid inclusions indicate subsequent emerald precipitation from higher salinity fluids. Likewise, the δ18O-δD of channel fluids extracted from Poona emerald is consistent with multiple origins yielding both igneous and metamorphic signatures. The combined multiple generations of emerald precipitation, different fluid compositions, and the presence of both metamorphic and igneous fluids trapped in emerald, likely indicate a protracted history of emerald precipitation at Poona conforming to both an igneous and a metamorphic origin at various times during regional lower amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism over the period ~2710–2660 Ma.

  10. Analysis of I-Br-Cl in single fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, C.; Fusswinkel, T.; Beermann, O.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, L.; Wagner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Halogens are excellent tracers of hydrothermal fluid sources and in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of Cl and Br in single fluid inclusions has provided fundamentally new insight into hydrothermal fluid flow and ore formation. There is mounting evidence that enrichment and depletion of Br relative to Cl may be caused by a number of processes beyond seawater evaporation and halite dissolution which cannot be discriminated on the basis of Br/Cl ratios alone. Expanding the analytical capabilities of fluid inclusion LA-ICP-MS analysis to include iodine would allow to discern between selective and coupled enrichment processes of Cl, Br and I, even in geologically complex samples that are inaccessible to bulk extraction techniques. We present iodine concentration data determined by LA-ICP-MS analysis of synthetic fluid inclusions, using the Sca17 scapolite reference material for external standardization (Seo et al., 2011). Iodine concentrations in Sca17 were determined using the Durango apatite standard. Four starting solutions containing I (0.3, 1.5, 27, 78 µg/g), Br (941, 1403, 2868, 4275 µg/g), Na (30.7, 94.7 mg/g), and Cl (50, 137 mg/g) (analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS at CAU Kiel) were prepared by dissolving reagent grade chemical powders in ultra-pure water. Spherical inclusions (up to 40 µm) were synthesized from the starting solutions in pre-cracked, HF-treated synthetic quartz crystals which were placed in gold capsules and equilibrated at 600°C, 100/200 MPa in cold seal pressure vessels. Fluid inclusion LA-ICP-MS analysis (University of Helsinki) yielded average I concentrations in excellent agreement with the starting solutions (27.3 µg/g ± 14 %RSD for the 27 µg/g solution and 77.6 µg/g ± 8.3 %RSD for the 78 µg/g solution). Average Br and I concentrations deviate less than 10 % from solution concentration values. For the low I concentration solutions, the synthetic inclusions were too small to detect I. Thus, given suitable standard materials and sufficient

  11. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  12. Practical aspects of quantitative laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy for the study of fluid inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteris, J.D.; Wopenka, B.; Seitz, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is addressed to both geologists who use laser Raman microprobe (LRM) spectroscopy to analyze fluid inclusions and to those who want to evaluate analyses done by this technique. Emphasis is on how to obtain quantitative analyses of fluid inclusions. The authors discuss the basic method of fluid inclusion analysis by LRM spectroscopy and the levels of accuracy and precision attainable with this technique. They evaluate which kinds of fluid inclusions and host mineral matrices will yield the most reliable compositional data. Necessary sample preparations, detection limits, problems with fluorescence, dependence of Raman scattering efficiencies on density, and many other questions asked at the workshop on Raman spectroscopy during the 1987 ACROFI meeting also are addressed. The complementary nature, advantages, and disadvantages of both LRM spectroscopy and microthermometry, the two techniques most frequently used for the analysis of individual fluid inclusions, are emphasized. Some discussions are intended to held LRM users calibrate, and evaluate the optical characteristics of, their particular instruments. It is hoped that this paper will further LRM users in finding a common ground on which to discuss the differences and similarities among different LRM instruments, and that it will encourage a future consensus on efficient means of calibration and on interlaboratory standards

  13. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at ``<100{degrees}C``. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  14. Stable isotope signatures of gases liberated from fluid inclusions in bedrock at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, F.; Meier, D.; Haemmerli, J.; Diamond, L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartzes of the Olkiluoto bedrock contain gaseous N 2 , CO 2 , H 2 , CH 4 , and higher hydrocarbons in varying proportions. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of the gas phases give valuable information on their origin and the formation conditions. In previous studies, a method to liberate and quantify the gases trapped in fluid inclusions was developed. It allowed determining the carbon isotope signatures of liberated CO 2 , CH 4 and higher hydrocarbons (HHC), but no hydrogen isotope data were acquired. The method was advanced and, in this study, also stable hydrogen isotopes of CH 4 and H 2 liberated from fluid inclusions could be analysed. The stable carbon signatures of methane and higher hydrocarbons, as well as the hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicate a predominant thermogenic provenance for those gases. (orig.)

  15. Ancient microbes from halite fluid inclusions: optimized surface sterilization and DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Timofeeff, Michael N; Spathis, Rita; Lowenstein, Tim K; Lum, J Koji

    2011-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in evaporite minerals (halite, gypsum, etc.) potentially preserve genetic records of microbial diversity and changing environmental conditions of Earth's hydrosphere for nearly one billion years. Here we describe a robust protocol for surface sterilization and retrieval of DNA from fluid inclusions in halite that, unlike previously published methods, guarantees removal of potentially contaminating surface-bound DNA. The protocol involves microscopic visualization of cell structures, deliberate surface contamination followed by surface sterilization with acid and bleach washes, and DNA extraction using Amicon centrifugal filters. Methods were verified on halite crystals of four different ages from Saline Valley, California (modern, 36 ka, 64 ka, and 150 ka), with retrieval of algal and archaeal DNA, and characterization of the algal community using ITS1 sequences. The protocol we developed opens up new avenues for study of ancient microbial ecosystems in fluid inclusions, understanding microbial evolution across geological time, and investigating the antiquity of life on earth and other parts of the solar system.

  16. Age constraints on fluid inclusions in calcite at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    2001-01-01

    The(sup 207)Pb/(sup 235)U ages for 14 subsamples of opal or chalcedony layers younger than calcite formed at elevated temperature range between 1.88(+-) 0.05 and 9.7(+-) 1.5 Ma with most values older than 6-8 Ma. These data indicate that fluids with elevated temperatures have not been present in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain since about 1.9 Ma and most likely since 6-8 Ma. Discordant U-Pb isotope data for chalcedony subsamples representing the massive silica stage in the formation of the coatings are interpreted using a model of the diffusive loss of U decay products. The model gives an age estimate for the time of chalcedony formation around 10-11 Ma, which overlaps ages of clay minerals formed in tuffs below the water table at Yucca Mountain during the Timber Mountain thermal event

  17. A New Equivalent Statistical Damage Constitutive Model on Rock Block Mixed Up with Fluid Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, there are few studies concerning the effect of closed “fluid inclusions” on the macroscopic constitutive relation of deep rock. Fluid-matrix element (FME is defined based on rock element in statistical damage model. The properties of FME are related to the size of inclusions, fluid properties, and pore pressure. Using FME, the equivalent elastic modulus of rock block containing fluid inclusions is obtained with Eshelby inclusion theory and the double M-T homogenization method. The new statistical damage model of rock is established on the equivalent elastic modulus. Besides, the porosity and confining pressure are important influencing factors of the model. The model reflects the initial damage (void and fluid inclusion and the macroscopic deformation law of rock, which is an improvement of the traditional statistical damage model. Additionally, the model can not only be consistent with the rock damage experiment date and three-axis compression experiment date of rock containing pore water but also describe the locked-in stress experiment in rock-like material. It is a new fundamental study of the constitutive relation of locked-in stress in deep rock mass.

  18. Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorie M. Dilley

    2011-03-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Open or recently closed fractures would be more susceptible to enhancing the permeability of the system. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will assist in fracture stimulation site selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures (Moore, Morrow et al. 1987), and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. These fluid inclusions are faithful records of pore fluid chemistry. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. This report presents the results of the project to determine fracture locations by the chemical signatures from gas analysis of fluid inclusions. With this project we hope to test our assumptions that gas chemistry can distinguish if the fractures are open and bearing production fluids or represent prior active fractures and whether there are chemical signs of open fracture systems in the wall rock above the fracture. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a method developed for the geothermal industry which applies the mass quantification of fluid inclusion gas data from drill cuttings and applying known gas ratios and compositions to determine depth profiles of fluid barriers in a modern geothermal system (Dilley, 2009; Dilley et al., 2005; Norman et al., 2005). Identifying key gas signatures associated with fractures for isolating geothermal fluid production is the latest advancement in the application of FIS to geothermal systems (Dilley and Norman, 2005; Dilley and Norman, 2007). Our hypothesis is that peaks in FIS data are related to location of fractures. Previous work (DOE Grant DE-FG36-06GO16057) has indicated differences in the

  19. Petrography and fluid inclusions study in Marbin porphyry Molybdenum (Sn) index (northeast of Isfahan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Bagheri, H.; Ayati, F.

    2016-01-01

    Marbin Tin and Molybdenum index is located in north of Zefreh Village the Isfahan Province and Uromieh-Dokhtar magmatic zone. The main rock units in this area are Eocene subvolcanic and volcanic rocks with rhyolite to dacite composition. Based on petrography studies the main minerals are plagioclase, quartz, sanidine and biotite and secondary minerals are chlorite, calcite, epidote and sericite. The main hydrothermal alterations are including sericitic, propylitic, intermediate argillic and silisification. Average grade of tin, molybdenum, copper and gold is about 4850, 157, 330 ppm and 82 ppb, respectively. Microthermometric studies on silica veins and veinlet indicate five different types of fluid inclusion, 1-three-phase type (L+V+S→L), 2- three-phase type (L+V+S→V), 3- two-phase type (L+V→L), 4- two-phase type (V+L→V), 5- vapor rich single phase type (V). Fluid inclusion studies in mineralized veins in phyllic and propylitic zones, show the wide range of homogenization temperature from 248 to 600 ºC and salinity from 28 to 65 wt% NaCl equivalent. The temperature, salinity and density of fluids decrease from phyllic to propylitic alteration zone. The wide range of homogenization temperatures for the studied fluid inclusions in index show dilution with surface water and fluid boiling, as the most important factor in ore deposition. According to field, mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion studies Marbin index has been considered as a porphyry deposit type which show the most similarity with Mo porphyry systems in world wide.

  20. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  1. Fluid-inclusion data on samples from Creede, Colorado, in relation to mineral paragenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T.L.; Roedder, Edwin; Bethke, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Published and unpublished data on 2575 fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Creede, Colorado, Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposit collected in our laboratories from 1959 to 1981 have shown that the average salinity (wt. % NaCl equivalent, hereinafter termed wt.% eq.) and homogenization temperature (Th), and the ranges of these two parameters for fluid inclusions in sphalerite, quartz, fluorite, and rhodochrosite, respectively, are 8.1 (4.6 - 13.4), 239?C (195-274?C); 6.1 (1.1-10.0), 260?C (190->400?C); 10.7 (6.1-11.1), 217?C (213-229?C) and 260?C (247-268?C) (bimodal distribution of Th); and 9.9 (9.3 - 10.6), 214?C (185-249?C). Inclusions have been measured in minerals from four of the five stages of mineralization previously recognized at Creede. The few inclusions of fluids depositing rhodochrosite (A-stage, earliest in the paragenesis) yield Th and salinity values more similar to those of the low-temperature (average Th 217?C) fluids forming some of the much later fluorite (C-stage) than to any of the other fluids. Th measurements on A-stage quartz range from 192?C to 263?C and average 237?C. The early, fine-grained, B-stage sphalerites yielded Th of 214 to 241?C and salinities of 6.1 to 10.2 wt. % eq. D-stage sphalerite (late in the paragenesis) has been studied in detail (growth-zone by growth-zone) for several localities along the OH vein and reveals a generally positive correlation among Th, salinity and iron content of the host sphalerite. The deposition of D-stage sphalerite was characterized by repeated cycling through different regions of salinity/Th space, as Th and salinity generally decreased with time. Seventeen salinity-Th measurements were made on D-stage sphalerite from one locality on the Bulldog Mountain vein system, which, like the OH vein, is one of four major ore-producing vein systems at Creede. These data suggest a lower Th for a given salinity fluid from sphalerite on the Bulldog Mountain vein than on the OH vein. The very high values

  2. Isotope analysis of water trapped in fluid inclusions in deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhof, Hubert; Reijmer, John; Feenstra, Eline; Mienis, Furu

    2015-04-01

    Extant Lophelia pertusa deep sea coral specimens from the Loachev mound region in the North Atlantic Ocean contain water filled fluid inclusions in their skeleton. This fluid inclusion water was extracted with a crushing device, and its hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios analysed. The resulting data span a wide range of isotope values which are remarkably different from the seawater isotope composition of the sites studied. Comparison with food source isotope signatures suggests that coral inclusion water contains a high, but variable proportion of metabolic water. The isotope composition of the inclusion water appears to vary with the position on the deep see coral reef, and shows a correlation with the stable isotope composition of the coral aragonite. This correlation seems to suggest that growth rate and other ecological factors play an important role in determining the isotope composition of fluids trapped in the coral skeleton, which can potentially be developed as a proxy for non-equilibrium isotope fractionation observed in the aragonite skeleton of many of the common deep sea coral species.

  3. The Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia state, Brazil: some petrographic aspects and fluid inclusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.; Alves, J.V.; Cuney, M.; Kostolanyl, C.; Poti, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province in the central-southern Bahia State, consisting of six deposits and several prospects, has a reserve of near one hundred tons of U 3 O 8 . The main lithological unit in the area is the Lagoa Real Complex which is formed by granites and gneisses derived from them. The unit overthrusts the Espinhaco metasediments the west. The Complex is the host of albities which may contain uraninite. The mineralization is manly associated with pyroxene and garnet. Petrographic and field relations indicate the overthrusting as the latest event, having left implants in the orebodies and their hosts. Fluid inclusion studies indicated fluids of different characteristics in the Espinhaco and the Lagoa Real Complex although they were similar in composition (carbonic and aqueous). The types inclusions detected are in agreement with the geologic processes suggested for the area: emplacement of the Sao Timoteo granite at 1.72 Ga; albitization and uranium mineralization at ∼ 1.4 Ga; and metamorphism at ∼ 0.49 Ga. The study is an example of fluid inclusion behaviour in a metamorphic process with very limited amount of fluids. (author) [pt

  4. A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Song, Yucai; Burruss, R. C.

    2008-11-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 × 0.3 mm with 0.05 × 0.05 mm or 0.1 × 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure ( P; about 100 MPa at 22 °C) and temperature ( T; about 500 °C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 °C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C 18H 38 between 350 and 400 °C, isotopic exchanges between C 18H 38 and D 2O and between C 19D 40 and H 2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P- T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be

  5. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  6. Study of fluid inclusions in rodioactive mineralized pegmatites, dara area northern eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B.H.; Abdel Warith, A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous pegmatite pockets of un zoned and zoned types are the most important rock types from the radioactive point of view. They occur at the marginal parts and higher topographic level of G.Dara younger granites. Zoned pegmatites are composed of extremely coarse-grained milky quartz core, intermediate zone and wall zone. The alteration zone is found at the contact between quartz core and intermediate zone. It is recorded the highest radioactive values due to their mineral composition, as a result of alteration processes associated with radioactive minerals. Only two alteration zones (P1 and P2) has been studied in this paper. The late magmatic alteration process (hematization, kaolinization, chloritization and fluortization) of the pegmatite resulted in the formation of chlorite, fluorite, clay minerals and carbonates (calcite) in the alteration zones as mineral assemblage. opaque minerals are found as pyrite, iron oxyhydroxide and garnet. Fluid inclusion studies by microthermometry were carried out on authigenic minerals (such as quartz and fluorite) in alteration zones (primary fluid inclusions). This study revealed that, at least two stages of the post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration are involved. The first stages of high temperature, low saline fluids are involved. The first stage is of high temperature, low saline fluids which characterized with hematization and/or chloritization resulted from fluid-rock interaction with late magmatic fluids that very probably mixed with external low salinity fluids along brittle structure. The second stage is of low temperature the main role in re high saline fluids characterized the fluoritized alteration due to consequent reaction with wall rocks and mixing with meteoric water. Mixing of low salinity meteoric water with hot a sending saline hydrothermal solution leads to ph change and continuous interaction with wall rock

  7. Lithospheric magma dynamics beneath the El Hierro Volcano, Canary Islands: insights from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Tiraboschi, C.; Principe, C.; Groppelli, G.; Villa, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    At active volcanoes, petrological studies have been proven to be a reliable approach in defining the depth conditions of magma transport and storage in both the mantle and the crust. Based on fluid inclusion and mineral geothermobarometry in mantle xenoliths, we propose a model for the magma plumbing system of the Island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The peridotites studied here were entrained in a lava flow exposed in the El Yulan Valley. These lavas are part of the rift volcanism that occurred on El Hierro at approximately 40-30 ka. The peridotites are spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, and dunites which equilibrated in the shallow mantle at pressures between 1.5 and 2 GPa and at temperatures between 800 and 950 °C (low-temperature peridotites; LT), as well as at higher equilibration temperatures of 900 to 1100 °C (high-temperature peridotites; HT). Microthermometry and Raman analyses of fluid inclusions reveal trapping of two distinct fluid phases: early type I metasomatic CO2-N2 fluids ( X N2 = 0.01-0.18; fluid density (d) = 1.19 g/cm3), coexisting with silicate-carbonate melts in LT peridotites, and late type II pure CO2 fluids in both LT (d = 1.11-1.00 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) and HT ( d = 1.04-1.11 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) peridotites. While type I fluids represent metasomatic phases in the deep oceanic lithosphere (at depths of 60-65 km) before the onset of magmatic activity, type II CO2 fluids testify to two fluid trapping episodes during the ascent of xenoliths in their host mafic magmas. Identification of magma accumulation zones through interpretation of type II CO2 fluid inclusions and mineral geothermobarometry indicate the presence of a vertically stacked system of interconnected small magma reservoirs in the shallow lithospheric mantle between a depth of 22 and 36 km (or 0.67 to 1 GPa). This magma accumulation region fed a short-lived magma storage region located in the lower oceanic crust at a depth of 10-12 km (or 0.26-0.34 GPa). Following our model

  8. Preliminary results on the petrology and fluid inclusions of the Rossing uraniferous alaskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    1980-01-01

    Petrography, radioactivity distribution and fluid inclusions have been studied in three samples of the Rossing alaskites from the S.H. anomaly outside of the Rossing deposit. After the crystallization of the alaskitic magma which involved oligoclase, biotite, orthoclase and quartz, a deuteric alteration produced a quartz, microcline, albite, muscovite, calcite plus minus chlorite mineral association similar to those observed in several French uraniferous granites. Uranium redistribution occurred during this alteration. From fluid inclusions data, the pressure at the time of the intrusion is estimated to have been at least 6kbar for a temperature of 625 degrees Celsius. Reaction of the magma with the marbles of the Rossing formation led to the boiling of the magma by an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure as well as to its crystallization. Immiscibility between a dense saline (more than 30 per cent NaCl) and CO 2 -rich fluid is proposed to have occurred simultaneously or after the fluid oversaturation of the magma. Part of uraninite is formed at the magmatic stage, another part crystallized from the magmatic fluids in the biotite-rich selvages of the alaskites or in the uraninite-fluorite veins. Uraninite crystallization appears to be mainly controlled by the oxygen fugacity prevailing in the magma and in the surrounding rocks

  9. Motions of deformable inclusions in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demidov, I.V.; Sorokin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of rigid particle and compressible gas bubble motion in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid. A nonlinear differential equation describing motion of inclusions with respect to the vessel is derived and solved by the method of direct...... of the bubbles which are affected by the negligible vibrational force is found. Also an approximate expression has been obtained for the average velocity of bubble׳s motion in the fluid; relationship between this velocity and bubble radius and vibration parameters has been revealed. A simple physical explanation...

  10. Preliminary studies on fluid inclusions in metasomatic albite grains from Lagoa Real, Caetite, Ba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary fluid inclusion studies in metasomatic albite grains from the Lagoa Real uranium deposit pointed out to mixing of strong brines (23 wt% NaCl equivalent) with low salinity fluids (2.3 wt% NaCl equivalent). Microthermometry and crushing tests indicated elevated pressures and the presence of hidrocarbons in larger amount than CO 2 . The remobilization of uranium as uranyl carbonate complexes and its precipitation, reducing U 6 + to U 4 + by CH 4 , is considered as a possibility. (Author) [pt

  11. Fluids in the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, eastern Finland: Fluid inclusion evidence for the formation conditions of zircon and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poutiainen, M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In the studied zircon and apatite crystals, data recorded two different compositional types of fluid inclusions: Type 1 H2O-CO2, low salinity inclusions (XCO2 = 0.42 to 0.87; XNaCl = 0.001 to 0.005 with bulk densities of 0.73 to 0.87 g/cm3, and Type 2 H2O moderate salinity (XNaCl = 0.03 to 0.06 inclusions with densities of 0.83 to 1.02 g/cm3. The Type 1 inclusions are not present in apatite. In zircon, the observed fluid inclusion types occur in separate domains: around (Type 1 and outside (Type 2 the apparent core. Fluid inclusions are further subdivided into pseudosecondary and secondary inclusions. Using a combination of SEM-EDS, optical characteristics and crushing-stage, various daughter and captive minerals were identified. The fluid inclusion data suggest that the pseudosecondary Type 1 and Type 2 inclusions in zircon and apatite were trapped during the pre-emplacement evolution of the carbonatite at mid-crustal conditions (P≥4 kbar, T≥625°C. The Type 1 fluid was depleted in CO2, during crystal fractionation and cooling leading to a fluid phase enriched in water and alkalies. Fenitization was obviously induced by these saline aqueous fluids. During emplacement of the carbonatite to the present level, zircon phenocrysts were intensively fractured, some Type 1 inclusions were re-equilibrated, and multiphase Type 2 inclusions were trapped. It is assumed that all these inclusions in zircon and the pseudosecondary Type 2 inclusions in apatite have a magmatic origin. In apatite, calcite inclusions occur side-by-side with the secondary Type 2 inclusions. These calcites co-existed with the aqueous fluid during fracturing and metamorphic re-crystallization of apatites. Probably, this metamorphic fluid also is responsible for the transport and deposition of at least some of the calcite at low temperatures (200-350°C.

  12. Ancient microbes from halite fluid inclusions: optimized surface sterilization and DNA extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions in evaporite minerals (halite, gypsum, etc. potentially preserve genetic records of microbial diversity and changing environmental conditions of Earth's hydrosphere for nearly one billion years. Here we describe a robust protocol for surface sterilization and retrieval of DNA from fluid inclusions in halite that, unlike previously published methods, guarantees removal of potentially contaminating surface-bound DNA. The protocol involves microscopic visualization of cell structures, deliberate surface contamination followed by surface sterilization with acid and bleach washes, and DNA extraction using Amicon centrifugal filters. Methods were verified on halite crystals of four different ages from Saline Valley, California (modern, 36 ka, 64 ka, and 150 ka, with retrieval of algal and archaeal DNA, and characterization of the algal community using ITS1 sequences. The protocol we developed opens up new avenues for study of ancient microbial ecosystems in fluid inclusions, understanding microbial evolution across geological time, and investigating the antiquity of life on earth and other parts of the solar system.

  13. Characterization of fluid inclusions from mineralized pegmatites of the Damara Belt, Namibia: insight into late-stage fluid evolution and implications for mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Luisa; Kinnaird, Judith Ann; Nex, Paul Andrew Martin; Erasmus, Rudolph Marthinus; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef

    2018-05-01

    Mineralized NYF and LCT pegmatites occur throughout the northeast-trending Neoproterozoic Damara Belt, Namibia. Mineralization in the pegmatites varies geographically, from the northeast, where they are enriched in Li-Be, to the southwest, where they also contain notable Sn and U. Similar fluid inclusion populations occur throughout the pegmatites, regardless of their respective metal enrichments, and primary fluid inclusion textures were destroyed by continued fluid activity. Pseudosecondary to secondary inclusions are aqueo-carbonic, carbonic, and aqueous in composition, and have been divided into five types. The earliest populations are saline (>26.3 eq. wt.% NaCl), homogenizing at temperatures in excess of 300 °C. Their carbonic phase is composed of CO2, with minor CH4, and micro-elemental mapping indicates they contain trace metals, including Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and K. Type 3 inclusions formed later, homogenize at 325 °C, and are less saline, with a carbonic phase composed of CO2. Type 4 carbonic inclusions are composed of pure CO2, and represent the latest stages of fluid evolution, while Type 5 aqueous inclusions are believed to be unrelated to the crystallization of the pegmatites, and rather the result of regional Cretaceous magmatism, or the ingress of meteoric water. The similarities in fluid inclusion populations observed in the pegmatites suggest that differences in mineralization were driven by magma composition rather than fluid activity alone, however saline fluids facilitated the enrichment and deposition of metals during the late stages of crystallization. Furthermore, the similarities between fluid inclusion populations in different pegmatites suggests they share a similar fluid evolution.

  14. Investigations of alteration zones based on fluid inclusion microthermometry at Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid ASGHARI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sungun porphyry copper deposit is located in East Azerbaijan, NW of Iran. The porphyries occur as stocks and dikes ranging in composition from quartz monzodiorite to quartz monzonite. Four types of hypogene alteration are developed; potassic, phyllic, propylitic and argillic. Three types of fluid inclusions are typically observed at Sungun; (1 vapor-rich, (2 liquid-rich and (3 multi-phase. Halite is the principal solid phase in the latter. The primary multiphase inclusions within the quartz crystals were chosen for micro-thermometric analyses and considered to calculate the geological pressure and hydrothermal fluid density. In potassic zone, the average of homogenization temperature is 413.6 °C while in phyllic alteration, 375.9 °C. As expected in potassic alteration, the temperature of hydrothermal solutions is higher than that in the phyllic zone. The salinity of the hydrothermal fluids has a high coherency with homogenization temperature, so the average of salinity in potassic samples is 46.3 (wt% NaCl which is higher than phyllic samples. Based on the location of potassic alteration, as expected, the lithostatic pressure is much more than the phyllic one. Finally, the average density of hydrothermal fluids in the potassically altered samples is 1.124 (gr/cm3 which is higher than the ones in phyllic zone (1.083 gr/cm3 .

  15. Fluid inclusion characteristics and geological significance of the Dajinshan W-Sn polymetallic deposit in Yunfu, Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangfa; Chen, Maohong; Zhao, Haijie

    2015-05-01

    The Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit is a quartz-vein-type ore deposit located in Western Guangdong Province. The ore bodies show a fairly simple shape and mainly occur as tungsten-tin polymetallic-bearing sulfide quartz veins, including quartz vein, quartz-greisens, and sulfide quartz veins, and their distribution is spatially related to Dajinshan granitoids. The formation of the deposit experienced three stages: a wolframite-molybdenite-quartz stage, a wolframite-cassiterite-sulfide-quartz stage, and a fluorite-calcite-carbonate stage. Based on detailed petrographic observations, we conducted microthermometric and Raman microspectroscopic studies of fluid inclusions formed at different ore-forming stages in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit, identifying four dominant types of fluid inclusions: aqueous two-phase inclusions, CO2-bearing inclusions, solid or daughter mineral-bearing inclusions, and gas-rich inclusions. The gas compositions of ore-forming fluids in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit are mostly CO2, CH4, and H2O. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur isotopic data imply that the ore-forming fluids in the Dajinshan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, mixed with meteoric water in the ore-formation process. These results indicate that the fluid mixing and boiling led to the decomposition of the metal complex in ore-forming fluids and ore deposition.

  16. Limit for the Survivability from Potassium Decay of Bacterial Spores in Halite Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Bada, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    Vreeland et al.1 recently claimed to have isolated and cultured a viable spore forming halotolerant bacterium from a 250 million year old brine inclusion present in a salt crystal from the Salado formation. An earlier report suggested that viable bacterial spores could be revived from samples obtained from insects entombed in 25-40 million year old Dominican amber2. On the bases of these reports, Parkes3 raised the question of whether bacterial spores under some conditions might be effectively immortal. Sporulation, induced by an adverse change in the environmental conditions, is able to stabilize the DNA primarily against hydrolytic depurination for extended periods of time4. However, the organism is still exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment. Dormant spores have a reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation per se, but unlike active organisms are unable to repair DNA damage encountered during long-term exposure to ionizing radiation. The accumulated damage may overwhelm any repair mechanism that starts in the early stage of spore germination5. The main radionuclide in a halite fluid inclusion is 40K, which accounts for 0.0117% of natural potassium. 40K decays via beta decay to 40Ca and via electron capture to 40Ar, releasing a primary gamma-ray. About 83.3 % of the beta's emitted are in the energy range of 0.3-1.3 MeV. We assume 7 g/l for an average concentration of natural potassium in a halite fluid inclusion, which means that the amount of 40K in a 10 μ l fluid inclusion is 8.19 ng. We have chosen a 10 μ l because this volume is typical of that used to obtain chemical data and in the attempts to extract bacteria. Less than a percent of the gamma decay energy is absorbed in a fluid inclusion of 10 μ l. Thus, we will not take the gamma decay energy into account for the further discussion. Almost all the beta energy is absorbed in the fluid inclusion. The total decay energy absorbed in a time period of 250 million years is about 87 kGy. The most

  17. Magmatic fluid inclusions from the Zaldivar Deposits, Northern Chile: The role of early metal-bearing fluids in a Porphyry copper system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Campos, E.; Touret, J.L.R.; Nikogosian, I.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of a distinct type of multi-solid, highly-saline fluid inclusions, hosted in igneous quartz phenocrysts from the Llamo porphyry, in the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit of northern Chile is documented. Total homogenization of the multi-solid type inclusions occurs at magmatic

  18. "Magmatic fluid inclusions from the Zaldivar deposit, Northern Chile: The role of Early metal-bearing fluids in a porphyry copper system."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Campos, E.; Touret, J.L.R.; Nikogosian, I.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of a distinct type of multi-solid, highly-saline fluid inclusions, hosted in igneous quartz phenocrysts from the Llamo porphyry, in the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit of northern Chile is documented. Total homogenization of the multi-solid type inclusions occurs at magmatic

  19. Organic compounds in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz-Analogues of prebiotic chemistry on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Mayer, Christian; Schmitz, Oliver J; Rosendahl, Pia; Bronja, Amela; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Mulder, Ines; Sattler, Tobias; Schöler, Heinz F

    2017-01-01

    The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.

  20. Some carbonates from Lagoa Real uranium province, State of Bahia: studies on fluid inclusion and stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.

    1982-01-01

    The geochemical conditions of the uraniferous carbonates of Lagoa Real province were studied using the fluid inclusions method and the isotopic determinations of the carbon and oxygen of these carbonates. (A.B.) [pt

  1. Fluorine concentrations of ore fluids in the Illinois-Kentucky district: Evidence from SEM-EDS analysis of fluid inclusion decrepitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderes, Stuart M.; Appold, Martin S.

    2017-08-01

    The Illinois-Kentucky district is an atypical occurrence of Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mineralization that consists predominantly of fluorite rather than metal sulfide minerals. A long-standing assumption for the predominance of fluorite in the Illinois-Kentucky district is that the ore fluids there were anomalously rich in dissolved fluorine compared to typical sedimentary brines and other MVT ore fluids. This hypothesis is based on the unusual close temporal and spatial association of fluorine-rich ultramafic igneous rocks to MVT mineralization in the district, high K and Sr concentrations in the igneous rocks and in MVT ore-hosted fluid inclusions, a significant mantle 3He/4He component in ore-hosted fluid inclusions, and reaction path models that show titration of a HF-rich fluid into sedimentary brine is capable of producing a fluorite-dominated MVT ore mineral assemblage. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis more directly by determining the fluorine concentration of the Illinois-Kentucky ore fluid through SEM-EDS analysis of evaporative solute mounds resulting from thermal decrepitation of fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite. All 26 evaporative solute mounds from Illinois-Kentucky sphalerite samples analyzed contained detectable concentrations of fluorine of 1-4 weight percent. Based on calibration to standard solutions and previously published fluid inclusion major element concentrations, these solute mound fluorine concentrations correspond to fluid inclusion fluorine concentrations of about 680-4300 ppm, indicating that the Illinois-Kentucky ore fluids were quite rich in fluorine compared to typical sedimentary brines, which have fluorine concentrations mainly on the order of 1's to 10's of ppm. In contrast, solute mounds from sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from the Tri-State district did not contain fluorine in excess of the detection limit. The detection limit equates to an aqueous fluorine concentration between 87 and

  2. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randive Kirtikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  3. C-O-H-S magmatic fluid system in shrinkage bubbles of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic volatiles include multiple phases in the C-O-H-S system of shrinkage bubbles for which a conceptual model is still unclear during melt inclusion formation [1,2,3,4]. The present study aims to qualitatively explore the evolution of the volatile migration, during and after the formation of the shrinkage bubble in melt inclusions trapped by olivines from Holocene to present at San Cristóbal volcano (Nicaragua), Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Combined scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy observations allow to define the mineral-fluid phases inside typical shrinkage bubbles at ambient temperature. The existence of residual liquid water is demonstrated in the shrinkage bubbles of naturally quenched melt inclusion and this water could represents the principal agent for chemical reactions with other dissolved ionic species (SO42-, CO32-, etc.) and major elements (Mg, Fe, Cu, etc.) [4,5]. With the objective of following the cooling story of the bubble-inclusion system, the new methodological approach here estimate the interval of equilibrium temperatures for each SEM-Raman identified mineral phase (carbonates, hydrous carbonates, sulfurs, sulfates, etc.). Finally, two distinct mechanisms are proposed to describe the evolution of this heterogeneous fluid system in bubble samples at San Cristóbal which imply a close re-examination for similar volcanoes in subduction zone settings: (1) bubbles are already contracted and filled by volatiles by diffusion processes from the glass and leading to a C-O-H-S fluid-glass reaction enriched in Mg-Fe-Cu elements (2) bubbles are formed by oversaturation of the volatiles from the magma which is producing an immiscible metal-rich fluid. [1]Moore et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 806-823 [2]Wallace et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 787-794 [3]Lowenstern (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 672-673 [4]Esposito, et al. (2016). Am. Mineral. 101, 1691-1708 [5]Kamenetsky et al. (2001). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 184, 685-702

  4. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope studies of the Nabarlek and Jabiluka uranium deposits, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ypma, P.J.M.; Fuzikawa, K.

    1980-01-01

    We lack a basic understanding of the solutions producing the uranium deposits of the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF). Several theories have been proposed ranging from syngenetic, epigenetic hydrothermal, epigenetic metamorphogenic, surficial origin (Ferguson et al., this volume), and mobilization by evaporite deposits. As for a precipitation mechanism, we do not seem to find much beyond the presence of graphite in some ore-bearing and intra-formational strata, and pre-uranium sulphides, none of which reducing factors are common throughout all ore bodies. This study was initiated with the aim of obtaining direct fluid inclusion evidence of the solution transport and precipitation of uranium

  5. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, O.; Huang, S.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Ma, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Shen, A. H.; Zhang, D.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Tait, K.

    2018-03-01

    Water-rich regions in Earth’s deeper mantle are suspected to play a key role in the global water budget and the mobility of heat-generating elements. We show that ice-VII occurs as inclusions in natural diamond and serves as an indicator for such water-rich regions. Ice-VII, the residue of aqueous fluid present during growth of diamond, crystallizes upon ascent of the host diamonds but remains at pressures as high as 24 gigapascals; it is now recognized as a mineral by the International Mineralogical Association. In particular, ice-VII in diamonds points toward fluid-rich locations in the upper transition zone and around the 660-kilometer boundary.

  6. Sr isotope geochemistry of East Alpine mineral deposits and mass spectrometric analyses of fluid inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strontium isotope geochemistry and deformational history of selected carbonate-hosted deposits from different tectonic positions in the Eastern Alps were studied. In this context an equipment has been constructed to analyze the composition of volatile components of fluid inclusions (FI). Based on the results of Sr-isotopic investigations two groups of deposits are discriminated: Deposits formed by formation waters and/or metamorphogenic fluids: Tux (magnesite, scheelite), Otterzug (barite), Lassing (magnesite), Rabenwald (talc), Laussa and Mooseck (fluorite). The mineralizing fluids are derived from different sedimentary rock series and therefore 87 Sr/ 86 Sr-ratios vary between 0.707 and 0.719. Deposits situated along fault zones: Lassing (talc), Gasteiner Tal (Silberpfennig area; gold), Schlaining (stibnite) and Waldenstein (specularite). Sr isotope ratios of the mineralizing fluids from Lassing, Waldenstein and Schlaining ranges from 0.7112 to 0.7127 and are therefore thought to have scavenged the East Alpine crystalline. The mineralizing solutions of the Gasteiner Tal deposit may either have equilibrated with low radiogenic sedimentary or with (ultra-)basic rocks. A cracking chamber has been constructed in order to open FI by cracking for mass spectrometric analysis of volatile components. Gases are analysed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The desorption of gas from metal and sample surfaces during cracking can be neglected. The amount of gas released from the mineral lattices was studied. With that fast method ore bearing from barren host rocks have been distinguished by different composition of the FI at the Brixlegg barite mineralization (Eastern Alps). Within the Galway fluorite deposit (Ireland) different fluids were involved and mass spectrometric analysis were carried out to characterize these different fluids and to identify their origin. (author)

  7. Salinity of the Archaean oceans from analysis of fluid inclusions in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Bernard; Avice, Guillaume; Bekaert, David V.; Broadley, Michael W.

    2018-05-01

    Fluids trapped in inclusions in well-characterized Archaean hydrothermal quartz crystals were analyzed by the extended argon-argon method, which permits the simultaneous measurement of chlorine and potassium concentrations. Argon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of the trapped fluids were also determined by static mass spectrometry. Fluids were extracted by stepwise crushing of quartz samples from North Pole (NW Australia) and Barberton (South Africa) 3.5-3.0-Ga-old greenstone belts. The data indicate that fluids are a mixture of a low salinity end-member, regarded as the Archaean oceanic water, and several hydrothermal end-members rich in Cl, K, N, and radiogenic parentless 40Ar. The low Cl-K end-member suggests that the salinity of the Archaean oceans was comparable to the modern one, and that the potassium content of the Archaean oceans was lower than at present by about 40%. A constant salinity of the oceans through time has important implications for the stabilization of the continental crust and for the habitability of the ancient Earth.

  8. Fluid Inclusion Analysis of other Host Minerals besides Quartz: Application to Granite-Related Quartz-Topaz Veins and Garnet Skarns in Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schlöglova, Katerina

    2018-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are the only available samples of paleo-fluids responsible for crystallization of hydrothermal minerals including ore phases. Analysis of fluid inclusions implicitly assumes that the inclusions have preserved their chemical composition since the time of their entrapment. There is, however, an increasing evidence from experimental work and analytical studies of natural samples showing that inclusions hosted in quartz – a ubiquitous host in many ore-forming systems – can experi...

  9. A note on fluid inclusion study of quartz from uraniferous migmatites from Sirsoti area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana Murthy, K.V.; Shobhita, K.; Gorikhan, R.A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fluid inclusion study has been carried out on quartz from uraniferous migmatitic rocks of Sirsoti area of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh. The fluid inclusions in quartz are of two types viz. (i) H 2 O liquid + vapour and (ii) H 2 O liquid + CO 2 liquid + CO 2 gas. Homogenization temperatures of H 2 O liquid + vapour type inclusions indicate that the temperature of formation varied between 150-350degC. Ice melting temperatures indicate that the hydrothermal solutions were CO 2 -bearing with a salinity of 6-8% NaCl. A common range of homogenization temperature for both liquid-rich as well as vapour-rich inclusions provides evidence for the boiling of the ore fluids. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs

  10. The Use of Integrated Fluid Inclusion Studies for Constraining Petroleum Charge History at Parsons Pond, Western Newfoundland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Conliffe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy of inclusion oil, investigates the petroleum charge history at Parsons Pond, western Newfoundland. To address this matter, drill core and cuttings samples of allochthonous and autochthonous strata in the Parson’s Pond area were collected from three exploration wells. Fluid inclusions were examined from fragments of calcite and quartz veins, diagenetic cements in sandstone, and in large hydrothermal dolomite and calcite crystals. Primary aqueous inclusions in authigenic sandstone cements indicate that cementation occurred at relatively shallow depths and low temperatures (<50 °C. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (petroleum, wet gas and gas are generally restricted to calcite and quartz veins, indicating that petroleum and gas migration at Parson’s Pond is fracture-controlled. No hydrocarbons were observed in the diagenetic cements of the essentially tight sandstones. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy indicate the presence of multiple generations of hydrocarbon fluid, ranging in composition from ~33 API gravity petroleum to pure CH4. Petrographic evidence suggests that hydrocarbons were generated multiple times during progressive burial and heating. In addition, the distribution of hydrocarbon bearing inclusions with depth suggests that deeper levels are gas-prone, with petroleum confined to relatively shallow depths. Although only gas flow was encountered during the drilling of exploration wells at Parson’s Pond, the presence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions in calcite and quartz veins indicates that the historical production from shallow wells in the Parsons Pond area likely tapped small reservoirs of fractured petroliferous strata.

  11. Final state effects in inclusive quasielastic electron scattering from nuclei: Clues from quantum fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Clark, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The impulse approximation (IA) predicts that momentum distributions, n/sub k/, in many-body systems should be measurable by inclusive quasielastic scattering at high energy and momentum (w,Q) transfer. The observations that the cross section appears to satisfy ''Y-scaling'' (i.e., is a function not of both w and Q of a single variable, Y) is usually taken as a signature of the IA. In nuclear physics, inelastic electron scattering at GeV energies should reveal the high momentum components of the nuclear wave function. In quantum fluids, neutron scattering at hundreds of MeV energies should measure the Bose condensate in superfluid /sup 4/He and the Fermi surface discontinuity and depletion of the Fermi sea in /sup 3/He. In molecular and condensed matter systems, X-ray Compton scattering at keV energies reveals electronic n/sub k/. Such experiments test many-body wave functions calculated by methods such as Green Function and Path Integral Monte Carlo, and Fermi Hypernetted Chain. However, an outstanding issue has been the corrections to the IA due to the scattering of the recoiling particle from neighboring particles, which are termed ''final state effects'' (FSE). The FSE should be especially important in nuclei and quantum fluids where the potentials have steeply repulsive cores. While there have been a variety of theories proposed for FSE, until now none has been adequately tested by experiment. Recently, the ''hard core perturbation theory'' (HCPT) for FSE in quantum fluids by Silver has been successfully compared to new neutron scattering measurements on /sup 4/He by P. E. Sokol and colleagues. In this paper, we shall discuss the lessons of this success for the extraction of n/sub k/ in nuclei by inclusive ''quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering'' (QENS). 19 refs., 12 figs

  12. Laser microprobe analyses of Cl, Br, I, and K in fluid inclusions: Implications for sources of salinity in some ancient hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.; Irwin, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The relative concentrations of Cl, Br, I, and K in fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals were measured by laser microprobe noble gas mass spectrometry on irradiated samples containing 10−10 to 10−8 L of fluid. Distinctive halogen signatures indicate contrasting sources of fluid salinity in fluid inclusions from representative “magmatic” (St. Austell), “metamorphic” (Alleghany), and “geothermal” (Creede, Salton Sea) aqueous systems. Br/Cl mol ratios are lowest at Salton Sea (0.27–0.33 × 10−3), where high salinities are largely due to halite dissolution; intermediate at St. Austell (0.85 × 10−3), possibly representative of magmatic volatiles; and highest (near that of seawater) at Creede (1.5–2.1 × 10−3) and Alleghany (1.2–2.4 × 10−3), where dissolved halogens probably were leached from volcanic and (or) nonevaporitic sedimentary rocks. IC1">IC1 mol ratios are lowest (near that of seawater) at Creede (1–14 × 10−6), possibly because organisms scavenged I during low temperature recharge; intermediate at Salton Sea (24–26 × 10−6) and St. Austell (81× 10−6); and highest at Alleghany (320–940 × 10−6), probably because the fluids interacted with organic-rich sediments at high temperatures before being trapped. KCl">KCl mol ratios indicate disequilibrium with respect to hypothetical feldspathic alkali-Al-silicate mineral buffers at fluid inclusion trapping temperatures at Creede, and large contributions of (Na, K)-bicarbonate to total fluid ionic strength at Alleghany. Significant variations in Cl/Br/I/K ratios among different fluid inclusion types are correlated with previously documented mineralization stages at Creede, and with the apparent oxidation state of dissolved carbon at Alleghany. The new data indicate that Cl/ Br/I ratios in hydrothermal fluid inclusions vary by several orders of magnitude, as they do in modern surface and ground waters. This study demonstrates that halogen signatures of fluid inclusions

  13. Paleoclimatic implications from fluid inclusion data in Messinian halite of Italian sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, G.; Tecce, F.; Cosentino, D.; Faccenna, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene sedimentary succession of the Mediterranean Basin includes a thick evaporitic succession (gypsum and halite) deposited during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), which occurred between 5.96 and 5,33 Ma. While several studies have been carried out to define the water budget of the MSC, the temperature of the Mediterranean water system is poorly constrained. The purpose of this work is to collect the first dataset of homogenization temperatures (Th) from primary fluid inclusions in Messinian halite from different Italian sites. Such data yield very useful information on water temperature at salt deposition time and thus on the climatic conditions in the peak desiccation stage of the Mediterranean sea. We focused our attention on three areas: the Volterra Basin (Tuscany), the Crotone Basin (Calabria) and the Caltanissetta Basin (Sicily). These basins are filled by Neogene sedimentary sequences, including Messinian gypsum deposits and halite. Halite samples were taken directly from salt diapirs outcrops (Crotone Basin), from borehole S1113 cores drilled by the Italian Solvay company (Volterra Basin) and inside salt mines of Petralia Sottana, Racalmuto and Realmonte (Caltanissetta Basin). Halite chips were manually prepared carefully avoiding water and controlling the temperature. Halite minerals contain abundant fluid inclusions. The majority of them are monophase liquid inclusions, showing a very regular cubic or rectangular shape. They occur along chevron and growth planes and thus were considered to have a primary origin. Some others contain solids and/or organic matter. During microthermometry, vapor bubbles nucleation has been produced directly into the stage chamber, slightly modifying the traditional "cooling" method; we could then nucleate the bubbles and at the same time constantly control the sample temperature, avoiding any sudden change that can lead to useless altered data. Microthermometric data were measured from 218 primary all liquid fluid

  14. Stable isotope composition of fluid inclusions preserved in halite derived from Wieliczka and Bochnia beds (southern Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulinski, M.; Rozanski, K.; Alexandrowicz, Z.; Chmura, A.

    1999-01-01

    Halite deposits located in the southern Poland, near Krakow, are famous mostly due to medieval salt mine located in Wieliczka. Contrary to most salt deposits in Europe forming large domes, the halite deposits near Krakow form distinct beds, extending from west to east on the area of ca. 10 km 2 , with several types of salt identified. The deposits were formed in Miocene, ca. 15 mln years ago. Stable isotope composition of fluid inclusions trapped in the halite crystals originating from Wieliczka and Bochnia salt mines was investigated. Two distinct groups of samples were analyzed: (i) samples derived from so-called 'green salt' beds forming extensive horizontal structures, and (ii) large monocrystals of halite collected in crystal caves which form a part of the tourist tract within the Wieliczka Salt Mine. The samples belonging to the first group were heated under vacuum to extract the fluid inclusions, according to the procedure developed in our laboratory and used previously to extract inclusions from speleothem samples. The macro-inclusions present in some monocrystals of halite collected in crystal caves were removed or analysis without any thermal treatment. The concentration of bivalent cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2- was measured in the bulk material and in fluid inclusions (only second group). The 2 H and 18 O isotope composition of fluid inclusions extracted from halite samples was measured

  15. Extremely halophilic archaea from ancient salt sediments and their possible survival in halite fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Gerbl, F. W.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Frethem, C.

    2008-09-01

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, marine solar salterns and alkaline salt lakes; they have also been isolated from ancient subsurface salt sediments of great geological age (195-280 million years) and some of those strains were described as novel species (1). The cells survived perhaps while being enclosed within small fluid inclusions in the halite. The characterization of subsurface microbial life is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. We attempted to simulate the embedding process of extremely halophilic archaea and to analyse any cellular changes which might occur. When enclosing haloarchaea in laboratory grown halite, cells accumulated preferentially in fluid inclusions, as could be demonstrated by pre-staining with fluorescent dyes. With increased time of embedding, rod-shaped cells of Halobacterium salinarum strains were found to assume roundish morphologies. Upon dissolution of the salt crystals, these spheres were stable and viable for months when kept in buffers containing 4 M NaCl. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following fixation with glutaraldehyde suggested a potentially gradual transformation from rods to spheres. This notion was supported by fluorescence microscopy of Halobacterium cells, following embedding in halite and staining with SYTO 9. One-dimensional protein patterns of rods and spheres, following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were similar except that the S-layer protein appeared reduced by about 15 - 20 % in spheres. The reddish-orange pigmentation of spheres was much lighter compared to that of rod-shaped cells, suggesting lowered concentrations of carotenoids; this was confirmed by extraction and spectrometry of pigments. The data suggested that Halobacterium cells are capable of forming specific

  16. Au-bearing magnetite mineralizaion in Kashmar (alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, geochemistry and fluid inclusions;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in the central part of the Khaf- Kashmar- Bardaskan volcano-plotunic belt (briefly KKBB. Several IOCG deposits such as Tanourjeh Au-bearing magnetite deposit and Kuh-e-Zar Specularite-rich Au deposit have been explored in KKBB. Geology, alteration, mineralization, geochemistry and fluid inclusion results in Kashmar suggest the IOCG type Au-bearing magnetite mineralization. These IOCG deposits at KKBB form at an active continental arc related to SSZ-type Sabzevar oceanic subduction. Materials and methods Use of Landsat 7+, IRS and Aster satellites. Petrography and alteration Studies in 150 thin sections of volcanic and intrusive rocks. Sampling of ore-bearing quartz vein and mineralography. Preparation of 28 geochemistry samples by the chip composite method of ore-bearing quartz vein and analyzing them in the ACME laboratory by Aqua Regia 1DX1. Fluid inclusions studies of 14 samples of quartz and barite related to the ore minerals of ore-bearing quartz vein by THM600 stage of Linkam company. Results Magmatic events in Kashmar occur at Paleocene-Eocene and include: (1 old mafic - intermediate volcano-plutonic series; (2 felsic volcanic and granitoids; and (3 parallel swarm dykes which are youngest (Almasi et al., 2016. Geochemically, Kashmar rocks are metaluminous to highly peraluminous and Tholeitic to calc-alkaline and shoshonitic in composition (Almasi et al., 2016. The field characteristics, together with isotope and geochemical analyses show that all rock types are essentially co-magmatic and post-collisional I-type (Almasi et al., 2016. Alteration of Kashmar is described in two ways: (1 intense ellipsoidal-linear Argillic-Sillicification and low sericitic with Silica caps and with medium widespread and propylitic alterations in triple regions, next to Dorouneh fault; and (2 Medium Hematite-Carbonate-Chlorite-Silicification alterations in Kamarmard heights. In parts of near the Doruneh fault, sometimes

  17. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  18. Fluid inclusion study of the Cachoeira uranium deposit, Caetite, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.V.; Fuzikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    The Cachoeira uranium deposit is presently the richest deposit among those in the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The mineralization is associated to the albitites formed during the onset of strong sodium metasomatism on the granite-gnaissic rocks of the area. Fluid inclusion study of several uraniferous albitites indicated the presence of strong brines (approx. 20 weight percent NaCl equivalent) and the dominance of hydrocarbons over CO 2 in the gas phase. In country rocks, which host the albitites, as well as in unmineralized albities the salinity of aqueous solution is variable and light hydrocarbons are the predominant gas phase. These data were obtained by microthermometry and crushing tests from a larger set of samples than that used in previous studies. However, the results do not differ significantly from the data of these earlier works and reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of CH 4 in Uo 2 precipitation. (Author) [pt

  19. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  20. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  1. Fluid inclusions of the Horní Slavkov Sn-W ore deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: evidence for non-magmatic source of greisenizing fluids?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolníček, Z.; René, Miloš; Prochaska, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, - (2011), s. 68-69 ISSN 1017-8880. [Ecrofi XXI. 09.08.2011-11.08.2011, Leoben] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fluid inclusion * greisen * tin ore Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Geochemical Signature of Magmatic-Hydrothermal Fluids Exsolved from the Beauvoir Rare-Metal Granite (Massif Central, France: Insights from LA-ICPMS Analysis of Primary Fluid Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Harlaux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beauvoir granite (Massif Central, France represents an exceptional case in the European Variscan belt of a peraluminous rare-metal granite crosscutting an early W stockwork. The latter was strongly overprinted by rare-metal magmatic-hydrothermal fluids derived from the Beauvoir granite, resulting in a massive topazification of the quartz-ferberite vein system. This work presents a complete study of primary fluid inclusions hosted in quartz and topaz from the Beauvoir granite and the metasomatized stockwork, in order to characterize the geochemical composition of the magmatic fluids exsolved during the crystallization of this evolved rare-metal peraluminous granite. Microthermometric and Raman spectrometry data show that the earliest fluid (L1 is of high temperature (500 to >600°C, high salinity (17–28 wt.% NaCl eq, and Li-rich (Te100 m and interaction with external fluids.

  3. AqSo_NaCl: Computer program to calculate p-T-V-x properties in the H2O-NaCl fluid system applied to fluid inclusion research and pore fluid calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    The program AqSo_NaCl has been developed to calculate pressure - molar volume - temperature - composition (p-V-T-x) properties, enthalpy, and heat capacity of the binary H2O-NaCl system. The algorithms are designed in BASIC within the Xojo programming environment, and can be operated as stand-alone project with Macintosh-, Windows-, and Unix-based operating systems. A series of ten self-instructive interfaces (modules) are developed to calculate fluid inclusion properties and pore fluid properties. The modules may be used to calculate properties of pure NaCl, the halite-liquidus, the halite-vapourus, dew-point and bubble-point curves (liquid-vapour), critical point, and SLV solid-liquid-vapour curves at temperatures above 0.1 °C (with halite) and below 0.1 °C (with ice or hydrohalite). Isochores of homogeneous fluids and unmixed fluids in a closed system can be calculated and exported to a.txt file. Isochores calculated for fluid inclusions can be corrected according to the volumetric properties of quartz. Microthermometric data, i.e. dissolution temperatures and homogenization temperatures, can be used to calculated bulk fluid properties of fluid inclusions. Alternatively, in the absence of total homogenization temperature the volume fraction of the liquid phase in fluid inclusions can be used to obtain bulk properties.

  4. Fluid inclusions and PVTX modelling: examples from the Garn Formation in well 6507/2-2, Haltenbanken, Mid-Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teinturier, S.; Pironon, J. [CREGU-UMR, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Walgenwitz, F. [CSTJF, TotalFinaElf, Pau (France)

    2002-06-01

    Fluid inclusions study and multi-techniques quantitative analyses have been coupled to reconstitute PVTX conditions of aqueous and petroleum fluid entrapment of a local Haltenbanken area (well 6507/2-2) from the Garn Formation. Unusual low temperature behaviour showing the liquid portion separating into two liquids has been described. This behaviour is typical of a gas condensate/volatile mixture with high methane content and heavy alkanes. The variable liquid-vapour ratio, compositions and morphologies of all petroleum inclusions can be interpreted as a result of a combination of heterogeneous trapping and necking down. Thus, all petroleum inclusions can be related to a single petroleum source. Three main episodes of fluid entrapment can be distinguished. The first one corresponds to the water trapped within detrital quartz microfractures, at around 50{sup o}C and 50 bar; the second to the petroleum fluid arrival in the biphase field of a critical system around 100-120{sup o}C and 190-230 bar. The third one to the main trapping of present-day petroleum inclusions during the recrystallisation of quartz cements (around 110-160{sup o}C and 230-280 bar) within the last few million years of a short and relatively rapid burial.(author)

  5. Petrology, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies of eclogites from Sujiahe, NW Dabie Shan (China), July 1 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Zheng, Y.-F.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Triassic Hong'an low-T-high-P eclogite and the Xinxian coesite-bearing kyanite-glaucophane eclogite, Silurian coesite-free amphibole eclogites occur in the Sujiahe region, NW Dabie Shan of central China. A comprehensive study of petrology, Nd-Sr, O-H isotopes and fluid inclusions

  6. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry in east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type districts: Evidence for immiscibility and implications for depositional mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.D.; Kesler, S.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of fluid inclusion gases from Mississippi Valley-type districts in east Tennessee reveal the presence of several distinct aqueous solutions and vapors that were part of the mineralizing process. Inclusion contents were released by crushing 5 to 25 mg mineral samples and by decrepitating individual inclusions; all analyses were obtained by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Most analyzed inclusion fluids consist of H{sub 2}O with significant amounts of CH{sub 4} (0.3 to 2.9 mol%), CO{sub 2} (0.1 to 4.7 mol%), and smaller amounts of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar. Compositional similarities in the inclusion fluids from three districts imply that mineralization probably formed from fluids that permeated the entire region. Saturation pressures calculated for these fluid compositions range from 300 to 2,200 bars. Burial depths for the host unit have been estimated to be about 2 to 3 km during Devonian time, the age of mineralization indicated by recent isotopic ages. Exsolution of a vapor phase from the mineralizing brines should cause precipitation of carbonate and sulfide minerals, but reaction path modeling indicates that the resulting sparry dolomite:sphalerite ratios would be too high to form an ore-grade deposit. If the vapor phase was from a preexisting sour gas cap that was intercepted by a Zn-rich brine, large amounts of spalerite would precipitate in a fairly small region. Preliminary mass balance calculations suggest that a gas cap of dimensions similar to the individual districts in east Tennessee could have contained enough H{sub 2}S to account for the total amount of sphalerite precipitated.

  7. Fluid inclusions in jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from serpentinite mélanges in northern Hispaniola: Trapped ambient fluids in a cold subduction channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Hertwig, Andreas; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.

    2018-05-01

    Freezing-point depression was measured in aqueous fluid inclusions to determine salinities in six samples of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic. The mélange represents a fossil subduction-zone channel from a cold, mature subduction zone with a geothermal gradient of 6 °C/km. One hundred and twenty-five determinations of salinity in primary inclusions hosted in jadeite, quartz, apatite and lawsonite range between extremes of 1.2 and 8.7, but yield a well-defined mean of 4.5 ± 1.1 wt% (±1 s.d.) NaCl equiv, slightly higher than mean seawater (3.5 wt%). In one sample, eight additional fluid inclusions in quartz aligned along grain boundaries yield slightly lower values of 2.7 ± 1.3 wt% NaCl equiv. Homogenization temperatures were also measured for 47 fluid inclusions in two samples, but primary entrapment densities are not preserved. It is significant that the suite includes two types of samples: those precipitated directly from an aqueous fluid as well as examples of metasomatic replacement of a pre-existing magmatic rock. Nevertheless, the results indicate identical salinity for both types and suggest a much stronger genetic link between the two types of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock than has previously been assumed. Based on the results of conductivity measurements in modern subduction zones, we envision a pervasive fluid in the subduction channel that evolved from salinity levels lower than those in sea-water up to the measured values due to on-going but largely completed serpentinization in the subduction channel. The present data represent a reference marker for the subduction channel of the Rio San Juan intra-oceanic subduction zone at 30-50 km depth and after 50-60 Myr of operation.

  8. Continental basinal origin of ore fluids from southwestern Massif central fluorite veins (Albigeois, France): evidence from fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.; Boyce, A.J.; Courjault-Rade, P.; Fallick, A.E.; Tollon, F.

    1999-01-01

    The most important fluorspar mining district in France is located in the Palaeozoic basement of the Albigeois in southwestern French Massif Central. The massive fluorite is hosted within large E-W striking fractures, crosscutting Cambro-Ordovician clastics, associated with large zones of hypersilicified tectonic breccia which form the wall of the mined deposits. Fluid inclusion data for pre-fluorite and fluorite stage fluids have salinities between 20-26 wt% NaCl equiv., with homogenisation temperatures between 85-170C. Furthermore, low first ice melting temperatures (around -50C) indicates the presence of significant CaCl 2 and possibly MgCl 2 together with NaCl. Calculated fluid δ 18 O for pre-fluorite quartz ranges from -9.1per thousand to -5.2per thousand, with δD between -55per thousand to -64per thousand, placing the data directly on the present day meteoric water line. Fluorite stage fluids have δ 18 O between +0.1per thousand to +3.2per thousand, and δD ranging from -53per thousand to -75per thousand, indicating an interacted meteoric fluid origin. Combining the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data illustrates that the main fluorite depositing fluid has characteristics typical of a basinal brine. The authors have no evidence that a magmatic system was involved in the deposit genesis. The proposed model highlights that mineralisation was related to major Mesozoic extensional events coinciding with the gradual opening of the Atlantic and Tethys oceans. In order to account for the chemistry of the fluids, and the siting of the deposits, the authors postulate a genetic relationship with local, continental, evaporite-bearing basins coincident with, and controlled by the E-W fractures. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Kahang Cu- Mo deposit is situated approximately 73 Km northeast of Isfahan. Asadi (2007 identified a geological reserve of 40 Mt (proven reserve grading at 0.53 Cu, 0.02 Mo and estimated reserve of 120 Mt. All the rock types in the region have been subjected to hydrothermal solutions which gave rise to three different alteration facies. The dacite and rhyodacite volcanic rocks and granitic- granodioritic stocks have experienced phyllic alteration. Disseminated and stockwork siliceous veins are the major styles of mineralization in this zone. Intermediate argillitic alteration developed on a part of dacitic and rhyodacitic rocks whereas andesite and basaltic-andesite plus related pyroclastic rocks have been subjected to propyllitic alteration. This paper presents the results of geological and mineralogical studies carried out in the Kahang area. This preliminary information is integrated with additional data on ore mineralogy, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in view of understanding the genesis of the Cu- Mo deposit and the nature of the fluids involved in ore formation. Materials and Methods A total of 18 polished thin sections were prepared at the University of Isfahan for optical study. Fluid inclusions study was carried out on 8 double polished quartz thin sections (stockworks containing ore mineralization from phyllic zone. H – O stable isotope analysis was performed on 4 quartz samples from siliceous stockworks (from phyllic altered zone and one vein epidote sample (from propyllitic zone. All isotopic analyses were performed at the University of Oregan, Oregan, USA. Discussion In the investigated mineralization area, the hypogene zone is characterized by the presence of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite. Hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite and azurite are the predominant minerals of supergene zone. The major textures of the primary sulfides are disseminated, vein and veinlet. Pyrite is the most common

  10. Fluid Inclusion Study of The Tumpangpitu High Sulfidation Epithermal Gold Deposit in Banyuwangi District, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu Myaing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tumpangpitu high sulfidation (HS epithermal gold deposit is located in the south coast of East Java, Banyuwangi District, East Java Province, Indonesia. This area lies within the central portion of the Cenozoic Sunda‐Banda magmatic arc which trends southeast from northern Sumatra to west Java then eastward through east Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and terminating at Banda sea. The geology of the Tumpangpitu is predominantly occupied by Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene low-K calc-alkaline to alkaline andesitic volcanic rocks and interbedded with volcaniclastic rock sequences, which are associated with low-K intermediate intrusions. The mineralization style at the Tumpangpitu area is composed of a high‐sulfidation (HS epithermal gold-copper system which is typically associated with concealed gold-rich porphyry copper system. The HS epithermal mineralization is hosted by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks in this research area. The mineralization domains are divided into Zone A, Zone B and Zone C which are situated along NW-SE-trending silica ledges zones. The HS epithermal mineralization is texturally occurs as vuggy replacements mineralization as well as stockworks, disseminated forms, fractures and veins. Fluid inclusion study was conducted for 6 quartz vein samples which petrographically entrapped fluid inclusions. Homogenization temperature (Th and melting temperature (Tm can microthermometrically be determined by fluid inclusion analysis. The average homogenization temperature (Th of the fluid inclusions gives 180˚C to 342˚C and melting temperature are from -0.1 ˚C to -1.4˚C. Tm corresponds to the salinities ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 wt% NaCl equivalent. The paleodepth of ore formation can be estimated from the salinity of fluid. Since the deposit was not formed at boiling condition, the minimum paleodepth of ore (quartz samples taken from both shallow level (53.35 m and deep level (135.15 m is determined at 650m and 1,220 m

  11. Ore Characteristics and Fluid Inclusion of the Base Metal Vein Deposit in Moncong Bincanai Area, Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmariyadi Asmariyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i4.146This paper is dealing with ore characteristics and fluid inclusion of the Moncong Bincanai, Biringbulu Subregency of Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The mineralization is a vein type, with the orientation of N170oE /65oSW, hosted in open-space filling within basalt. The mineralization consists of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. Vein thickness ranges from 5 - 17 cm, showing a crustiform banding texture, with a sequence from outer to centre: quartz, carbonate (siderite, sulphide. The quartz displays primary growth textures such as comb, crystalline, saccharoidal, and colloform. Analytical methods applied include AAS and fluid inclusion microthermometry. Chemical composition of the vein indicates an average of Pb = 47.92%, Cu = 1.27%, Zn = 1.02%, and Fe = 9.46%, which shows a significant concentration of Pb. Fluid inclusion microthermometry results indicate a range of formation temperature of 240 - 250C and salinity of the responsible hydrothermal fluid of 2.1 - 2.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The deposit is categorized into low-sulfidation epithermal deposits, which was formed within a range of 410 - 440 m below paleosurface.

  12. Geothermometry obtained from the calcite twin and fluid inclusions in barite (Irankuh Pb-Zn deposit, Southwest of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijan Aftabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Irankuh mining district is located 20 km southwest of Isfahan and is geologically situated in Sanandaj - Sirjan zone and the lower Cretaceous sequence of Isfahan-Malayer ore mineralization area. The ore minerals are emplaced in the faulted contact of Jurassic shale and Cretaceous carbonates and include pyrite, galena, sphalerite, calcite, barite, dolomite, quartz as well as minor marcasite, smithsonite, cerussite, gypsum, malachite, hematite and goethite. The mineralization is mainly occurred as hydrothermal veins and veinlets associated with fractures and faults, suggesting the deposit is likely to be of epigenetic type. A comparison between geothermometric results obtained from calcite twins and fluid inclusions showed a similar temperature range for the mineralization (less than 170ºc. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the temperature, salinity and density ranges of 80-166ºc, 5.39-20.94 wt.% NaCl and 0.95-1.12, respectively. The obtained data share many similarities with those of the MVT deposits

  13. External micro-PIXE analysis of fluid inclusions: Test of the LABEC facility on samples of quartz veins from Apuan Alps (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: massi@fi.infn.it; Calusi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino 50019, Firenze (Italy); Ruggieri, G. [CNR - Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse sezione di Firenze, via G. La Pira 4, Firenze 50121 (Italy); Dini, A. [CNR - Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse sezione di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa 56124 (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Fluid inclusions are small portions, usually smaller than 100 {mu}m, of fluid trapped within minerals during or after growth. Their characteristics provide therefore fundamental information on nature and evolution of fluids present in the past in different geological environments. At the LABEC laboratory in Firenze, high-salinity fluid inclusions in quartz crystals, coming from the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex, were analysed at the external scanning microbeam. Results, although still preliminary, have already provided us with hints on fluid-rock interaction processes during the metamorphism of the Apuan Alps.

  14. External micro-PIXE analysis of fluid inclusions: Test of the LABEC facility on samples of quartz veins from Apuan Alps (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Giuntini, L.; Ruggieri, G.; Dini, A.

    2008-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are small portions, usually smaller than 100 μm, of fluid trapped within minerals during or after growth. Their characteristics provide therefore fundamental information on nature and evolution of fluids present in the past in different geological environments. At the LABEC laboratory in Firenze, high-salinity fluid inclusions in quartz crystals, coming from the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex, were analysed at the external scanning microbeam. Results, although still preliminary, have already provided us with hints on fluid-rock interaction processes during the metamorphism of the Apuan Alps

  15. An isotopic and fluid inclusion study of fracture calcite from borehole OL-KR1 at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, A.; Frape, S.; Blomqvist, R.; Nissinen, P.; McNutt, R.

    1998-04-01

    A study of the geochemistry of fracture filling calcite in borehole OL-KR1 at the radioactive waste disposal investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) was undertaken in 1998. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the fracture calcite using mineralogy, oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes, and fluid inclusions in order to determine past and present chemical and isotopic condition at the site

  16. An isotopic and fluid inclusion study of fracture calcite from borehole OL-KR1 at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, A.; Frape, S. [Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Blomqvist, R.; Nissinen, P. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); McNutt, R. [McMaster Univ. of Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    A study of the geochemistry of fracture filling calcite in borehole OL-KR1 at the radioactive waste disposal investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) was undertaken in 1998. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the fracture calcite using mineralogy, oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes, and fluid inclusions in order to determine past and present chemical and isotopic condition at the site 39 refs.

  17. Mineralogical and Fluid Inclusions Evidence For The Genesis of Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu Beryl Belt, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beryl mineralization in quartz veins and pegmatites, are common deposits of tectonic-hydrothermal and/or igneous origin. The beryl-specialized granites association at Umm Addebaa-Umm Kabu belt is manifested in the field by the development of a system of beryl-bearing pegmatitic pods and quartz veins. The emplacement of these syn-tectonic pegmatitic leucogranites from which K- and Be-rich fluid phases were derived, are confined to the shear zones, as well as a broad zone of alkali metasomatism. Microthermometic studies of primary fluid inclusions within beryl growth zones are consistent with beryl precipitation from H 2 O-CO 2 ± CH 4 bearing saline brines. The estimated fluid composition is approximately 0.88 mol% H 2 O, 0.017 mol% CO 2 ± 0.001 mol% CH 4 and 0.10 mol% NaCl (2- 11 wt.% NaCl eq.). Fluid inclusion results are consistent with that mineralization in pegmatites and quartz veins that are formed by two genetic stages. The first stage is characterized by temperature of formation in the range of 216.4 - 378.3 °C, with corresponding pressures along fluid inclusion isochore paths ranging from 1.04 to 2.25 bar. The second stage is of aqueous fluid represented with low temperature (177-255°C) and pressure ≤ 1 bar, but high saline (16-22 wt.% NaCl eq.) which might explain mixing of the early carbonaceous fluid with late meteoric water accompanied with pressure release. Thus, it can be inferred that the Be-bearing solutions were moderately saline, but CO 2 (and possible CH 4 )-rich fluid implies that Be was most probably complexed by carbonate ( + CH 4 ) - chloride base. The different paragenetic types of emerald and beryl associated with granitoid rocks indicates that the chemistry of the Be-bearing fluids (rather than that of the bulk rock), and syn-tectonic intrusions of leucogranites and pegmatites (Be deriving sources) along major ductile shear zones are the important factors controlling the crystallization of beryl.

  18. Thermomigration of fluid inclusions in rock salt. Implications for the disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, W.; Runge, K.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been suggested to predict the time-dependent accumulation of brine at nuclear waste packages emplaced in a rock salt repository owing to thermomigration of brine inclusions. The model is based mainly on a description of the migration rate as a function of the temperature, temperature gradient, inclusion size and gas/liquid ratio of inclusions. Other factors are treated merely as disturbing quantities with respect to the migration rate. (author)

  19. Pressure-temperature condition and hydrothermal-magmatic fluid evolution of the Cu-Mo Senj deposit, Central Alborz: fluid inclusion evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tale Fazel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Senj deposit has significant potential for different types of mineralization, particularly porphyry-like Cu deposits, associated with subduction-related Eocene–Oligocene calc-alkaline porphyritic volcano-plutonic rocks. The study of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits aims to identify and characterize the pressure, temperature, volume and fluid composition, (PTX conditions of fluids under which they were trapped (Heinrich et al., 1999; Ulrich and Heinrich, 2001; Redmond et al., 2004. Different characteristics of the deposit such as porphyrtic nature, alteration assemblage and the quartz-sulfide veins of the stockwork were poorly known. In this approach on the basis of alterations, vein cutting relationship and field distribution of fluid inclusions, the physical and chemical evolution of the hydrothermal system forming the porphyry Cu-Mo (±Au-Ag deposit in Senj is reconstructed. Materials and Methods Over 1000 m of drill core was logged at a scale of 1:1000 by Pichab Kavosh Co. and samples containing various vein and alteration types from different depths were collected for laboratory analyses. A total of 14 samples collected from the altered and least altered igneous rocks in the Senj deposit were analyzed for their major oxide concentrations by X-ray fluorescence in the SGS Mineral Services (Toronto, Canada. The detection limit for major oxide analysis is 0.01%. Trace and rare earth elements (REE were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometery (ICP-MS, in the commercial laboratory of SGS Mineral Services. The analytical error for most elements is less than 2%. The detection limit for trace elements and REEs analysis is 0.01 to 0.1 ppm. Fluid inclusion microthermometry was conducted using a Linkam THMS600 heating–freezing stage (-190 °C to +600 °C mounted on a ZEISS Axioplan2 microscope in the fluid inclusion laboratory of the Iranian Mineral Processing Research Center (Karaj, Iran. Results

  20. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  1. New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-07-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us simultaneously to measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the online water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δ D robustness. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water, resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δ D and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed in a copper tube, attached to the line, and after system stabilisation it is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements, a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain &delta D; and δ18O isotopic compositions of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5 ‰ for δ D and 0.4 ‰ for δ18O for water measurements for an extended range (-210 to 0 ‰ for δ D and -27 to 0 ‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to the isotope ratio mass

  2. Geochemical and geophysical investigations, and fluid inclusion studies in the exploration area of Zafarghand (Northeast Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA is a good prospective area for Cu, Cu-Mo and Cu-Au deposits (Fig. 1A and B. The Zafarghand district is located in the central part of the UDMA and the northeastern Isfahan. The present study concerns geological observations, alteration investigations, geochemical data and fluid inclusion studies. The purpose of the research is to identify geochemical anomalies and source of metals in this area. Geochemical anomalies for mineralizing elements and element associations were identified by using statistical analysis methods. Additionally, these results together suggest a site for exploration drilling in this study area. Materials and methods We collected 186 samples (rock along multi-cross sections oriented perpendicular to the strike of the South -Ardestan fault (Fig. 2.Trace element concentrations were determined by the ICP-MS technique in Amdel laboratory (Australia. Thin sections and doubly polished sections (100–200 µm thick from quartz veins were prepared from samples collected from the Zafarghand district in the University of Isfahan. Heating and freezing experiments on fluid inclusions were performed as defined (by Goldstein and Reynolds (1994 on a Linkam THM600 stage. Results Igneous rocks in the Zafarghand area are dominated by the Eocene and post Eocene acidic-intermediate rocks that include dacite, rhyodacite and andesite associated with diorite, quartz diorite and microdiorite intrusions. The present investigations indicate that all rocks of the Zafarghand district exhibit a variety of alterations. Hydrothermal alterations include phyllic, potassic, silicification, and argillic with widespread propylitic. The mineralization consists of malachite, azurite, hematite, and goethite, rare amounts of magnetite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Numerical traditional statistical analysis techniques have been applied to interpret the geochemical data of the study area. These methods are aimed at

  3. Disposal leachates treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, I.; Renaud, P. (SITA, 75 - Paris (France)); Courant, P. (FD Conseil, 78 - Gargenville (France)); Manem, J.; Mandra, V.; Trouve, E. (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez, 78 - Le Pecq (France))

    1993-12-01

    Disposal leachates are complex and variable effluents. The use of a bioreactor with membranes, coupled with a reverse osmosis unit, gives a new solution to the technical burying centers. Two examples are explained here.

  4. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determination of fluid inclusions using in-vacuo¬ stepwise crushing - Example of garnet from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Postma, Onno; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic minerals and veins commonly trap attending hydrous fluids in fluid inclusions, which yield a wealth of information on the history of the hosting metamorphic system. When these fluids are sufficiently saline, the KCl in the inclusions can be used as a K/Ar geochronologic system, potentially dating inclusion incorporation. Whilst primary fluid inclusions (PFIs) can date fluid incorporation during mineral or vein growth, secondary fluid inclusion trails (SFIs) can provide age constraints on later fluid flow events. At VU Amsterdam, a new in-vacuo crushing apparatus has been designed to extract fluid inclusions from minerals for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Separates are crushed inside a crusher tube connected to a purification line and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In-vacuo crushing is achieved by lifting and dropping a steel pestle using an externally controlled magnetic field. As the gas can be analyzed between different crushing steps, the setup permits stepwise crushing experiments. Additionally, crushed powder can be heated by inserting the crusher tube in an externally controlled furnace. Dating by 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing has the added advantage that, during neutron irradiation to produce 39Ar from 39K, 38Ar and 37Ar are also produced from 38Cl and 40Ca, respectively. Simultaneous analysis of these argon isotopes permits constraining the chemistry of the argon source sampled during the experiment. This allows a distinction between different fluid or crystal lattice sources. Garnet from three samples of the HP metamorphic Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece was stepwise crushed to obtain fluid inclusion ages. Initial steps for all three experiments yield significant components of excess argon, which are interpreted to originate from grain boundary fluids and secondary fluid inclusions trails. During subsequent steps, age results stabilize to a plateau age. One garnet from North Syros yields an unusually old 80 Ma plateau age. However, isochrons

  5. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  6. Study of genesis in Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit using fluid inclusion, southeast of Saqqez, the Kurdistan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Qahr-abad fluorite deposit is located in the area of 36°10′ 3′′ N and 46°34′ 21′′E within the Sanandaj-Sirjan district east of the Kurdistan province , Iran and it is located ~57 km southeast of the city of Saqqez (Kholghi Khasraghi, 1999. This deposit is developed as scatter lenses, veins, and veinlets (stockwork structure within carbonate rocks of Elika formation and controlled by the regional NW–SE trending Zagross thrust nappe system. Fault trends in this area are perpendicular to fault trends in the Zagros zone. The fault dips are nearly vertical and mineralization has occurred in the brecciation fault zone (Talaii, 2010. The rough geological instruction of the deposit has indicated that it is similar to worldwide Epithermal deposits. The mineralization occurs as replacement (type I/ open-space (type II vein fillings and bodies within Mesozoic lime stones (mostly Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic members of the Elika Formation, where they crop out to form horst structures. The mineralization is typically associated with post Pliocene disjunctive faults, which in part appear to have served as channel ways for the fluorite forming fluids that are representative of the geological setting of the mineralized area. Fluorite occurs in several color variations such as green, violet, blue, white or colorless, and is accompanied by quartz, barite and calcite (Moslehi, 2013. Materials and methods The minerals sampled for the fluid inclusion study include fluorite from mineralization stages. Samples covered all ore types. Micro thermometry analyses for 23 samples were performed after careful microscopic observation of 35 sections and 30 doubly polished sections. Micro thermometry was undertaken using a Linkam THS600 heating-freezing stage, with a measurable temperature range of between −196 and +600 °C (precision of freezing data and homogenization temperature of ±0.2 °C. Micro thermometry was undertaken in the

  7. Fluid Force-Induced Detachment Criteria for Nonmetallic Inclusions Adhered to a Refractory/Molten Steel Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez Salgado, Uxia; Weiß, Christian; Michelic, Susanne K.; Bernhard, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Since nonmetallic inclusions (NMIs) in steel cannot be completely avoided, a greater understanding of their development and evolution during the steelmaking process is required. In particular, this includes the adhesion of microinclusions to the refractory/steel interface in the flow control system between the tundish and the mold. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as clogging, causes losses in productivity and product quality. Inclusions transported from the bulk melt to the boundary layer may adhere to the refractory/steel interface due to formation of a fluid cavity. A detailed model was derived for the detachment of NMIs adhering to a nozzle wall and is based on the local hydrodynamic conditions combined with the specific interfacial properties in the system consisting of the inclusions, the refractories, and the steel. The model is evaluated for three different application-oriented cases. This study has been focused on providing a better understanding of fluid flow in the near-wall region in order to reduce clogging during steelmaking.

  8. The study of mineralization and fluid inclusion in Dehsalm Mahour 2 lead deposit, east of Lut block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mahour 2 lead mineralization area is located, about 145 km west of Nehbandan and 2 km northwest of Mahour polymetal deposit and in the eastern part of Lut Block. The area comprises of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks (Eocene intruded by several intrusive rocks mainly as dioritic dykes and stocks. Mineralization as veins and filling the space, occurred in altered andesitic rocks. Supergene zone is characterized by azurite, malachite, linarite and iron oxides (hematite and limonite whereas, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and magnetite are the main minerals of hypogene zone. And, quartz and calcite are main gangue. The area is dominated by four types of alteration including silicic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic. Fluid inclusions study on quartz mineral sections polished reveals the presence of 1.0 to 5.6 percent salt and homogeneous temperature between 278 to 570 ° C. The high temperature with low salinity zone mineralization in this area is likely related to another generation of mineralization in the area. The results of fluid inclusions show that the mineralization is probably a mixture of magmatic fluid and atmospheric, although there is doubt. Several similar criteria including form of deposit, primary ore deposit, alteration facies, tectonic environment and magmatic series document that there should be a correlation between the origin of the studied mineralization area and that of the Mahour polymetal deposit.

  9. Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: A mantle connection for mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Li, Y.; Goldfarb, R.; He, Y.; Zaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit (>100 t Au) occurs about 200 km inboard of the northern margin of the North China craton. The deposit is mainly hosted by syenite of a middle Paleozoic alkalic intrusive complex that was emplaced into Late Archean basement rocks. Both groups of rocks are intruded by Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal-melt granite dikes and stocks, some within a few kilometers of the deposit. The gold ores were deposited during this latter magmatic period at about 150 Ma, a time that was characterized by widespread regional north-south compression that formed the east-west-trending Yanshan deformational belt. The ores include both the telluride mineral-bearing, low sulfide quartz veins and the highly K-feldspar-altered syenite, with most of the resource concentrated in two orebodies (1 and 70). Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates heterogeneous trapping of low-salinity (e.g., 5-7 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids that varied from a few to 60 mole percent nonaqueous volatile species. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapor phase in these inclusions is dominated by CO2, but may be comprised of as much as 9 mole percent H2S and 20 mole percent N2; methane concentrations in the vapor phase are consistently interaction of ore fluids with surrounding crustal rocks, which may have contributed additional He to the fluids. A mantle source for at least some of the components of the gold-forming fluid is consistent with upwelling of hot asthenosphere and erosion of as much as 100 to 150 km of cool Archean lithosphere beneath the craton during this time. The Dongping deposit is located along the 100-km-wide north-south gravity lineament, which marks the western border of the thinned crust. As both regional metamorphism of Mesoproterozoic and younger cover rocks, and widespread granite magmatism, also occurred at ca. 150 Ma, it is unclear as to whether one or both of these also contributed fluid and/or metals to the hydrothermal system. Importantly, these

  10. Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusions and trace element data for the syntaxial quartz cementation in the sandstones of Ora Formation, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Quartz cements of the quartz arenitic sandstones from the Chalky Nasara and Ora section of the (Devonian-Carboniferous) Ora Formation in northern Iraq have been studied. A combination of Hot-Cathodoluminescence (CL), LA-ICP-MS and fluid inclusions microthermometry revealed three syntaxial quartz......-bedded sandstones than in the6 thickly-bedded sandstones filling most of remaining pore space during mesogenesis. The Q3 was formed during early telogenesis stage fully cementing the sandstones and the fractures were filled by hydrothermal chlorite and sulfides. Significant amount of trace elements Al, Li, Ge...

  11. Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (tiny solid

  12. Advancing the use of noble gases in fluid inclusions of speleothems as a palaeoclimate proxy. Method and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, L.; Palcsu, L.; Major, Z.; Svingor, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Continental carbonates are essential archives of the past geological and climatological occurrences. Recently, fluid inclusions of carbonates have got into focus of palaeoclimate research. A new approach using temperature dependent gas solubilities might be a way that uses only physical laws, e.g. the Henry's law of solubility and gas partitioning models. The so-called noble gas temperature (NGT) can be calculated from the measured noble gas concentrations. This report describes how our first advancing steps towards obtaining NGT's from fluid inclusions and tiny water amounts have been preformed. To extract the water inclusions from the carbonate matrix, the most suitable treatment is to crush the carbonate under vacuum. The water released from the inclusions is then collected in a cold finger by freezing. The amount of the liberated water is measured via its vapour pressure in a certain volume (Fig. 1). The liberated dissolved noble gases which were in the fluid inclusions are separated by a cryo system, and then admitted into the static mode noble gas mass spectrometer sequentially. The calibration of the noble gas mass spectrometric measurements is performed by means of well known air aliquots. To check the reliability of the whole measurement procedure standard water samples have to be measured. As for standard samples, first we have prepared air equilibrated water (AEW) in conditioned circumstances. We fill copper capillaries with AEW. Having completed the copper capillary assemblage, the AEW is letting flow through the capillary (Fig. 2). The error of such a water determination is less than 1% in case of 1 μl of liquid water (Fig. 1) that allows us to determine accurate noble gas concentrations. The reproducibility of 40 Ar measurements is better than 0.6 %, while those of neon, krypton and xenon isotopes are 0.6-1.6 %, 0.9-2.2 % and 0.8-2.0 %, respectively. Theoretically, these precisions for noble gas concentrations

  13. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m 3 ha -1 yr -1 . However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios

  14. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Williamson, K L; Owen, A G

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250m(3)ha(-1)yr(-1). However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  15. Origin and Timing of Dauphiné Twins Using Fluid Inclusions in Quartz-Cement Fractures in Sandstones from Diagenetic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, A.; Ukar, E.; Laubach, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Under diagenetic temperatures (fluid inclusion trails. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion trails from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research mechanism and timing of twinning, and potentially the magnitude of paleostrain and stress in some diagenetic settings. Using examples from East Texas and Colorado cores, we show that twins are associated with crack-seal microstructure and fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions, ranging from 130°C to 159°C in the East Texas Basin, and from 162°C to 176°C in the Piceance Basin, record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in wall-normal trails are large and irregularly shaped compared to those in wall-parallel trails, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those in the wall-parallel trails. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images demonstrates that the twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails imply that twinning is

  16. Organic halogens in landfill leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, C.; Christensen, J. B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke

    2000-01-01

    Using a group parameter, total organic halogens (TOX), high TOX concentrations were found in leachates and leachate contaminated groundwaters at two Danish mixed sanitary and hazardous waste sites. With commonly used screening procedures for organic contaminants, the individual halogenated organi...

  17. Fluid properties control degassing or storage of abiogenic CH4 during slab exhumation: the fluid inclusion record from the Western Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, S.; Castelli, D.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Abiogenic CH4 can be produced by interaction between carbonates and reducing fluids derived from the hydration of ultramafics (e.g., mantle peridotite or HP Ol-serpentinite). This process occurs during slab exhumation because cooling promotes serpentinization of olivine in presence of water (Fo + H2O = Atg + Brc and the linked reactions: Fa + H2O = Fe-Atg + Mag + H2 and Atg + CaCO3 + H2 = Di + Brc + CH4 + H2O) at ca. 500-375°C (P=2.0-0.2 GPa). Experiments in the CH4-H2O-NaCl system indicate that, at these conditions, fluids are immiscible even for very low salinity (ca. 3 wt%) and that the NaCl content in the aqueous part of the fluid increases with temperature whereas the CH4 content in the gaseous part shows an opposite trend (Lamb et al., 2002; Li, 2017).In HP rodingite from the Piemonte ophiolite Zone (W Alps), primary fluid inclusions consisting of a brine (6 wt% CaCl2 + 6 wt% NaCl) with H2 + CH4 ≤ 1 mol % [CH4/(H2+CH4) = 0.37-10] occur in vesuvianite veins that formed at P=0.2 GPa and T=375°C. We interpret them as the aqueous part of an immiscible reducing fluid produced during late Alpine serpentinization of the surrounding ultramafics. Interestingly, CH4-H2 gaseous fluids are never reported in rodingite, whereas early CH4-H2O-H2±graphite and CH4-H2±graphite fluid inclusions, with variable gas-water proportions, trapped in calcite at P≤1.0 GPa and T≤450°C, are recently reported from HP "graphitized" ophicarbonate from the Lanzo peridotite Massif (W Alps; Vitale Brovarone et al., 2017).Both HP ophiolites and partially-serpentinized peridotite massifs are, thus, efficient lithologies to produce CH4 during exhumation. The amount of released CH4 depends on the amount of water available during exhumation. However, when fluids immiscibility occurs, the gaseous-rich part (CH4-H2) of the immiscible fluid produced in ultramafics likely remains confined in the slab because it is less mobile with respect to the aqueous-rich part due to its high dihedral

  18. Metamorphic fluid flow in the northeastern part of the 3.8-3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (SW Greenland): A re-evalution of fluid inclusion evidence for early Archean seafloor-hydrothermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijlen, Wouter; Appel, P. W. U.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    . In most quartz crystals, however, recrystallization obliterated such early fluid inclusion assemblages and left graphite and carbonate as solid inclusions in recrystallized grains. Intragranular fluid inclusion trails in the recrystallized grains of breccia cementing and crosscutting quartz veins have CO2...... density (ranging from 48.0 to > 105.3 cm(3)/Mol) and metastable H2O NaCl(-other salt?) brines (similar to 28 eq. wt% NaCl). Finally, the youngest fluid inclusion assemblages are found in non-luminescent secondary quartz and contain low-density CH4 (molar volume > 105.33 cm(3)/Mol) and low-salinity H2O.......5-2 kbar. The quartz globules in the pillow fragments only contain sporadic CH4(+H-2) and brine inclusions, corresponding with the late generations present in the cementing and crosscutting veins. We argue that due to the large extent of static recrystallization in quartz globules in the pillow breccia...

  19. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho cobalt belt is a 60-km-long alignment of deposits composed of cobaltite, Co pyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold with anomalous Nb, Y, Be, and rare-earth elements (REEs) in a quartz-biotite-tourmaline gangue hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Lemhi Group. It is the largest cobalt resource in the United States with historic production from the Blackbird Mine. All of the deposits were deformed and metamorphosed to upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade in the Cretaceous. They occur near a 1377 Ma anorogenic bimodal plutonic complex. The enhanced solubility of Fe, Co, Cu, and Au as chloride complexes together with gangue biotite rich in Fe and Cl and gangue quartz containing hypersaline inclusions allows that hot saline fluids were involved. The isotopes of B in gangue tourmaline are suggestive of a marine source, whereas those of Pb in ore suggest a U ± Th-enriched source. The ore and gangue minerals in this belt may have trapped components in fluid inclusions that are distinct from those in post-ore minerals and metamorphic minerals. Such components can potentially be identified and distinguished by their relative abundances in contrasting samples. Therefore, we obtained samples of Co and Cu sulfides, gangue quartz, biotite, and tourmaline and post-ore quartz veins as well as Cretaceous metamorphic garnet and determined the gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratios of fluid inclusion extracts by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The most abundant gases present in extracts from each sample type are biased toward the gas-rich population of inclusions trapped during maximum burial and metamorphism. All have CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of evolved crustal fluids, and many yield a range of H2-CH4-CO2-H2S equilibration temperatures consistent with the metamorphic grade. Cretaceous garnet and post-ore minerals have high RH and RS values suggestive of reduced sulfidic conditions. Most extracts have anomalous 4He produced by decay of U and Th and

  20. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion signatures of hydrothermal fluids in transcrustal fault zones: significance for orogenic, Archean lode-gold mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Groves, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    mil). Calculated d 18 O fluid compositions for quartz in the CTZ range from 8.0 to 10.3 per mil at 350 deg C (based on arsenopyrite and chlorite thermometry). Hydrogen isotopes from fluid inclusion waters trapped in quartz have a large variation from -62.5 per mil to -7.2 per mil in the CTZ fluids, whereas hydrogen in fluid inclusions in quartz in the second- and third-order shear zones shows a restricted range from -67.6 to -39.8 per mil. The oxygen isotope shift of about 2 per mil from the CTZ to the second- and third-order fault zones may be explained by two competing processes: 1) the hydrothermal fluids in the CTZ equilibrated, at least partially, with metasedimentary rocks in the footwall, and or 2) there was fractionation of oxygen isotopes during phase immiscibility of a combined H 2 O-CO 2 fluid. The preferential trapping of CO 2 -rich fluids in the CTZ, and H 2 O-rich fluids in the second- and third-order fault zones, therefore, could account for the shift in d 18 O. At present, the first process is preferred, because of the ubiquitous presence of the metasedimentary rocks in the footwall and the consistent d 18 O composition of the CTZ, even in hydrothermal quartz veins which contain significant H 2 O. The large variation in the hydrogen isotopes in fluid inclusions in quartz in the CTZ may be explained by late Archean and post-Archean reactivation of the CTZ and the introduction of fluids related to late-fractures fills, whereas apparently minor reactivation of the second- and third-order structures resulted in a restricted range of dD. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  1. Effects of post-burial siliceous diagenesis deformations on the microthermometric behaviour of fluid inclusions: an example in the Francevillian uraniferous sandstone reservoir (Gabon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.

    1984-01-01

    New data about fluid inclusions associated to a siliceous diagenesis show that a deformation phase in the first stage of catagenesis disturbed their microthermometric behaviour. Nevertheless, temperature and pressure of fluids associated to the uraniferous paragenesis and contemporary with the Oklo natural reactors are estimated at 140-160 0 C and 250-500 bar [fr

  2. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  3. Extreme alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich fluid inclusions in granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul; Schmidt, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Our study of fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and feldspar from granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark revealed extremely alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich inclusions. The solid phases (daughter crystals) are mainly nahcolite [NaHCO3], zabuyelite [Li2CO3], and in rare cases potash [K2CO3] in addition to the volatile phases CO2 and aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solution. Rare melt inclusions contain nahcolite, dawsonite [NaAl(CO3)(OH)2], and muscovite. In addition to fluid and melt inclusions, there are primary CO2-rich vapor inclusions, which mostly contain small nahcolite crystals. The identification of potash as a naturally occurring mineral would appear to be the first recorded instance. From the appearance of high concentrations of these carbonates and bicarbonates, we suggest that the mineral-forming media were water- and alkali carbonate-rich silicate melts or highly concentrated fluids. The coexistence of silicate melt inclusions with carbonate-rich fluid and nahcolite-rich vapor inclusions indicates a melt-melt-vapor equilibrium during the crystallization of the pegmatite. These results are supported by the results of hydrothermal diamond anvil cell experiments in the pseudoternary system H2O-NaHCO3-SiO2. Additionally, we show that boundary layer effects were insignificant in the Bornholm pegmatites and are not required for the origin of primary textures in compositionally simple pegmatites at least.

  4. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (deposits of the new RPCG subclass demonstrate the greater potential of these systems, compared to the classically oxidized porphyry Cu-Au systems, to transport Cu and probably precious metals in a magmatic aqueous vapor phase. These PIXE data also support the possibility that Cu partitions preferentially into an immiscible CO2-rich magmatic fluid. References: [1] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1992) Econ. Geol., 87, 1566-1583. [2] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1999) Geology, 27, 755-758. [3] Rowins, S.M. (2000) Geology, 28, 491-494. [4] Rowins, S.M. (2000) The Gangue, GAC-MDD Newsletter, 67, 1-7 (www.gac.ca). [5] Rowins, S.M. et al. (1993) Geol. Soc. Australia Abs., 34, 68-70.

  5. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  6. Fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope evidence for the origin of the Ahangran Pb-Ag deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ahangaran Pb-Ag deposit is located in the Hamedan province, west Iran, 25 km southeast of the city of Malayer . . The deposit lies in the strongly folded Sanandaj-Sirjan tectonic zone, in which the ore bodies occur as thin lenses and layers. The host rocks of the deposit are Early Cretaceous carbonates and sandstones that are unconformably underlain by Jurassic rocks. Ore minerals include galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and supergene iron oxide minerals. Gangue minerals consist of barite, dolomite, chlorite, calcite and quartz. The mineralization occurs as open-space fillings, veins, veinlets, disseminations, and massive replacements. Alteration consists of silicification, sericitization, and dolomitization. In this study, we carried out studies of mineralogy, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes to determine the source of sulfur and the physico-chemical conditions of formation. Materials and methods Seventy samples of different host rocks, alteration, and mineralization were collected from surface outcrops and different tunnels. Twenty of the samples were prepared for mineralogical studies at Tarbiat Modarres University in Tehran and 25 for petrological studies at the University of Bu-Ali Sina. Fluid-inclusion studies were done on 5 samples of quartz and calcite at Pouya Zamin Azin Company in Tehran using a Linkam THM 600 model heating-freezing stage (with a range of -196 to 480ºC. The accuracy and precision of the homogenization measurements are about ±1°C. Salinity estimates were determined from the last melting temperatures of ice, utilizing the equations by Bodnar and Vityk (1994 and for CO2 fluids using equations by Chen (1972. Nine samples of sulfides and barite were crushed and separated by handpicking under binocular microscope and powdered with agate mortar and pestle. About one gram of each sample was sent to the Stable Isotope and ICP/MS Laboratory of Queen’s University, Canada for

  7. Fluid inclusion study of the uranium mineralised granite cataclasite/mylonite and quartz reef in the Mulapalle area, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirupathi, P.V.; Tripathi, B.K.; Umamaheswar, K.; Dhana Raju, R.

    2004-01-01

    Granite cataclasite and mylonite in the basement fracture zones around Mulapalle in the southwestern environs of the Cuddapah basin are uraniferous with the presence of brannerite, U-Ti complex and uraninite. The ENE-WSW trending fracture zone is cut by NW-SE trending quartz reef. Fluid inclusion study carried out on quartz from the mineralized cataclasite and as well as from the quartz reef shows the presence of both primary [8-20 microns] and abundant secondary up to [6 microns] inclusions. Most of the inclusions are bi-phase (L+V) liquid rich having a degree of fill around 0.90 with constant liquid to vapour ratio. Few inclusions are liquid monophase and multiphase [S+L+V]. They behave as H 2 O-NaCl system and homogenize into liquid phase at low temperature range [125 to 200 degC] except some bi-phase inclusions in the barren quartz reef, which are found to behave as an impure H 2 O-NaCl system admixed with other salts. Wide variation of salinity in the range of 3-25 wt%e NaCl is recorded by the inclusions in both the mineralized cataclasite and the barren quartz reef. The trapping pressure [P T ] of the inclusions of barren quartz reef spreads between 200 to 600 bars while those of mineralized cataclasite restricts to upper end of that range. Some inclusions in mineralized cataclasite that homogenize at high temperatures [200 to 250 degC] show P T between 800 to 1000 bars. The presence of more than one population without any change in fluid composition indicate their origin at different stages of deformation modifying the primary inclusions of the granite and from fluids migrated through fractures at later stages. In the barren quartz reef, the distribution of inclusions of contrasting salinity implies the environment of mixing of connectively driven hydrothermal fluid of metamorphic origin and meteoric water. (author)

  8. Tourmalinization at the Darasun goldfield, Eastern Transbaikalia: Compositional, fluid inclusion and isotopic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Prokofiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoned tourmaline (schorl-dravite in the matrix of hydrothermal explosive breccia and ore veins in gold deposits, Chita region, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, are associated with Na- and K-rich porphyry-type subvolcanic intrusives. δ18O values of tourmaline from three gold deposits (Darasun, Talatui, Teremkinskoye are +8.3‰, +7.6‰, and +6.0‰ and calculated δ18O values of fluids responsible for the tourmalinization are +7.3‰, +7.7‰, and +4.2‰, respectively. These data imply an igneous fluid source, except at the Teremkin deposit where mixing with meteoric water is indicated. Wide ranges of Fe3+/Fetot and the presence of vacancies characterize the Darasun deposit tourmaline indicating wide ranges of ƒ(O2 and pH of mineralizing fluids. Initial stage tourmalines from the gold deposits of the Darasun ore district are dravite or high mg schorl. Second stage tourmaline is characterized by oscillatory zoning but with Fe generally increasing towards crystal rims indicating decreasing temperature. Third stage tourmaline formed unzoned crystals with xMg (mole fraction of Mg close to that of the first stage tourmaline, due to a close association with pyrite and arsenopyrite. From Fe3+/Fetot values, chemical composition and crystallization temperatures, logf(O2 of mineralizing fluids ranged from ca. −25 to −20, much higher than for the gold-bearing beresite–listvenite association, indicating that tourmalinization was not related to gold mineralization.

  9. Origin and timing of Dauphiné twins in quartz cement in fractured sandstones from diagenetic environments: Insight from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, András; Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2016-09-01

    Electron backscattered diffraction techniques (EBSD) show that Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Our study documents that under diagenetic temperatures (fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in alignments normal to fracture walls are large and irregularly shaped compared to those aligned parallel to walls, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and EBSD images demonstrates that Dauphiné twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those aligned parallel to the fracture wall. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails implies that twinning is a by-product of the formation of the wall-normal inclusion assemblages. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion assemblages from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research timing as well as magnitude of paleostress in some diagenetic settings.

  10. Migration of leachate solution through clay soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Warith, M M

    1987-01-01

    The problem of domestic solid wastes buried in landfill sites is viewed from the aspect of leachate contamination and migration in the substrate, and the efficiency of natural clay barriers as an expedient economic lining material is assessed. Various chemical constituents of the landfill leachate of an actual waste containment site at Lachenaie (35 km east of Montreal) were determined from samples collected from specially designed basins. Data for companion tests on laboratory columns are also presented. Chemical analysis on samples from the basins and leachates from the columns measured changes in the concentration of: (a) cations (Na, K, Ca, and Mg), (b) anions (Cl, HCO/sub 3/, and CO/sub 3/) (c) total organic carbon (TOC), and (d) heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu). The physical parameters measured included: (a) pH, and (b) specific conductivity. Predictions, using a dispersion-convection model for concentration profile development for either adsorbed or retained contaminants, were compared with the experimentally determined profiles (both in leaching columns and landfill laboratory model). Another set of experiments was also conducted to evaluate the effect of some organic fluids on the geotechnical properties of different clay soils (natural clay and two reference clay soils: illite and kaolinite). The results from this study have demonstrated that the natural clay soil can be used to adequately contain the different contaminant species usually present in the leachate solutions. Furthermore, the data suggested that under favorable soil conditions, landfill leachates containing low levels of trace metals will not pose a substantial contamination threat to the subsurface environment, provided that a proper thickness of barrier is used.

  11. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies in kalchoye Copper- gold deposit, East of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvary

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kalchoye Copper-gold deposit is located about 110 kilometers east of Esfahan province and within the Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks. Sandy tuff and andesite lava are important members of this complex.The form of mineralization in area is vein and veinlet and quartz as the main gangue phase. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena and weathered minerals such as goethite, iron oxides, malachite and azurite. Studies in area indicate that ore mineralization Kalchoye is low sulfide, quartz type of hydrothermal ore deposits and results of thermometry studies on quartz minerals low- medium fluid with low potential mineralization is responsible for mineralization in this area.

  12. Mantle metasomatism in the Kaapvaal Craton lithosphere: constraints on the composition of the metasomatic agent from fluid inclusions in MARID-type xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzett, J.; Krenn, K.; Hauzenberger, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    The emplacement of both group I and group II kimberlites in the Kaapvaal Craton of the Kimberley region in South Africa is associated with an intense metasomatic alteration of the country rocks as evidenced by a diverse suite of xenoliths sampled by the kimberlites mainly comprising metasomatized peridotites and minor MARID-type xenoliths. These are characterized by hydrous potassic silicates and LILE-HFSE-rich titanates. Because the metasomatic agent is not preserved in these rocks its composition has to be inferred from that of the metasomatic assemblages. Here we present for the first time data on fluid inclusions from two MARID-xenoliths sampled by group-I kimberlites of the Kimberley cluster. They provide direct evidence for the nature of the metasomatic fluids involved in kimberlite-related metsomatism. The xenoliths contain phlogopite+K-richterite+diopside+ilmenite±rutile±apatite±zircon. Fluid inclusions with 4-10 µm in size were found in diopside, K-richterite and zircon and contain L+V+one-to-several daughter phases. Investigations with the freezing and heating stage indicate two different chemical systems for the fluids: (1) H2O-NaCl dominant fluids found as L+V+S inclusions in zircon together with abundant needle-like apatite, rutile and phlogopite solid inclusions. The fluid inclusions in part occur along zircon host-rutile/apatite inclusion grain boundaries which indicates that the fluids were trapped during zircon growth. They contain 30-32 mass% NaCl and show a density of 0.87-0.94 g/cm3. Halos of tiny fluid inclusions, however, indicate that most if not all zircon inclusions are decrepitated during ascent from depth and/or superheating during entrainment of the xenoliths into the kimberlite. Using EMPA, enstatite and a SiO2 polymorph were identified in opened fluid inclusions exposed at the surface of polished thin sections. Because these phases were exclusively found in the fluid inclusions, they are considered daughter crystals. The enstatite

  13. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...

  14. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  15. Analysis of hopanes and steranes in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, S; Lausmaa, J; Sjövall, P; Broman, C; Thiel, V; Hode, T

    2010-01-01

    Steranes and hopanes are organic biomarkers used as indicators for the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria on Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions may provide a contamination-free source of Precambrian biomarkers, as the oil has been secluded from the environment since the formation of the inclusion. However, analysis of biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions, which is often necessary due to the presence of different generations of inclusions, has not been possible due to the small size of most inclusions. Here, we have used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to monitor in real time the opening of individual inclusions trapped in hydrothermal veins of fluorite and calcite and containing oil from Ordovician source rocks. Opening of the inclusions was performed by using a focused C(60)(+) ion beam and the in situ content was precisely analysed for C(27)-C(29) steranes and C(29)-C(32) hopanes using Bi(3)(+) as primary ions. The capacity to unambiguously detect these biomarkers in the picoliter amount of crude oil from a single, normal-sized (15-30 mum in diameter) inclusion makes the approach promising in the search of organic biomarkers for life's early evolution on Earth.

  16. Fluid inclusion and stable isotopes studies of epithermal gold-bearing veins in the SE Afar Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, N.; Boiron, M. C.; Grassineau, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Mohamed, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Afar rift results from the interaction of a number of actively-propagating tectono-magmatic axes. Recent field investigations in the SE Afar rift have emphasized the importance of hydrothermal system in rift-related volcanic complexes. Mineralization occur as gold-silver bearing veins and are associated with felsic volcanism. Late carbonate veins barren of sulfides and gold are common. The morphologies and textures of quartz show crustiform colloform banding, massive and breccias. Microthermometric measurements were made on quartz-hosted two phases (liquid + vapor) inclusions; mean homogenization temperature range from 150°C to 340°C and ice-melting temperatures range from -0.2° to 1.6°C indicating that inclusion solutions are dilute and contain 0.35 to 2.7 equivalent wt. % NaCl. Furthermore, δ18O and δ13C values from calcite range from 3.7 to 26.6 ‰ and -7.5 to 0.3‰, respectively. The presence of platy calcite and adularia indicate that boiling condition existed. This study shows that precious-metal deposition mainly occurred from hydrothermal fluids at 200°C at around 300 and 450 m below the present-day surface in a typical low-sulphidation epithermal environment.

  17. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  19. Major element compositions of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal vein-type deposits record eroded sedimentary units in the Schwarzwald district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin F.; Burisch, Mathias; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Mixing of sedimentary formation fluids with basement-derived brines is an important mechanism for the formation of hydrothermal veins. We focus on the sources of the sediment-derived fluid component in ore-forming processes and present a comprehensive fluid inclusion study on 84 Jurassic hydrothermal veins from the Schwarzwald mining district (SW Germany). Our data derive from about 2300 fluid inclusions and reveal differences in the average fluid composition between the northern, central, and southern Schwarzwald. Fluids from the northern and southern Schwarzwald are characterised by high salinities (18-26 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), low Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.1-0.4), and variable Cl/Br mass ratios (30-1140). In contrast, fluids from the central Schwarzwald show even higher salinities (23-27 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), higher Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.2-0.9), and less variable Cl/Br mass ratios (40-130). These fluid compositions correlate with the nature and thickness of the now eroded sedimentary cover rocks. Compared to the northern and the southern Schwarzwald, where halite precipitation occurred during the Middle Triassic, the sedimentary basin in the central Schwarzwald was relatively shallow at this time and no halite was precipitated. Accordingly, Cl/Br ratios of fluids from the central Schwarzwald provide no evidence for the reaction of a sedimentary brine with halite, whereas those from the northern and southern Schwarzwald do. Instead, elevated Ca/(Ca+Na), high SO4 contents, and relatively low Cl/Br imply the presence of a gypsum dissolution brine during vein formation in the central Schwarzwald which agrees with the reconstructed regional Triassic geology. Hence, the information archived in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal veins in the crystalline basement has the potential for reconstructing sedimentary rocks in the former overburden.

  20. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  1. Dating quartz: Ar/Ar analyses of coexisting muscovite and fluid inclusion - rich quartz from paleocene amorphic aureole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.J.; Perez de Arce, C.; Cornejo, P.; Cuitino, L; Klein, J

    2001-01-01

    We present Ar/Ar total fusion and step-heating data for coexisting muscovite and white quartz from the metamorphic aureole of the Lower Paleocene La Copiapina Pluton, 6 km south of Inca de Oro, III Region, Chile. The pluton intrudes the upper clastic sedimentary member of the Punta del Cobre Group (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) and the calcareous sedimentary rocks of the Chanarcillo Group (Neocomian), and comprises fine to coarse grained pyroxene-hornblende-biotite quartz diorites and monzodiorites. Its emplacement was controlled on its north-western side by a subvertical NE-trending fault, along which were developed vertically banded skarns (skarn mylonite), suggesting syntectonic intrusion. Biotite K-Ar ages for the pluton fall in the range 61-63 Ma, relating it to a latest Cretaceous to Lowest Paleocene syn-compressional intrusive belt which is present in the area (Matthews and Cornejo, 2000). A metamorphic / metasomatic aureole is developed within the sandstones of the Punta del Cobre Group, on the extreme northern limit of the pluton. In this area, the sedimentary rocks have been replaced by quartz-sericite and quartz-muscovite assemblages, with minor hematite and tourmaline, and late supergene kaolinite and pyrophyllite. A coarse muscovite-quartz-tourmaline-hematite assemblage is developed in and around older (early Upper Cretaceous) andesitic dykes, in the form of replacement / fracture fill veins and replacement zones. Further from the contact with the pluton, fine-grained quartz-sericite rock with coarser muscovite-rich replacement veins represents the dominant lithology. Quartz in the coarse replacement rock is very rich in fluid inclusions. Primary inclusions are mainly of two coexisting types; bi-phase (liquid and gas bubble) and tri-phase (liquid, gas bubble and halite crystal), indicating that the quartz formed in the presence of a boiling fluid. Some inclusions also contain sylvite and occasional hematite daughter crystals. Secondary inclusions

  2. Fluid inclusion and oxygen-isotope evidence for low-temperature Au-Pt-Pd (± U) mineralization at Corronation Hill, NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, T.

    1992-01-01

    The fluid inclusion and isotope data have been used to constrain the ore genesis models for the Au-Pt-Pd-U mineralization at Coronation Hill. The fluid inclusions demonstrate that the ore fluid was strongly saline with an unusually high CaCl 2 content, and that the mineralisation was probably formed from a boiling fluid at around 140 deg C. Furthermore, the fluids were highly oxidised and the replacement of earlier chlorite by hematite is common throughout the deposit. It is concluded that both U-rich and U-poor Au-Pt-Pd mineralisation were formed by descending, low-temperature, highly oxidised, very saline, meteoric fluids. The segregation of U was controlled by fluid-rock interaction in the feldspathic or carbonate rocks. Interaction with carbonaceous or chloritic rocks resulted in a reduction in fO 2 , and consequent precipitation of U, Au, Pt and Pd. The other two types of metal associations can be explained by further reaction of the mineralizing fluids. 3 figs

  3. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  4. Quartz-Amethyst Hosted Hydrocarbon-Bearing Fluid Inclusions from the Green Ridge Breccia in the Snoqualmie Granite, North Cascades, WA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Feely

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 m in longest dimension. The brecciated granite blocks are cemented by quartz-amethyst euhedra (<10 cm in longest dimension bearing vugs. A notable feature is the presence of centimetric scale amber coloured oil inclusions within the quartz-amethyst crystals. Fluid inclusion studies using Transmitted Light Petrography, UV Microscopy, Microthermometry, Laser Raman Microspectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry record the presence and the fluid composition of three fluid inclusion types hosted by the euhedra: primary Type 1 (liquid rich two-phase (L + V aqueous inclusions and secondary Type 2 bituminous two-phase (S + L inclusions and Type 3 amber coloured oil bearing two-phase immiscible liquid inclusions. The Green Ridge Breccia was the locus for convective hydrothermal fluid flow that formed the quartz-amethyst vugs formed at T~390 °C assuming a trapping pressure of ~1.65 kb. Later, hydrocarbon fluids migrated downwards from the roof source rock (e.g., the Guye Sedimentary Member and were trapped in the euhedra. This was followed by unroofing of the batholith and exposure of the Green Ridge Breccia. This study highlights the potential for other oil migrations into the Snoqualmie Batholith in areas where it forms the basement capped by the Guye Sedimentary Member.

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  6. Origin of the Okrouhlá Radouň episyenite-hosted uranium deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: fluid inclusion and stable isotope constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolníček, Z.; René, Miloš; Hermannová, S.; Prochaska, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2014), s. 409-425 ISSN 0026-4598 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME10083 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Uranium mineralization * Episyenite * Fluid inclusions Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2014

  7. Bicarbonate-rich fluid inclusions and hydrogen diffusion in quartz from the Libčice orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, Tomáš; Dubessy, J.; Zachariáš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 281, 3-4 (2011), s. 317-332 ISSN 0009-2541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : bicarbonate * fluid inclusions * hydrogen diffusion * orogenic gold deposits * raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.518, year: 2011

  8. Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Kerguelen plume-derived picritic basalts: evidence for interaction with the Kerguelen Plateau lithosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisova, A.U.; Nikogosian, I.; Shimizu, N.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J.S.; Touret, J.L.R.; Damasceno, D.

    2002-01-01

    Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions have been studied in olivine phenocrysts from a suite of picritic basalts dredged during the "Marion Dufresne" MD 109 cruise (Dredge 6) from a seamount located between the Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean). A two-stage polybaric

  9. High resolution, high sensitivity imaging and analysis of minerals and inclusions (fluid and melt) using the new CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; McInnes, B.M.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Williams, P.J.; Dong, G.; Zaw, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The new CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) The instrument was designed specifically for minerals analysis and imaging and to achieve ppm to sub-ppm sensitivity at a spatial resolution of 1-2 μm using X-rays and y-rays induced by MeV energy ion beams. The key feature of the design is a unique magnetic quadrupole quintuplet ion focussing system that combines high current with high spatial resolution (Ryan et al., 1999). These design goals have been achieved or exceeded. On the first day of operation, a spot-size of 1.3 μm was obtained at a beam current of 0.5 nA, suitable for fluid inclusion analysis and imaging. The spot-size grows to just 1.8 μm at 10 nA (3 MeV protons), ideal for mineralogical samples with detection limits down to 0.2 ppm achieved in quantitative, high resolution, trace element images. Applications of the NMP include: research into ore deposit processes through trace element geochemistry, mineralogy and fluid inclusion analysis of ancient deposits and active sea-floor environments, ore characterization, and fundamental studies of mantle processes and extraterrestrial material. Quantitative True Elemental Imaging Dynamic Analysis is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data obtained using the NMP (Ryan et al., 1995). The method un-mixes full elemental spectral signatures to produce quantitative images that can be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in selected areas or line projections, etc. Fluid Inclusion Analysis and Imaging The analysis of fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals holds the key to understanding ore metal pathways and ore formation processes. PIXE analysis using the NMP provides a direct non-destructive method to determine the composition of these trapped fluids with detection limits down to 20 ppm. However, some PIXE results have been controversial, such as the strong partitioning of Cu into the vapour phase (e

  10. Fluid Inclusion and Oxygen Isotope Constraints on the Origin and Hydrothermal Evolution of the Haisugou Porphyry Mo Deposit in the Northern Xilamulun District, NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haisugou porphyry Mo deposit is located in the northern Xilamulun district, northeastern China. Based on alteration and mineralization styles and crosscutting relationships, the hydrothermal evolution in Haisugou can be divided into three stages: an early potassic alteration stage with no significant metal deposition, a synmineralization sericite-chlorite alteration stage with extensive Mo precipitation, and a postmineralization stage characterized by barren quartz and minor calcite and fluorite. The coexistence of high-salinity brine inclusions with low-salinity inclusions both in potassic alteration stage (~440°C and locally in the early time of mineralization stage (380–320°C indicates the occurrence of fluid boiling. The positive correlations between the homogenization temperatures and the salinities of the fluids and the low oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18Ofluid < 3‰ of the syn- to postmineralization quartz together suggest the mixing of magmatic fluids with meteoric water, which dominated the whole mineralization process. The early boiling fluids were not responsible for ore precipitation, whereas the mixing with meteoric water, which resulted in temperature decrease and dilution that significantly reduced the metal solubility, should have played the major role in Mo mineralization. Combined fluid inclusion microthermometry and chlorite geothermometer results reveal that ore deposition mainly occurred between 350 and 290°C in Haisugou.

  11. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion evidence for the origin of the Brandberg West area Sn-W vein deposits, NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul; Harris, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Brandberg West region of NW Namibia is dominated by poly-deformed turbidites and carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Damara Supergoup, which have been regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies and thermally metamorphosed up to mid-amphibolite facies by Neoproterozoic granite plutons. The meta-sedimentary rocks host Damaran-age hydrothermal quartz vein-hosted Sn-W mineralization at Brandberg West and numerous nearby smaller deposits. Fluid inclusion microthermometric studies of the vein quartz suggests that the ore-forming fluids at the Brandberg West mine were CO2-bearing aqueous fluids represented by the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O-CO2 system with moderate salinity (mean=8.6 wt% NaClequivalent).Temperatures determined using oxygen isotope thermometry are 415-521°C (quartz-muscovite), 392-447°C (quartz-cassiterite), and 444-490°C (quartz-hematite). At Brandberg West, the oxygen isotope ratios of quartz veins and siliciclastic host rocks in the mineralized area are lower than those in the rocks and veins of the surrounding areas suggesting that pervasive fluid-rock interaction occurred during mineralization. The O- and H-isotope data of quartz-muscovite veins and fluid inclusions indicate that the ore fluids were dominantly of magmatic origin, implying that mineralization occurred above a shallow granite pluton. Simple mass balance calculations suggest water/rock ratios of 1.88 (closed system) and 1.01 (open system). The CO2 component of the fluid inclusions had similar δ 13C to the carbonate rocks intercalated with the turbidites. It is most likely that mineralization at Brandberg West was caused by a combination of an impermeable marble barrier and interaction of the fluids with the marble. The minor deposits in the area have quartz veins with higher δ 18O values, which is consistent with these deposits being similar geological environments exposed at higher erosion levels.

  12. The evolution of pegmatite-hosted Sn-W mineralization at Nong Sua, Thailand: Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Robert L.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    1994-01-01

    The Nong Sua aplite-pergmatite complex contains two dominant styles of Sn-W-Ta-Nb mineralization. Cassiterite ± Nb-Ta-Ti oxide minerals are disseminated in the pegmatite, and cassiterite and wolframite are hosted by quartz-tourmaline veins which are contained solely within aplite. The orthomagmatic fluid at Nong Sua is preserved as primary fluid inclusions in the cores of magmatic garnet crystals that have high tin concentrations (garnet cores without fluid inclusions do not contain elevated tin concentrations). These fluid inclusions have a composition of 3 wt% NaCl eq. The low salinity suggests that, at vapor saturation, tin was partitioned in favour of the melt, which allowed cassiterite to initially crystallize directly from the melt. Primary, pseudosecondary, and secondary fluid inclusions in cassiterite, tourmaline, and quartz record three-component mixing of the orthomagmatic fluid with high salinity aqueous and with CO 2-rich fluids. The orthomagmatic water is interpreted to have had δ 18O value of +8.7 to +9.9 per mil and a δD value of -72 to -78 per mil from δ18O analyses of muscovite and quartz, and δD of muscovite. The δ18O composition of muscovite decreased from 10.1 to 8.0 per mil and δD increased from - 106 to - 85 per mil, from the magmatic to the hydrothermal stages of pegmatite evolution. These changes are consistent with an influx of metamorphic fluids or evolved meteoric waters. We consider that the saturation of the melt with vapor caused the pressure in the pegmatite to rise to approximately 3.8 kbar, at a temperature of 650°C. Fluid overpressure caused the aplite to fracture, and veins to form from fluids which migrated into the fracture-induced low pressure zones. This event can be modeled by an isothermal decompression to 2.7 kbar. Cassiterite deposition was probably controlled by increasing fO 2, whereas wolframite deposition resulted from the mixing of W-rich with Fe-Mn-rich fluids. In both cases decompression, cooling, and

  13. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...... to be subject to anaerobic oxidation, but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Heavy metals do not seem to constitute a significant pollution problem at landfills, partly because the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate often are low, and partly because of strong attenuation by sorption...

  14. Isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in Permian halite with implications for the isotopic history of ocean water and the origin of saline formation waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    deltaD and delta 18 O values have been determined for fluid inclusions in 45 samples of Permian halite. The inclusions are enriched in 18 O relative to the meteoric water line but are depleted in D relative to ocean water. Inclusions with the more positive delta-values coincide with the isotopic compositions expected for evaporating sea water which follows a hooked trajectory on a deltaD-delta 18 O diagram. Inclusions with more negative delta-values may represent more highly evaporated sea water but probably reflect synsedimentary or diagenetic mixing to those of a modern evaporite pan to indicate that Permian sea water was isotopically similar to modern sea water. Connate evaporite brines can have negative delta-values because of the probable hooked isotope trajectory of evaporating sea water and/or synsedimentary mixing of evaporite brines with meteoric waters. (author)

  15. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D V; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko

    2012-03-30

    Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO(2) photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO(2) photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO(2) photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO(2) photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n>4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The La Unión Au ± Cu prospect, Camagüey District, Cuba: fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Miriela María Ulloa; Moura, Márcia Abrahão; Olivo, Gema R.; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Bühn, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The Camagüey district, Cuba, is known for its epithermal precious metal deposits in a Cretaceous volcanic arc setting. Recently, the La Unión prospect was discovered in the southern part of the district, containing gold and minor copper mineralization interpreted as porphyry type. Mineralization is hosted in a 73.0 ± 1.5 Ma calc-alkaline I-type oxidized porphyry quartz diorite intrusive within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the early Cretaceous Guáimaro Formation. The porphyry is affected by propylitic alteration and crosscut by a network of quartz and carbonate veinlets and veins. Chlorite, epidote, sericite, quartz, and pyrite are the main minerals in the early veins which are cut by late carbonate and zeolite veins. Late barite pseudomorphously replaces pyrite. Gold is associated with pyrite as disseminations in the altered quartz diorite and in the veins, occurring as inclusions or filling fractures in pyrite with 4 g/t Au in bulk samples, and up to 900 ppm Au in in pyrite. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope data are consistent with a H2O-NaCl-(KCl) mineralizing fluid, derived from the quartz diorite magma, and trapped at least at 425°C and 1.2 kbar. This primary fluid unmixed into two fluid phases, a hypersaline aqueous fluid and a low-salinity vapor-rich fluid. Boiling during cooling may have played an important role in metal precipitation. Pyrite δ34S values for the La Unión prospect range between 0.71‰ and 1.31‰, consistent with a homogeneous magmatic sulfur source. The fluids in equilibrium with the mineralized rocks have estimated δ18O values from 8‰ to 11.8‰, calculated for a temperature range of 480-505°C. The tectonic environment of the La Unión prospect, its high gold and low copper contents, the physical-chemical characteristics of the mineralizing fluids and the isotopic signature of the alteration minerals and fluids indicate that the La Unión gold mineralization is similar to the porphyry gold type, even though the ore

  17. Chemical Compositions of Fluid Inclusions in the Jalal –Abad iron oxide deposit, North West of Zarand, Using LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi Shahraki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Poshtebadam Bafq Zarand district in central Iran is a world class iron oxide province. This region contains over two billion tons of iron ore reserves within more than 34 major magnetic anomalies and deposits in an area of 7,500 km2 (Stosch et al., 2011. The Jalal-Abad iron ore deposit (200Mt at 45% Fe, 1.18% S and 0.08% P is located 38 km northwest of Zarand, 16 km southeast of the Rizu town in the Kerman province, Iran. Iron ore deposits are hosted by the Early Cambrian Rizu Series, composed mainly of sedimentary, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks which are dominated by dolomite, sandstone, shale, siltstone, tuff, ignimbrite and rhyodacite. The origin of the iron oxide deposits is controversial and various genetic models have been suggested. Some researchers believe in magmatic origins or Kiruna type, while others suggest metasomatic replacement from pre-existing rocks (Stosch et al., 2011. LA-ICP-MS has been used to characterize the multi element chemistry of the diverse fluid inclusions found in the Jalal–Abad iron oxide deposit. The aim of this investigation was to understand the genesis of the ore body and identify possible hydrothermal fluid sources in the Jalal-Abad district. Sampling and method of study About 100 samples from different types of ore were collected from surface outcrops and a drill core whose association with mineralization are well established. Thin sections, polished thin sections and polished sections were prepared. SEM studies (FEI 5900LV and LA-ICP-MS analyses of fluid inclusions were carried out in the School of Earth and Environment, the University of Leeds, UK. Fluid inclusions were studied using a Linkam THM-600 heating-freezing stage mounted on Zeiss petrography microscope at the Iranian Mineral Processing Research Center. Result and discussion Jalal Abad deposit is hosted by the early Cambrian volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Rizu series. Stratabound mineralization occurs in a variety of

  18. Calcite Fluid Inclusion, Paragenetic, and Oxygen Isotopic Records of Thermal Event(s) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.; Moscati, R.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository situated above the water table in 12.7 Ma tuffs. A wealth of textural and geochemical evidence from low-temperature deposits of calcite and silica, indicates that their genesis is related to unsaturated zone (UZ) percolation and that the level of the potential repository has never been saturated. Nonetheless, some scientists contend that thermal waters have periodically risen to the surface depositing calcite and opal in the tuffs and at the surface. This hypothesis received some support in 1996 when two-phase fluid inclusions (FIs) with homogenization temperatures (Th) between 35 and 75 C were reported from UZ calcite. Calcite deposition likely followed closely on the cooling of the tuffs and continues into the present. The paragenetic sequence of calcite and silica in the UZ is early stage calcite followed by chalcedony and quartz, then calcite with local opal during middle and late stages. Four types of FIs are found in calcite assemblages: (1) all-liquid (L); (2) all-vapor (V); (3) 2-phase with large and variable V:L ratios; and (4) a few 2-phase with small and consistent V:L ratios. Late calcite contains no FI assemblages indicating elevated depositional temperatures. In early calcite, the Th of type 4 FIs ranges from ∼ 40 to ∼ 85 C. Such temperatures (sub-boiling) and the assemblage of FIs are consistent with deposition in the UZ. Some delta 18O values < 10 permil in early calcite support such temperatures. Type 4 FIs, however, seem to be restricted to the early calcite stage, during which either cooling of the tuffs or regional volcanism were possible heat sources. Nonetheless, at present there is no compelling evidence of upwelling water as a source for the calcite/opal deposits

  19. Geology, geochemistry and fluid inclusion of Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au quartz veins, northeast of Kharvana, East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Asiay Soufiani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au occurrence is located in the Arasbaran ore zone (AZ, NW Iran, some 70 km north of Tabriz. The AZ is characterized by occurrence of different types of mineralization and hosts many Cu-Mo porphyry (PCD, Cu skarn, and epithermal Au deposits (Jamali et al., 2010; Jamali and Mehrabi, 2015. The main rock unit exposed in the area is Qaradagh batholith (QDB. A variety of porphyry and vein-type Cu–Mo–Au mineralization are associated with QDB. The most pronounced occurrences are in Qarachilar, Qara-Dareh, Zarli-Dareh, Aniq and Pirbolagh. This type of mineralization can be followed in other parts of northwest Iran, such as Masjed-Daghi porphyry Cu–Au deposit and Mivehrood vein-type Au mineralization in the southwest of the QDB, the Sungun PCD and the related skarn in its southeast, and Astamal Fe skarn deposit in the south of the QDB. To date, no detailed study has been undertaken to understand the characteristics of the Qarachilar occurrence and its mineralization type is controversial. The recent work by Simmonds and Moazzen (2015 also did not present relevant information for an understanding of the Qarachilar occurrence. The Re–Os age data obtained in their work were compared with similar events along the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA and southern Lesser Caucasus in order to elucidate the temporal pattern of mineralization across the whole QDB and the UDMA. The present paper provides an overview of the geological framework, the mineralization characteristics, and the results of geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies of the Qarachilar Cu-Mo-Au occurrence with an application to the ore genesis. Materials and methods More than 37 polished thin sections from Qarachilar host rocks and mineralized and altered zones were studied by conventional petrographic and mineralogic methods at the University of Zanjan. In addition, 9 samples from non-altered and altered host rocks and mineralized veins were analyzed by

  20. Evolution and paragenetic context of low δD hydrothermal fluids from the Panasqueira W-Sn deposit, Portugal: new evidence from microthermometric, stable isotope, noble gas and halogen analyses of primary fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polya, D. A.; Foxford, K. A.; Stuart, F.; Boyce, A.; Fallick, A. E.

    2000-10-01

    The evolution, paragenetic context and origin of remarkably low δD hydrothermal fluids from the Hercynian Panasqueira W-Sn-Cu(Ag) deposit have been investigated through a combined microthermometric, stable isotope, halogen and noble gas fluid inclusion study. Large variations in δD between -60 ‰ and -134‰ have been observed in primary fluid inclusions from growth zones in a quartz crystal (Pa66) paragenetically constrained to the main sulfide stage (MSS) of ore formation. The same fluids exhibited relatively constant fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures (254 to 260°C), salinities (7.4 to 8.7 wt.% NaCl equivalent) and calculated fluid δ 18O (3.8 to 4.4‰). All the fluids exhibited 40Ar excesses. Mean molar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios varied from 2.3 × 10 -3-4.2 × 10 -3 and 8 × 10 -4-10 × 10 -4 respectively, with the more Br-rich fluids being associated with the more deuterium-depleted fluids. The low palaeolatitude of Panasqueira throughout the main stages of ore formation and the overwhelming predominance of meteoric fluids in the main, late and post-ore mineralising fluids with δD of -40 to -65‰ lends little support for any models involving low δD palaeometeoric water. The limited range of 40Ar∗/Cl ratios (1.1 × 10 -5-1.6 × 10 -5) also precludes boiling during the MSS or mixing of meteoric water with highly fractionated deuterium-depleted magmatic waters as viable mechanisms for producing the low δD fluids. The high Br/Cl and I/Cl of the MSS fluids indicate significant fluid interactions with organic rich sediments or metasediments, in particular regionally abundant Carboniferous coals or coaly sediments that are inferred to be depleted in deuterium by around 85‰ compared to palaeometeoric water. The large range of δD observed in the MSS fluids may be explained by isotopic exchange of palaeometeoric water with these coals at varying water/rock (wt./wt.) ratios between 0.02 and 0.002 with fluid oxygen isotopic compositions controlled by

  1. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  2. Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Gamble’s Fluid: Is the Fluid Toxic? Can It Be Made Safer by Inclusion of Solid Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Karote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP, in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP.

  3. The origin of the Tongkeng-Changpo tin deposit, Dachang metal district, Guangxi, China: clues from fluid inclusions and He isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghai, Cai; Jingwen, Mao; Ting, Liang; Pirajno, Franco; Huilan, Huang

    2007-08-01

    Tongkeng-Changpo is the largest tin deposit within the giant Dachang polymetallic tin ore field in Guangxi, southern China, which is part of a large skarn system associated with Cretaceous granitoids. The Tongkeng-Changpo mineralization consists of veins and stockworks in the upper levels and replacement stratiform orebodies (mantos) at lower levels. Based on textural relationships, three major mineralizing stages can be recognized: stage I with cassiterite, sulphides, stannite, tourmaline, and quartz; stage II with cassiterite, sulphides, sulphosalts, quartz, and calcite; and stage III with calcite as the main phase. The study of fluid inclusions has shown that there are two main fluid types: CO2 and NaCl-H2O. Homogenization temperatures are 270 to 365°C, 210 to 240°C, and 140 to 190°C for stages I, II, and III, respectively. Salinities range from 1 to 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the early ore stage and 3 to 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the late stages. Laser Raman Spectroscopy indicates that the inclusion fluids in stages I and II were of carbono-aqueous composition, with minor amounts of CH4 and H2S, whereas those in stage III were aqueous. Helium isotopic analyses of inclusion fluids indicate that the 3He/4He ratios in the ore veins are in between 1.2 to 2.9 Ra (Ra = 1.4 × 10-6, modern atmospheric ratio), and range from 1.6 to 2.5 Ra in the stratiform orebodies. This range of 3He/4He ratios is significantly higher than that of crustal fluids (0.01-0.05 Ra). The similar characteristics of fluid inclusions and their He isotopic composition, as well as age constraints, indicate that the ore veins and stratiform orebodies of the Tongkeng-Changpo deposit formed from the same hydrothermal system, likely related to granite intrusions of the Mesozoic Yanshanian tectono-thermal event. In addition, the high R/Ra ratios indicate a mantle contribution in the ore fluids.

  4. Raman spectroscopic measurements of CO2 density: Experimental calibration with high-pressure optical cell (HPOC) and fused silica capillary capsule (FSCC) with application to fluid inclusion observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chou, I-Ming; Hu, W.; Burruss, Robert; Sun, Q.; Song, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for the determination of CO2 densities in fluid inclusions, especially for those with small size and/or low fluid density. The relationship between CO2 Fermi diad split (Δ, cm−1) and CO2 density (ρ, g/cm3) has been documented by several previous studies. However, significant discrepancies exist among these studies mainly because of inconsistent calibration procedures and lack of measurements for CO2fluids having densities between 0.21 and 0.75 g/cm3, where liquid and vapor phases coexist near room temperature.In this study, a high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsules were used to prepare pure CO2 samples with densities between 0.0472 and 1.0060 g/cm3. The measured CO2 Fermi diad splits were calibrated with two well established Raman bands of benzonitrile at 1192.6 and 1598.9 cm−1. The relationship between the CO2 Fermi diad split and density can be represented by: ρ = 47513.64243 − 1374.824414 × Δ + 13.25586152 × Δ2 − 0.04258891551 × Δ3(r2 = 0.99835, σ = 0.0253 g/cm3), and this relationship was tested by synthetic fluid inclusions and natural CO2-rich fluid inclusions. The effects of temperature and the presence of H2O and CH4 on this relationship were also examined.

  5. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeroff, Daniel E.; Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, François; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, André; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO 2 photocatalysis for leachate treatment. ► Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD 5 , color, ammonia, and lead. ► Contact times for 90% removal were 10–200 h for PIMA ► Contact times for 90% removal were 3–37 h for TiO 2 photocatalysis. ► Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO 2 photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO 2 photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10–200 h for PIMA and 3–37 h for TiO 2 photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO 2 photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  6. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: dmeeroff@fau.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  7. Origin of the Okrouhlá Radouň episyenite-hosted uranium deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: fluid inclusion and stable isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolníček, Zdeněk; René, Miloš; Hermannová, Sylvie; Prochaska, Walter

    2014-04-01

    The Okrouhlá Radouň shear zone hosted uranium deposit is developed along the contact of Variscan granites and high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. The pre-ore pervasive alteration of wall rocks is characterized by chloritization of mafic minerals, followed by albitization of feldspars and dissolution of quartz giving rise to episyenites. The subsequent fluid circulation led to precipitation of disseminated uraninite and coffinite, and later on, post-ore quartz and carbonate mineralization containing base metal sulfides. The fluid inclusion and stable isotope data suggest low homogenization temperatures (˜50-140 °C during pre-ore albitization and post-ore carbonatization, up to 230 °C during pre-ore chloritization), variable fluid salinities (0-25 wt.% NaCl eq.), low fluid δ18O values (-10 to +2 ‰ V-SMOW), low fluid δ13C values (-9 to -15 ‰ V-PDB), and highly variable ionic composition of the aqueous fluids (especially Na/Ca, Br/Cl, I/Cl, SO4/Cl, NO3/Cl ratios). The available data suggest participation of three fluid endmembers of primarily surficial origin during alteration and mineralization at the deposit: (1) local meteoric water, (2) Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines or shield brines, (3) SO4-NO3-Cl-(H)CO3 playa-like fluids. Pre-ore albitization was caused by circulation of alkaline, oxidized, and Na-rich playa fluids, whereas basinal/shield brines and meteoric water were more important during the post-ore stage of alteration.

  8. Mineralogy, fluid inclusion petrography, and stable isotope geochemistry of Pb-Zn-Ag veins at the Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghua; Mao, Jingwen; Yuan, Shunda; Dai, Pan; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposit is located in the central part of the Nanling region, southeastern China, and consists of proximal W-Sn-Mo-Bi skarns and greisens and distal Pb-Zn-Ag veins. The sulfides and sulfosalts in the distal veins formed in three distinct stages: (1) an early stage of pyrite and arsenopyrite, (2) a middle stage of sphalerite and chalcopyrite, and (3) a late stage of galena, Ag-, Sn-, and Bi-bearing sulfides and sulfosalts, and pyrrhotite. Combined sulfide and sulfosalt geothermometry and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the early stage of mineralization occurred at a temperature of 400 °C and involved boiling under hydrostatic pressure ( 200 bar), with the temperature of the system dropping during the late stage to 200 °C. Laser Raman analysis indicates that the fluid inclusions within the studied minerals are dominated by H2O, although some contain carbonate solids and CH4 gas. Vein-hosted sulfides have δ34S values of 3.8-6.3‰ that are interpreted as indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. The mineralization process can be summarized as follows: an aqueous fluid exsolved on final crystallization of the Qianlishan pluton, ascended along fracture zones, cooled to <400 °C, and boiled under hydrostatic conditions, and with decreasing temperature and sulfur fugacity, sulfide and sulfosalt minerals precipitated successively from the Ag-Cu-Zn-Fe-Pb-Sb-As-S-bearing fluid system.

  9. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified

  10. Brine history indicated by argon, krypton, chlorine, bromine, and iodine analyses of fluid inclusions from the Mississippi Valley type lead-fluorite-barite deposits at Hansonburg, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.; Irwin, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Argon, krypton, chlorine, bromine, and iodine were measured in a homogeneous population of high-salinity hydrothermal fluid inclusions from the Tertiary-age Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-fluorite-barite deposits at Hansonburg, New Mexico to establish new types of evidence for the history of both the fluid and the major dissolved salts. Noble gases and halogens in fluid inclusions containing 10−10–10−9 L of brine (Cl= 3 molal) were analyzed by laser microprobe noble-gas mass spectrometry (lmngms) on neutron-irradiated samples.The concentrations of36Ar (4.7 × 10−8 molal) and84Kr1.8 × 10−9 molal) in the fluid inclusions are equal to those of fresh surface waters in equilibrium with air at approximately20 ± 5°. The mole ratios ofBr/Cl (1.2 × 10−4) andI/Cl (1–2 × 10−6) are among the lowest measured in any natural waters, similar to those of modern brines formed by dissolution of Permian NaCl-bearing evaporites in southeast New Mexico.40Ar/36Ar ratios (600) are twice that of air, and indicate that the fluid inclusions had excess radiogenic40Ar (1.4 × 10−5 molal) when trapped. The amount of excess40Ar appears to be too large to have been acquired with Cl by congruent dissolution of halite-bearing evaporites, and possibly too small to have been acquired with Pb by congruent dissolution of granitic basement rocks with Proterozoic KAr ages.From thelmngms data, combined with published Pb and S isotope data, we infer the following sequence of events in the history of the Hansonburg MVT hydrothermal brine: (1) the brine originated as relatively dilute meteoric water, and it did not gain or lose atmospheric Ar or Kr after recharge; (2) the originally dilute fluid acquired the bulk of its Cl and sulfate in the subsurface after recharge by dissolving halite-bearing Permian? marine evaporites; (3) the high salinity brine then acquired most of its Pb and excess radiogenic40Ar from interactions with aquifer rocks other than evaporites, possibly clastic

  11. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: A reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions in fracture-filling quartz and calcite from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture-filling calcite and quartz from the Lopra-1/1A well (at 2380 m and 3543 m depth contains both aqueous low-salinity fluid inclusions and hydrocarbon-dominated fluid inclusions. Microthermometry indicates that the aqueous fluids contain 0.2 to 1.4 equivalent weight% NaCl and occasionally contain traces of hydrocarbons. Homogenisation to liquid occurred between 90°C and 150°C. Modelling based on these fluid inclusion observations indicates that during burial the basaltic section was subjected to temperatures of 160°C and 170°C, occasional pressures of 600–700 bars and the simultaneous percolation of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. These fluid conditions may also be relevant to the formation of zeolite observed in the Lopra-1/1A well.

  12. Coal pile leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  13. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  14. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian-Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ˜110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained simply by the

  15. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian–Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ∼110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained

  16. Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (NW Iran): Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies and Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2015-04-01

    The Qaradagh batholith is located in NW Iran, neighboring the Meghri-Ordubad granitoid in southern Armenia. This magmatic complex is emplaced in the northwestern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, which formed through north-eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the central Iranian domain in the late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic and hosts most of the porphyry copper deposits and prospects in Iran, such as Sarcheshmeh and Sungun. The Qaradagh batholith is comprised of Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks occurring as multi-episode stocks, where the dominant rock type is granodiorite. Hydrothermal alterations have also occurred in these rocks including potassic, phyllic-sericitic, argillic and propylitic alterations and silicification. These alterations are accompanied by vein-type and disseminated Cu, Mo and Au mineralization. The Qarachilar area is located in the central part of the Qaradagh batholith, which hosts mono-mineralic and quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets (several mm to <1 m thick and 50-700 m long) and silicic zones containing Cu-Mo-Au-Ag ore minerals (mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite). Microthermometric studies on the fluid inclusions of quartz-sulfide veins-veinlets show that the salinity ranges between 15-70 wt% NaCl, with the highest peak between 35-40 wt% NaCl. The homogenization temperature for primary 2-phase and multi-phase inclusions ranges between 220 and 540 °C. Two-phase inclusions homogenizing by vapor disappearance have TH values between 280 and 440 °C (mainly between 300 and 360 °C). A few of them homogenize into vapor state with TH values of 440-540 °C. Multi-phase inclusions show 3 types of homogenization. Most of them homogenize by simultaneous disappearance of vapor bubble and dissolution of halite daughter crystal, for which the TH value is 240-420 °C (mostly between 260 and 340 °C). Those homogenizing by halite dissolution show TH values about 220-360 °C and a few homogenizing by vapor

  17. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  18. UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS Analysis of CO2-Rich Fluid Inclusions in a Frozen State: Example from the Dahu Au-Mo Deposit, Xiaoqinling Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed technique of ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS combined with a freezing cell is expected to improve the analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions by decreasing their internal pressure and avoiding the common problem of uncontrolled explosive fluid release on ablation. Here, we report the application of this technique through the case study of CO2-rich fluid inclusions from the quartz vein-style Au-Mo deposit of Dahu in the Xiaoqinling region of central China. The concentrations of Li, B, Na, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Te, Cs, Ba, Au, Pb, and Bi were analyzed in 124 (not all for Al and Ca fluid inclusions, which have low to moderate salinity and multiphase composition (liquid H2O + liquid CO2  ± vapor CO2  ± solids. The Dahu fluids are dominated by Na and K. The concentrations of Mo are always below the detection limit from 0.005 to 2 ppm (excluding values obtained from fluid inclusions with accidentally trapped solids. The Dahu ore fluids differ from metamorphic fluids in compositions and most likely represent two separate pulses of spent fluids evolved from an unexposed and oxidized magmatic system. The UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions in a frozen state improves the overpressure problem of CO2-rich fluid inclusions during laser ablation. The transformation of gaseous and liquid CO2 into the solid state leads to a significant decline in the internal pressure of the fluid inclusions, while femtosecond laser pulses generate a minimal heat input in the sample and thus maintain the frozen state during ablation. Transient signals of CO2-rich fluid inclusions obtained in this study typically had one or multiple peaks lasting for more than 15 seconds, without an initial short signal spike as obtained by ns-LA-ICP-MS analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions at room temperature.

  19. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2018-03-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a Δlog fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  20. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  1. Leachate characterization and assessment of surface and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environment can be impacted negatively by leachates from these dumpsites if not properly managed. This study aimed at assessing the characteristics of municipal solid waste leachate and its contamination potential on surface and groundwater. Leachate, groundwater and surface water samples were collected from ...

  2. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  3. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de

    2009-01-01

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO 2 showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H 2 O + CO 2 + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal event without a predominant fluid

  4. Experimental petrology for the thermobarometric determination of mineral paragenesis: the fluid inclusions; Petrologia experimental para la determinacion termobarometrica de paragenesis minerales: las inclusiones fluidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo; Torres Rodriguez, Vicente; Birkle, Peter [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-05-01

    There is a great number of phenomena in nature in which some fluid participates as the main component. Such is the case of oil deposits formation, of metallic minerals, geothermal systems, metamorphic and diagenetic deposits. The common denominator of all of them is that in some part of their stages important physico-chemical processes occurred in the related fluids, leaving evidence of such phenomena in the fluid inclusions. The Geothermal Department has petrologic vanguard tools for reservoir problems resolution, since it has laboratories for the study on fluid inclusions by means of the technique called cryoscopic-microthermometry that permits the definition of physico-chemical conditions of the brine that participated or participates in the hydrothermal systems formation. The method simultaneously permits to know the characteristics of the initial brine that participated in the interaction water-rock phenomenon, observe the boiling phenomena, and determine conditions of initial pressure in the reservoirs. [Espanol] Existe un gran numero de fenomenos en la naturaleza en los que participa algun fluido como componente principal. Tal es el caso de la formacion de yacimientos de petroleo, de minerales metalicos, de sistemas geotermicos, yacimientos metamorficos y diageneticos. El comun denominador de todos ellos es que en alguna de sus etapas ocurrieron procesos fisicoquimicos importantes en los fluidos relacionados, quedando evidencia de tales fenomenos en las inclusiones fluidas. El Departamento de Geotermia cuenta con herramientas petrologicas de vanguardia para la resolucion de problemas en yacimientos, ya que tiene laboratorios para el estudio de las inclusiones fluidas por medio de la tecnica denominada microtermometria-crioscopica que permite definir condiciones fisicoquimicas de la salmuera que participo o participa en la formacion de sistemas hidrotermales. El metodo permite simultaneamente conocer las caracteristicas de la salmuera inicial que participo en

  5. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    stockwork. One of them is the east-west-oriented 6th vein zone in the northern part of the deposit, which contains quartz-molybdenite veins and late quartz-galena-sphalerite veins. This is interpreted as a telescoping between porphyry and epithermal environments. It is supported by microscopic studies of mineral paragenesis, which reveal the presence of enargite and tennantite-tetrahedrite, luzonite, sphalerite, and galena, generally in a gangue of quartz, followed by a late carbonate and gypsum stage. On-going fluid inclusion studies are being carried out on quartz samples from the different mineralization stages. Five types of fluid inclusions were distinguished according to their nature, bubble size, and daughter mineral content: vapor-rich, aqueous-carbonic, brine, polyphase brine and liquid-rich inclusions. Cathodoluminescence images from the porphyry veins reveal four generations of quartz. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are associated with two different dark luminescent quartz generations, which contain typical brine, aqueous-carbonic and vapour-rich H2O fluid inclusions, with some of them coexisting locally as boiling assemblages. Epithermal veins are mainly characterized by liquid-rich H2O fluid inclusions. Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions reveal a major difference in homogenisation temperatures between the early quartz-molybdenite- chalcopyrite stage (Thtotal between 3600 and 4250C) and the late quartz-galena-sphalerite vein stage (Thtotal 300-2700C), which is attributed to the transition from a porphyry to an epithermal environment in the Kadjaran deposit.

  6. Treating leachate by Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Iván Méndez Novelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachates are formed from liquids, mainly rainwater, percolating through solid wastes during stabilisation. Their composition is variable and highly toxic; leachate treatment is therefore a complex task. Leachates represent a high risk to health due to the Yucatan Peninsula’s highly permeable soil. The results are presented from applying the Fenton process to treating leachate from the sanitary Merida landfill, Yucatan, Mexico. The Fenton process consists of treating the contaminant load with an H2O2 and FeSO4 combination in acidic conditions. Optimal reaction time, pH value, Fenton reagent dose, post treatment coagulation – flocculation doses and increased biodegradability index were all determined. Optimal oxidation conditions and doses were 202+ minute contact time, 4 pH, 600 mg/L H2O2 concentration and 1,000 mg/L Fe. Average organic matter removal rate, measured as CODS and TOC, were 78% and 87% respectively. The biodegradability index increased from 0.07 to 0.11 during the Fenton process and up to 0.13 when the Fenton process was followed by coagulation-flocculation.

  7. Solid-state flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes prepared using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Kaialy, Waseem; Ghori, Muhammad U; Trivedi, Vivek; Snowden, Martin J; Alexander, Bruce David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the apparent solubility and dissolution properties of flurbiprofen through inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins. Especially, the efficacy of supercritical fluid technology as a preparative technique for the preparation of flurbiprofen-methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was evaluated. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing and were evaluated by solubility, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, practical yield, drug content estimation and in vitro dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were conducted to study the possibility of molecular arrangement of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The studies support the formation of stable molecular inclusion complexes between the drug and cyclodextrin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the dissolution properties of flurbiprofen were significantly enhanced by the binary mixtures prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing. The amount of flurbiprofen dissolved into solution alone was very low with 1.11±0.09% dissolving at the end of 60min, while the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 200bar released 99.39±2.34% of the drug at the end of 30min. All the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C exhibited a drug release of more than 80% within the first 10min irrespective of the pressure employed. The study demonstrated the single step, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide process as a promising approach for the preparation of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in solid-state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: Integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Stoffregen, R.E.; Vikre, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Summitville Au-Ag-Cu deposit is a classic volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation deposit. It occurs in the Quartz Latite of South Mountain, a composite volcanic dome that was emplaced along the coincident margins of the Platoro and Summitville calderas at 22.5??0.5 Ma, penecontemporaneous with alteration and mineralization. A penecontemporaneous quartz monzonite porphyry intrusion underlies the district and is cut and overlain by pyrite-quartz stockwork veins with traces of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. Alteration and mineralization proceeded through three hypogene stages and a supergene stage, punctuated by at least three periods of hydrothermal brecciation. Intense acid leaching along fractures in the quartz latite produced irregular pipes and lenticular pods of vuggy silica enclosed sequentially by alteration zones of quartz-alunite, quartz-kaolinite, and clay. The acid-sulfate-altered rocks host subsequent covellite+enargite/luzonite+chalcopyrite mineralization accompanied by kaolinite, and later barite-base-metal veins, some containing high Au values and kaolinite. The presence of both liquid- and vapor-rich fluid inclusions indicates the episodic presence of a low-density fluid at all levels of the system. In the mineralized zone, liquid-rich fluid inclusions in healed fractures in quartz phenocrysts and in quartz associated with mineralization homogenize to temperatures between 160 and 390 ??C (90% between 190 and 310 ??C), consistent with the range (200-250 ??C) estimated from the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between coexisting alunite and pyrite. A deep alunite-pyrite pair yielded a sulfur-isotope temperature of 390 ??C, marking a transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure at a depth of about 1.5 km. Two salinity populations dominate the liquid-rich fluid inclusions. One has salinities between 0 and 5 wt.% NaCl equivalent; the other has salinities of up to 43 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The occurrence of high-salinity fluid inclusions in vein

  9. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zafar-abad iron ore deposit, situated in the NW part of Divandarreh (lat. 36°01'14" and long. 46°58'22". The ore body is located on the northern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. The Zafar-abad Fe-skarn deposit is one of the important, medium- size mineral deposits in western Iran. REE patterns of skarn magnetite were among others studied in Skarn deposit by (Taylor, 1979 Hydrothermal alteration and fluid-rock interaction significantly affect total contents of REE and their patterns in fluids. Moreover, fractionation of REE by chemical complication, adsorption effects and redox reactions are characteristic processes determining REE behavior during crystallization. Stable isotope data for oxygen and sulfur have been widely used with great success to trace the origin and evolution history of paleo-hydrothermal fluids of meteoric, magmatic, and metamorphic. Materials and methods The present study investigates REE and stable Isotope geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Zafar-abad deposit and temperature of trapped fluid inclusions based on geothermometry analysis. In order to study the major, trace and REE compositions of Zafar-abad magnetite, twelve samples were collected from surface of ore exposures. The emphasis during sampling was on ores with primary textures. Discussion The Zafar-abad district is situated in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. Sedimentary sequences dominantly composed of calcareous and conglomerate rocks. Various meta-sedimentary rocks are intercalated with the sedimentary rocks, and comprise biotite and muscovite-rich schist, calc-schist, calc-silicate rock. Several distinct ductile tectonic fabrics have been identified around the Zafar-abad deposit. The main ore body at Zafar-abad is in the form of a roughly horizontal, discordant, lens to tabular-shaped body plunging 10° NW, where it appears to

  10. The mangazeya Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposit hosted in sedimentary rocks, Sakha-Yakutia, Russia: Mineral assemblages, fluid inclusions, stable isotopes (C, O, S), and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikina, E. Yu.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Klubnikin, G. K.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The succession of mineral assemblages, chemistry of gangue and ore minerals, fluid inclusions, and stable isotopes (C, O, S) in minerals have been studied in the Mangazeya silver-base-metal deposit hosted in terrigenous rocks of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt. The deposit is localized in the junction zone of the Kuranakh Anticlinorium and the Sartanga Synclinorium at the steep eastern limb of the Endybal Anticline. The deposit is situated at the intersection of the regional Nyuektame and North Tirekhtyakh faults. Igneous rocks are represented by the Endybal massif of granodiorite porphyry 97.8 ± 0.9 Ma in age and dikes varying in composition. One preore and three types of ore mineralization separated in space are distinguished: quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite (I), quartz-carbonate-sulfide (II), and silver-base-metal (III). Quartz and carbonate (siderite) are predominant in ore veins. Ore minerals are represented by arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, fahlore, and less frequent sulfosalts. Three types of fluid inclusions in quartz differ in phase compositions: two- or three-phase aqueous-carbon dioxide (FI I), carbon dioxide gas (FI II), and two-phase (FI III) containing liquid and a gas bubble. The homogenization temperature and salinity fall within the ranges of 367-217°C and 13.8-2.6 wt % NaCl equiv in FI I; 336-126°C and 15.4-0.8 wt % NaCl equiv in FI III. Carbon dioxide in FI II was homogenized in gas at +30.2 to +15.3°C and at +27.2 to 29.0°C in liquid. The δ34S values for minerals of type I range from-1.8 to +4.7‰ (V-CDT); of type II, from-7.4 to +6.6‰; and of type III, from-5.6 to +7.1‰. δ13C and δ18O vary from-7.0 to-6.7‰ (V-PDB) and from +16.6 to +17.1 (V-SMOW) in siderite-I; from-9.1 to-6.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +18.9 (V-SMOW) in siderite-II; from-5.4 to-3.1‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +19.5 (V-SMOW) in ankerite; and from-4.2 to-2.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +13.5 to +16.8 (V-SMOW) in calcite. The data on mineral assemblages, fluid

  11. Lime treatment of stabilized leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, S.; Poulain, S.; Givaudan, J. G.; Sahut, C.; Moulin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse Osmosis is the most widely used method for treating municipal solid waste landfill leachates, since it produces a permeate in compliance with reject requirements. However, the efficiency of this process at the industrial scale is limited mainly because of membrane fouling and the high osmotic pressures involved. Although lime precipitation is traditionally used to eliminate the temporary hardness of water by de-carbonation, it has also been shown to be highly efficient in removing humic substances which are known to have strong fouling potential towards membranes. Our objective is to study the lime/leachate physico-chemistry, in order to determine the potential of the lime precipitation as pre-treatment for reverse osmosis. The results show that the lime treatment makes it possible (i) to act efficiently on the inorganic fraction of leachates through a de-carbonation mechanism which entails massive precipitation of the carbonates under the form of CaCO 3 , (ii) to eliminate by co-precipitation the high Molecular Weight (MW) organic macromolecules (≥ 50, 000 g.mol -1 ) such as humic acids, and (iii) to generate a stable residue that can be easily stored at a landfill. The reverse osmosis step will be facilitated through significant reduction of the osmotic pressures and prevention of membrane fouling. (authors)

  12. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  13. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  14. Cesium residue leachate migration in the tailings management area of a mine site : predicted vs. actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solylo, P.; Ramsey, D. [Wardrop Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Mining and Minerals Section

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a cesium products facility (CPF) that manufactures a non-toxic cesium-formate drilling fluid. The facility operates adjacent to a pollucite/tantalum/spodumene mine. The CPF was developed as a closed system, with the residue tailings slurry from the CPF process discharged to doublelined containment cells. Groundwater monitoring has shown that leachate has affected near-surface porewater quality within the tailings management area (TMA). Elevated concentrations of calcium, sulphate, strontium, cesium, and rubidium were used to identify the leachate. Porewater at the base of the tailings and in the overburden beneath the tailings has not been affected. A geochemical investigation was initiated to determine how the leachate behaves in the groundwater/tailings porewater system. Over the past 7 years of residue placement in the TMA, the footprint of the residue placement area has changed, making the comparison of predicted versus actual rate of leachate migration very subjective and difficult to quantify. Based solely on the analytical data, the source of the leachate is unknown, either from the original residue pile or the 2007 residue placement area. For purposes of long term residue management, an investigation of the geochemical behaviour of residue leachate in the groundwater/tailings system of the TMA is currently underway. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  16. Constraining the origin of the Messinian gypsum deposits using coupled measurement of δ^{18}O$/δD in gypsum hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Gázquez, Fernando; McKenzie, Judith A.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2016-04-01

    We used oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum hydration water (GHW) coupled with salinity deduced from ice melting temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in the same samples (in tandem with 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S and other isotopic measurements) to determine the composition of the mother fluids that formed the gypsum deposits of the Messinian Salinity Crisis from shallow and intermediate-depth basins. Using this method, we constrain the origin of the Messinian Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) of the Sorbas basin (Betic foreland) and both the Upper Gypsum (UG) and the Lower Gypsum of the Sicilian basin. We then compare these results to measurements made on UG recovered from the deep Ionian and Balearic basins drilled during DSDP Leg 42A. The evolution of GHW δ18O/δD vs. salinity is controlled by mixing processes between fresh and seawater, coupled with the degree of evaporation. Evaporation and subsequent precipitation of gypsum from fluids dominated by freshwater will result in a depressed 87Sr/86Sr values and different trajectory in δ18O/δD vs. salinity space compared to fluids dominated by seawater. The slopes of these regression equations help to define the end-members from which the fluid originated. For example, salinity estimates from PLG cycle 6 in the Sorbas basin range from 18 to 51ppt, and after correction for fractionation factors, estimated δ18O and δD values of the mother water are low (-2.6 meteoric water during gypsum deposition, while 87Sr/86Sr (0.708942 fall below those expected from the evaporation of seawater alone, the slope of the regression equation is similar to that of seawater evaporation. This implies that there is a change up-section from a dominantly marine environment in cycle 2 to a greater influence of meteoric water in cycle 6. The UG from the Sicilian basin display greater δ18O/δD values (2.9 meteoric water that subsequently underwent intense evaporation. This observation concurs with the low values of 87Sr/86Sr from the same UG

  17. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  18. Stable isotope compositions of quartz pebbles and their fluid inclusions as tracers of sediment provenance: Implications for gold- and uranium-bearing quartz pebble conglomerates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemann, T.W.; Kesler, S.E.; O' Neil, J.R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of pebbles from late Archean to paleo-Proterozoic gold- and/or uranium-bearing oligomictic quartz pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand district, South Africa, and Huronian Supergroup, Canada, were determined in an attempt to define the nature of the source terrain. The [delta][sup 18]O values of quartz pebbles within any one sample typically vary by [approximately] 4[per thousand] or more, but occasionally by as much as 8[per thousand], even for adjacent pebbles within the same hand specimen. In addition, adjacent quartz pebbles of widely contrasting [delta][sup 18]O values also preserve distinct isotopic signatures of their fluid inclusions. This overall heterogeneity suggests that the pebbles did not undergo significant oxygen isotope exchange after incorporation in the conglomerates. Therefore, oxygen isotope analyses of such quartz pebbles, in combination with a detailed investigation of their mineral and fluid inclusions, can provide a useful method for characterizing pebble populations and hence dominant sediment source modes. Comparison of values found in this study with [delta][sup 18]O values of quartz from Archean granites, pegmatites, and mesothermal greenstone gold veins, i.e., [delta][sup 18]O values of sources commonly proposed for the conglomerate ores, suggests that uranium is derived from a granitic source, whereas gold has a mesothermal greenstone gold source. Low [delta][sup 18]O values of chert pebbles (9[per thousand] to 11.5[per thousand]) relative to those expected for Archean and Proterozoic marine cherts (commonly [ge] 17[per thousand]) effectively exclude marine cherts, and therefore, auriferous iron formations and exhalatives, as likely sources of gold.

  19. Stable isotope compositions of quartz pebbles and their fluid inclusions as tracers of sediment provenance: Implications for gold- and uranium-bearing quartz pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemann, T.W.; Kesler, S.E.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of pebbles from late Archean to paleo-Proterozoic gold- and/or uranium-bearing oligomictic quartz pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand district, South Africa, and Huronian Supergroup, Canada, were determined in an attempt to define the nature of the source terrain. The δ 18 O values of quartz pebbles within any one sample typically vary by ∼ 4 per-thousand or more, but occasionally by as much as 8 per-thousand, even for adjacent pebbles within the same hand specimen. In addition, adjacent quartz pebbles of widely contrasting δ 18 O values also preserve distinct isotopic signatures of their fluid inclusions. This overall heterogeneity suggests that the pebbles did not undergo significant oxygen isotope exchange after incorporation in the conglomerates. Therefore, oxygen isotope analyses of such quartz pebbles, in combination with a detailed investigation of their mineral and fluid inclusions, can provide a useful method for characterizing pebble populations and hence dominant sediment source modes. Comparison of values found in this study with δ 18 O values of quartz from Archean granites, pegmatites, and mesothermal greenstone gold veins, i.e., δ 18 O values of sources commonly proposed for the conglomerate ores, suggests that uranium is derived from a granitic source, whereas gold has a mesothermal greenstone gold source. Low δ 18 O values of chert pebbles (9 per-thousand to 11.5 per-thousand) relative to those expected for Archean and Proterozoic marine cherts (commonly ≥ 17 per-thousand) effectively exclude marine cherts, and therefore, auriferous iron formations and exhalatives, as likely sources of gold

  20. Origin and tectonic implications of the Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit in northern Himalaya: evidence from structures, Re-Os-Pb-S isotopes, and fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Wenchang; Qing, Chengshi; Lai, Yang; Li, Yingxu; Liao, Zhenwen; Wu, Jianyang; Wang, Shengwei; Dong, Lei; Tian, Enyuan

    2018-04-01

    The Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Au) deposits, located in the eastern part of northern Himalaya, totally contain more than 1.146 million tonnes (Mt) of Pb, 1.407 Mt of Zn, 0.345 Mt of Sb, and 3 kilotonnes (kt) of Ag. Our field observations suggest that these deposits are controlled by N-S trending and west- and steep-dipping normal faults, suggesting a hydrothermal rather than a syngenetic sedimentary origin. The Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag-(Cu-Au) mineralization formed in the Eocene as indicated by a Re-Os isochron age of 43.1 ± 2.5 Ma. Sulfide minerals have varying initial Pb isotopic compositions, with (206Pb/204Pb)i of 19.04-19.68, (207Pb/204Pb)i of 15.75-15.88, and (208Pb/204Pb)i of 39.66-40.31. Sulfur isotopic values display a narrow δ34S interval of +7.8-+12.2‰. These Pb-S isotopic data suggest that the Zhaxikang sources of Pb and S should be mainly from the coeval felsic magmas and partly from the surrounding Mesozoic strata including metasedimentary rocks and layered felsic volcanic rocks. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the hydrothermal fluids have medium temperatures (200-336 °C) but varying salinities (1.40-18.25 wt.% NaCl equiv.) with densities of 0.75-0.95 g/cm3, possibly suggesting an evolution mixing between a high salinity fluid, perhaps of magmatic origin, with meteoric water.

  1. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.; Maiti, S. K.; Hazra, T.; Debsarkar, A.; Dutta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯ , TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (management and handling) rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor), LPI inorganic (LPIin) and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm) of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  2. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯, TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (Management and Handling Rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor, LPI inorganic (LPIin and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  3. Simulation of construction and demolition waste leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, T.G.; Jang, Y.; Thurn, L.G.

    1999-11-01

    Solid waste produced from construction and demolition (C and D) activities is typically disposed of in unlined landfills. Knowledge of C{ampersand}D debris landfill leachate is limited in comparison to other types of wastes. A laboratory study was performed to examine leachate resulting from simulated rainfall infiltrating a mixed C and D waste stream consisting of common construction materials (e.g., concrete, wood, drywall). Lysimeters (leaching columns) filled with the mixed C and D waste were operated under flooded and unsaturated conditions. Leachate constituent concentrations in the leachate from specific waste components were also examined. Leachate samples were collected and analyzed for a number of conventional water quality parameters including pH, alkalinity, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, and sulfate. In experiments with the mixed C and D waste, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and sulfate were detected in the leachate. C and D leachates produced as a result of unsaturated conditions exhibited TDS concentrations in the range of 570--2,200 mg/L. The major contributor to the TDS was sulfate, which ranged in concentration between 280 and 930 mg/L. The concentrations of sulfate in the leachate exceeded the sulfate secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L.

  4. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R

    2014-03-01

    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  5. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have δ13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The δ34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited

  6. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  7. Paleohydrogeological events recorded by stable isotopes, fluid inclusions and trace elements in fracture minerals in crystalline rock, Simpevarp area, SE Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2009-01-01

    Fracture minerals calcite, pyrite, gypsum, barite and quartz, formed during several events have been analysed for δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 34 S, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, trace element chemistry and fluid inclusions in order to gain knowledge of the paleohydrogeological evolution of the Simpevarp area, south-eastern Sweden. This area is dominated by Proterozoic crystalline rocks and is currently being investigated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) in order to find a suitable location for a deep-seated repository for spent nuclear fuel. Knowledge of the paleohydrogeological evolution is essential to understand the stability or evolution of the groundwater system over a time scale relevant to the performance assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository. The ages of the minerals analysed range from the Proterozoic to possibly the Quaternary. The Proterozoic calcite and pyrite show inorganic and hydrothermal-magmatic stable isotope signatures and were probably formed during a long time period as indicated by the large span in temperatures (c. 200-360 deg. C) and salinities (0-24 wt.% eq. CaCl 2 ), obtained from fluid inclusion analyses. The Paleozoic minerals were formed from organically influenced brine-type fluids at temperatures of 80-145 deg. C. The isotopic results indicate that low temperature calcite and pyrite may have formed during different events ranging in time possibly from the end of the Paleozoic until the Quaternary. Formation conditions ranging from fresh to brackish and saline waters have been distinguished based on calcite crystal morphologies. The combination of δ 18 O and crystal morphologies show that the fresh-saline water interface has changed considerably over time, and water similar to the present meteoric water and brackish seawater at the site, have most probably earlier been residing in the bedrock. Organic influence and closed system in situ microbial activity causing disequilibrium are indicated by extremely low δ 13 C (down

  8. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Sr evolution in the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic carbonates, northeast Sichuan basin, China: Constraints from chemistry, isotope and fluid inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kaikai; Cai, Chunfang; Jiang, Lei; Cai, Liulu; Jia, Lianqi; Zhang, Bing; Xiang, Lei; Yuan, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Petrographic features, C, O and Sr isotopes, rare earth and trace elements were determined, and fluid inclusions were analyzed on various stages of interparticle cements and vug-fillings from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sour reservoirs in northeastern Sichuan basin. The aim was to assess the origin and evolution of palaeo-waters in the carbonates. The original water was contemporary seawater, from which marine cements precipitated with slightly high Sr contents (mean 1911 ppm), 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7067 to 0.7082 and nonluminescent CL. The palaeo-seawater was diluted by meteoric water, as indicated by bright cathodoluminescence (CL) and Sr-depletion (0–516 ppm) in low-temperature calcite. When buried to temperatures of about 60–90 °C during Middle to Late Triassic, the palaeo-water was enriched in Sr released from the transformation of precursor aragonite and calcite to dolomite, resulting in precipitation of substantial pre-bitumen Sr-rich minerals (SrSO 4 and SrCO 3 ). For un-dolomitized limestone sections, aragonite neomorphism may have contributed Sr to the precipitation of small amounts of Sr-bearing minerals and calcite crystals with elevated homogenization temperatures (HTs, mainly from 90 to 130 °C) and wide Sr contents (from 34 to 3825 ppm), as recorded in stage III calcite. Since the Middle Jurassic, almost all of the early stage celestite and significant amounts of solid CaSO 4 have been consumed by reactions with hydrocarbons (i.e., TSR), resulting in water enriched in isotopically light CO 2 and HCO 3 - ,Sr 2+ ,Ba 2+ and Eu 2+ , as recorded in calcite with low δ 13 C values (down to −18.9‰), 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7072 to 0.7076, high HTs (mainly 110–198 °C), positive Eu anomalies and high Sr and Ba contents. Subsequently, the water was uplifted and cooled down to about 115 °C, celestite and strontianite were precipitated with the occurrence of natural elemental S immiscible inclusions. TSR may have produced

  10. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Kirana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals content as well as magnetic and electrical properties of leachate from Sarimukti, West Java were studied in an attempt to seek correlation between heavy metals content and magnetic/electrical properties. Such correlation is expected to open the way for the use of magnetic/electrical properties as proxy indicators for the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate. The number of leachate samples studied is 21; 15 were taken spatially at depth of 1 m while the remaining 6 samples were taken vertically at a particular point. Measurement results showed that the heavy metals content in the leachate has a smaller concentration, except for Fe. The correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals content was found to be not so significant. The best correlation coefficient between magnetic susceptibility with heavy metals in leachate was found in Zn. Correlation between electrical conductivity and heavy metal is also not so significant, except for Zn and Cd. The use of magnetic properties as proxy indicator for heavy metals content in leachate is plausible provided that the magnetic susceptibility exceeds certain threshold value. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and heavy metal content would be good if each quantity has a large value.

  11. Geochemical behavior of uranium mill tailings leachate in the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Leachate generated from surface disposal of acidic uranium mill tailings at Maybell, CO has impacted groundwater quality within the underlying mineralized Browns Park Formation. The extent of groundwater contamination, however, is located directly beneath the tailings impoundment. The milling process consisted of sulfuric acid extraction of uranium from the feed ore by a complex chemical leaching and precipitation process. Tailings leachate at the site contains elevated concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Mo, Ni, NO 3 , Se, U, and other solutes. From column leach tests, the concentrations of contaminants within tailings pore fluid are SO 4 >NH 4 >NO 3 >U>Se>Ni>As>Cd at pH 4.0. The carbonate buffering capacity of the tailings subsoil has decreased because of calcite dissolution in the presence of acidic leachate. Groundwater quality data, mineralogical and microbiological studies, and geochemical modeling suggest that As, NO 3 , Se, U and other solutes are being removed from solution through precipitation, adsorption, and denitrification processes under reducing conditions. Presence of hydrogen sulfide, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, dissolved organic, and abundant pyrite within the Browns Park Formations have maintained reducing conditions subjacent to the tailings impoundment. Groundwater is in close equilibrium with coffinite and uraninite, the primary U(IV) minerals extracted from the Browns Parks Formation. Denitrifying bacteria identified in this study catalyze redox reactions involving NO 3 . Subsequently, contaminant distributions of NO 3 decrease 1000 times beneath the tailings impoundment. Applying geochemical and biochemical processes occurring at Maybell provides an excellent model for in situ aquifer restoration programs considered at other uranium tailings and heavy-metal-mixed waste contaminated sites. (author) 4 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs

  12. Emissions and leachate recycling at Seutula landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degradation process and the leachate and gas emissions at Seutula landfill Vantaa The influences on leachate recycling to gas production and on the power production and also the influences on landfill water and the quality of leachate was found out. The situation at the landfill before leachate recirculation was studied. In the literature part of this study the landfill gas generation, different phases of the landfill and factors effecting them were examined. The quality of leachate, leachate recirculation and advantages of recirculation were studied. Different kind of gas collection methods, gas utilization, advantages and disadvantages of gas collection and the future of utilization were studied. Methods for measuring methane emissions through the landfill surface was a central part of the literature section. Also the future of measuring techniques were studied. In the experimental part of this study the quantity and quality of collected gas were measured. Also emitted methane was measured. Water samples were taken from landfill water and leachate during 1998. Samples were analysed in situ and in laboratory. The changes of landfill water height were measured. The degradation phase of the landfill varied, a part of waste filling was in an acidogenic phase and most part of it was in a stable methanogenic phase because the landfill is not homogenous. The concentration of landfill water and leachate are about the same than in Finland average. The most remarkable correlation from analysed results was between BOD/COD-ratio and temperature. When the temperature increased, the BOD/COD-ratio decreased. Emitted gas in the gas collection area was rather low, about 10 kW. The power production of the collected gas was in average 2 800 kW. In areas 1 and 3 where leachate was recirculated, the recovered gas efficiencies increased 55% and 70%, respectively, but in a reference area without recirculation the increase was 12%. Recommendation

  13. CFD modeling of hydro-biochemical behavior of MSW subjected to leachate recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Li, An-Zheng; Chen, Hong-Xin; Zheng, Qi-Teng

    2018-02-01

    The most commonly used method of operating landfills more sustainably is to promote rapid biodegradation and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) by leachate recirculation. The present study is an application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the 3D modeling of leachate recirculation in bioreactor landfills using vertical wells. The objective is to model and investigate the hydrodynamic and biochemical behavior of MSW subject to leachate recirculation. The results indicate that the maximum recirculated leachate volume can be reached when vertical wells are set at the upper middle part of a landfill (H W /H T  = 0.4), and increasing the screen length can be more helpful in enlarging the influence radius than increasing the well length (an increase in H S /H W from 0.4 to 0.6 results in an increase in influence radius from 6.5 to 7.7 m). The time to reach steady state of leachate recirculation decreases with the increase in pressure head; however, the time for leachate to drain away increases with the increase in pressure head. It also showed that methanogenic biomass inoculum of 1.0 kg/m 3 can accelerate the volatile fatty acid depletion and increase the peak depletion rate to 2.7 × 10 -6  kg/m 3 /s. The degradation-induced void change parameter exerts an influence on the processes of MSW biodegradation because a smaller parameter value results in a greater increase in void space.

  14. Leachate from market refuse and biomethanation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2007-12-01

    The market place is considered to be an important centre of daily life of campus community. In India, as in Europe and the USA, other forms of shopping have emerged significantly and now predominate, for instance department stores and supermarkets. Though, it is suffered from poor waste management, but the place could be a potential source for obtaining non-conventional energy. The present study examined the quality of market waste management of the Indian Institute of Technology Campus along with the feasibility of biogas production from leachate generated in the waste. Solid wastes from different storage locations of the market place were collected and analyzed. The characteristics of solid wastes were found to be degradable in nature. The wastes, composed of 85% of vegetable origin, were placed in a container and water was added to to generate leachate. The self-purification efficiency of leachate was also studied in the Indian environment and compared with research findings in the USA under an identical moisture application rate. Leachate characterization was investigated both under saturated and submerged conditions. The treatability of leachate was studied in a laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic filter with hollow burnt clay rings as packing media. It was observed that 4,000-6,000 mg/l would be the optimum range of inlet chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for leachate treatment because of the inhibitory effect of ammonia, sulphide, volatile fatty acids and toxic metals in high concentrations at higher strengths of leachate. The gas production rate was found to be at a maximum at 38 degrees C and containing 70-75% methane. From experimental data, it was revealed that 83% COD was removed with input COD concentration of 5,475 mg/l at 2 days hydraulic retention time with biogas yield coefficients of 0.61. The present study also investigated the removal efficiency of chloride, ammonia, sulphide and nitrate.

  15. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  16. Leachate characterization and performance evaluation of leachate treatment plant in Cipayung landfill, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerfitriyani, E.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.; Gusniani, I.

    2018-01-01

    The operation of landfill can cause environmental problems due to waste decomposition in the form of leachate production. Cipayung Landfill has a leachate treatment plant using stabilization ponds. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of stabilization ponds at Cipayung Landfill. The data were analyzed based on leachate samples from treatment unit’s influent and effluent under rainy season condition from April to May 2017. The results show the average leachate quality based on parameters of temperature by 34.81°C, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) of 72.33 mg/L, pH of 7.83, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 3,959.63 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 6,860 mg/L, Total Nitrogen of 373.33 mg/L, and heavy metal Mercury of 0.0016 mg/L. The treatment plant’s effluent quality exceeds the leachate standard limit based on Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry Law No. 59 of 2016. The results of design evaluation show that the anaerobic pond, facultative pond, and maturation pond system do not meet the design criteria. Therefore, a design improvement is needed to increase the performance of the leachate treatment plant and to ensure that the leachate discharged to water bodies does not exceed the standard limit to prevent contamination of the environment.

  17. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  18. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  19. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  20. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  1. Semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-continuous leachate treatment process was developed in the present study. The fresh leachate was obtained from a municipal solid waste transfer station and palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as sources of anaerobic microbial complex. The semi-continuous treatment of leachate was operated in two ...

  2. Metal Speciation in Landfill Leachates with a Focus on the Influence of Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F Claret; C Tournassat; C Crouzet; E Gaucher; T Schäfer; G Braibant; D Guyonnet

    2011-12-31

    This study characterizes the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  3. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  4. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility

  5. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  6. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains schematic drawings for the pipe fittings for the Hanford waste tanks. Included are the modifications to the W-025 trench number-sign 31 leachate loadout piping, and also the modifications to the tanker trailers. The piping was modified to prevent spillage to the environment. The tankers were modified for loading and unloading purposes

  7. The Evidence from Inclusions in Pumices for the Direct Degassing of Volatiles from the Magma to the Hydrothermal Fluids in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zenghui; ZHAI Shikui; ZHAO Guangtao

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the evidence in support of the direct magma degassing as the principal mechanism of volatilesreleasing into the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough, as contrasted to the argument for the hydrothermal strippingof volatiles from the volcanic rocks.Laser Raman microprobe and stepped-heating techniques are employed to determine the compositions and contents of thevolatiles in pumices in the middle Okinawa Trough. The results show that the volatiles are similar to the gases in the hy-drothermal fluids and hydrothermal minerals in composition, the mean percent content of each component and variationtrend. This indicates the direct influence of magma degassing on the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, the contents ofvolatiles in pumices are rather low and do not support the hydrothermal stripping as the main mechanism to enrich the fluidswith gases. The results are consistent with the idea that the direct magma degassing is more important than hydrothermalstripping in supplying gases to the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough.

  8. A potential new proxy for paleo-atmospheric pO2 from soil carbonate-hosted fluid inclusions applied to pristine Chinle soils from the Petrified Forest 1A core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M. F.; Pettitt, E.; Knobbe, T.

    2017-12-01

    Proxies for the concentration of O2 in the ancient atmosphere are scarce. We have developed a potential new proxy for ancient atmospheric O2 content based on soil carbonate-hosted fluid inclusions. Soils are in continuous atmospheric communication, and relatively static equilibration between soil gas and atmospheric gas during formation, such that a predictable amount of atmosphere infiltrates a soil. This atmosphere is trapped by inclusions during carbonate precipitation. Here we show that carbonate hosted fluid inclusions are faithful recorders of soil gas concentrations and isotope ratios, and specifically that soil O2 partial pressures can be derived from the total gas contents of these inclusions. Using carbonate nodules from a span of depths in a modern vertisol near Dallas, TX, as a test case, we employ an online crushing technique to liberate gases from soil carbonates into a small custom-built quadrupole mass spectrometer where all gases are measured in real time. We quantify the total oxygen content of the gas using a matrix-matched calibration, and define each species as a partial pressure of the total gas released from the nodule. Atmospheric pO2 is very simply derived from the soil-nodule partial pressures by accounting for the static productivity of the soil (using a small correction based on the CO2 concentration). When corrected for aqueous solubility using Henry's Law, these soil-carbonate hosted gas results reveal soil O2 concentrations that are comparable to modern-day dry atmosphere. Armed with this achievement in modern soils, and as a test on the applicability of the approach to ancient samples, we successfully apply the new proxy to nodules from the Late Triassic Chinle formation from the Petrified Forest National Park Core, taken as part of the Colorado Plateau Coring Project. Analysis of soil O2 from soil gas monitoring wells paired with measurements from contemporaneous soil carbonate nodules is needed to precisely calibrate the new proxy.

  9. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2018-02-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  10. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong

    2007-01-01

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  11. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  12. Effect of amendments addition on adsorption of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X. J.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Gu, J.; Wang, J. H.; Duan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The disposal of leachate has become one of the most pressing problems for landfills. This study taking three kinds of amendments, corn straw, mushroom residue and garden waste as adsorbent materials, evaluates the different amendments on the leachate adsorption effect through analyzing indicators as the saturation adsorption ratio, sulfur containing odor emission, heat value. The results showed that all three kinds of amendments can effectively adsorb leachate, with saturation adsorption ratio between 1: 2 and 1: 4. Adding amendment could significantly reduce the sulfur containing odor emission of leachate. Compared the three kinds of amendments, mushroom residue could adsorb leachate at a maximize degree with a low concentration of sulfur containing odor emission. The industrial analysis showed that the heat values of the amendments after absorbing leachate are more than 14MJ/kg, and it can be utilized as a biomass fuel.

  13. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate...... and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production...... of electricity and heat.The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost...

  14. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  15. Tritium distribution in leachates from domestic solid waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Kim, Jung Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Jong Gu; Kim, Won Ho

    2004-01-01

    It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH 4 + -N and Cl - . The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17∼1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below 0.45 μm. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with 0.45μm membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over 0.45μm. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill

  16. Assessment of leachates from uncontrolled landfill: Tangier case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmaghnougi I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill site of Tangier City is non-engineered low lying open dump. It has neither bottom liner nor leachate collection and treatment system. Therefore, all the leachate generated finds its paths into the surrounding environment Leachate samples of landfill site were collected and analyzed to estimate its pollution potential. The analyzed samples contained a high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds, beyond the permissible limits.

  17. Assessment of leachates from uncontrolled landfill: Tangier case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaghnougi, I.; Afilal Tribak, A.; Maatouk, M.

    2018-05-01

    Landfill site of Tangier City is non-engineered low lying open dump. It has neither bottom liner nor leachate collection and treatment system. Therefore, all the leachate generated finds its paths into the surrounding environment Leachate samples of landfill site were collected and analyzed to estimate its pollution potential. The analyzed samples contained a high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds, beyond the permissible limits.

  18. Monitoring of Leachate Recirculation in a Bioreactor Using Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, S.; Bureau, N.; Robain, H.; Tabbagh, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Guerin, R.

    2004-05-01

    The bioreactor is a concept of waste landfill management consisting in speeding up the biodegradation by optimizing the moisture content through leachate recirculation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is carried out with fast resistivity-meter (Syscal Pro, IRIS Instruments, developed in the framework of the research project CERBERE 01V0665-69, funded by the French Research Ministry) to monitor leachate recirculation. During a recirculation period waste moisture increases, so that electrical resistivity may decrease, but at the same time temperature and mineralization of both waste and leachate become intermixed. If waste temperature is much higher than leachate temperature electrical resistivity will not decrease as much as if the temperature difference was smaller. If leachate mineralization (i.e. leachate conductivity) is higher than that of wet waste in the landfill, electrical resistivity will tend to decrease. Otherwise for example after an addition of rain water into the leachate storage or in case of very wet waste, the resistivities of each medium (leachate and wet waste) can be almost the same, so that leachate mineralization will not have a great influence on waste resistivity. Resistivity measurements were performed during 85 minutes injection trials (with a discharge of 20 m3 h-1) where leachate was injected through a vertical borehole perforated between 1.85 and 4.15 m. Three first measurements are made during the injection (3, 30 and 60 minutes from the beginning of the injection) and the two other after the injection period (8 and 72 minutes after the end of the injection). Apparent and interpreted resistivity variations that occurred during injection trials, expressed as the relative differences (in %) between apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity during injection and apparent, respectively interpreted, resistivity before injection (reference measurement) show the formation of a plume (a negative anomaly: resistivity decreases with

  19. BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MOHAMMAD DARA GHASIMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from transfer station requires treatment before being discharged into the environment to avoid surface and underground water contamination. Various factors such as waste composition, availability of oxygen and moisture, designing and controlling of transfer station operations have been shown to affect the composition of the leachate. The high COD, BOD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and heavy metals contents of fresh leachate are the main problems faced by leachate treatment operators. The result of the present study indicated that this process reduced the COD content by 43%.The average removal efficiencies of BOD5, TS, TSS, and VSS were 80, 49, 37 and 39 %, respectively.

  20. Leachate migration and its impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y. S.

    1998-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsular and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. In this report current status of the landfill site related issues were studied along with potential solutions on them. Also the fundamental mathematical derivations to describe the movement of the leachate in geologic medium was studied. These results shall be used to assess the leachate migration in the specific landfill site in the 2nd R and D year

  1. Leachate migration and its impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S

    1998-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsular and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. In this report current status of the landfill site related issues were studied along with potential solutions on them. Also the fundamental mathematical derivations to describe the movement of the leachate in geologic medium was studied. These results shall be used to assess the leachate migration in the specific landfill site in the 2nd R and D year.

  2. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (<12.3 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the early quartz-sericite-albite-arsenopyrite assemblage, through lower temperature (290-330 °C) methane-dominated, low-salinity (˜9-10 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the intermediate quartz-sericite-albite-scheelite-pyrrhotite assemblage, to yet lower temperature (245-320 °C) CO2-dominated carbonic-aqueous low-salinity (˜1-7 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the late quartz-sericite-sulfide-Bi-Au assemblage. Recurrent fluid immiscibility (phase separation) and cooling probably affected W solubility and promoted scheelite deposition. The stable isotope data support a sedimentary source of carbon (δ13Cfluid = ˜-21 to -10

  3. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...

  4. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  5. levels of some physiochemical parameters in leachates from open

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based building materials and gypsum based materials changing the ... dumpsite leachates may be characterized as a water- ... The physical appearance of leachates from a typical ... “placing” waste in line pit or a mound with ... the quality of the urban environment. ... rinsed with distilled water before drying in the oven.

  6. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  7. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  8. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the concentration of Cd, Cu and Zn was not detected in the leachate but Fe was found to be in high concentration (184 mg/L) in raw leachate collected from a municipal landfill site. Therefore, the effects of biomass dosage, contact time, pH and agitation speed were observed for optimal adsorption of iron from ...

  9. The Effects of Leachate on Groundwater in Ota Industrial Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositions of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution were studied at industrial sites landfill, which are located at Ota, Nigeria. The leachate was sampled at 5 different locations at the landfill, and at 15 and 20 m downstream of the landfill. Groundwater samples were collected from 10 different sources to study the ...

  10. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  11. Characteristics of Leachate at Sukawinatan Landfill, Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusmartini, Eka Sri; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Ridwan; Marsi; Faizal

    2013-01-01

    Landfill (TPA) Sukawinatan Palembang is an open dumping system which covers an area of 25 hectares. This system may bring an environmental damage to the surrounding area because it does not provide leachate treatment. Leachate is the landfill waste that dissolves many compounds that contain pollutants from both organic substances and heavy metal origin. This paper presents the results of laboratory analysis on samples of leachate as well as shallow groundwater from the surrounding area. The results were compared to established quality standards to evaluate whether the leachate has influenced the quality of the shallow groundwater in the surrounding area. The results show that there are some indications that the quality of groundwater has been polluted by the leachate of both organic substances and heavy metals produced by the Sukawinatan landfill.

  12. Application of environmental isotopes to characterize landfill gases and leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Baker, J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been used to help characterize landfill gases and leachate for the purpose of identifying leachate and/or gas contamination in surrounding monitoring wells. Carbon isotopes (C-13/C-12 and C-14), hydrogen isotopes (H-3 and H-2/H-1) and oxygen isotopes (O-18/O-16) were used to characterize methane, carbon dioxide and leachate produced from two municipal landfills in northeastern Illinois. The isotopic results from the landfill-derived gases and leachate are compared to isotopic compositions of groundwater and gases from nearby monitoring wells. C-14 activity of landfill CH 4 is high compared to CH 4 normally found in subsurface sediments. For this study C-14 activities of the landfill methane range from 129--140 PMC. The C-14 of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the leachate samples also have relatively high activities, ranging from 126--141 PMC. The δC-13 and δD values for CH 4 from the landfills fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced by acetate-fermentation. The δC-13 of the CO 2 and the DIC are very positive, ranging from 8--14 per-thousand for CO 2 and 13--22 per-thousand for DIC. The δO-18 values of the leachates are similar to current meteoric water values, however, two of the leachate samples are significantly enriched in deuterium by approximately 65 per-thousand. Tritium values of the leachate water are generally higher than expected. For one landfill the tritium activity ranges from 227--338 TU, for the second landfill the tritium activity is approximately 1,300 TU. Compared to tritium levels in normal groundwater, these higher tritium values in the leachates indicate that this isotope has the potential to be an effective tracer for detecting leachate migration

  13. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Mortensen, Stig Skov

    of education. The article explores the relationship between Continental and Anglo-American educational theory, and why they seem to have developed in such distinct directions. Beginning with the Anglo-American perspective it is outlined how pedagogy and the so called educational interest became replaced...... and the politicisation of inclusive education, and a positive aim in the form of an argument for a move towards constructing a pedagogical ideal of inclusion....

  14. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D. [South Carolina Marine Resources Research Inst., Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  15. Mineralization, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope studies in the carbonate hosted Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit (NE Anarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi

    2015-10-01

    , crustification banding,andbotryoidaltexture. The host rock has undergone dolomitization alteration Hypogene minerals include chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, barite, and calcite. Supergene minerals include malachite, azurite, covellite, chrysocolla, chalcocite, cerussite, smithsonite, native copper and iron oxide minerals. Sulfantimonides and sulfardenides are abundant in low- and moderate temperature stages of the deposit, while bismuth sulfides generally occur in higher temperature ores, according to Malakhov, 1968. Analysis of rich ore samples indicates copper is the most abundant heavy metal in the ore (average 20.28 wt%, followed by zinc (average ~ 1 wt% and arsenic (average ~ 1 wt%, respectively. Thepresence of many trace elements in the ore, such as Sb, Pb, Ag and V, are very important. Element pairs such as Ag-Cu, Zn-Cd, Zn-Sb, Fe-V and Pb-Mo are correlated with each other. The Baqoroq ore minerals are rich in As, Sb and poor in Bi. Highamountsof antimony usually occur in a low temperature stage (Marshall and Joensuu, 1961. Malakhov (1968 suggested thata high Sb/Biratio in the ore indicates a low temperature of formation for the Baqoroq deposit. Sulfide mineralization fluids were found to have homogenization temperatures between 259 and 354°C and salinities between 8.37 and 13.18 wt% NaCl eq. Surface water apparently diluted theore-bearing fluids in the final stages and deposited sulfide-freecalcite veins at relatively low temperatures (78 to 112 °C and low salinities (3.59 to 6.07 wt% NaCl eq.. The δ34S values of barite of the Baqoroq deposit range from +13.1 to +14.37‰from whichδ34S values of ore fluids were calculated to vary between -8.57‰ and -7.23‰. Sulfur within natural environments is derived ultimately from either igneous or seawater sources (Ohmoto and Rye, 1979. Barite δ34S values of Baqoroq deposit lie within the range of Cretaceous-age oceanic sulfate values. The reduction of sulfate to sulfide couldhave been caused either by

  16. Natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation of landfill leachate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, X. Y.; Seow, T. W.; Lim, C. K.; Ibrahim, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Landfills used for solid waste management will lead to leachate production. Proper leachate management is highly essential to be paid attention to protect the environment and living organisms’ health and safety. In this study, the remedial strategies used for leachate management were natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation. All treatment samples were treated via 42-days combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment and the treatment efficiency was studied by measuring the removal rate of COD and ammonia nitrogen. In this study, all remedial strategies showed different degrees of contaminants removal. Lowest contaminants removal rate was achieved via bioaugmentation of B. panacihumi strain ZB1, which were 39.4% of COD and 37.6% of ammonia nitrogen removed from the leachate sample. Higher contaminants removal rate was achieved via natural attenuation and biostimulation. Native microbial population was able to remove 41% of COD and 59% of ammonia nitrogen from the leachate sample. The removal efficiency could be further improved via biostimulation to trigger microbial growth and decontamination rate. Through biostimulation, 58% of COD and 51.8% of ammonia nitrogen were removed from the leachate sample. In conclusion, natural attenuation and biostimulation should be the main choice for leachate management to avoid any unexpected impacts due to introduction of exogenous species.

  17. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  18. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  19. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  20. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S. [Denver Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2011-11-15

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but

  1. New technique for landfill leachate well installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornsby, R.G.; Miller, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The installation method fulfilled our expectations. The entire well installation took eight writing days to complete, for an average of two wells per day. It met our Health and Safety, waste volume, environmental risk and uniform sandpack expectations. Health and Safety concerns were minimal. We found that virtually all work could be completed using Level D protection. The volume of waste produced by the well installation was extremely low. The core samples and casing scrapings were the only well installation wastes directly produced. The waste containers which required sampling prior to disposal were: Decontaminated water (330 gallons), Personnel protective equipment and water (715 gallons), Soil cores (25 gallons), Land leachate (440 gallons). Each waste type was sampled and submitted to a laboratory for analyses of full Appendix 3 plus U.S. EPA toxicity parameters. The results verified that all of the wastes could be disposed of on-site. Since the only drilling wastes were the clay core samples and the very small amount of material adhering to the casing, contamination of the new clay cap did not occur. A uniform sandpack was guaranteed through the use of a presanded well screen. The loose sand added when the casing was removed served to fill any voids. All the leachate wells have water in them, and it appears that they will function adequately. We are in the process of constructing a treatment and storage facility to manage the liquids to be extracted for off-site disposal. The long-term effectiveness of the wells will be quantified. This well installation method should be considered in situations requiring the following: expedited installation; reduced Health and Safety concerns; reduced disposal costs; reduced potential for adverse environmental impact; and comparable installation costs. The choice of this method must include considerations of the subsurface geology and the nature of any manmade materials

  2. inclusions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Migórski

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we confirm the validity of some recent results of Hu, Lakshmikantham, Papageorgiou [4] and Papageorgiou [13] concerning the existence and relaxation for nonlinear evolution inclusions. We fill a gap in the proofs of these results due to the use of incorrect Nagy's compactness embedding theorem.

  3. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  4. Geo-electrical investigation of Leachate Impact on Groundwater: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: In the past few decades, disposal sites have been filled with household ... kinds of potentially dangerous industrial waste in an uncontrolled manner ... m from the studied area suggests that the leachate has not spread to this area,.

  5. Lithology, microstructures, fluid inclusions, and geochemistry of rock salt and of the cap-rock contact in Oakwood Dome, East Texas: significance for nuclear waste storage. Report of investigations No. 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, O.R.; Jackson, M.P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Oakwood salt dome in Leon and Freestone Counties, Texas, has a core composed of a diapiric salt stock at a depth of 355 m. A vertical borehole in the center of the salt stock yielded 57.3 m of continuous rock-salt core overlain by 137 m of anhydrite-calcite cap rock. The lower 55.3 m of rock salt exhibits a strong, penetrative schistosity and parallel cleavage dipping at 30 to 40 0 and more than 60 variably dipping layers of disseminated anhydrite. Anhydrite constitutes 1.3 +- 0.7 percent of the rock-salt core. The upper 2 m of rock salt is unfoliated, comprising a lower 1.4-m interval of medium-grained granoblastic rock salt and an upper 0.6-m interval of coarse-grained granoblastic rock salt. An abrupt, cavity-free contact separates rock salt from laminated cap rock consisting of granoblastic-polygonal anhydrite virtually devoid of halite or pore space. Microstructures and concentration gradients of fluid inclusions suggest that the unfoliated rock salt at the crest of the salt stock was once strongly foliated, but that this fabric was destroyed by solid-state recrystallization. Downward movement of brine from the rock-salt - cap-rock contact was apparently accompanied by two recrystallization fronts. Dissolution of halite at the contact released disseminated anhydrite that presumably accumulated as sand on the floor of the dissolution cavity. Renewed rise of the salt stock closed the cavity, and the anhydrite sand was accreted against the base of the cap rock. Much, if not all, of the lamination in the 80 m of anhydrite cap rock may result from cycles of dissolution, recrystallization, and upward movement in the salt stock, followed by accretion of anhydrite residuum as laminae against the base of the cap rock. These processes, which are strongly influenced by fluids, act both to breach waste repositories and to geologically isolate them

  6. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  7. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  8. Nitrous oxide flux from landfill leachate-sawdust nitrogenous compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.H.; So, M.K.; Lee, C.M.; Chan, G.Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Composted nitrogenous waste has the potential to produce excessive amounts of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent greenhouse gas that also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this laboratory study, sawdust was irrigated with varying amounts of landfill leachate with high NH 4 + -N content (3950 mg l -1 ). Physicochemical properties, including the amount of N 2 O produced, were monitored during the composting process over 28 days. A rapid decline in NH 4 + -N in the first 4 days and increasing NO 3 - -N for 11 days was followed by lower but stabilized levels of available-N, even with repeated leachate irrigation. Less than 0.03% of the leachate-applied N was lost as N 2 O. Higher leachate applications as much as tripled N 2 O production, but this represented a lesser proportion overall of the total nitrogen. Addition of glucose to the composting process had no significant effect on N 2 O production. The derived sawdust-leachate compost supported healthy growth of Sesbania rostrata. It is concluded that compost can be produced from sawdust irrigated with landfill leachate without substantial emission of N 2 O, although excessive flux of N 2 O remains about high application rates over longer time periods. (Author)

  9. Characterization of Leachate at Simpang Renggam Landfill Site, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailani, L. W. M.; Amdan, N. S. M.; Zin, N. S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the world facing a major problem in managed solid waste due to the increasing of solid waste. Malaysia, one of the country also involves in this matter which is 296 landfills are open to overcome this problem. Currently, the best alternative option to manage solid waste is by using landfilling method because it has low costing advantages. The disadvantage of landfill method, it might cause a pollution by producing leachate that will give an effect to the ground and surface water resources. This study focuses on analysing the leachate composition at Simpang Renggam Landfill(SRL) site for seven parameters such as COD, BOD, SS, turbidity, pH, BOD5/COD, and ammonia (NH3-N). All the data obtained were compared with previous researcher and Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974. From the result, SRL site was categorized as partially stabilized leachate with the parameter of BOD5/COD > 0.1. The SRL site is recommended to use a physical-chemical method for a better treatment because the leachate composition is classified as old leachate and aerated lagoon method are not satisfied to be used in treating the aging leachate at SRL site.

  10. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  11. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  12. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Iden, C.R.; Nine, B.; Chang, C.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14 C, 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 137 Cs, 60 Co, 241 Am, and 238 239 240 Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  13. Environmental Isotope Characteristics of Landfill Leachates and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Coleman, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate and gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are unique relative to the aqueous and gaseous media in most other natural geologic environments. The ??13 C of the CO2 in landfills is significantly enriched in 13C, with values as high as +20??? reported. The ?? 13C and ??D values of the methane fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced primarily by the acetate-fermentation process. The ??D of landfill leachate is strongly enriched in deuterium, by approximately 30??? to nearly 60??? relative to local average precipitation values. This deuterium enrichment is undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of a landfill. The concentration of the radiogenic isotopes, 14C and 3H, are significantly elevated in both landfill leachate and methane. The 14C values range between approximately 120 and 170 pMC and can be explained by the input of organic material that was affected by the increased 14C content of atmospheric CO2 caused by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. The tritium measured in leachate, however, is often too high to be explained by previous atmospheric levels and must come from material buried within the landfill. The unique isotopic characteristics observed in landfill leachates and gases provide a very useful technique for confirming whether contamination is from a municipal landfill or some other local source.

  14. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  15. The effect of landfill age on municipal leachate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2008-09-01

    The influence of municipal landfill age on temporal changes in municipal leachate quality on the basis of elaboration of 4 years monitoring of leachate from landfill in Wysieka near Bartoszyce (Poland) is presented in this study. In leachate, concentrations of organic compounds (COD, BOD(5)), nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus), mineral compounds, heavy metals and BTEX were investigated. It was shown that the principal pollutants in leachate were organics and ammonia - as landfill age increased, organics concentration (COD) in leachate decreased from 1,800 mg COD/l in the second year of landfill exploitation to 610 mg COD/l in the sixth year of exploitation and increase of ammonia nitrogen concentration from 98 mg N(NH)/l to 364 mg N(NH4) /l was observed. Fluctuation of other indexes (phosphorus, chlorides, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, dissolved solids, heavy metals, BTEX) depended rather on season of the year (seasonal variations) than landfill age. Moreover, the obtained data indicate that despite of short landfill's lifetime some parameters e.g. high pH (on average 7.84), low COD concentration (metal concentration, indicated that the landfill was characterized by methanogenic conditions already at the beginning of the monitoring period.

  16. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation

  17. Characteristic of leachate at Alor Pongsu Landfill Site, Perak, Malaysia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Farhana Zakaria, Siti; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a harmful by product generated from the landfill site. Leachate contains a high concentration of pollutant which can cause serious pollution to environmental. In this study, characteristics of leachate in Alor Pongsu Landfill Site (APLS) were monitored and analyzed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2005). Composition in leachate at APLS was monitored for one year starting from January 2015 until January 2016. Nine parameters were monitored including color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solid (TDS) and pH. Based on the analysis, Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate was categorized as stabilized landfill leachate by referring to the BOD5/COD < 0.1. Comparison with allowable discharge limits for leachate shows that most of parameters exceeded the standard discharge limitation. Thus, proper treatment is needed before leachate can be discharged to the environment.

  18. Landfill Leachate Treatment by Electrocoagulation and Fiber Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runwei; Wang, Boya; Owete, Owete; Dertien, Joe; Lin, Chen; Ahmad, Hafiz; Chen, Gang

    2017-11-01

      Landfilling is widely adopted as one of the most economical processes for solid waste disposal. At the same time, landfill leachate is also a great environmental concern owing to its complex composition and high concentrations of contaminants. This research investigated electrocoagulation and fiber filtration for the treatment of landfill leachate. Besides electrical current (i.e., current density) and reaction time, pH played a very important role in arsenic and phosphorus removal by electrocoagulation. The combination of electrocoagulation with fiber filtration achieved a 94% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 87% arsenic, 96% iron, and 86% phosphorus removal. During electrocoagulation, the micro-particles that could not be settled by gravity were removed by the first stage of fiber filtration. Organic contaminants in the leachate were further removed by biodegradation in the second stage of fiber biofiltration.

  19. Chlorine Isotope Evidence for Syn-Subduction Modification of Serpentinites by Interaction with Sediment-Derived Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverstone, J.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-12-01

    High-pressure serpentinites and rodingites and high- to ultrahigh-pressure metasedimentary rocks from the Aosta region, Italy, preserve strikingly different chlorine isotope compositions that can be used to constrain the nature of fluid-rock interactions during subduction. Serpentinites and rodingitized gabbroic dikes subducted to 70-80 km have bulk δ37Cl values between -1.6 and +0.9‰ (median= -0.5‰, n=26 plus 5 replicates; one amphibole-vein outlier at -2.9‰). Serpentinite δ37Cl values are positively correlated with Cr ± Cl contents (r2= 0.97 and 0.58) and negatively correlated with CaO (r2=0.72). BSE imaging and X-ray mapping reveal up to three generations of compositionally distinct serpentine and chlorite in single samples. The youngest generation, which is most abundant, has the lowest chlorine content. Three rodingite samples contain abundant texturally early fluid inclusions. These samples were finely crushed and leached in 18 MΩ H2O to extract water-soluble chlorides. The leachates, which are assumed to record the compositions of the fluid inclusions, have δ37Cl values that are 0.7-1.5‰ lower than the corresponding bulk rock values. Leachate from the outlier amph-magnesite vein is indistinguishable from the bulk value at -2.7‰. There is almost no overlap between the Cl isotope compositions of HP serp/rod samples and associated HP/UHP metasedimentary rocks. Calcmica schists, diamond-bearing Mn nodules, and impure marbles subducted to >130 km and calcmica schists and Mn crusts transported to 70-80 km have δ37Cl values between -4.5 and -1.5‰ (median= -2.7‰, n=25 plus 7 replicates; two outlier points at -0.5‰). Primary fluid inclusions in the diamondiferous samples contain carbonate- and silicate-bearing aqueous fluids with very low chloride contents (Frezzotti et al., 2011, Nature Geosci). Taken together, these data record a history of progressive modification of serpentinites and rodingites by mixing with low-δ37Cl, low-Cl, high

  20. Choosing tree genotypes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate using phyto-recurrent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Information about the response of poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes to landfill leachate irrigation is needed, along with efficient methods for choosing genotypes based on leachate composition. Poplar clones were irrigated during three cycles of phyto-recurrent selection to test whether genotypes responded differently to leachate and water, and to test...

  1. Establishment and early growth of Populus hybrids irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Jill A. Zalesny

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for tree establishment and growth when irrigated with municipal solid waste landfill leachate. We evaluated the potential for establishment on leachate-irrigated soils by testing: 1) aboveground growth of hybrid poplar during repeated irrigation with landfill leachate and 2) aboveground and belowground biomass after 70 d...

  2. Impact of Leachate Discharge from Cipayung Landfill on Water Quality of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerfitriyani, Eki; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The landfill operation can cause environmental problems due to solid waste decomposition in the form of leachate. The evaluation of environmental impacts related with solid waste landfilling is needed to ensure that leachate discharge to water bodies does not exceed the standard limit to prevent contamination of the environment. This study aims to analyze the impact of leachate discharge from Cipayung Landfill on water quality of Pesanggrahan River. The data were analyzed based on leachate samples taken from influent and effluent treatment unit, and river water samples taken from upstream, stream at leachate discharge, and downstream. All samples were taken three times under rainy season condition from April to May 2017. The results show the average leachate quality temperature is 34,81 °C, TSS 72.33 mg/L, pH 7.83, BOD 3,959.63 mg/L, COD 6,860 mg/L, TN 373.33 mg/L, Hg 0.0016 mg/L. The BOD5/COD ratio 0.58 indicated that leachate characteristics was biodegradable and resemble intermediate landfill due to the mixing of young leachate and old leachate. The effluent of leachate treatment plant exceeds the leachate standard limit for BOD, COD, and TN parameters. Statistical results from independent T-test showed significant differences (p<0,05) between upstream and downstream influenced with leachate discharge for DO parameter.

  3. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....... content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic...

  4. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  5. A feruloyl esterase derived from a leachate metagenome library

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A feruloyl esterase encoding gene (designated fae6), derived from a leachate metagenomic library, was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the insert DNA determined. Translational analysis revealed that fae6 consists of a 515 amino acid polypeptide...

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite formation. CC Camargo1, JR Guimarães1 and AL Tonetti1*. 1School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, FEC/UNICAMP, Avenida Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitária 'Zeferino Vaz',. PO Box 6021, 13083-852, Campinas, SP, ...

  7. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of solid waste leachates: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... There is need for a shift from waste disposal to sustainable waste management. Awareness on possible health ... Key words: Solid waste leachate, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, environmental pollution. INTRODUCTION. Solid wastes .... landfills and incineration residues from Japan include persistent organic ...

  8. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water.

  9. Removal of trace elements from landfill leachate by calcite precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Zelená, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Coufal, P.; Bezdička, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, 1-3 (2006), s. 28-31 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3111402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : landfill leachate * calcite * scavenging Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2006

  10. Improvement of landfill leachate biodegradability with ultrasonic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    Full Text Available Landfills leachates are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as pre-treatment to convert initially biorecalcitrant compounds to more readily biodegradable intermediates. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of ultrasonic process on biodegradability improvement. After the optimization by factorial design, the ultrasonic were applied in the treatment of raw leachates using a batch wise mode. For this, different scenarios were tested with regard to power intensities of 70 and 110 W, frequencies of 30, 45 and 60 KHz, reaction times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and pH of 3, 7 and 10. For determining the effects of catalysts on sonication efficiencies, 5 mg/l of TiO(2 and ZnO have been also used. Results showed that when applied as relatively brief pre-treatment systems, the sonocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix, which results in significant enhancement of its biodegradability. For this reason, the integrated chemical-biological systems proposed here represent a suitable solution for the treatment of landfill leachate samples.

  11. Lead and chromium removal from leachate using horsetail (Equisetum hyemale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kurniati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has been widely used for wastewater treatment technology. Horsetail was investigated for its capacity to remediate lead and chromium in leachate. This plant seemed to be an effective choice for phytoremediation due to its survival in extreme to moderate conditions, the availability of annual or perennial varieties and a deep root system. Conducted in a greenhouse, this research used leachate from final disposal. The leachate was exposed to six treated plants with three multiplications using activated natural zeolite media for one month. The treatments were flow system i.e. batch and continue, and living plants weight that is 0, 153 and 306 g planted in 20 cm diameter and 30 cm deep pots. The leachate pH, temperature, lead, and chromium concentration were observed and also the surrounding temperature and humidity. Results showed that 82.2% of lead can be removed by 153 gram horsetail on batch system as well as 61.2% chromium removal by 153 gram horsetail on continue system. Horsetail seemed to have future to be applied in phytoremediation of artisanal and small scale mining waste.

  12. Treatment of landfill leachate using Solar UV facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst and the process was facilitated by ultra violet radiation (UV) from sunlight. Characterisation of the raw ...

  13. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  14. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  15. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  16. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  17. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...

  18. Characterization and tropical seasonal variation of leachate: results from landfill lysimeter studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to characterize the leachate and to investigate the tropical climatic influence on leachate characteristics of lysimeter studies under different seasonal variations at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored since June 2008 to May 2010, these periods cover both the dry and rainy season. The leachate generation had followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and TKN load, while both the COD concentration and load was higher compared with sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C. In addition, sanitary landfill lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produces reasonable low COD concentration and load compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and providing remedial measures of proper liner system in sanitary landfill design and leachate treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaown, D.; Kim, H.; Lee, S.; Hyun, Y.; Moon, H.; Ko, K.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    The release of leachate from animal carcass disposal can potentially contaminate soil and groundwater. During the Korea's foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in 2010-2011, about 3.53 million of pigs and cattle were slaughtered and 4,538 burial sites were constructed. The objectives of this study are to determine the hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass disposal. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and bacterial community diversity in leachate from animal carcass burial facilities were monitored to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build effective plans for stabilization of the burial site. Two burial sites were investigated in this study. An animal carcass disposal site is located in a flat area and another disposal site is found in mountain area. The hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics were analyzed to identify groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. After 5-6 months of burial, the concentrations of NH4+, Cl-, and HCO3- in leachate were decreased since the leachate was regularly pumped and treated. However, high concentrations of major contaminants (NH4+, Cl-, and HCO3-) were still observed in landfill leachate of mountain area even though pumping and treatment of leachate were continuously conducted. Bacterial community diversity over time in leachate from animal carcass disposal was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. The impact of landfill leachate on change of bacterial community in soil and groundwater were monitored for a year.

  20. Biological treatment of closed landfill leachate treatment by using Brevibacillus panacihumi strain ZB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, X. Y.; Seow, T. W.; Lim, C. K.; Ibrahim, Z.; Mat Sarip, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Landfills are widely used for solid waste disposal due to cost effectiveness and ease of operation. Poor landfill management generally accompanied with production of toxic leachate. Leachate refers to heavily polluted liquid produced due to waste decomposition and rainwater percolation. Direct discharge of untreated leachate into the environment will lead to environmental degradation and health hazards. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of leachate biological treatment by B. panacihumi strain ZB1. In this study, leachate wastewater was treated by B. panacihumi strain ZB1 via 42-days anaerobic-aerobic treatment. Leachate characterization of both raw and treated samples was carried out based on ammonia nitrogen content, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metal content. Through leachate characterization, raw leachate carried high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (1977 mg/L), COD (5320 mg/L) and certain heavy metals exceeding discharge standard. From this study, B. panacihumi strain ZB1 able to remove COD nearly 40%, ammonia nitrogen nearly 50% and different degrees of heavy metals from the leachate sample after combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment. As a result, B. panacihumi strain ZB1was expected to treat the leachate wastewater with certain treatment efficiency via combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment.

  1. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  2. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-01-01

    The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations ...

  3. Mapping leachates and subsurface structures using different geophysical methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkels, David; Åberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The enrichment of ore produces large amounts of sulfur and metal-rich residual waste called tailings, which need to be deposited and stored for a long time. When the tailing is oxidized, large amounts of protons and metals are dissolved and diffuse to the groundwater. This poses a major environmental threat to biological life forms in the downstream ecosystem (Karltorp, 2008). In this study, leachate plumes and geological structures surrounding the tailings impoundment at the Kringelgruvan mi...

  4. Ozonation of a pretreated landfill leachate: evaluation of recalcitrance removal

    OpenAIRE

    Van Aken, Pieter; Lambert, Nico; Luyten, Jan; Degrève, Jan; Liers, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The sanitary landfill method for the ultimate disposal of solid waste material continues to be widely accepted and used due to its economic advantages. However, water infiltrates through the solid waste and a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants will be dissolved and transported. These leachates may contain large amounts of organic matter, as well as ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. The removal of organic material is usual the prerequisite before...

  5. Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowkonowicz, Paweł; Kijeńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years.

  6. Applicability of anaerobic membrane bioreactors for landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuabdou, Salahaldin M. A.; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Aun, Ng Choon; Sethupathi, Sumathi

    2018-04-01

    Sanitary landfilling is nowadays the most common way to eliminate municipal solid wastes (MSW). The resulted landfill leachate is a highly contaminated liquid. Even small quantities of this high-strength leachate can cause serious damage to surface and ground water receptors. Thus, these leachates must be appropriately treated before being discharged into the environment. In the last years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for leachate treatment due to the significant advantages. In the last decade, many studies have been conducted in which various types of anaerobic reactors were used in combination with membranes. This paper is a review of the potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology for municipal landfill leachate treatment. A critical review in AnMBR performance interesting landfill leachate in lab scale is also done. In addition, the review discusses the impact of the various factors on both biological and filtration performances of anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

  7. Treatment of leachate by electrocoagulation using aluminum and iron electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Fatih; Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer; Gonullu, M Talha

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, treatment of leachate by electrocoagulation (EC) has been investigated in a batch process. The sample of leachate was supplied from Odayeri Landfill Site in Istanbul. Firstly, EC was compared with classical chemical coagulation (CC) process via COD removal. The first comparison results with 348 A/m2 current density showed that EC process has higher treatment performance than CC process. Secondly, effects of process variables such as electrode material, current density (from 348 to 631 A/m2), pH, treatment cost, and operating time for EC process are investigated on COD and NH4-N removal efficiencies. The appropriate electrode type search for EC provided that aluminum supplies more COD removal (56%) than iron electrode (35%) at the end of the 30 min operating time. Finally, EC experiments were also continued to determine the efficiency of ammonia removal, and the effects of current density, mixing, and aeration. All the findings of the study revealed that treatment of leachate by EC can be used as a step of a joint treatment.

  8. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  9. Biosorption of gold from computer microprocessor leachate solutions using chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Letícia N; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2015-11-01

    The biosorption of gold from discarded computer microprocessor (DCM) leachate solutions was studied using chitin as a biosorbent. The DCM components were leached with thiourea solutions, and two procedures were tested for recovery of gold from the leachates: (1) biosorption and (2) precipitation followed by biosorption. For each procedure, the biosorption was evaluated considering kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects. The general order model was able to represent the kinetic behavior, and the equilibrium was well represented by the BET model. The maximum biosorption capacities were around 35 mg g(-1) for both procedures. The biosorption of gold on chitin was a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It was found that precipitation followed by biosorption resulted in the best gold recovery, because other species were removed from the leachate solution in the precipitation step. This method enabled about 80% of the gold to be recovered, using 20 g L(-1) of chitin at 298 K for 4 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  11. Domestic wells have high probability of pumping septic tank leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2012-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common in rural and semi-rural areas around the world; in the US, about 25-30% of households are served by a septic (onsite) wastewater treatment system, and many property owners also operate their own domestic well nearby. Site-specific conditions and local groundwater flow are often ignored when installing septic systems and wells. In areas with small lots (thus high spatial septic system densities), shallow domestic wells are prone to contamination by septic system leachate. Mass balance approaches have been used to determine a maximum septic system density that would prevent contamination of groundwater resources. In this study, a source area model based on detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling is applied for a stochastic analysis of domestic well contamination by septic leachate. Specifically, we determine the probability that a source area overlaps with a septic system drainfield as a function of aquifer properties, septic system density and drainfield size. We show that high spatial septic system density poses a high probability of pumping septic system leachate. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer has a strong influence on the intersection probability. We find that mass balance calculations applied on a regional scale underestimate the contamination risk of individual drinking water wells by septic systems. This is particularly relevant for contaminants released at high concentrations, for substances that experience limited attenuation, and those that are harmful even at low concentrations (e.g., pathogens).

  12. Domestic wells have high probability of pumping septic tank leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Bremer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common in rural and semi-rural areas around the world; in the US, about 25–30% of households are served by a septic (onsite wastewater treatment system, and many property owners also operate their own domestic well nearby. Site-specific conditions and local groundwater flow are often ignored when installing septic systems and wells. In areas with small lots (thus high spatial septic system densities, shallow domestic wells are prone to contamination by septic system leachate. Mass balance approaches have been used to determine a maximum septic system density that would prevent contamination of groundwater resources. In this study, a source area model based on detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling is applied for a stochastic analysis of domestic well contamination by septic leachate. Specifically, we determine the probability that a source area overlaps with a septic system drainfield as a function of aquifer properties, septic system density and drainfield size. We show that high spatial septic system density poses a high probability of pumping septic system leachate. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer has a strong influence on the intersection probability. We find that mass balance calculations applied on a regional scale underestimate the contamination risk of individual drinking water wells by septic systems. This is particularly relevant for contaminants released at high concentrations, for substances that experience limited attenuation, and those that are harmful even at low concentrations (e.g., pathogens.

  13. Hybrid process, electrocoagulation-biofiltration for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Oumar; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino

    2018-05-01

    Landfill leachates are known for their high and complex composition of organic, inorganic and microbial pollutants. As a result, it is quite challenging to treat these effluents by using only one treatment process. A combining approach is generally required to treat efficiently these wastewaters and comply with the discharge standards. In this present study, electrocoagulation (EC) and biofiltration (BF) processes were sequentially used to treat landfill leachate. EC process has been able to remove 37 ± 2% of the initial total COD. A fractionation of organic compounds showed that EC was particularly efficient to remove insoluble COD and humic acids. In addition, other pollutants such as turbidity, true color, Zn and phosphorus were significantly reduced by EC with 82 ± 2.7%, 60 ± 13%, 95 ± 2.6% and 82 ± 5.5% of removal respectively. The subsequent treatment by BF process led to completely removal of ammonia pollution (>99% of NH 4 removal) and a partial removal of dissolved organic compounds (42 ± 7% of COD removal). The hybrid process EC/BF could form the basis of a process capable of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from many refractory wastewaters (mature landfill leachates, industrial and municipal wastewaters). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  15. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  16. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil; Inclusoes fluidas nos minerais associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida do Engenho (Anomalia 09), provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de

    2009-07-01

    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO{sub 2} showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal

  17. Evaluation of adsorption and Fenton-adsorption processes for landfill leachate treatment

    OpenAIRE

    San Pedro-Cedillo, L.; Méndez-Novelo, R.I.; Rojas-Valencia, M.N.; Barceló-Quintal, M.; Castillo-Borges, E.R.; Sauri-Riancho, M.R.; Marrufo-Gómez, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the adsorption and Fenton-adsorption treatments for the removal of contaminants in leachate from landfills and thus determine the most efficient one. The adsorption process with granular activated carbon was tested in two types of samples: raw leachate and leachate treated by Fenton. The results showed color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates higher than 99% through the Fenton-adsorption proc...

  18. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  19. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effects of leachate concentration on the integrity of solidified clay liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of landfill leachate concentration on the degradation behaviour of solidified clay liners and to propose a viable mechanism for the observed degradation. The results indicated that the unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased significantly, while the hydraulic conductivity increased with the leachate concentration. The large pore proportion in the solidified clay increased and the sum of medium and micro pore proportions decreased, demonstrating that the effect on the solidified clay was evident after the degradation caused by exposure to landfill leachate. The unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased with increasing leachate concentration as the leachate changed the compact structure of the solidified clay, which are prone to deformation and fracture. The hydraulic conductivity and the large pore proportion of the solidified clay increased with the increase in leachate concentration. In contrast, the sum of medium and micro pore proportions showed an opposite trend in relation to leachate concentration, because the leachate gradually caused the medium and micro pores to form larger pores. Notably, higher leachate concentrations resulted in a much more distinctive variation in pore proportions. The hydraulic conductivity of the solidified clay was closely related to the size, distribution, and connection of pores. The proportion of the large pores showed a positive correlation with the increase of hydraulic conductivity, while the sum of the proportions of medium and micro pores showed a negative correlation.

  1. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study: Volume 2, Modeling, monitoring and evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills landfill, located on the western shore of Staten Island, New York. The 3000-acre facility, owned and operated by the City of New York, has been developed into four distinct mounds that correspond to areas designated as Sections 1/9, 2/8, 3/4 and 6/7. In developing a comprehensive leachate management plan, the estimating leachate flow rates is important in designing appropriate treatment alternatives to reduce the offsite migration that pollutes both surface water and groundwater resources.Estimating the leachate flow rates from Sections 1/9 and 6/7 was given priority using an available model, hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP), and a new model, flow investigation for landfill leachate (FILL). The field-scale analysis for leachate flow included data collection of the leachate mound-level from piezometers and monitoring wells installed on-site, for six months period. From the leachate mound-head contours and flow-gradients, Leachate flow rates were computed using Darcy`s Law.

  3. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  4. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2018-03-01

    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  5. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  6. Landfill leachate as a mirror of today's disposable society: Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in final leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Final leachates (leachate after storage or treatment processes) from 22 landfills in 12 states were analyzed for 190 pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), which were detected in every sample, with the number of CECs ranging from 1 to 58 (median = 22). In total, 101 different CECs were detected in leachate samples, including 43 prescription pharmaceuticals, 22 industrial chemicals, 15 household chemicals, 12 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 5 steroid hormones, and 4 animal/plant sterols. The most frequently detected CECs were lidocaine (91%, local anesthetic), cotinine (86%, nicotine degradate), carisoprodol (82%, muscle relaxant), bisphenol A (77%, component of plastics and thermal paper), carbamazepine (77%, anticonvulsant), and N,N-diethyltoluamide (68%, insect repellent). Concentrations of CECs spanned 7 orders of magnitude, ranging from 2.0 ng/L (estrone) to 17 200 000 ng/L (bisphenol A). Concentrations of household and industrial chemicals were the greatest (∼1000-1 000 000 ng/L), followed by plant/animal sterols (∼1000-100 000 ng/L), nonprescription pharmaceuticals (∼100-10 000 ng/L), prescription pharmaceuticals (∼10-10 000 ng/L), and steroid hormones (∼10-100 ng/L). The CEC concentrations in leachate from active landfills were significantly greater than those in leachate from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.05). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p landfills than in leachate released to groundwater from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.04). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p = 0.06) in the fresh leachate (leachate before storage or treatment) reported in a previous study compared with the final leachate sampled for the present study.

  7. Report on survey in fiscal 1999 for promotion of geothermal development. Supplementary survey on data processing (fluid inclusion test) for Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa (ryutai gan'yubutsu shiken nado) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports the fluid inclusion test in the Tsujinodake area in fiscal 1998 for the survey on promotion of geothermal development. The fluid inclusions were classified into three types: those with the maximum value or the average value of the homogenizing temperature agreeing nearly with the saturated boiling curve, those with the homogenizing temperature showing the interim temperature between the present well temperature and the saturated boiling curve, and those agreeing nearly with the present well temperature. It is presumed that the bed temperatures in depths of 1,125.30 m and 1,427.50 m have changed very little since after formation of the present circulating and flowing systems of geothermal waters until now. In contrast at the depth of 1,691.75 m, the bed temperature was estimated to have fallen slightly from that in the most active period of the geothermal water activities. As a result of the rock age measurement, it is estimated that, in the Nansatsu bed groups distributing around the N10-TD-1 well, the temperature has fallen gradually after having been subjected to hot water alteration actions at higher than 200 degrees C, and cooling has taken place down to 200 to 250 degrees C as the fission track date temperature of zircon in the relatively late period (about several hundred thousand years before). There should have been no thermal change that affects the age measurement up to now since then. (NEDO)

  8. Social imaginaries and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...

  9. Fate and distribution of nitrogen in soil and plants irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Y; Chu, L M

    2011-06-01

    Landfill leachate contains a high concentration of ammoniacal substances which can be a potential supply of N for plants. A bioassay was conducted using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the leachate sample. A soil column experiment was then carried out in a greenhouse to study the effect of leachate on plant growth. Two grasses (Paspalum notatum and Vetiver zizanioides) and two trees (Hibiscus tiliaceus and Litsea glutinosa) were irrigated with leachate at the EC50 levels for 12 weeks. Their growth performance and the distribution of N were examined and compared with columns applied with chemical fertilizer. With the exception of P. notatum, plants receiving leachate and fertilizer grew better than those receiving water alone. The growth of L. glutinosa and V. zizanioides with leachate irrigation did not differ significantly from plants treated with fertilizer. Leachate irrigation significantly increased the levels of NH(x)-N in soil. Although NO(x)-N was below 1 mg NL(-1) in the leachate sample, the soil NO(x)-N content increased by 9-fold after leachate irrigation, possibly as a result of nitrification. Leachate irrigation at EC50 provided an N input of 1920 kg N ha(-1) over the experimental period, during which up to 1050 kg N ha(-1) was retained in the soil and biomass, depending on the type of vegetation. The amount of nutrient added seems to exceed beyond the assimilative capability. Practitioners should be aware of the possible consequence of N saturation when deciding the application rate if leachate irrigation is aimed for water reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation data set shares the status of action items under the Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation. Each action or project has been assigned...

  11. Teachers becoming inclusive practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , construct their identities in the light of inclusive education, and how they negotiate the tensions and contradictions emerging from the processof becoming inclusive practitioners. Central to this discussion is the understanding that teachers' ...

  12. Leachate flow around a well in MSW landfill: Analysis of field tests using Richards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, R; Oxarango, L; Sbartai, B; Tinet, A-J; Olivier, F; Dias, D

    2017-05-01

    During the lifespan of a Municipal Solid Waste landfill, its leachate drainage system may get clogged. Then, as a consequence of rainfall, leachate generation and possibly leachate injection, the moisture content in the landfill increases to the point that a leachate mound could be created. Therefore, pumping the leachate becomes a necessary solution. This paper presents an original analysis of leachate pumping and injection in an instrumented well. The water table level around the well is monitored by nine piezometers which allow the leachate flow behaviour to be captured. A numerical model based on Richards equation and an exponential relationship between saturated hydraulic conductivity and depth is used to analyze the landfill response to pumping and injection. Decreasing permeability with depth appears to have a major influence on the behaviour of the leachate flow. It could have a drastic negative impact on the pumping efficiency with a maximum quasi-stationary pumping rate limited to approximately 1m 3 /h for the tested well and the radius of influence is less than 20m. The numerical model provides a reasonable description of both pumping and injection tests. However, an anomalous behaviour observed at the transition between pumping and recovery phases is observed. This could be due to a limitation of the Richards model in that it neglects the gas phase behaviour and other double porosity heterogeneous effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-01-15

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data.

  14. Phytotoxicity data safeguard the performance of the recipient plants in leachate irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Leachates from an operating and a closed landfill were examined for their phytotoxicity by seed germination/root elongation tests using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne. Their EC50s ranged from 3% to 46% v/v, which varied remarkably with the operating status of the landfills. Seedlings of twelve tree species were grown in pots, which were irrigated with landfill leachate at the EC50 levels, with tap water as control. No tree mortality or growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of leachate application. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement also showed that plants receiving leachate did not suffer from a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Litsea glutinosa and Hibiscus tiliaceus had remarkable growth, and other non-N-fixers were not inferior to the N-fixing Acacia auriculiformis. Leachate irrigation improved soil N content, though P deficiency is still a problem. The seed bioassay provided a conservative estimate of the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate. Plants irrigated can be protected from growth inhibition when the leachate irrigation plan is designed with reference to phytotoxicity data. - Irrigated plants could be benefited by leachate when the application rate was determined according to phytotoxicity data

  15. Evaluation of leachate dissolved organic nitrogen discharge effect on wastewater effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen is limited more and more frequently in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents because of the concern of causing eutrophication in discharge waters. Twelve leachates from eight landfills in Florida and California were characterized for total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average concentration of TN and DON in leachate was approximately 1146mg/L and 40mg/L, respectively. Solid-phase extraction was used to fractionate the DON based on hydrophobic (recalcitrant fraction) and hydrophilic (bioavailable fraction) chemical properties. The average leachate concentrations of bioavailable (bDON) and recalcitrant (rDON) DON were 16.5mg/L and 18.4mg/L, respectively. The rDON fraction was positively correlated, but with a low R 2 , with total leachate apparent color dissolved UV 254 , chemical oxygen demand (COD), and humic acid (R 2 equals 0.38, 0.49, and 0.40, respectively). The hydrophobic fraction of DON (rDON) was highly colored. This fraction was also associated with over 60% of the total leachate COD. Multiple leachate and wastewater co-treatment simulations were carried out to assess the effects of leachate on total nitrogen wastewater effluent quality using removals for four WWTPs under different scenarios. The calculated pass through of DON suggests that leachate could contribute to significant amounts of nitrogen discharged to aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Akkaya, Ebru; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits

  17. Physiological responses of Vetiver plant (Vetiver zizanioides to municipal waste leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mohsenzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver plant is tolerant to acidity and temperature variations. Has rapid growth for biomass production and has high tolerance to organic and non-organic compounds in municipal waste leachate for example heavy metals. So this plant is good for landfill cultivation. In this study, physiological responses to municipal waste leachate were studied. Statistical design was a randomized complete block and each block treated with different concentrations of latex at levels of zero, 15, 30, 45 and 60 percent compared to the original latex waste. The leachate collected from the Shiraz landfill and brought into the greenhouse. The physiological characterization including leaf area, dry weight, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, proline, soluble sugars and total protein were measured. The result indicated that the dry weight, chlorophyll and anthocyanin decrease with increasing of latex concentration. The leaf area, leaf relative water, soluble sugars and total protein increased with increasing latex concentration. Proline concentration at 15 percent of leachate increased significantly compared to controls, whereas at higher concentrations decreased. According to the results, it is recommended that 45 percent of leachate in a landfill can be used to irrigate Vetiver. This is the maximum concentration of leachate that Vetiver plant can survive as green space. Primary filtration of leachate before using is recommended. If the aim is more growth or perfume application from root, less concentration of leachate is better.

  18. Reactive transport modelling of biogeochemical processes and carbon isotope geochemistry inside a landfill leachate plume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, B.M.; Griffioen, J.; Roling, W.F.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    The biogeochemical processes governing leachate attenuation inside a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, the Netherlands) were revealed and quantified using the 1D reactive transport model PHREEQC-2. Biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was simulated assuming first-order oxidation of two

  19. Hydrochemical Characterization of a Tropical, Coastal Aquifer Affected by Landfill Leachate and Seawater Intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C.; Goeltom, Mangihot T.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Straalen, NM; Roling, WFM

    2016-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of landfill leachate and groundwater is affected by not only waste degradation processes, but also by external factors such as the geography of the landfilling site. Knowledge on the fate of landfill leachate in tropical countries will be beneficial for monitoring and regulatory

  20. Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

    2011-07-01

    Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria.

  1. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, R.; Descloitres, M.; Guenther, T.; Oxarango, L.; Morra, C.; Laurent, J.-P.; Gourc, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a 'minimum length' constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills.

  2. Improvement of electrical resistivity tomography for leachate injection monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, R; Descloitres, M; Günther, T; Oxarango, L; Morra, C; Laurent, J-P; Gourc, J-P

    2010-03-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the scope of operating municipal waste landfills as bioreactors, which aims to increase the moisture content to optimize the biodegradation in landfills. Given that liquid flows exhibit a complex behaviour in very heterogeneous porous media, in situ monitoring methods are required. Surface time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is usually proposed. Using numerical modelling with typical 2D and 3D injection plume patterns and 2D and 3D inversion codes, we show that wrong changes of resistivity can be calculated at depth if standard parameters are used for time-lapse ERT inversion. Major artefacts typically exhibit significant increases of resistivity (more than +30%) which can be misinterpreted as gas migration within the waste. In order to eliminate these artefacts, we tested an advanced time-lapse ERT procedure that includes (i) two advanced inversion tools and (ii) two alternative array geometries. The first advanced tool uses invariant regions in the model. The second advanced tool uses an inversion with a "minimum length" constraint. The alternative arrays focus on (i) a pole-dipole array (2D case), and (ii) a star array (3D case). The results show that these two advanced inversion tools and the two alternative arrays remove almost completely the artefacts within +/-5% both for 2D and 3D situations. As a field application, time-lapse ERT is applied using the star array during a 3D leachate injection in a non-hazardous municipal waste landfill. To evaluate the robustness of the two advanced tools, a synthetic model including both true decrease and increase of resistivity is built. The advanced time-lapse ERT procedure eliminates unwanted artefacts, while keeping a satisfactory image of true resistivity variations. This study demonstrates that significant and robust improvements can be obtained for time-lapse ERT monitoring of leachate recirculation in waste landfills. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  4. Transformation of metals speciation in a combined landfill leachate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanyu; Zhou Shaoqi; Chen Dongyu; Zhao Rong; Li Huosheng; Lin Yiming

    2011-01-01

    Landfill leachate was treated by a combined sequential batch reactor (SBR), coagulation, Fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) technology. The metals in treatment process were fractionated into three fractions: particulate and colloidal (size charge filtration), free ion/labile (cation exchange) and non-labile fractions. Fifty percent to 66% Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd were present as particulate/colloidal matter in raw leachate, whereas Cr was present 94.9% as non-labile complexes. The free ion/labile fractions of Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Pb and Cd increased significantly after treatment except Cr. Fifty-nine percent to 100% of Al was present mainly as particulate/colloidal matter > 0.45 μm and the remaining portions were predicted as non-labile complexes except in coagulation effluent. The speciation of Fe varied significantly in various individual processes. Visual MINTEQ simulation showed that 95-100% colloidal species for Cu, Cd and Pb were present as metal-humic complexes even with the lower dissolved organic carbon. Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution, whereas under-estimated in alkaline effluents. Overestimated particulate/colloidal fraction consisted with the hypothesis that a portion of colloids in fraction < 0.45 μm were considered as dissolved. - Research Highlights: → Metals in various landfill leachate treatments were size charge fractionated and the speciation transformations were compared. → Species predictions of metals were simulated by Visual MINTEQ model. → Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution. → Predictions of colloidal species agree with experimental data well in alkaline solution.

  5. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  6. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  7. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  8. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  9. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  10. Treatment of landfill leachate using a solar destillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Thomé Jucá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research was to build, develop, evaluate and optimize a system of natural evaporation of leachate, to reduce the organic loads. Physical and chemical microbiological parameters were monitored during the experiment to evaluate the system performance. The solar radiation and rainfall influence on the evaporator was investigated. The results showed 100% reduction of the turbidity, color and total solids. The values of BOD, COD, thermotolerants and total coliforms in the treated effluent had concentrations that meet the Brazilian Federal Environmental Council (CONAMA standards. Based on the results, it was concluded that the natural solar system was adequate for small landfills.

  11. Macro- and micro-nutrient concentration in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Landfill leachate offers an opportunity to supply water and plant nutritional benefits at a lower cost than traditional sources. Information about nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps increase biomass production along with evaluating the impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health.

  12. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of urban municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, B P; Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Sitharam, T G; Sivapullaiah, P V; Ramachandra, T V

    2017-01-01

    Unscientific management and ad-hoc approaches in municipal solid waste management have led to a generation of voluminous leachate in urban conglomerates. Quantification, quality assessment, following treatment and management of leachate has become a serious problem worldwide. In this context, the present study investigates the physico-chemical and biological characterization of landfill leachate and nearby water sources and attempts to identify relationships between the key parameters together with understanding the various processes for chemical transformations. The analysis shows an intermediate leachate age (5-10 years) with higher nutrient levels of 10,000-12,000 mg/l and ∼2000-3000 mg/l of carbon (COD) and nitrogen (TKN) respectively. Elemental analysis and underlying mechanisms reveal chemical precipitation and co-precipitation as the vital processes in leachate pond systems resulting in accumulation of trace metals. Based on the above criteria the samples were clustered into major groups that showed a clear distinction between leachate and water bodies. The microbial analysis showed bacterial communities correlating with specific factors relevant to redox environments indicating a gradient in nature and abundance of biotic diversity with a change in leachate environment. Finally, the quality and the contamination potential of the samples were evaluated with the help of leachate pollution index (LPI) and water quality index (WQI) analysis. The study helps in understanding the contamination potential of landfill leachate and establishes linkages between microbial communities and physico-chemical parameters for effective management of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of landfill leachates and studies on heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceçen, F; Gürsoy, G

    2000-10-01

    This study covers a thorough characterisation of landfill leachates emerging from a sanitary landfill area. The landfill leachates were obtained in the acidic stage of landfill stabilisation. Their organic content was high as reflected by the high BOD5 (5 day biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values. They were also highly polluted in terms of the parameters TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen), NH4-N, alkalinity, hardness and heavy metals. Nickel was present in these wastewaters at a significant concentration. With regard to the high heavy metal content of these wastewaters, several physicochemical removal alternatives for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn and Fe were tested using coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, base addition and aeration. Additionally, COD removal and ammonia stripping were examined. Co-precipitation with either alum or iron salts did not usually lead to significantly higher heavy metal removal than lime alone. The major methods leading to an effective heavy metal removal were aeration and lime addition. Nickel and cadmium seemed to be strongly complexed and were not removed by any method. Also lead removal proved to be difficult. The results are also discussed in terms of compliance with standards.

  14. Radiation decomposition of humic substances in landfill disposal leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    1979-01-01

    The leachate generated from landfill contains humic substances such as humic acid and fluvic acid. It shows, in general, high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), and colors in dark brown. When the leachate collected on the No. 15 landfill in Tokyo Bay was irradiated by γ-rays from a 60 Co source in bubbling air, the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased with increasing dose and the brown color was bleached. The effects of pH, flow rate, and dose rate on the decrease of TOC, the variations of UV spectrum, and the formation of carbon dioxide by the irradiation were examined. The decreasing rate of TOC increased with an increase of the flow rate up to -- 11/min and showed a maximum value in the region of pH 4 - 6. It was also dependent on the dose rate and increased with a decrease of the dose rate. The radiation chemical yield, G(-TOC), reached 162 at low dose rate of 1.3 x 10 4 rad/h. This result suggests that a radiation-induced chain reaction occurred. The amount of TOC decreased was almost equal to that of carbon dioxide formed. This result shows that the organic substances were decomposed by irradiation to carbon dioxide as a final product and it was ejected from the solution. (author)

  15. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  16. Optimization of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N.; Raman, A. A.; Ramesh, S.

    2017-06-01

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. In this study, the treatment of leachate using electrocoagulation (EC) was investigated. Iron was used as both the anode and cathode. Response surface methodology was used for experimental design and to study the effects of operational parameters. Central Composite Design was used to study the effects of initial pH, inter-electrode distance, and electrolyte concentration on color, and COD removals. The process could remove up to 84 % color and 49.5 % COD. The experimental data was fitted onto second order polynomial equations. All three factors were found to be significantly affect the color removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Further work will be conducted towards integrating EC with other wastewater treatment processes such as electro-Fenton.

  17. Treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate using Fenton oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singa, Pradeep Kumar; Hasnain Isa, Mohamed; Ho, Yeek-Chia; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Fenton's oxidation was assessed in this study for hazardous waste landfill leachate treatment. The two major reagents, which are generally employed in Fenton's process are H2O2 as oxidizing agent and Fe2+ as catalyst. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of experimental conditions viz., reaction time, molar ratio, and Fenton reagent dosages, which are significant parameters that influence the degradation efficiencies of Fenton process were examined. It was found that under the favorable experimental conditions, maximum COD removal was 56.49%. The optimum experimental conditions were pH=3, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3 and reaction time = 150 minutes. The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide and iron were 0.12 mol/L and 0.04 mol/L respectively. High dosages of H2O2 and iron resulted in scavenging effects on OH• radicals and lowered degradation efficiency of organic compounds in the hazardous waste landfill leachate.

  18. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chuanbin; Wang Rusong; Zhang Yishan

    2010-01-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD 5 concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36 weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping; Liao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH 4 –N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production

  20. Characteristics of Leachate and Their Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality (Case Study : TPA Cipayung, Depok)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, Atika; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The problems arising from landfill activity is leaked leachate that is not absorbed well into leachate stabilization pond which furthermore contaminates shallow groundwater around landfill, include Cipayung landfill. The aims of this study is to determine the characteristics of leachate and their effect on shallow groundwater quality around landfill based on temperature, pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Mercury (Hg), and fecal coliform. Data were analyzed based on leachate samples at influent point, effluent point, and 7 sampling points of residents’s well with distance variation every 100 meters within 300 meters radius having leachate stabilization pond as benchmark. According to the standard of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry law No. 59 of 2016, the results showed that leachate quality was still above the standard of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen parameters; 4178.0 mg/L, 70556.0 mg/L and 373.3 mg/L for influent point, and 3142.0 mg/L, 9055.2 mg/L, and 350 mg/L for the effluent point. Pollution Index of shallow groundwater is between lightly and moderately contaminated. This study showed that the further the distance between sampling point and leachate stabilization pond is, the lower the Polution Index is.

  1. Evolution of nitrogen species in landfill leachates under various stabilization states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renzun; Gupta, Abhinav; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

    2017-11-01

    In this study, nitrogen species in landfill leachates under various stabilization states were investigated with emphasis on organic nitrogen. Ammonium nitrogen was found to be approximately 1300mg/L in leachates from younger landfill units (less than 10years old), and approximately 500mg/L in leachates from older landfill units (up to 30years old). The concentration and aerobic biodegradability of organic nitrogen decreased with landfill age. A size distribution study showed that most organic nitrogen in landfill leachates is nitrogen (TON, mg/L-N, R 2 =0.88 and 0.98 for untreated and treated samples, respectively). The slopes of the regression curves of untreated (protein=0.45TON) and treated (protein=0.31TON) leachates indicated that the protein is more biodegradable than the other organic nitrogen species in landfill leachates. XAD-8 resin was employed to isolate the hydrophilic fraction of leachate samples, and it was found that the hydrophilic fraction proportion in terms of organic nitrogen decreased with landfill age. Solid-state 15 N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to identify the nitrogen species. Proteinaceous materials were found to be readily biodegradable, while heterocyclic nitrogen species were found to be resistant to biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  3. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  4. The influence of incorporating leachate on anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Edith Barba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating leachate is one of the most important challenges in designing and operating a sanitary landfill. Anaerobic treatment u- sing a mixture of leachate and domestic sewage represents a suitable treatment option having good potential applicability in developing countries. The influence of adding leachate from a domestic sanitary landfill on the anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage has been evaluated in this paper. Five samples were evaluated for the study: 100% domestic sewage (DS, 100% leachate (L and three leachate mixtures (L with domestic sewage (DS as follows: 10%(L:90%(DS, 20%(L:80%(DS and 30%(L:70%(DS. The samples’ anaerobic biodegradability was monitored for 30 days using methane production accumulation and variation in volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration and composition. A detailed analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD composition was performed at the end of the monitoring period. The results of the study showed that a 10%(L:90%(DS mixture provided the maximum leachate (L domestic sewage (DS combination mixture which could be anaerobically biodegradable with no significantly inhibitory effects. Mixtures using a higher percentage of leachate showed significantly potential inhibition effects on the anaerobic biodegradation of domestic sewage.

  5. National Estimate of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Release to U.S. Municipal Landfill Leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johnsie R; Allred, B McKay; Field, Jennifer A; Levis, James W; Barlaz, Morton A

    2017-02-21

    Landfills are the final stage in the life cycle of many products containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their presence has been reported in landfill leachate. The concentrations of 70 PFASs in 95 samples of leachate were measured in a survey of U.S. landfills of varying climates and waste ages. National release of PFASs was estimated by coupling measured concentrations for the 19 PFASs where more than 50% of samples had quantifiable concentrations, with climate-specific estimates of annual leachate volumes. For 2013, the total volume of leachate generated in the U.S. was estimated to be 61.1 million m 3 , with 79% of this volume coming from landfills in wet climates (>75 cm/yr precipitation) that contain 47% of U.S. solid waste. The mass of measured PFASs from U.S. landfill leachate to wastewater treatment plants was estimated to be between 563 and 638 kg for 2013. In the majority of landfill leachate samples, 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA) was dominant and variations in concentrations with waste age affected total estimated mass. There were six PFASs that demonstrated significantly higher concentrations in leachate from younger waste compared to older waste and six PFAS demonstrated significant variation with climate.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping, E-mail: jpzhuhust@163.com; Liao, Li, E-mail: liaoli2003@126.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH{sub 4}–N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production.

  7. Growth behavior studies of bread wheat plant exposed to municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Suman; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Khaiwal, Ravindra

    2013-11-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to study the effect of different dilutions of leachate generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Eight treatment groups with different concentrations (0-100%) of leachate were prepared and treatments were given to the plants till they reached complete vegetative phase (45 days). The growth performances of wheat plants were assessed in terms of various parameters such as shoot and root length, dry biomass and chlorophyll content. Plants treated with higher concentrations of leachate (75% and 100%) showed higher growth (2.5 and 6%) and 100% survival rate as compared to control. However, high shoot weight (0.028 and 0.030 gm) and high chlorophyll content (213 and 230%) was reported in 30 and 40% leachate treatment as compared to control. Some symptoms of stress (discoloration of leaf blade, wilting and yellowing of plants) were also observed in plants, which could be related to the presence of high concentration of salts in the leachate. The current study suggests that MSW landfill leachate is rich in nutrients and can be used as fertilizer but before its application, the salinity level and concentration of toxic metals present in leachate should be considered in accordance with the tolerance ability of any plant.

  8. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Cortijo, Manuel; Huang, Chin Pao

    2009-01-01

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe 2+ and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  9. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors...... in foresight cases in two emerging economies: Brazil and South Korea. We conclude that better systemic and innovation oriented foresight is needed to enhance inclusive development....

  10. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  11. SUPPORT IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Belma Čičkušić; Ševala Tulumović; Selma Bakić; Salem Bakić

    2016-01-01

    In order for inclusive class to be successful, associates are of great help to teachers. Besides associates, teachers' specialization can be accomplished through educational seminars on the inclusion topic. However, information about inclusion, working with children with special needs, can also be found in scientific journals that offer more information on methods of working with children with special needs, didactic materials customized according to abilities of children. Aim of ...

  12. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  13. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Prucha, Christopher P.; Caldwell, Michael D.; Staley, Bryan F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern

  14. Landfill cover soil, soil solution, and vegetation responses to municipal landfill leachate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil W; Rediske, Richard R; Scull, Brian T; Wierzbicki, David

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachate must be removed and treated to maintain landfill cover integrity and to prevent contamination of surface and ground waters. From 2003 to 2007, we studied an onsite disposal system in Ottawa County, Michigan, where leachate was spray irrigated on the vegetated landfill cover. We established six 20-m-diameter circular experimental plots on the landfill; three were spray irrigated as part of the operational system, and three remained as untreated control plots. We quantified the effects of leachate application on soil properties, soil solution chemistry, vegetative growth, and estimated solute leaching. The leachate had high mean levels of electrical conductivity (0.6-0.7 S m(-1)), Cl (760-900 mg L(-1)), and NH(4)-N (290-390 mg L(-1)) but was low in metals and volatile organic compounds. High rates of leachate application in 2003 (32 cm) increased soil electrical conductivity and NO(3)-N leaching, so a sequential rotation of spray areas was implemented to limit total leachate application to <9.6 cm yr(-1) per spray area. Concentrations of NO(3)-N and leaching losses remained higher on irrigated plots in subsequent years but were substantially reduced by spray area rotation. Leachate irrigation increased plant biomass but did not significantly affect soil metal concentrations, and plant metal concentrations remained within normal ranges. Rotating spray areas and timing irrigation to conform to seasonal capacities for evapotranspiration reduced the localized impacts of leachate application observed in 2003. Careful monitoring of undiluted leachate applications is required to avoid adverse impacts to vegetation or soils and elevated solute leaching losses.

  15. PENURUNAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM PB DAN CR LEACHATE MELALUI FITOREMEDIASI BAMBU AIR (EQUISETUM HYEMALE DAN ZEOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Suharto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The very large numbers of trash in the TPA (end disposal place will cause the natural decomposition process goes on massively as well. The decomposition process will change trash into organic fertilizer that if there any water input from the outside, it will dissolve metals that later become the byproduct that is leachate. The introduction of chemical contained in the leachate into the waters ecosystem may also affect the existing biota. Therefore, it is need the waste treatment before released into the environment. Leachate waste treatment by using the phytoremediation principle by means of Bambu air plant (Equisetum hyemale, with zeolite planting media was to be the choice in the effort of liquid waste treatment the Phytoremediation system was taken with a various considerations that very potential to develop into new innovation in the process of leachate waste treatment.This research had the purpose to know the effectiveness of phytoremediation system using water bamboo plant (Equisetum hyemale and zeolit planting media by batch system and continue system in reducing Pb and Cr heavy metals contents of leachate. Research method used was the experimental method. Observations carried out involved environmental temperature and humidity, solution pH and treatment temperature, Reduction of Pb and Cr Metals Contents on leachate.Batch system and continue system as a whole, mean of leachate pH tested during this treatment was about 7,466. Leachate pH tested did not less than 7,200 and not more that 7,810. Mean of leachate temperature from the first week through third week was of 22,283°C. The best treatment was on the K­2S1 (60 batch system plants treatment with reduction of Pb metal content of 82,2% in the last week of observation. While the reduction of Cr metal of 61,2% was on the K2S2 (60 continue system plants treatment.

  16. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Robert D., E-mail: rdg@uchicago.edu [Center for Health Statistics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Prucha, Christopher P., E-mail: cprucha@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 1550 Balmer Road, Box 200, Model City, NY 14107 (United States); Caldwell, Michael D., E-mail: mcaldwell@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 3623 Wilson Road, Humble, TX 77396 (United States); Staley, Bryan F., E-mail: BStaley@erefdn.org [Environmental Research and Education Foundation, 3301 Benson Drive, Suite 301, Raleigh, NC 27609 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern.

  17. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Characterization of rock samples and mineralogical controls on leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Jackson, John C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2009-01-01

    post-weathering rock samples, report trace-element content in leachate, and discuss mineralogical controls on leachate quality based on data from one of the participating laboratories. Table 5.1 lists the samples described in this chapter, the sample numbers, and comments on the characteristics of each lithology. Sample locations are plotted in Figure 5.1. Chapters 2 and 3 describe the sample locations, sample preparation protocols, ABA characteristics, and rationale for selection of rock samples for testing. Microprobe data for pyrite and carbonate minerals are tabulated in Appendix 5.1. Leachate data, along with a series of graphs showing concentration and cumulative transport trends, for the laboratory data discussed in this chapter are included as Excel spreadsheets in Appendices 5.2 and 5.3. Leach column data for the interlaboratory study are evaluated and interpreted in Chapters 7 -11.

  19. Ammonia removal from leachate by photochemical process using H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Archanjo Brota

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was studied the optimization of the photochemical process using H2O2/UV in order to reduce the concentration of ammonia in leachate. It was used landfills leachate previously treated in the development of studies. A photochemical reactor with the capacity of 1.7 liters equipped with refrigeration system and recirculation of leachate was employed in the research. The influence of temperature, the light bulb power, the concentration of H2O2 and treatment time were tested during the study. A removal of 97% of ammonia was observed at 90 min.

  20. Determination of phenols in landfill leachate-contaminated groundwaters by solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Reitzel, Lotte; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method for phenols in landfill leachates was developed and optimized in order to solve the expected and observed problems associated with an anaerobic matrix containing high concentrations of salts and organic matter. Isolute ENV1 cartridges exhibited the best retention...... be identified in leachates from three Danish landfills, ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 29 mg/ L, which is at the lower end of the concentration range usually found for phenols in landfill leachates (sub-mg/L to mg/L).  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjwang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Mingsheng, E-mail: msjia@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xiaohai, E-mail: cxiaoh_xm@126.com [Xiamen City Environmental Sanitation Management Department, Xiamen 361000 (China); Xu, Ying, E-mail: yxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Xiangyu, E-mail: xylin@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Kao, Chih Ming, E-mail: jkao@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shaohua, E-mail: shchen@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Young and aged leachate works accounted for 89.1% and 10.9% of 33.35 Gg CO{sub 2} yr{sup −1}. • Fresh leachate owned extremely low ORP and high organic matter content. • Strong CH{sub 4} emissions occurred in the fresh leachate ponds, but small in the aged. • N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant in the treatment units of both systems. • 8.45–11.9% of nitrogen was removed as the form of N{sub 2}O under steady-state. - Abstract: With limited assessment, leachate treatment of a specified landfill is considered to be a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In our study, the cumulative GHG emitted from the storage ponds and process configurations that manage fresh or aged landfill leachate were investigated. Our results showed that strong CH{sub 4} emissions were observed from the fresh leachate storage pond, with the fluxes values (2219–26,489 mg C m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) extremely higher than those of N{sub 2}O (0.028–0.41 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}). In contrast, the emission values for both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were low for the aged leachate tank. N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant once the leachate entered the treatment plants of both systems, accounting for 8–12% of the removal of N-species gases. Per capita, the N{sub 2}O emission based on both leachate treatment systems was estimated to be 7.99 g N{sub 2}O–N capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. An increase of 80% in N{sub 2}O emissions was observed when the bioreactor pH decreased by approximately 1 pH unit. The vast majority of carbon was removed in the form of CO{sub 2}, with a small portion as CH{sub 4} (<0.3%) during both treatment processes. The cumulative GHG emissions for fresh leachate storage ponds, fresh leachate treatment system and aged leachate treatment system were 19.10, 10.62 and 3.63 Gg CO{sub 2} eq yr{sup −1}, respectively, for a total that could be transformed to 9.09 kg CO{sub 2} eq capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Inclusion Behavior in Gas-Stirred Ladles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2013-06-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model has been proposed to investigate the bubbly plume flow and inclusion behavior including growth, size distribution, and removal in gas-stirred ladles, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms were presented. For the bubbly plume flow, a modified k- ɛ model with extra source terms to account for the bubble-induced turbulence was adopted to model the turbulence, and the bubble turbulent dispersion force was taken into account to predict gas volume fraction distribution in the turbulent gas-stirred system. For inclusion behavior, the phenomena of inclusions turbulent random motion, bubbles wake, and slag eye forming on the molten steel surface were considered. In addition, the multiple mechanisms both that promote inclusion growth due to inclusion-inclusion collision caused by turbulent random motion, shear rate in turbulent eddy, and difference inclusion Stokes velocities, and the mechanisms that promote inclusion removal due to bubble-inclusion turbulence random collision, bubble-inclusion turbulent shear collision, bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision, inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface, bubble wake capture, and wall adhesion were investigated. The importance of different mechanisms and total inclusion removal ratio under different conditions, and the distribution of inclusion number densities in ladle, were discussed and clarified. The results show that at a low gas flow rate, the inclusion growth is mainly attributed to both turbulent shear collision and Stokes collision, which is notably affected by the Stokes collision efficiency, and the inclusion removal is mainly attributed to the bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision and inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface. At a higher gas flow rate, the inclusions appear as turbulence random motion in bubbly plume zone, and both the inclusion-inclusion and inclusion-bubble turbulent random collisions become

  3. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  4. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  6. Dynamic evaluation of municipal solid waste ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, T.L.; Gardner, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) produces ashes which are concentrated in many inorganic species. The release of toxic elements from the ash to the aqueous environment is of concern as present methods of ash disposal consist primarily of landfilling. It was the goal of this paper to achieve an understanding of the mechanisms by which elements are transported from the solid ash phase to the aqueous phase. Twelve ash samples were collected from six different incinerators with varying designs and capacities. The leaching experiments were conducted using small (mini) dynamic columns to investigate the variation of leachate chemical characteristics with time. In analyzing the data, a multicomponent chemical equilibrium model was used to determine chemical speciation and component activities. Auxiliary experiments included an array of physical measurements, and aqueous batch leach tests

  7. Some deficiencies in analyzing leachates and reporting results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    Determination of the leachability of elements from various radioactive waste forms for long-term retention requires chemical analysis of both the leachate and waste form. Neither the precision of the leaching procedure nor the accuracy of the results can be determined unambiguously if gross uncertainties exist. It should be demonstrated beforehand that all participating laboratories can obtain the same analytical result within some stated uncertainty. Special precautions must be taken to ensure that all material leached from the waste form is recovered from the leaching container and that all refractory particles are dissolved completely before analysis is begun. The actual results obtained should be reported, including negative signs if present, avoiding all subjective and quantitatively nondescriptive statements such as nil, none, not detected, etc. Each result must be accompanied by an estimate of its uncertainty. Problems involved in interlaboratory comparisons are discussed

  8. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  9. Testing and Inclusive Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Anne; Hamre, Bjørn; Ydesen, Christian

    Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, Thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating...

  10. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  11. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  12. NUCLEOSYNTHETIC TUNGSTEN ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN ACID LEACHATES OF THE MURCHISON CHONDRITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HAFNIUM-TUNGSTEN CHRONOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, Christoph; Wieler, Rainer [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Clausiusstrasse 25, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kleine, Thorsten [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: burkhardt@erdw.ethz.ch [Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Progressive dissolution of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite with acids of increasing strengths reveals large internal W isotope variations that reflect a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the components of primitive chondrites. At least two distinct carriers of nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies must be present, which were produced in different nucleosynthetic environments. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates follows a linear trend that is consistent with a mixing line between terrestrial W and a presumed s-process-enriched component. The composition of the s-enriched component agrees reasonably well with that predicted by the stellar model of s-process nucleosynthesis. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates provides a means for correcting the measured {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) for nucleosynthetic anomalies using the isotopic variations in {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W. This new correction procedure is different from that used previously, and results in a downward shift of the initial {epsilon}{sup 182}W of CAI to -3.51 {+-} 0.10 (where {epsilon}{sup 182}W is the variation in 0.01% of the {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W ratio relative to Earth's mantle). This revision leads to Hf-W model ages of core formation in iron meteorite parent bodies that are {approx}2 Myr younger than previously calculated. The revised Hf-W model ages are consistent with CAI being the oldest solids formed in the solar system, and indicate that core formation in some planetesimals occurred within {approx}2 Myr of the beginning of the solar system.

  13. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  14. A comparative examination of MBR and SBR performance for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Hashisho, J

    2014-09-01

    The management of landfill leachate is challenging, with relatively limited work targeting high-strength leachate. In this study, the performance of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technologies are compared in treating high-strength landfill leachate. The MBR exhibited a superior performance with removal efficiencies exceeding 95% for BOD5, TN, and NH3 and an improvement on SBR efficiencies ranging between 21 and 34%. The coupled experimental results contribute in filling a gap toward improving the management of high-strength landfill leachate and providing comparative guidelines or selection criteria and limitations for MBR and SBR applications. Implications: While the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology offers some flexibility in terms of cycle time and sequence, its performance is constrained when considering landfill leachate associated with significant variations in quality and quantity. Combining membrane separation and biodegradation processes or the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology improved removal efficiencies significantly. In the context of leachate management using the MBR technology, more efforts have targeted low-strength leachate with limited attempts at moderate to high strength leachate. In this study, the SBR and MBR technologies were tested under different operating conditions to compare and evaluate their feasibility for the management of high-strength leachate from a full-scale operating landfill. Such a comparison has not been reported for high-strength leachate.

  15. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  16. Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Influence of Coal Ash Leachates and Emergent Macrophytes on Water Quality in Wetland Microcosms. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Olson,...

  17. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds...... are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status...... is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate...

  18. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  19. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  20. Possibility of removing radionuclides in landfill leachate using advanced wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao K.; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are being partly concentrated to sewage sludge ash and waste ash. These ashes, in which radiocesium concentration is lower than 8000 Bq/kg, are being disposed of in a controlled landfill site. The leachate from the landfill site is treated in a leachate treatment system combined with some treatment steps before it is discharged into receiving water. In this study, in place of radionuclides, stable element concentrations in the leachate and treated water at each treatment step were measured to estimate the possible extent of radionuclide removal from the leachate step-by-step. It was found that Cs was not removed in any treatment steps, while more than 85% of the Sr, Co, Ni, and Mn present was removed in the alkaline earth element removal step. (author)

  1. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...

  2. Microbial activity of trench leachates from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Nine, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Trench leachate samples collected anoxically from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites were analyzed for total aerobic and anaerobic populations, sulfate reducers, denitrifiers, and methanogens. Among the several aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated, only Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and Clostridium sp. were identified. Mixed bacterial cultures isolated from the trench leachates were able to grow anaerobically in trench leachates, which indicates that the radionuclides and organic chemicals present were not toxic to these bacteria. Changes in concentrations of several of the organic constituents of the waste leachate samples were observed due to anaerobic microbial activity. Growth of a mixed culture of trench-water bacteria in media containing a mixture of radionuclides, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 134 137 Cs, was not affected at total activity concentrations of 2.6 x 10 2 and 2.7 x 10 3 pCi/ml

  3. FITOREMEDIASI KADMIUM (CD PADA LEACHATE MENGGUNAKAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (STUDI KASUS TPA JATIBARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Zamhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate TPA Jatibarang yang tercemar kadmium (Cd kemungkinan dapat dibersihkan secara fitoremediasi menggunakan kangkung air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan kangkung air sebagai fitoremediator dalam menyerap Cd dalam leachate TPA Jatibarang. Sebelum penelitian, dilakukan uji pendahuluan kandungan Cd dalam leachate maupun dalam kangkung air. Kangkung diaklimatisasi dalam air bersih selama 3 hari, selanjutnya ditimbang seberat 300 gram kemudian diletakkan ke dalam ember berisi 10 L leachate. Sampel leachate dan organ tanaman diambil setiap 2 hari sekali (2 hari, 4 hari, 6 hari, dan 8 hari. Faktor intensitas cahaya diambil setiap hari pada pukul 08.00-09.00 WIB menggunakan lux meter, sedangkan nilai pH dan suhu leachate diukur menggunakan kertas indikator pH dan termometer sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Perameter yang diamati adalah akumulasi Cd dalam akar, batang, dan daun kangkung air pada masing-masing lama waktu pananaman. Akumulasi Cd diukur dengan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Data penyerapan Cd dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama waktu kangkung air ditanam dalam leachate berpengaruh terhadap akumulasi Cd pada tanaman. Penyerapan Cd oleh kangkung air mencapai jenuh pada hari ke-8 dengan total penyerapan 0,052 ppm. Akumulasi Cd paling besar pada akar kangkung yaitu 0,023 ppm.Cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate can be cleaned by phytoremediation using water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. This research aimed to determine the ability of the water spinach as a fitoremediator in adsorb cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate. The research was conducted by using a randomized completely design (RCD factorial, with longer treatment planted time in leachate water spinach was 0 day, 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days respectively. The observed parameters of Cd accumulation in roots, stems, and leaves of water spinach in

  4. A Portable Environment Test System: A Field Assessment of Organotin Leachates--Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    of organotin-based antifouling (AF) coatings, NOSC researchers used this facility to study the effects of tributyltin ( TBT ), the primary toxic ...Environmental Test System (PETS) was evaluated with tributyltin ( TBT ) anti oling leachates in Sin Diego Bay over a 7-month period. Overall mean test...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A Portable Environmental Test System (PETS) was evaluated with tributyltin ( TBT ) antifouling leachates in San Diego Bay for 7

  5. Acute Toxicity of Tributyltins and Tributyltin Leachates from Marine Antibiofouling Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-10

    RO-0184 224 ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN i/I LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV OAKLAND NAVAL...Classification) (U) ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIBUTYLTINS AND TRIBUTYLTIN LEACHATES FROM MARINE ANTIBIOFOULING PAINTS 12, PERSO A UHR Laugin, Koy"., Linden, Olof and...xins causing acute toxicity or two amphipou species at concentrations as low as 10 g/L . Orchestia traskiana was exposed to bis ( tributyltin ) oxide

  6. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  7. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  8. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujiindiyati, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research) was used to measure absolute abundances of 2 HHO, HH 18 O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ 2 H of the H 2 O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 0/00 to + 4.3 0/00. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river. The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 μS) and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination. (author)

  9. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Brajesh [Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 70682, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  10. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  11. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  12. Inclusion in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Allan Galis

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.

  13. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing...... the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...

  14. Environmental risk index: A tool to assess the safety of dams for leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J.; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Dams for leachate store very toxic substances that contain a large amount of organic material and, probably, heavy metals; they therefore constitute an important threat to the environment. Existing models of environmental risk assessment for landfills do not take into consideration the specific risk that leachate dams may represent for the environment. In this paper a methodology to improve the environmental safety is presented according to the parameters used in their construction and management. In order to do that, the following characteristics of the dam must be known: (1) geotechnical stability, (2) erosion of downstream slope, (3) type of sealing of the dam, (4) overtopping probability, (5) volume of leachate stored inside the dam and (6) pollution load of leachate. Once these parameters have been calculated, they are transformed by means of rating curves into homogeneous units, so as to make it possible to operate between them. From the study and analysis of these parameters an environmental risk index for a dam for leachate can be calculated. If the environmental risk index exceeds an established value then it involves a dam for leachate with high environmental risk, therefore preventive measures in its design, construction and management would be necessary

  15. Leachate Characterization from a Closed Landfill in Air Hitam, Puchong, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fatin Dahlia Mat Salleh; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Leachate, wastewater that was collected from landfill is known to have pungent smell and may impose serious harm to human health and the environment. Air Hitam, Puchong Sanitary Landfill has stopped its land filling operation since December 2006 and is under post-closure maintenance stages. After several years of stopping its operation, a landfill will still produce leachate hence it needs constant monitoring and maintenance. The main aim of this paper was to characterize leachate produced from Air Hitam, Puchong Closed Landfill, according to several important parameters: pH, temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 -N), total organic carbon (TOC), total solids, volatile organic acids (VOA) and heavy metals content, to determine its suitability in producing methane by identifying its phase. Leachate samples were drawn weekly for a period of 3 months from three different ponds, untreated raw leachate pond 1 and treated leachate pond 2 and 3. Results obtained showed that the average values were around 25 degree Celsius, average pH 8, highest COD reading was 5,248 mg/L, TOC highest at 6,797 mg/L, VOA highest at 1,424 mg/L and ammoniacal content of 3.10 mg/L the highest. (author)

  16. The Development of Treatment Process Technology for Uranium Soil washing Leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Dong Bin; Kim, Gye Nam; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jeik won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Electrokinetic treatment technology is a good method for removing radioactive substances such as U, Co, Cs: but it has a weakness. It takes a long time to get high removal efficiency. The Soil washing method compensates for this weak point with its short reaction time and with this method it is possible to remove a lot of uranium-contaminated soil. But a great deal of leachate is generated. That is, about more amounts of leachate are generated for the decontamination of the same volume of radioactive soil using the electrokinetic equipment. Therefore, the development of a treatment process for The Soil washing leachate is important so that there is a reduction of leachate waste volume and a choice of process. Previously, studies for liquid radioactive waste were in process at various nuclear facilities. Nuclear fuel plant survey appropriate cohesion quantity of liquid waste of radioactive. Nuclear power plants manage liquid radioactive waste with centrifugation equipment. In this study, the treatment technology for uranium Soil washing leachate generated on Soil washing decontamination for the soil contaminated with uranium was developed. A treatment process suitable to the contamination characteristics of Soil washing leachate was proposed

  17. Leachate migration from a solid waste disposal facility near Biscayne National Park, South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, B.G.; Labowski, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Leachate from the Dade County Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) is migrating to the east (seaward) and to the south from the currently active disposal cell. Water levels and ground-water flow directions are strongly influenced by water-management practices, especially in the Black Creek Canal and structure S-21 to the north of the SWDF. Ground-water flow is initially to the south, from Black Creek Canal, and then to the east through the disposal area. The SWDF is constructed over the salt-intruded part of the highly transmissive Biscayne aquifer and because of this, chloride ion concentrations and specific conductance levels could not be used as indicators of leachate concentrations. Water-quality indicators used to identify leachate migration were primarily ammonium, organic nitrogen, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand with cadmium, chromium, and lead used as auxiliary indicator constituents. Leachate was detected in multi-depth wells located 75 meters to the south and 20 meters to the east of the active cell. Concentrations of water-quality indicators had mean concentrations generally 2 to 10 times higher than baseline conditions. Leachate was not detected in any of the other ground-water, canal water, or Biscayne Bay sampling sites. Primary controls over leachate movement in the SWDF are water-management practices in the Black Creek and Gould Canals, configuration and integrity of the liner beneath the active cell, and low hydraulic gradients in the landfill area

  18. Effect of advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) on the toxicity of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomczynska, B.; Slomczynski, T. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering Systems, Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Wasowski, J. [Inst. of Water Supply and Hydraulic Construction, Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the effect of AOP's (oxidation ozone and peroxide/ozone) on the toxicity of leachates from municipal landfill for Warsaw, Poland, using battery of tests. Advanced oxidation processes used to pre-treat leachates were carried out in laboratory conditions after their coagulation with the use of FeCl{sub 3}. The effects of the pre-treatment of leachates using the method of coagulation with FeCl{sub 3} depended on the concentration of organic compounds and with optimal conditions of the process ranged from 40 to 70%. Further pre-treatment of the leachates after coagulation, involving the use of oxidation with O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/O{sub 3}, did not caused significant decrease of leachate toxicity. The data of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the battery of tests using Daphnia magna, Artemia franciscana, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Vibrio fischeri for the toxicity evaluation of raw and pre-treated leachates. (orig.)

  19. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada); Frazee, James [E and Q Consulting and Associates Limited, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R1 (Canada); Tong, Anthony Z., E-mail: anthony.tong@acadiau.ca [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  20. A coupled system of half-nitritation and ANAMMOX for mature landfill leachate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang; Wang, Xiujie; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Wei, Jia; Bian, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A coupled system of membrane bioreactor-nitritation (MBR-nitritation) and up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (UASB-ANAMMOX) was employed to treat mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia nitrogen and low C/N. MBR-nitritation was successfully realized for undiluted mature landfill leachate with initial concentrations of 900-1500 mg/L [Formula: see text] and 2000-4000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand. The effluent [Formula: see text] concentration and the [Formula: see text] accumulation efficiency were 889 mg/L and 97% at 125 d, respectively. Half-nitritation was quickly realized by adjustment of hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen (DO), and a low DO control strategy could allow long-term stable operation. The UASB-ANAMMOX system showed high effective nitrogen removal at a low concentration of mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency was inhibited at excessive influent substrate concentration and the nitrogen removal efficiency of the system decreased as the concentration of mature landfill leachate increased. The MBR-nitritation and UASB-ANAMMOX processes were coupled for mature landfill leachate treatment and together resulted in high effective nitrogen removal. The effluent average total nitrogen concentration and removal efficiency values were 176 mg/L and 83%, respectively. However, the average nitrogen removal load decreased from 2.16 to 0.77 g/(L d) at higher concentrations of mature landfill leachate.

  1. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  2. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian; Frazee, James; Tong, Anthony Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate

  3. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  4. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won; Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily......Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion...... on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity...

  7. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  8. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  9. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  10. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  11. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of dire...

  12. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  13. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment by fenton, photo-fenton and fenton-like processes: Effect of some variables

    OpenAIRE

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Eslami, Akbar; Ardebilian, Maryam Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products. However, there are limited data about application of Fenton-like process in leachate treatment. Therefore, this study was designed with the objective of treating municipal landfill leachate by Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes to determine the effect of different v...

  14. EFFICIENCY OF PRE-TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS BY GASEOUS DESORPTION (STRIPPING OF AMMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the efficiency of pre-treatment of landfill leachate by gaseous desorption of ammonia. The research was done on a municipal non-hazardous waste dump in Krosno (Sub-Carpathian Province, Poland. The pretreatment provided a favorable BOD5/COD ratio in leachate. Also concentrations of 16 PAHs and heavy metals did not exceed the legal limits. However, gaseous desorption of ammonia was insufficiently efficient in recovering ammonia nitrogen from leachate.

  15. Leachate From Expanded Polystyrene Cups Is Toxic to Aquatic Invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Thaysen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded polystyrene (EPS products and their associated chemicals (e.g., styrenes are widespread in the marine environment. As a consequence, bans on their use for single-use packaging materials are being proposed in several municipalities. To better understand how science can inform decision-making, we looked at the available scientific literature about contamination and effects and conducted experiments to measure chemical leachate from polystyrene products and toxicity from the leachate. We conducted leaching experiments with common food matrices (water, soup broth, gravy, black coffee and coffee with cream and sugar at relevant temperatures (70 and 95°C that are consumed in or with several polystyrene products (coffee cup lids, polystyrene stir sticks, polystyrene spoons, EPS cups, EPS bowls, and EPS takeout containers. We analyzed each sample for styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, meta- and para- xylene, isopropylbenzene, and isopropyltoluene—chemicals associated with polystyrene products. To determine whether the leachates are toxic, we conducted chronic toxicity tests, measuring survival and reproductive output in Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity tests included nine treatments: seven concentrations of ethylbenzene, EPS cup leachate and a negative control. Overall, we found that temperature has a significant effect on leaching. We only detected leachates in trials conducted at higher temperature −95°C. Ethylbenzene was the only target analyte with final concentrations above the method limit of detection, and was present in the greatest concentrations in EPS and with soup broth. Measurable concentrations of ethylbenzene in the leachate ranged from 1.3 to 3.4 μg/L. In toxicity tests, the calculated LC50 for ethylbenzene was 14 mg/L and the calculated LC20 was 210 μg/L. For the treatment exposed to the EPS cup leachate, mortality was 40%—four times greater than the negative control. Finally, there was no significant difference (p

  16. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of directly educational process by consequences of inclusive training and education is urgent now.The aims of the research are the following: to identify the major risks that characterize the current stage of the implementation process of inclusion in the Russian educational organizations; to consider the main causes that lead to their occurrence; to present a comparative analysis of the views of respondents in comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools. Methodology and research methods. The Sector Monitoring Studies of Moscow State University of Psychology & Education in 2010 and 2014 implemented a sociological study on the process of introduction of inclusion in the Russian schools. 200 teachers and 244 parents were interviewed in 2010; in 2014, in addition, 178 teachers and 386 parents were interviewed; 47 senior students including those with disabilities were interviewed too.Results. According to the results, the main concerns of the parents of students of comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools are reduced to a few basic risks: lack of individual approach while teaching children with different educational needs, increased emotional pressure on the child, and child’s perception of the complexity of disability as an equal. These risks arise primarily because of the acute shortage of especially prepared-governmental teachers and socio-cultural, psychological unpreparedness of most contemporary children with disabilities to the perception of

  17. Ecotoxicological bioassays of sediment leachates in a river bed flanked by decommissioned pesticide plants in Nantong City, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.

  18. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.

  19. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  20. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Crock, James G.; Lowers, Heather A.; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  1. Antibiotic resistome in landfill leachate from different cities of China deciphered by metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renxin; Feng, Jie; Yin, Xiaole; Liu, Jie; Fu, Wenjie; Berendonk, Thomas U; Zhang, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Bing

    2018-05-01

    High throughput sequencing-based metagenomic analysis and network analysis were applied to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles of ARGs in landfill leachate from 12 cities in China. In total, 526 ARG subtypes belonging to 21 ARG types were detected with abundances ranging from 1.1 × 10 -6 to 2.09 × 10 -1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S rRNA gene. 68 ARG subtypes that accounted for 73.4%-93.4% of the total ARG abundances were shared by all leachate samples. The four most abundant ARGs, sul1, sul2, aadA and bacA can be served as ARG indicators to quantitatively predict the total abundances by linear functions (r 2  = 0.577-0.819, P < 0.001). No distinct regional distribution pattern of the ARGs was observed among different cities in China, while the ARG compositions of the leachate were clearly distinct from those of other environmental sample types. Nearly 90% ARG subtypes in the anaerobic digestion sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPADS) were shared by the leachate and the abundances of leachate and STPADS ARGs generalists accounted for 84.5% and 87.7% of total abundances in these two types of anaerobic samples, respectively. Furthermore, Procrustes analysis suggested that microbial community composition might be the determining factor of ARG compositions in landfill leachate. ARGs within the same type or among the different types showed higher incidences of non-random co-occurrence and 17 genera might be potential hosts of multiple ARGs. This study highlighted that landfill leachate is an important reservoir of various ARGs and provided a useful reference for the surveillance and risk management of ARGs in landfill environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla, Daphne, E-mail: dhermosilla@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortijo, Manuel [U.D. Operaciones Basicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Forestal, E.T.S.I. Montes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, Chin Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 352C DuPont Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe{sup 2+} and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  3. A radiochemical analyses of metastudtite and leachates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Hanson, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2004-01-01

    Immersion of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in deionized water produced two novel corrosion products after a two-year contact period. Another unexpected result was that suspensions of aggregates were observed to form at the air-water interface for each of five samples. These solids were characterized, by SEM and XRD to be nearly pure metastudtite (UO4-2H2O); while the corrosion present on the surface of the fuel itself was determined to be studtite (UO4-2H2O). The occurrence of the floating phase prompted a radiochemical analysis of these solids. This chemical analysis was a unique opportunity to study the relatively pure corrosion phase for incorporation of radionuclides. The analysis indicated that high concentration of 90Sr, 137Cs, 99Tc, and that lower concentrations 237Np, 238, 239Pu and 243, 244Cm had partitioned with the air-water interface aggregates. The concentrations of 241Am were two orders of magnitude lower than the expected inventory in the suspended solids. The radiochemical analyses of the several leachate samples provide preliminary solubility data for the hydrogen peroxide leaching of CSNF and these data are compared to leaching of the same fuel in J-13 and deionized waters. The extent of fuel dissolution in these media are discussed

  4. Effect of Domestic Waste Leachates on Quality Parameters of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jiya MUSA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is an elixir of life. Percolating groundwater provides a medium through which wastes particularly organics can undergo degradation into simpler substances through biochemical reactions involving dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction processes. Ground water samples in and around dumpsite and landfills located in Kubuwa were studied to assess the effect of wastewater leachates on groundwater resources in the particular area. Groundwater samples were collected from 5 different bore-wells in and around relative distances from dumpsites. EC values ranged between 30 and 138 µS/cm, TDS ranged between 95 mg/L and 120 mg/L, SS ranged between 10 and 23 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 11 and 15 mg/L, nitrate values ranged between 0.18 to 0.80 mg/L for the early morning samples while the late evening samples which ranged between 0.25 and 0.43 mg/L, while concentration of Sulphate in the morning water sample ranged between 168 and 213 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 20 and 45 mg/L. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria should create landfills and dumpsites far away from residential homes and better still recycling plants should be put in place to recycle the various forms of waste products from homes.

  5. Some Limits of Biocompatibility Testing for Lipophilic Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D. Lucas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical device standards recommend using both a polar and non-polar solvent to extract materials prior to in vitro testing. Testing lipophilic extract in cell culture systems is limited by the toxicity of the lipophilic solvents used in extraction. Use of agar overlay and direct contact methods do not directly address the problem of testing for highly lipophilic leachates from device or material extracts. This particular problem was approached by 1 use of hydrotropes, and 2 by sealing the suspended cells in dialysis tubing and placing it directly in oil or media. The use of hydrotropes to eliminate micelle formation and increase the solubility of lipophilic compounds was not useful as the hydrotropes themselves were toxic to the cells at concentrations that significantly increased analyte solubility. Diffusion of hydrophobic compounds from either peanut oil or cell culture media into the dialysis tubing where the test cells in media reside was significantly higher for the cell culture media than the peanut oil. There were significant differences in toxicity for cells in dialysis tubing from devices extracted between peanut oil and media. This study illustrates the importance of examining if cell toxicity due to micelle formation versus that of soluble chemicals for lipophilic extracts.

  6. The organic geochemistry of a sanitary landfill leachate plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. F.; Tessmann, J. S.; Plotz, P. E.; Reinhard, M.

    1986-02-01

    Leachate from the North Bay municipal landfill has contaminated an unconfined, sandy aquifer throughout the 700 m flow system from the site to a discharge zone at a creek. The major organic contaminants identified are aromatic hydrocarbons, especially substituted benzenes. The high groundwater velocity of about 75 m yr -1 and the low organic sorption properties of the sand have permitted non-transformed contaminants to spread throughout the total flow system. There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in groundwater chemistry. Most of the aqueous organic carbon has a nominal molecular weight of anarobic segment of the flow system 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene are equally persistent, but in the final, less anaerobic segment, the former appears to be degraded more rapidly than the latter. Contaminant distributions in aquifers reflect the results of a number of processes integrated in a complex manner and so are difficult to interpret in terms of specific processes. However, they do provide evidence for what processes are most significant in real groundwater systems and they will also provide critical tests of how well laboratory-derived information relates to real groundwater contamination situations.

  7. Optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment: Small scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoucef, Fatima; Makan, Abdelhadi; El Ghmari, Abderrahman; Ouatmane, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment. For this purpose and in order to study the feasibility and measure the effectiveness of the forced evaporation, three cuboidal steel tubs were designed and implemented. The first control-tub was installed at the ground level to monitor natural evaporation. Similarly, the second and the third tub, models under investigation, were installed respectively at the ground level (equipped-tub 1) and out of the ground level (equipped-tub 2), and provided with special equipment to accelerate the evaporation process. The obtained results showed that the evaporation rate at the equipped-tubs was much accelerated with respect to the control-tub. It was accelerated five times in the winter period, where the evaporation rate was increased from a value of 0.37 mm/day to reach a value of 1.50 mm/day. In the summer period, the evaporation rate was accelerated more than three times and it increased from a value of 3.06 mm/day to reach a value of 10.25 mm/day. Overall, the optimized evaporation technique can be applied effectively either under electric or solar energy supply, and will accelerate the evaporation rate from three to five times whatever the season temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multilingualism and Social Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...

  9. TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía López Menéndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.

  10. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Antoinette M

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  11. Inclusive Education in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Mayzel

    2013-01-01

    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  12. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  13. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  14. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 1. Fate of inorganic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Tellam, John H.; Lerner, David N.

    2000-05-01

    The attenuation of inorganic contaminants in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate by calcareous and carbonate-deficient, oxide-rich Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands was examined in laboratory columns. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modelling, simple transport modelling and chemical mass balance approaches are used to evaluate the key processes and aquifer geochemical properties controlling contaminant fate. The results indicate that leachate-rock interactions are dominated by ion-exchange processes, acid-base and redox reactions and sorption/precipitation of metal species. Leachate NH 4 is attenuated by cation exchange with the aquifer sediments; however, NH 4 migration could be described with a simple model using retardation factors. Organic acids in the acetogenic leachate buffered the system pH at low levels during flushing of the calcareous aquifer material. In contrast, equilibrium with Al oxyhydroxide phases initially buffered pH (˜4.5) during flushing of the carbonate-deficient sandstone with methanogenic leachate. This led to the mobilisation of sorbed and oxide-bound heavy metals from the aquifer sediment which migrated as a concentrated pulse at the leachate front. Abiotic reductive dissolution of Mn oxyhydroxides on each aquifer material by leachate Fe 2+ maintains high concentrations of dissolved Mn and buffers the leachate inorganic redox system. This feature is analogous to the Mn-reducing zones found in leachate plumes and in the experiments provides a sink for the leachate Fe load and other heavy metals. The availability of reactive solid phase Mn oxyhydroxides limits the duration of redox buffering and Fe attenuation by these aquifer sediments. Aquifer pH and redox buffering capacity exert a fundamental influence on leachate inorganic contaminant fate in these systems. The implications for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability at landfills are discussed and simple measurements of aquifer properties which

  15. Developing a financial inclusion index and inclusive growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Susanta Kumar SETHY

    2016-01-01

    Financial inclusion is one of the systems through which Inclusive Growth can be achieved in developing countries like India where large sections are unable or hopeless to contribute in the financial system. An inclusive financial system mobilizes more resources for productive purposes leading to higher economic growth, better opportunities and reduction of poverty. This study, proposed an Index of financial inclusion – a multidimensional measure. The Financial Inclusion Index c...

  16. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  17. Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in landfill leachate of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Masoner, Jason R.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.; Schwab, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Landfills are commonly the final respository for a heterogeneous mixture of waste from residential, commercial, and industrial sources. The use of landfills as a means of waste disposal will likely increase as the global population increases and nations develop. Thus, landfills receiving such waste have the potential to produce leachate containing numerous organic chemicals including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and hormones. This leachate is often discharged to pathways that lead directly (e.g. groundwater, streams) or indirectly (e.g. wastewater treament plants) to the environment. Limited research, however, has been conducted regarding the characterisation of landfill leachate for CECs.To provide the first national-scale assessment of CECs in landfill leachate across the United States, fresh leachate samples (i.e. prior to onsite treatment) from 19 landfills in 16 states were collected in 2011 and analysed for 202 CECs [1]. The targeted CECs were selected for analysis because they were expected to be persistent in the environment; are used, excreted, or disposed of in substantial quantities; may have human or environmental health effects; or are potential indicators of environmentally relevant classes of chemicals or source materials.

  18. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste.

  19. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  20. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  1. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  2. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  3. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.