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Sample records for fluid inclusion leachates

  1. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  2. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  3. Removal of toxic metal ions from landfill leachate by complementary sorption and transport across polymer inclusion membranes.

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    Zawierucha, Iwona; Kozlowski, Cezary; Malina, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this study, performance of a lab-scale two-step treatment system was evaluated for removal of toxic metal ions from landfill leachate. The technology of polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) was the first step, while the second step of the treatment system was based on sorption on impregnated resin. The PIMs were synthesized from cellulose triacetate as a support, macrocyclic compound i.e. alkyl derivative of resorcinarene as a ionic carrier and o-nitrophenyl pentyl ether as a plasticizer. The transport experiments through PIM were carried out in a permeation cell, in which the membrane film was tightly clamped between two cell compartments. The sorption tests were carried out using a column filled with a resin impregnated with resorcinarene derivative. The obtained results show the good performance with respect to the removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate with the overall removal efficiency of 99%, 88% and 55% for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions, respectively. Moreover the contents of metal ions in the leachate sample after treatment system were below permissible limit for wastewater according to the Polish Standards.

  4. Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱和平; 王莉娟

    2002-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is an instrument for effectively determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusion. The gaseous component is extracted from inclusions with thermal decrepitation method and then determined with the sensitive QMS instrument. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and high accuracy with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of less than 3%. It has been successfully used for analyzing fluid inclusions. The analytical re-sults meet the requirement of geological study.

  5. Characteristics and Applications of Fluid Inclusions in the Eogene System of the Biyang Depression—I.A Fluid Inclusion Study

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    麦碧娴; 汪本善

    1992-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the rypes,salinities,homogenization temperatures and organic components of fluid inclusions formed at the four stages of diagenetic authigenesis in the Eogene of the Biyang Depression.The results of cooling experiments on fluid inclusions were used to determine the fluid system and composition of saline aqueous solution in each of the stages .The homogenization temperatures of saline aqueous solution inclusions and hydrocarbon organic inclu-sions have been corrected by two approaches ,and the trapping temperatures and pressures of fluid inclusions at each of the stages have been obtained.This strdy has shed light on the physicochemistry and evolution of diagenetic fluids.The diagentic fluid system is a system which was transformed from a chloride-bearing to a carbonate-bearing system along with the diagenic evolu-tion.The decrease of diagenetic temperature at Stage III of diagenetic authigenesis suggests that the depression would have experiences uplifting at that time.The fluorescent characteristics of fluid inclusions indicate the varieties of organic components in fluid inclusions both in time and in space.

  6. SRXRF Experiments and Analytical Methods of Mineral Individual Fluid Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chunxue; Huang Yuying; Li Hongkui; Chen Chuanren; He Wei; Li Kuifa

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-beam and trace element non-destructive experiment and analytical method of mineral fluid inclusions by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The experimental instrument, measurement process and calculating method are introduced. A set of oil- and gas-containing typical mineral fluid inclusions taken from the Tazhong and Lunnan oilfields in the Tarim Basin were analyzed non-destructively. The trace element contents in the fluid inclusions may provide guidance for oil and gas exploration and development.

  7. Deciphering fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks

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    Alfons van den Kerkhof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks is especially challenging as the host minerals have been normally subjected to deformation, recrystallization and fluid-rock interaction so that primary inclusions, formed at the peak of metamorphism are rare. The larger part of the fluid inclusions found in metamorphic minerals is typically modified during uplift. These late processes may strongly disguise the characteristics of the “original” peak metamorphic fluid. A detailed microstructural analysis of the host minerals, notably quartz, is therefore indispensable for a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions. Cathodoluminescence (CL techniques combined with trace element analysis of quartz (EPMA, LA-ICPMS have shown to be very helpful in deciphering the rock-fluid evolution. Whereas high-grade metamorphic quartz may have relatively high contents of trace elements like Ti and Al, low-temperature re-equilibrated quartz typically shows reduced trace element concentrations. The resulting microstructures in CL can be basically distinguished in diffusion patterns (along microfractures and grain boundaries, and secondary quartz formed by dissolution-reprecipitation. Most of these textures are formed during retrograde fluid-controlled processes between ca. 220 and 500 °C, i.e. the range of semi-brittle deformation (greenschist-facies and can be correlated with the fluid inclusions. In this way modified and re-trapped fluids can be identified, even when there are no optical features observed under the microscope.

  8. Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Heping

    2002-01-01

    [1]Joseph, R. G., Stephen, E. K., Factors affecting gas analysis of inclusion fluid by quadrupole mass spectrometry, Geo-chimica et Acta, 1995, 59(19): 3977-3986.[2]Masakatsu, S., Takayuki, S., Naoto, T., Analysis of fluid inclusion gases from geothermal systems, using a rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometer, Eur. J. Mineral., 1992, 4: 895-906.[3]Van den Kerkhof, A. M., Isochoric phase diagrams in the systems CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2: Application to fluid inclusions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1990, 54: 621-629.[4]Colin, B., Michael, P. S., Mass spectrometric determination of gases in individual fluid inclusions in natural minerals, Anal. Chem., 1986, 58: 1330-1333.[5]David, I. N., Fredrick, J. S., Analysis of volatiles in fluid inclusions by mass spectrometry, Chemical Geology, 1987, 61: 1-10.[6]Yoichi, M., Ryo, K., Takayuki, S. et al., Gas composition of fluid inclusion from the Mori Geothermal Reservoir, South-western Hokkaido, Japan, Resource Geology, 1997, 47(5): 283-291.[7]Lu Huanzhang, Guo Dijiang, Progress and trends of researches on fluid inclusions, Geological Review, 2000, 46(4): 385-392.[8]Xia Xinyu, Wang Xianbin, Chen Jiangfeng, Geningjie, composition of fluid inclusions and CO2 carbon isotope of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks in Shuanghe area, Dabieshan Mountain, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1999, 29(4): 314-320.

  9. Synthesis of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J. (Centre de Recherche sur la Geologie de l' Uranium and GS-CNRS CREGU, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

    Hydrocarbon fluid inclusions have been synthesized in halogenide and sulfate crystals at low temperature (<100C) and atmospheric pressure. Water-immiscible hydrocarbon droplets were either trapped separately or with an aqueous and/or a vapor phase. Impurities on the crystal surface were verified by infrared microspectrometry, and the similarity between the initial liquid and the liquid trapped in the inclusion was documented by Raman microspectrometry for nonfluorescent compounds. This inclusion type represents a new tool for understanding inclusion-formation phenomena and for the calibration of techniques used in hydrocarbon fluid-inclusion analysis ({mu}FT-IR, {mu}Raman, {mu}UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry); these inclusions allow one to obtain microthermometric calibration curves with a high precision at low temperature.

  10. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

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    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  11. N 2-Ar-He compositions in fluid inclusions: Indicators of fluid source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David I.; Musgrave, John A.

    1994-02-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to measure bulk samples of conservative gas species N 2, Ar, and He in fluid inclusions from a variety of hydrothermal systems. Analyses of these tracer elements help determine (1) if gases extracted by bulk inclusion analyses can provide accurate measurement of N 2-Ar-He in active and fossil geothermal systems, (2) if hydrothermal fluids associated with paleogeothermal systems in a continental setting follow N 2ArHe systematics similar to th the western Pacific Rim active geothermal systems, specifically New Zealand, and (3) whether different deposit types systematically vary with regard to N 2ArHe. The N 2ArHe ratios of fluid inclusion volatiles released from recently deposited minerals from the Valles system are similar to those of present day Valles thermal waters. Those inclusion samples from deep within the Valles system, below a regional aquitard, increase in N 2. Compositions for inclusions from the Questa and Copper Flat-porphyry deposits are N 2-rich, similar to those of arc-related volcanic gases, whereas those from Taylor Creek Sn deposit appear to be mixtures of magmatic and crustal components. N 2-Ar-He ratios of the Precambrian Tribag deposit suggest a basalt source, but significant levels of self-generated He from U and Th in the inclusion fluids are also possible. Inclusions from two epithermal deposits with low-salinity inclusions have N 2-Ar-He ratios trending towards air-saturated meteoric waters (ASW), and those inclusions with higher salinities indicate minor to no ASW component. The N 2-Ar-He ratios in Fresnillo and Cochiti inclusions, which have magmatic helium isotopic ratios, indicate additions of magmatic gases to meteoric fluids. Inclusions from sediment-hosted deposits that contain hydrocarbon-bearing brines are He-rich, as are meteoric waters with a long residence time in the crust. At relevant pressure-temperature-composition conditions, Henry's Law constants of N 2, Ar, and He

  12. Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite

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    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

  13. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  14. Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.

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    Burruss, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

  15. The fluid inclusions in jadeitite from Pharkant area,Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A lot of liquid-gas and liquid-gas-solid inclusions were found in Pharkant jadeitites, northwestern Myanmar and their characteristics, geological setting and porphyroclastic jadeites with inclusions in them were described in detail. The results analyzed by Raman spectrometer showed that the component of liquid-gas phase and solid phase (daughter minerals) in fluid inclusions is H2O + CH4 and jadeite separately. The results indicated that Pharkant jadeitites were crystallized from H2O + CH4 bearing jadeitic melt which may originate from mantle. The P-T conditions in which the jadeitites were crystallized were speculated to be T >650℃, P >1.5 GPa.

  16. Inclusions of Hydrocarbon Fluids in Diamonds From Wafangdian, Liaoning, China

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    Leung, I. S.; Tsao, C.

    2015-12-01

    We studied a large number of industrial-grade diamonds from Pipe 50 of Liaoning, China. These diamonds are not suitable for polishing into gems or making cutting tools. They are usually crushed to form abrasives, without much scientific scrutiny. We report here fluid inclusions in dozens of diamonds. The first type of fluids occur in the outer rim of diamonds, just below the surface, while their interior is free of visible fluids. Under UV radiation, when a non-fluorescent diamond appeared dim, bubbles of included fluids became visible as yellow and blue spherules. Such diamonds are sometimes encrusted with euhedral micro-diamonds resembling those on thin films grown by CVD. The second type of fluid-rich diamonds display iridescence of pink, blue, green and yellow colors. They show lamellar, filamentous, or tubular structures, some of the tubes are filled with granules, probably grown from fluids in the tubes. An FT-IR investigation of both types yielded similar results. Apart from absorption due to intrinsic diamond lattice vibrations, we found an outstanding group of bands just below wavenumber 3000. This indicates the presence of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons of long chain length. Our results seem to implicate that hydrocarbons might be an important component in Earth's mantle, which might even have provided carbon from which diamonds crystllized.

  17. Constraints from fluid inclusions in mantle minerals on the composition of subduction-zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, P.; Provost, A.; Cluzel, N.

    2013-12-01

    Slab-derived fluids are thought to enrich the mantle wedge in water and trace elements, and this metasomatized mantle region becomes the source of island arc basalts. Much of the evidence for this model has been derived indirectly through the study of the composition of the end-products, the lavas, and there have only been a few direct studies of the metasomatism of the mantle rocks from these regions. Therefore important aspects of the model have remained somewhat hypothetical. In particular, there are different viewpoints on the nature of subduction fluids, their trace element compositions and their pathways in the slab and overlying mantle. The whole debate is also hampered by the limited memory that high-pressure metamorphic rocks preserve of their subduction history, due to retrograde overprinting during exhumation, and by uncertainties in reproducing the conditions of subduction during experiments. Here we identify trapped pristine samples of the fluid phase percolating through the mantle wedge beneath island arcs, by examining fluid inclusions trapped within spinel-harzburgite xenoliths in an arc-front volcano (Batan island, Luzon arc). The xenoliths correspond to previously metasomatized mantle fragments incorporated in the lavas during ascent. Cl-bearing H2O-rich fluid inclusions occur within both primary (ol, opx) and late metasomatic minerals (e.g., cpx, phlogopite, amphibole). They were formed by the addition of aqueous fluids or by separation of aqueous fluids from H2O-saturated melt inclusions, as suggested by the occurrence of composite inclusions consisting of silicate glass and H2O (liq+vap). The associated silicate melt inclusions were previously shown to display silica-rich compositions that are consistent with slab-derived melts [1] or melts of metasomatized mantle peridotites [2]. In situ Raman spectroscopy reveals that at room temperature, the fluid inclusions are composed mainly of H2O, H2S and HS- and contain also sulphur (S6) and Mg

  18. Fluid inclusions and microstructures in experimentally deformed quartz single crystals

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    Thust, A.; Tarantola, A.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    The "H2O-weakening" effect that reduces the strength of quartz dramatically (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965) is still not understood. For example, Kronenberg & Tullis (1984) conclude that the weakening effect is pressure dependent while Paterson (1989) infers a glide and recovery control of water. Obviously, the spatial distribution and transport of H2O are important factors (Kronenberg et al. 1986, FitzGerald et al. 1991). We have carried out experiments on milky quartz in a Griggs deformation apparatus. Cylinders (6.5 mm in diameter, 12-13 mm in length) from a milky zone of a natural quartz single crystal have been cored in orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes and (2) 45˚ to and 45˚ to (O+orientation). At 1 GPa confining pressure, 900˚ C and 10-6s-1, the flow strength is 150 MPa for samples with orientation (1). Further experiments are needed to establish the flow strength for orientation (2). FTIR measurements on double-polished thick sections (200-500 μm) in the undeformed quartz material yield an average H2O content of approximately 100 H/106Si. The water is heterogeneously distributed in the sample. Direct measurements on fluid inclusions yield a H2O content of more than 25 000 H/106Si. Thus, the H2O in the undeformed material is predominantly present in fluid inclusions of size from tens to hundred microns. Micro-thermometric measurements at low temperature indicate the presence of different salts in the fluid inclusions. The ice melting temperature, between -6.9 and -7.4˚ C, indicate an average salinity of 10.5 wt% NaCl. After deformation the distribution of H2O is more homogeneous throughout the sample. The majority of the big inclusions have disappeared and very small inclusions of several microns to sub-micron size have formed. FTIR measurements in zones of undulatory extinction and shear bands show an average H2O content of approximately 3000 H/106Si. Moreover, the larger fluid inclusions are characterized by a higher salinity (12 wt%) due

  19. Ion probe and fluid inclusion evidence for co-seismic fluid infiltration in a crustal detachment

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    Famin, V.; Hébert, R.; Philippot, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2005-10-01

    We have investigated the geochemical pattern of fluid infiltration in the extensional detachment of Tinos Island (Cyclades, Greece). Ion microprobe O-isotope analyses and fluid inclusion studies have been conducted in strain fringes developing around pyrite blasts in the mylonite of the shear zone. Micro-scale traverses in quartz and calcite fibres show that δ18O increases from 17-18 to 20-21‰ in 1 mm towards the blast, drops of 3‰ in ˜200 μm, then rises again in the direction of growth. δ18O variations are interpreted as transient influxes of exotic fluids into the shear zone between periods of closed system buffering by the host rock. Fluid inclusions trapped in the fibres show fluctuating salinities (0-4 wt% NaCl eq.) and densities that reflect drops of the pore pressure from lithostatic (λ=1) to hydrostatic (λ=0.4) values during fringe growth. Isotopic and microthermometric data are consistent with models of seismic pumping developed for compressive shear zones. We therefore suggest that co-seismic pore pressure variations developed suction forces sufficient to drive large-scale fluid migration in the Tinos detachment, as in convergent tectonic settings.

  20. Applications of the IAPWS-95 formulation in fluid inclusion and mineral-fluid phase equilibria

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    Lanlan Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The IAPWS-95 formulation explicit in Helmholtz free energy proposed by Wagner and Pruβ (2002 is the best equation of state of water, from which all thermodynamic properties can be obtained over a wide T–p range from 273.16 to 1273 K and from 0 to 1000 MPa with experimental accuracy. This paper reports the applications of the IAPWS-95 formulation in fluid inclusion and mineral-water phase equilibria. A reliable and highly efficient calculation method is presented for the saturated properties of water so that the formulation can be conveniently applied in the study of fluid inclusion, such as calculating homogenization pressures, homogenization densities (or molar volumes, volume fractions and isochores. Meanwhile, the univariant curves of some mineral-dehydration reactions are calculated based on the IAPWS-95 formulation. The computer code of the IAPWS-95 formulation can be obtained from the corresponding author.

  1. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

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    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  2. Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal fluid evolution in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Iran

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    Nateghi, Arash; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit is associated with a quartz monzonitic-granodioritic-porphyritic stock hosted by an Eocene volcanic sedimentary complex in which magmatic hydrothermal fluids were introduced and formed veins and alteration. Within the deepest quartz-rich and chalcopyrite-poor group A veins, LVHS2 inclusions trapped high salinity, high temperature aqueous fluids exsolved directly from a relatively shallow magma (0.5 kbar). These late fluids were enriched in NaCl and reached halite saturation as a result of the low pressure of magma crystallization and fluid exsolution. These fluids extracted Cu from the crystallizing melt and transported it to the hydrothermal system. As a result of ascent, the temperature and pressure of these fluids decreased from 600 to 415 °C, and approximately 500-315 bars. At these conditions, K-feldspar and biotite were stabilized. Type A veins were formed at a depth of ∼1.2 km under conditions of lithostatic pressure and abrupt cooling. Upon cooling and decompressing, the fluid intersected with the liquid-vapor field resulting in separation of immiscible liquid and vapor. This stage was recorded by formation of LVHS1, LVHS3 and VL inclusions. These immiscible fluids formed chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration envelopes (B veins) under the lithostatic-hydrostatic pressure regime at temperatures between 415 and 355 °C at 1.3 km below the paleowater table. As the fluids ascended, copper contents decreased and these fluids were diluted by mixing with the low salinity-external fluid. Therefore, pyrite-dominated quartz veins were formed in purely hydrostatic conditions in which pressure decreased from 125 bars to 54 bars and temperature decreased from 355 to 298 °C. During the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution, the composition and P-T regime changed drastically and caused various types of veins and alterations. The abundance of chalcopyrite precipitation in group B veins suggests that boiling and

  3. Research on Fluid Inclusions of the Yinshan Polymetallic Deposit,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德会; 刘伟

    1999-01-01

    In this paper some new advances in the study of fluid inclusions of the Yinshan deposit in Jiangxi Province,China,are presented.The fluid inclusions of the deposit can be divided into four types:1) gas-rich inclusions;2)liquid-rich inclusions;3)salt-saturated H2O inclusions;and 4)single-phase or multiphase CO2-rich inclusions.Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions range from 100 to 520℃,aminly in the range 120-400℃.The daughter crystal-bearing multiphase inclusions present in quartz porphyries(including Nos.13 and 4 dikes)have been observed.In ore veins,some daughter crystal-bearing multiphase inclusions have been observed.too.On the basis of the results of fluid inclusion research,the authors suggest that the ore-forming fluid must have a close genetic relation to magmatic hydrothermal solution.The ore-forming fluid was dominantly originated from the depth and the mixing of magmatic solution with meteoric water was enhanced during ascending of the fluid,accompanying immiscibility and boiling of fluid.Teher may be a conceales igneous body at the depth of the Yinshan deposity,which furnishes the scientific basis for metallogenic prognosis at th depth of the Yinshan deposit.

  4. Existence and release of fluid inclusions in bornite and its associated quartz and calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Wen, Shu-ming; Wu, Dan-dan; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Shen, Hai-ying

    2013-09-01

    The existence and release of fluid inclusions in bornite and its associated minerals, namely, quartz and calcite were investigated and confirmed. The structures, forms, and phases of these large quantities of fluid inclusions were also studied. A mass of fluid inclusions with various sizes, distributions, shapes, and phases exist in bornite and its associated minerals. Their sizes vary from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers, and the forms appear as negative crystals, or elongated, elliptical, and irregular. At room temperature, fluid inclusions were mainly characterized as gas-liquid twophase. However, small amounts of fluid inclusions with pure gas phase and pure liquid single-phase were also observed in quartz and calcite. These fluid inclusions initially broke during the ore crushing and grinding process and then released into the flotation pulp in the flotation process. The quantitative analysis of fluid inclusions in the solution and the comparisons of mineral dissolution show that the amount of copper and iron released by fluid inclusions in the bornite sample is higher than the amount dissolved by the mineral; fluid inclusions in the associated gangue minerals, quartz, and calcite also make contribution.

  5. On modifications of fluid inclusions in quartz : re-equilibration experiments and thermodynamical calculations on fluids in natural quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Fluids in rocks can be traced to great depths, and are found in crustal rocks as well as in mantle rocks. Information about the deep fluid which is obtained from fluid inclusions must be handled with care, for the way up after entrapment in a crystal is long and full of interferences at different pr

  6. Dual origins of Xiaoqinling gold-bearing quartz veins: Fluid inclusion evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fluid inclusion research in Archean metamorphic rocks, Yanshanian granite and gold-bearing quartz veins shows that regional metamorphic fluids are high temperature and high saline, Yanshanian post-granitic fluids are CO2-bearing low saline, and ore-forming fluids are also CO2-rich low saline. In gold-barren/free parts of quartz veins in gold deposits, daughter mineral-bearing high saline inclusions related with metamorphic fluids remained. This proclaims quartz veins hosting gold ores might have been formed in early metamorphism, and overlapped or mineralized by late Yanshanian gold-bearing fluids.

  7. Determination of Salinity in Fluid Inclusions with Laser Raman Spectroscopy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to outline the laser Raman spectroscopy technique for determination of salinity in the aqueous phase in fluid inclusions. The skewing parameters of the Raman profiles of the calibration solutions determined were used to derive a calibration curve for the estimation of the equivalent mass fraction NaCl in aqueous solutions. This technique was also verified in the analysis of the natural fluid inclusions from Tongshankou porphyry Cu (Mo) deposit, Hubei Province, China. Although the analyses on the natural fluid inclusions are limited, an acceptable agreement has been reached on the salinities, for most fluid inclusions, determined by the Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry techniques, indicating the reliability of the Raman technique for determination of salinity in fluid inclusion studies.

  8. Halogens, Barium and Uranium in Mantle Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, I. M.; Peverelli, V.; Oglialoro, E.; Pettke, D. T.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Halogens are an underexplored geochemical marker. A way to measure halogens at ng/g levels is measuring Ar, Kr and Xe in irradiated samples [1,2]. We derive absolute halogen amounts from rare gas amounts via scapolite monitor SY [2]. Kr-Xe systematics also yield Ba and U concentrations. We combined irradiation with stepheating on carbonate-sulfate-rich fluid inclusions (FI)-bearing xe­no­liths from El Hierro, Canarias: spinel harzburgite XML-7 and spinel dunite XML-1 [3]. Three components are recognized in the rare gas release. (1) Atmospheric surface contamination occurs up to 1000 °C. (2) FI decrepitation by laboratory heating occurs above 1200 °C [4], corresponding to the release of 80,82Kr and 128Xe in the 1200 and 1400 °C steps. Br whole-rock concentrations are 3-8 ng/g; the molar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios in the harzburgite FI, 9 E-4 resp. 2 E-4, are identical to those in the dunite FI. This sets the halogens in our FI apart from MORB [2]. Halogen-derived rare gases are closely associated to artificial 131Xe from Ba; Ba has a high affinity of for CO2-rich fluids. Daughter minerals in multiphase FI were identified by Raman micro­spectroscopy [4]. The calculated Ba concentrations are 2-6 µg/g. (3) The third component is U-derived 134,136Xe and 86Kr released in a spike at 1000 °C, decoupled from FI. This requires a different carrier than FI, e.g. Ti oxides. As U concentrations are 10-20 pg/g, the U-bearing phase needs to be below a ppm, invisible by petro­graphy. The 136Xe/134Xe ratio > 1 suggests retention of radio­genic Xe. However, analysis of an unirradiated sample detected no radiogenic Xe. It is likely that Xe-U produced in the core of the McMaster reactor (thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons) has a different isotopic composition from that in textbooks, as proposed by [2].[1] Jeffery & Reynolds (1961) J.Geophys. Res. 66, 3582 [2] Kendrick (2012) Chem. Geol. 292, 116 [3] Oglialoro et al (2015) AGU Fall Meeting abstract V21C-3046 [4] Roedder (1965

  9. Application of Fluid Inclusions in the Study of Natural Gas Geology in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ai-ping; YANG Ren-chao; FENG Qiao; LIU Yi-qun; HAN Zuo-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The new recently demonstrated reserves of oil and gas in the Ordos basin are found at the top of petroliferous basins in China. Gas pools discovered in recent years in the Permian system have become the main natural gas resource in the basin. Therefore, synthetic research on fluid inclusions should be done in order to ascertain the pool-forming stage, the maturity of organic matters and the properties of Paleo-fluids. The main types of fluid inclusions in the Permian system in the basin include brine inclusions, carbon dioxide inclusions and organic inclusions. Homogenization temperatures (HT) of brine inclusions can be divided into four intervals: 66-83 ℃, 86-108 ℃, 112-138 ℃ and 142-153 ℃. The fluid inclusions in the interval of 112-138 ℃ are much more than that of other intervals, indicating that the second stage of hydrocarbon migration associated with the third temperature interval is the most important stage of gas pool formations. The fluid inclusion has extensive applications in the study of gas geology, not only in ascertaining the formation stage of gas pools, but also in estimating the maturity of organic matter and restoring Paleo-fluids. The result of testing the HT of brine inclusions shows that there are two stages of gas pool formations in the Permian system occurring ±150 Ma and ±100 Ma. The maturity of organic matter is moderate to high, a conclusion based on the color of fluid inclusions (radiated by fluorescence). The high salinity of Paleo-fluids of the NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O systems shows good preservation conditions of the Paleo-fluids. Two stages of reservoir filling, high maturity of organic matter and good preservation conditions are factors favorable for the formation and preservation of large-scale gas pools in the Permian system in the Ordos basin.

  10. The fluid inclusion study in petroleum exploration; O estudo de inclusoes fluidas na exploracao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Eduardo Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia da Geoquimica]. E-mail: cescoelho@petrobras.com.br

    2005-05-01

    Several oil companies and research centers have been studying petroleum fluid inclusions in reservoirs since the 1980's. The first works have used the fluid inclusion microthermometry technique in order to interpret the thermal history and petroleum migration in relation to the burial history and diagenesis. Lately, the micro thermometric data is being used as a calibration parameter for thermal history modeling in sedimentary basins and reservoirs. Recently, new fluid inclusion study techniques are being used in petroleum exploration. Geochemical data of low molecular weight (up to C{sub 15}) oil-bearing fluid inclusions has been used with the purpose of pinpointing oil-bearing intervals in wells that have not revealed the presence of oil by conventional techniques. Molecular geochemical analyses of oils inside the inclusions technique enable oil-source correlations, oil-oil correlations, and maturity determination. (author)

  11. Rare earth elements in CO2-fluid inclusions in mantle lherzolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiuhua Xu; Yuling Xie; Lijun Wang; Heping Zhu; Liquan Wang

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements including REE (Rare Earth Elements) in fluid inclusions in lherzolite, olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopy-roxene have been determined by heating-decrepitation and ICP-MS (Element Type Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry)method. Normalized CO2 fluid/chondrite data show that mantle fluids are rich in REEs, especially LREEs (Light Rare Earth Ele-ments), several times or dozen times higher than mantle rocks and mantle mininerals. There are close relationships among the REEdata of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and lherzolite. Compared to the data of chemical dissolution method, it is believed thatREE data obtained from heating-decrepitation and ICP-MS technique are contributed by CO2 fluid inclusions. About 60% (massfraction) of tiny inclusions are observed not to be decrepitated above 1000℃, so REE data obtained are only contributed by decrepi-tated inclusions. Mantle fluids rich in LREE play an important role in mantle metasomatism, partial melting and mineralization.

  12. Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet from UHPM rocks (Kokchetav massif, Northern Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Dieing, Thomas; Golovin, Aleksandr V; Toporski, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Confocal Raman imaging of fluid inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-grade metamorphic calc-silicate rocks from the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan) reveals that these fluid inclusions consist of almost pure water with different step-daughter phases (e.g., calcite, mica and rare quartz). These fluid inclusions are characterized by negative crystal shape of the host-garnet and they exclusively occur within the core of garnet porphyroblasts. These observations are consistent with their primary origin, most likely at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. The euhedral newly formed garnet, different in color and composition, was found to be associated with these fluid inclusions. It is proposed that newly formed garnet and water fluid inclusions appear by reaction between the hydrous fluid and the garnet-host. These fluid inclusions provide an unequivocal record of almost pure H(2)O fluids, indicating water-saturated conditions within subducted continental crust during prograde stage and/or ultrahigh-P metamorphism.

  13. Fluid Inclusions in the Gold-Bearing Quartz Veins at Um Rus Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMED EL TOKHI; ABDALLA EL MUSLEM

    2002-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the gold-bearing quartz veins at the Um Rus area are of three types: H2O, H2O-CO2 and CO2 inclusions. H2O inclusions are the most abundant, they include two phases which exhibit low and high homogenization temperatures ranging from 150 to200℃ and 175 to 250℃, respectively. The salinity of aqueous inclusions, based on ice melting, varies between 6.1 and 8 equiv. wt% NaCl. On the other hand, H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions include three phases. Their total homogenization temperatures range from 270 to 325℃,and their salinity, based on clathrate melting, ranges between 0.8 and 3.8 equiv. wt % NaCl.CO2 fluid inclusions homogenize to a liquid phase and exhibit a low density range from 0.52 to0.66 g/cm3. The partial mixing of H2O-CO2 and salt H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions is the main source of fluids from which the other types of inclusions were derived. The gold-bearing quartz veins are believed to be of medium temperature hydrothermal convective origin.

  14. Asteroidal water within fluid inclusion-bearing halite in an H5 chondrite, Monahans (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M E; Bodnar, R J; Gibson, E K; Nyquist, L E; Reese, Y; Shih, C Y; Wiesmann, H

    1999-08-27

    Crystals of halite and sylvite within the Monahans (1998) H5 chondrite contain aqueous fluid inclusions. The fluids are dominantly sodium chloride-potassium chloride brines, but they also contain divalent cations such as iron, magnesium, or calcium. Two possible origins for the brines are indigenous fluids flowing within the asteroid and exogenous fluids delivered into the asteroid surface from a salt-containing icy object.

  15. Fluid-inclusion microthermometry and the Zr-in-rutile thermometer for hydrothermal rutile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Rios, Francisco Javier; de Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos; de Abreu, Francisco Robério; Lehmann, Bernd; Zack, Thomas; Laufek, František

    2015-03-01

    The Zr-in-rutile thermometer is well established for the determination of metamorphic temperatures, particularly in high-grade metamorphic terrains, and for sedimentary provenance studies. The robustness of the rutile thermometry has not been tested on hydrothermal systems. Unlike quartz, a common hydrothermal mineral with abundant fluid inclusions, it is difficult to find fluid inclusions in rutile that are suitable for fluid-inclusion microthermometry. Here, we report fluid-inclusion microthermometric measurements in rutile from the auriferous quartz-kaolinite-hematite vein that typifies the gold deposit of Mil Oitavas in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Primary fluid inclusions in the rutile record moderately saline (10-12 wt% NaCl equivalent), aqueous-carbonic fluids with a total homogenization temperature of ~250 °C, which were likely trapped at about 300 °C and 2.0 kbar. This temperature is approximately 200 °C lower than that predicted by the Zr-in-rutile thermometer. For hydrothermal conditions of relatively low temperature, direct measurements of homogenization temperatures in rutile-hosted fluid inclusions should be preferred to the Zr-in-rutile thermometer.

  16. Fluid inclusion and isotopic evidence on dolomitization, Devonian of Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulstead, K.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Krouse, H.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1988-05-01

    The Presqu'ile and Manetoe Facies are diagenetic features developed in Lower and Middle Devonian Formations of the Elk Point Basin (Presqu'ile) and the Mackenzie Shelf (Manetoe). Both facies contain coarsely crystalline dolomite and white sparry dolomite cement. Less extensive diagenetic phases, in order of paragenesis, include fluorite, anhydrite, barite, calcite, quartz, sphalerite and galena. Conditions of dolomitization are outlined from core and outcrop examination, thin section and cathodoluminescent petrography, fluid inclusion analyses, and C and O isotopic data. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses from dolomite are combined to determine the isotopic composition of the dolomitizing fluids. Chemical analyses of fluid inclusion waters are compared with formation water analyses to derive a proposed origin for the diagenetic fluids. Dolomite formed from hot, high salinity fluids early in the diagenetic history of the basin. Limestone was dolomitized as a result of the same process that created white sparry dolomite cement in the Manetoe Facies. Remnants of the dolomitizing fluids are present as formation waters in some Devonian formations in Alberta. Subsequent invasion of meteoric waters produced more dilute diagenetic fluids which resulted in the precipitation of calcite and quartz cement in the Manetoe Facies. These fluids are present in fluid inclusions and are responsible for the low {sup 18}O content of the calcite cement. The temperatures of calcite and quartz formation differ as a function of burial depth within the Manetoe Facies during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, while the temperature of formation for dolomite does not.

  17. Fluid inclusions in vadose cement with consistent vapor to liquid ratios, Pleistocene Miami Limestone, southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.; Halley, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Vadose cements in the Late Pleistocene Miami Limestone contain regions with two-phase aqueous fluid inclusions that have consistent vapor to liquid (V-L) ratios. When heated, these seemingly primary inclusions homogenize to a liquid phase in a range between 75??C and 130??C (mean = 100??C) and have final melting temperatures between -0.3?? and 0.0??C. The original distribution of Th was broadened during measurements because of fluid inclusion reequilibration. The narrow range of Th in these fluid inclusions suggest unusually consistent V-L ratios. They occur with small, obscure, single phase liquid-filled inclusions, which infer a low temperature origin (less than 60??C), and contradict the higher temperature origin implied by the two phase inclusions. The diagenetic environment producing these seemingly primary fluid inclusions can be inferred from the origin of the host calcite enclosing them. The ??18O composition of these cements (-4 to-5.5%., PDB) and the fresh water in the fluid inclusions are consistent with precipitation from low-temperature meteoric water. The carbon-isotope composition of the vadose cements that contain only rare two-phase fluid inclusions are comparable to the host rock matrix (??13C between 0 and +4%., PDB). Cements that contain common two-phase fluid-inclusions have a distinctly lighter carbon isotopic composition of -3 to -5%.. The carbon isotope composition of cements that contain common two-phase inclusions are about 6%. lighter than those of other vadose cements; models of early meteoric diagenesis indicate that this is the result of precipitation from water that has been influenced by soil gas CO2. Our hypothesis is that the primary fluid inclusions, those with consistent V-L ratios and the single-phase liquid inclusions, form at near-surface temperature (25??C) and pressure when consistent proportions of soil gas and meteoric water percolating through the vadose zone are trapped within elongate vacuoles. This study corroborates

  18. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed at 130―140℃ with salinity of 5.5 wt%―6.0 wt% NaCl. It indicates that natural gas inclusion is a kind of thermal hydrocarbon fluid formed within the basin. Method of opening inclusion by heating was used to analyze composition of fluid inclusion online, of which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content of fluid inclusion contained in veins is 2.4219 m3/t rock and the maximal C1/Σci ratio is 91%. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was used to analyze chemistry of individual fluid inclusion in which the maximal hydrocarbon gas content is 91.6% compared with little inorganic composition. Isotope analysis results of calcite veins show that they were deposited in fresh water, in which the δ13CPDB of calcite veins is from -5.75‰ to 15.23‰ andδ18OSMOW of calcite veins is from 21.33‰ to 21.67‰. Isotope results show thatδ13C1 PDB of natural gas fluid inclusion is from -21.36‰ to -29.06‰ and δDSMOW of that is from -70.89‰ to -111.03‰. It indicates that the gas of fluid inclusion formed from coal source rocks and it is the same as that of natural gas of Mizhi gas reservoir. Results of TL dating show that time of calcite vein is (32.4±3.42)×104 a, which is thought to be formation time of gas inclusion. It indicated that natural gas inclusion contained in calcite veins recorded natural gas leakage from Mizhi gas reservoir through the Central Fault Belt due to Himalayan tectonic movement.

  20. Fluid Inclusions and Daughter Minerals of Taibai Gold Deposit, ShaanXi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A discovery of daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Taibai gold deposit, Shaanxi province has been focused on, which is a unique breccia-cemented gold-bearing system. The breccia zone strikes NWW-SEE, occurring in Devonian strata of Southern Qinling Mountains. The cement is mainly composed of ankerite, pyrite, calcite and quartz, which may be divided into four main tectonic-mineralizing stages. Gold mainly occurs in pyrite and ankerite of stage II and IV. It is found that three types of fluid inclusions can be distinguished: (1) aqueous inclusions (type B); (2) CO2-rich inclusions (type C); (3) daughter minerals-containing inclusions (type A). LRM (Laser Raman Micro-probe) analyses shows that the content of CO2 occupies 54.4-70.7% (mole fraction, so as the follows) in vapor phases of different type fluid inclusions. CH4 (5.2%-7.3%) and H2S (6.0%-12.7%) exist in both vapor and liquid phases. Many daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of ankerite and quartz have been found. Several kinds of daughter minerals, including ankerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and halite, were determined by using SEM (scanning electron microscope) / EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer) technique. EPMA (electron probe micro-analysis) technique was also applied to study the daughter minerals exposed to the surface of polis hed thin sections.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF TOOL WEAR AND CUTTING TEMPERATURES IN MQL USING CUTTING FLUIDS WITH CNT INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NARAYANA RAO,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Machining often witnesses frequent interruption caused by friction and heat. Cutting fluids are being used in machining for centuries to counter the effects of friction and temperatures. However, because of many disadvantages, MQL has emerged. MQL demands fluids with high performance. This work tries to estimate tool wear and cutting temperatures while using cutting fluids, prepared with carbon nano tube (CNT inclusion.

  2. High-resolution signatures of oxygenation and microbiological activity in speleothem fluid inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Blamey, Nigel J. F.; Penelope J. Boston; Laura Rosales-Lagarde

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting o...

  3. Depth of volcanic basalt degassing forecasted from CO2 fluid inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have recorded the history of degassing in basalt. Some fluid inclusions in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts of basalt were analyzed by micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy in this paper. The experimental results showed that many inclusions are present almost in a pure CO2 system. The densities of some CO2 inclusions were computed in terms of Raman spectroscopic characteristics of CO2 Fermi resonance at room temperature. Their densities change over a wide range, but mainly between 0.044 g/cm3 and 0.289 g/cm3. Their micro-thermometric measurements showed that the CO2 inclusions examined reached homogenization between 1145.5℃ and 1265℃. The mean value of homogenization temperatures of CO2 inclusions in basalts is near 1210℃. The trap pressures (depths) of inclusions were computed with the equation of state and computer program. Distribution of the trap depths makes it know that the degassing of magma can happen over a wide pressure (depth) range, but mainly at the depth of 0.48 km to 3.85 km. This implicates that basalt magma experienced intensive degassing and the CO2 gas reservoir from the basalt magma also may be formed in this range of depths. The results of this study showed that the depth of basalt magma degassing can be forecasted from CO2 fluid inclusions, and it is meaningful for understanding the process of magma degassing and constraining the inorganogenic CO2 gas reservoir.

  4. Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

    2004-03-09

    To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

  5. Chain length estimation of hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions by Raman spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J. (Centre de Recherches sur la Geologie de l' Uranium (CREGU), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France))

    1993-04-22

    The analysis by conventional Raman spectroscopy of synthetic n-alkane inclusions allows an estimation of the chain length coefficient. This coefficient varies with the dilution of the n-alkanes. The estimate was applied to both synthetic and natural inclusions, and then refined by comparing the Raman and infrared data. Therefore, the complex aliphatic mixture of natural inclusions can be assimilated to an average alkane. The objective of this pseudoization is to model the thermobarometric conditions of trapping of the organic fluids in inclusion. 17 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  6. Petrography, fluid inclusion analysis, and geochronology of the End uranium deposit, Kiggavik, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guoxiang; Haid, Taylor; Quirt, David; Fayek, Mostafa; Blamey, Nigel; Chu, Haixia

    2016-04-01

    The End deposit is one of several uranium deposits in the Kiggavik area near the Proterozoic Thelon Basin, which is geologically similar to the Athabasca Basin known for its unconformity-related uranium deposits. The mineralization occurs as uraninite and coffinite in quartz veins and wall rocks (psammopelitic gneisses) in the sub-Thelon basement and is associated with clay- and hematite-altered fault zones. Fluid inclusions were studied in quartz cementing unmineralized breccias formed before mineralization (Q2), quartz veins that were formed before mineralization but spatially associated with uranite (Q4), and calcite veins that were formed after mineralization. Four types of fluid inclusions were recognized, namely liquid-dominated biphase (liquid + vapor), vapor-dominated biphase (vapor + liquid), monophase (vapor-only), and triphase (liquid + vapor + halite) inclusions. The first three types were found in Q2, whereas all four types were found in Q4 and calcite. The coexistence of these different types of inclusions within individual fluid inclusion assemblages is interpreted to indicate fluid immiscibility and heterogeneous trapping. Based on microthermometry, the fluids associated with Q2 are characterized by low salinities (0.4 to 6.6 wt%) and moderate temperatures from 148 to 261 °C, and the fluids associated with calcite show high salinities (26.8 to 29.3 wt%) and relatively low temperatures from 146 to 205 °C, whereas the fluids associated with Q4 have a wide range of salinities from 0.7 to 38.8 wt% and temperatures from 80 to 332 °C. Microthermometric and cryogenic Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that the high-salinity fluids in Q4 and calcite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 ± MgCl2 system, with some dominated by NaCl and others by CaCl2. The fluid inclusions in Q2 are interpreted to be unrelated to mineralization, whereas those in Q4 and calcite reflect the mineralizing fluids. The fluid inclusion data are consistent with a genetic link of

  7. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  8. Fluid chemistry in the fault propataion zone in the mid-crust -fluid inclusion chemistry from the Lishan fault, Taiwan-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.; Iijima, C.; Kurosawa, M.; Chan, Y.; Terabayashi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Liberation of CO2-rich gas from fluid preserved in the fault propagation zone would be important phenomena in the earthquake and aftershock process. We have detected that injected fluid in link thrust would cause fault propagation and fault lubrication due to vapor-separation [1]. Recently, one of the authors, Yu-Chang Chan found unusual quartz vein on the great link-thrust, Lishan fault, in Taiwan orogenic belt [1]. The quartz vein is spherical shape and is composed of large crystals. The transparent quartz grains contain large primary fluid inclusions over 100 microns in diameters. The fluid inclusion is classified as three kinds of group. That is, two phase, vapor phase and three phase inclusion. Homogenization temperature is 260 oC and NaCl weight pecent is estimated to be 7.41. In order to measure the fluid chemistry, PIXE analysis was done at Tsukuba University. Analytical procedure is shown in [2]. The result is summarized as follows. 1. Br/Cr ratio is lower than that in seawater. 2. Ti, Cr, and Ni contents are high, suggesting that fluid is related to magma activity. 3. Vapor-phase inclusion contains considerable amount of metal elements (Ti, Zn, Ge, Mn, Ca, Fe, Pb, Rb, and Cu) as well as K, and Br. Fractionation between the vapor and the fluid would be useful tool to detect vapor separation due to fault propagation. References [1] Chan, Y. et al., Terra Nova 17, 439-499 (2005) [2] Kurosawa M. et al.,Island Arc, 19, 17-29 (2010)

  9. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at ``<100{degrees}C``. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  10. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at fourth depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid ratios: most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at {open_quotes}100{degrees}C{close_quotes}. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  11. Petrography, fluid inclusion analysis, and geochronology of the End uranium deposit, Kiggavik, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guoxiang; Haid, Taylor; Quirt, David; Fayek, Mostafa; Blamey, Nigel; Chu, Haixia

    2017-02-01

    The End deposit is one of several uranium deposits in the Kiggavik area near the Proterozoic Thelon Basin, which is geologically similar to the Athabasca Basin known for its unconformity-related uranium deposits. The mineralization occurs as uraninite and coffinite in quartz veins and wall rocks (psammopelitic gneisses) in the sub-Thelon basement and is associated with clay- and hematite-altered fault zones. Fluid inclusions were studied in quartz cementing unmineralized breccias formed before mineralization (Q2), quartz veins that were formed before mineralization but spatially associated with uranite (Q4), and calcite veins that were formed after mineralization. Four types of fluid inclusions were recognized, namely liquid-dominated biphase (liquid + vapor), vapor-dominated biphase (vapor + liquid), monophase (vapor-only), and triphase (liquid + vapor + halite) inclusions. The first three types were found in Q2, whereas all four types were found in Q4 and calcite. The coexistence of these different types of inclusions within individual fluid inclusion assemblages is interpreted to indicate fluid immiscibility and heterogeneous trapping. Based on microthermometry, the fluids associated with Q2 are characterized by low salinities (0.4 to 6.6 wt%) and moderate temperatures from 148 to 261 °C, and the fluids associated with calcite show high salinities (26.8 to 29.3 wt%) and relatively low temperatures from 146 to 205 °C, whereas the fluids associated with Q4 have a wide range of salinities from 0.7 to 38.8 wt% and temperatures from 80 to 332 °C. Microthermometric and cryogenic Raman spectroscopic studies indicate that the high-salinity fluids in Q4 and calcite belong to the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 ± MgCl2 system, with some dominated by NaCl and others by CaCl2. The fluid inclusions in Q2 are interpreted to be unrelated to mineralization, whereas those in Q4 and calcite reflect the mineralizing fluids. The fluid inclusion data are consistent with a genetic link of

  12. Pressure–Temperature–Fluid Constraints for the Poona Emerald Deposits, Western Australia: Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marshall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerald from the deposits at Poona shows micrometre-scale chemical, optical, and cathodoluminescence zonation. This zonation, combined with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, indicates early emerald precipitation from a single-phase saline fluid of approximately 12 weight percent NaCl equivalent, over the temperature range of 335–525 °C and pressures ranging from 70 to 400 MPa. The large range in pressure and temperature likely reflects some post entrapment changes and re-equilibration of oxygen isotopes. Secondary emerald-hosted fluid inclusions indicate subsequent emerald precipitation from higher salinity fluids. Likewise, the δ18O-δD of channel fluids extracted from Poona emerald is consistent with multiple origins yielding both igneous and metamorphic signatures. The combined multiple generations of emerald precipitation, different fluid compositions, and the presence of both metamorphic and igneous fluids trapped in emerald, likely indicate a protracted history of emerald precipitation at Poona conforming to both an igneous and a metamorphic origin at various times during regional lower amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism over the period ~2710–2660 Ma.

  13. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  14. Fluid inclusions evidence for differential exhumation of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hongrui; GUO Jinghui; HU Fangfang; CHU Xuelei; CHEN Fukun; JIN Chengwei

    2005-01-01

    Differential exhumation was petrologically recognized in ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks from the southern and northern parts of the Sulu terrane. While a normal exhumation occurred for eclogites and gneisses in south Sulu, granulite-facies overprinting of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks took place with high retrograde temperatures in north Sulu. A study of fluid inclusions reveals trapping of five type fluid inclusions in high and ultrahigh pressure eclogite minerals and vein quartz in the Sulu terrane. These are A-type N2±CO2 inclusion trapped at high and ultra-high pressure eclogite-facies metamorphic condition, B-type pure-CO2 liquid phase inclusion with higher density trapped during granulite-facies overprinting metamorphism of eclogites, C-type CO2-H2O inclusion and D-type hypersaline inclusion trapped in high pressure eclogite-facies re-crystallization stage, and E-type low salinity H2O inclusion trapped in the latest stage of ultrahigh pressure exhumation (amphibolite-facies retrogression). Identification of crowded-distributing pure-CO2 liquid inclusions with higher density trapped in garnet of eclogites provides an evidence for granulite-facies overprinting metamorphism in the north Sulu terrane.

  15. Influence of H2O Rich Fluid Inclusions on Quartz Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thust, Anja; Heilbronner, Renée.; Stünitz, Holger; Tarantola, Alexandre; Behrens, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The effect of H2O on the strength of quartz is well known and has been discussed many times in the literature (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965, Kronenberg 1994). In this project we study the H2O interactions between natural dry quartz and H2O rich fluid inclusions during deformation in the solid medium Griggs apparatus. High pressure and temperature experiments were carried out using a quartz single crystal containing a large number of H2O-rich fluid inclusions. Adjacent to the fluid inclusions the crystal is essentially dry (Kronenberg A.K., (1994): Hydrogen specifications and chemical weakening of quartz, Rev. Mineral. Ser. 29 (1994), pp. 123-176.

  16. Stable isotope signatures of gases liberated from fluid inclusions in bedrock at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. (Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (DE)); Meier, D.; Haemmerli, J.; Diamond, L. (Bern Univ. (CH), RWI, Institute of Geological Sciences)

    2010-12-15

    Fluid inclusions in quartzes of the Olkiluoto bedrock contain gaseous N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and higher hydrocarbons in varying proportions. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of the gas phases give valuable information on their origin and the formation conditions. In previous studies, a method to liberate and quantify the gases trapped in fluid inclusions was developed. It allowed determining the carbon isotope signatures of liberated CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and higher hydrocarbons (HHC), but no hydrogen isotope data were acquired. The method was advanced and, in this study, also stable hydrogen isotopes of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} liberated from fluid inclusions could be analysed. The stable carbon signatures of methane and higher hydrocarbons, as well as the hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicate a predominant thermogenic provenance for those gases. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic transverse shear modulus for a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.; Duan, Yunda

    2016-09-01

    An exact analytical solution is presented for the effective dynamic transverse shear modulus in a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions. The complex and frequency-dependent properties of the dynamic shear modulus are caused by the physical mechanism of mesoscopic-scale wave-induced fluid flow whose scale is smaller than wavelength but larger than the size of pores. Our model consists of three phases: a long cylindrical inclusion, a cylindrical shell of poroelastic matrix material with different mechanical and/or hydraulic properties than the inclusion and an outer region of effective homogeneous medium of laterally infinite extent. The behavior of both the inclusion and the matrix is described by Biot's consolidation equations, whereas the surrounding effective medium which is used to describe the effective transverse shear properties of the inner poroelastic composite is assumed to be a viscoelastic solid whose complex transverse shear modulus needs to be determined. The determined effective transverse shear modulus is used to quantify the S-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous fluid-filled poroelastic rocks. The calculation shows the relaxation frequency and relative position of various fluid saturation dispersion curves predicted by this study exhibit very good agreement with those of a previous 2-D finite-element simulation. For the double-porosity model (inclusions having a different solid frame than the matrix but the same pore fluid as the matrix) the effective shear modulus also exhibits a size-dependent characteristic that the relaxation frequency moves to lower frequencies by two orders of magnitude if the radius of the cylindrical poroelastic composite increases by one order of magnitude. For the patchy-saturation model (inclusions having the same solid frame as the matrix but with a different pore fluid from the matrix), the heterogeneity in pore fluid cannot cause any attenuation in the

  18. Origin and implications of fluid inclusions from filled fractures, Oriskany Sandstone, Allegheny Plateau, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilone, T.; Anderson, T.; Burruss, R.C.

    1984-12-01

    Two cores from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone underlying the Allegheny Plateau in south-central Somerset County, Pennsylvania, contain fractures that may either be filled with epigenetic minerals or unfilled. The 1 Sipe core, taken from an unproductive well drilled on the crest of an anticlinal structure, is characterized by numerous discontinuous vertical fractures. The 1 Romesburg core, taken from a productive well drilled on the flank of an anticlinal structure, contains numerous fractures that lie parallel with bedding planes. The walls of these fractures consist of smooth slickensided surfaces. Quartz and ferroan-calcite crystals filling fractures contain numerous hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions. The distribution of these fluid inclusions within most minerals allowed a determination to be made regarding the relative times of migration of fluid hydrocarbon phases in the subsurface with respect to the paragenetic sequence of mineralization events. Analysis of fluid inclusions indicates that fractures were opened at 22,000 ft (6700 m) and remained open throughout an extended period of uplift. Furthermore, inclusions contain hydrocarbon-rich fluids that are comparable to reservoir hydrocarbons in the nearby Shamrock field. This relationship implies that hydrocarbons that currently exist in reservoirs were conducted along fractures that were once open. Fractures crosscut diagenetic features, indicating that diagenesis, for the most part, preceded fracture events. Although they differ in origin and orientation, fractures characterizing Oriskany strata were healed by a consistent sequence of epigenetic minerals.

  19. Characters of fluid inclusions in quartz veins in pyroclastic rock of Budate Group, Hailar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-tao; LIU Li; GAO Yu-qiao; SHAO Hong-mei; SHEN Guang-zheng

    2004-01-01

    It was adopted that the fluorescence microscope, Gas-Flow Heating/Freezing System, Laser-Raman Spectroscopy, etc. are the multimedia techniques for analysing fluid inclusions of quartz veins in Budate Group, Hailar Basin.The results show that fluid inclusions in quartz veins are small (1 ~5 μm) monophase, two-phase (liquid+vapour)aqueous inclusions; the two-phase aqueous inclusions homogeniese to the liquid phase between 120 ~ 180℃, two Laser-Raman Spectroscopy show that both gas phase are enriched in CH4 (94.50% ~99.25% ) and C6H6 (0.75% ~2.70%), under these conditions, inclusions may have come from juvenile fliud followingly the quartz veins formation.While the quartz veins exhibiting different striking luminescence has been proved by cathodoluminescence, it would be belong to secondary hydrocarbon inclusions. The oil inclusions of this stage represent mainly the large scale of oil accumulation, located within the quartz microfracture.

  20. Genetic characteristics of fluid inclusions in sphalerite from the Silesian-Cracow ores, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, A.; Leach, D.L.; Viets, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies in sphalerite from early-stage Zn-Pb mineralization in the Silesian-Cracow region (southern Poland), yielded homogenization temperatures (Th) from 80 to 158??C. Vertical thermal gradient of the parent fluids was 6 to 10??C, and the ore crystallization temperature ranges varied from recrystallization of ores, and Th distribution in single fissure fillings were considered. The ore-forming fluids were liquid-hydrocarbon-bearing aqueous solutions of Na-Ca-Cl type with lower Ca contents in the south and higher Ca contents in the north of the region. The ore-forming fluids had salinities from nul to about 23 weight percent of NaCl equivalent. Three types of fluids were recognized, that mixed during ore precipitation: a) ascending fluids of low-to-moderate salinity and high, b) formation brines of high salinity and moderate Th, and c) descending waters of low salinity and low-to-moderate Th.

  1. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie

    2017-04-01

    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  2. Paleotemperature reconstructions from speleothem fluid inclusions between 14 - 10 ka BP in Milandre cave (NW Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria; Fleitmann, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In cave environments, speleothems constitute a well preserved and precisely dated continental climate archive that record past environmental changes such as paleotemperature or moisture source, namely through oxygen and hydrogen isotopes variations. Fluid inclusions are common in speleothems and they correspond to micrometric voids that often contain fossil liquid water representing past precipitation falling above the cave nearly at the time the inclusions were sealed. To measure the δD and δ18O isotopic composition of speleothem fluid inclusions, we extracted submicrolitre amounts of water from stalagmites (old and recent) coming from Milandre cave (Switzerland) using a new online method developed at the University of Bern (Affolter et al., 2014). The released water is then flushed directly to a Picarro L1102-i or L2140-i laser based instrument that allows to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. At Milandre cave site, a two year isotope monitoring campaign has confirmed that isotopes in precipitation for northwestern Switzerland are principally controlled by air temperature (Affolter et al., 2015). Therefore, when combined with calcite δ18O, the fluid inclusion water isotopes can be used to calculate paleotemperatures. We reconstructed a cold season biased (roughly autumn - winter - spring) paleotemperature trend for the time interval covering the Allerød, the Younger Dryas cold interval and the early Holocene (13'900 - 9'900 BP). References: Affolter S., Fleitmann D., and Leuenberger M.: New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), Clim. Past, 10, 1291-1304, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1291-2014, 2014. Affolter S., Häuselmann A.D., Fleitmann D., Häuselmann P., Leuenberger M.: Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland), Quat. Sci. Rev., 127, pp. 73-89, 2015.

  3. High-resolution signatures of oxygenation and microbiological activity in speleothem fluid inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J.F. Blamey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting out these differences? The success depends on a quantitative understanding of the gas composition trapped in the inclusions and an understanding of the interactions of cave mineralogy, air and water chemistry, and microbiological processes that may interfere with climatic or geochemical interpretations. Our proof-of-concept project uses time synchronous samples from several sites. We report here on this pilot investigation of speleothem inclusions using a methodology for quantitatively analyzing gases dissolved in inclusion fluids. We use incremental crushing of highly spatially resolved samples by mass spectrometry. Here, we report primarily on CH4, CO2, O2, and N2, but have included other detectable gases. The detection limit for He within aqueous fluid inclusions is ~0.2 ppm and gas ratios have ~5% precision using natural standards. We used chemically inert argon as a tracer gas to normalize results to air or air saturated water. This enables interpretation of gas data despite variability in hydrological and geological cave histories. Results are variable. For example, in one case oxygen was depleted while nitrogen was increased, which may be attributable to the breakdown of nitrate or nitrogen-containing biomolecules. In other cases, oxygen is enriched which may be attributed to several factors both geochemical and biological. We suggest potential interpretations between the competing hypotheses with larger future data sets. This first attempt tackles

  4. A TEM Study on Fluid Inclusions in Coesite-bearing Jadeite Quartzite in Shuanghe in the Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiuling; MENG Dawei; HAN Yujing

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions at a nano to sub-micron scale in quartz from jadeite quartzite at Shuanghe, Dabie Mountains,have been investigated by using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Most fluid inclusions are spherical or negative crystal shaped, forming wide swarm-like trails. The TEM reveals that the relationship between coesite and the host quartz is syntaxic and provides strong evidence of the occurrence of high-salty fluids at peak metamorphic conditions.The fluid inclusions are often connected to dislocations, which are undetected at the scale of optical microscopy. Nondecrepitation leakage of fluid inclusions may occur by pipe diffusion of molecule H2O or CO2 along dislocations from the inclusions into the host quartz, thus leading to original inclusion density and composition changes. It should be taken into full account for the correct petrological interpretation of micro-thermometric results.

  5. Fluid inclusion study of the Fiumarella barite deposit (Catanzaro — S. Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, L. J.; de Vivo, B.; Kramer, A. K.; Lima, A.

    1981-08-01

    Samples from a barite vein deposit, located in the Catanzaro Fiumarella (Calabria) were examined by fluid inclusion and ore minerographic techniques. The barite vein occur in plutonic rocks of the Stilo Unit, where some Mo mineralizations were reported. The purpose of the study was to determine the characteristics of the fluid inclusions and to compare them to those of typical porphyry Cu/Mo systems. The ore minerographic study shows that the sulfides, associated to the barite, are clearly post-barite. The fluid inclusion results indicate that the average minimum temperature of the barite formation can be assumed to be about 210°C, with a range of 190 235°C. The salinity of the barite forming solutions is in the range 0 19.5 wt% NaCl and the average minimum pressure on the system was of 18.04 bars equivalent to a minimum depth of 201 m of barite formation below the paleowatertable. No genetic link is suggested to exist between the fluid inclusions of the Fiumarella barite deposit and those characteristic of typical porphyry Cu/Mo systems, whereas a close relation with epithermal precious metal (with base metals) vein deposits or with their distant cousins, the Kuroko deposits, is suggested to exist.

  6. Motions of deformable inclusions in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demidov, I.V.; Sorokin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of rigid particle and compressible gas bubble motion in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid. A nonlinear differential equation describing motion of inclusions with respect to the vessel is derived and solved by the method of direct ...

  7. Modeling study on fluid flow and inclusion motion in 6-strand bloom caster tundishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Wen; Lifeng Zhang; Ping Tang; Zhenjiang Su; Mingmei Zhu; Wuan Gu; Kewen Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of fluid flow and particle motion in a 6-strand bloom caster tundish was investigated by a water model and numerical simulation. Compared with a device without flow control, the tundish with flow control has an important effect on the fluid flow pattern and inclusion removal. It is revealed that by non-isothermal process, which is real production condition, the fluid flow in tundish shows a strong buoyancy pattem, which drives particles to move upwards. The particle removal was quantitatively studied by mathematical and physical simulations.

  8. Fluid inclusions in carbonado diamond_Implication to the crystal growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagi, H.; Ishibashi, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ohfuji, H.

    2010-12-01

    Diamond is a unique geological material carrying inside fluid and solid inclusions which are pristine witnesses of diamond crystallization media. Carbonado is natural polycrystalline diamond whose origin is still under hot depate. Our previous study on Central African carbonado reported the presence of fluid inclusions and high residual pressure in the diamond [1]. These results suggested that C-O-H mantle fluid was trapped in the carbonado sample and carbonado had grown in the volatile-rich environment in the mantle. However, it was unclear that the fluid inclusions in carbonado existed inside of diamond grains or in the grain boundaries. In this study, we precisely investigated the location of fluid inclusions from spectroscopic measurements and TEM observations. A carbonado grain with hundreds of micrometer in diameter was heated incrementally at temperatures from 700 to 1100°C under vacuum. After heating at each temperature condition, infrared absorption spectra were measured. Dehydration of hydrous minerals were observed with increasing temperature. In contrast, absorption bands assignable to liquid water were observed up to 950°C right before graphitization occurred. This observation strongly suggests that the fluid was trapped inside of diamond grains. For obtaining direct evidence of fluid inclusion existing inside of a diamond grain, we conducted TEM observations on an FIB-fabricated thin foil of carbonado. We found a void in the carbonado sample. The void was surrounded by (111) equivalent crystal faces. The octahedral void controlled by crystal habit of host diamond strongly suggests that the void is the negative crystal of diamond. The existence of negative crystal of diamond indicates that the fluid equilibrated with surrounding diamond crystals. Moreover, it was found that the grain boundary of the polished carbonado sample was in zig-zag texture. The detailed EBSD analyses on the grain boundary indicated that the grain boundary corresponded to the

  9. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow, heat transfer and inclusion transport in a four strand tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Wang; Guanghua Wen; Ping Tang; Mingmei Zhu; Yuanqing Chen; Weizhao Song

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical simulation was used for trouble-shooting and optimization.By the mathematical simulation,fluid flow and heat transfer of molten-steel in a four-strand tundish of a billet caster under different conditions (bare tundish and tundish with flow control device) were analyzed.The results showed that (1) the tundish with flow control device (FCD) has an important effect on the fluid pattern and temperature distribution; (2) the unsteady solving method was used to model the inclusion motions at different time periods,and it showed that the FCD is advantageous to separate the nonmetallic inclusions.According to the simulation results,the main problem existing in the industry production was found,and some helpful measurements were executed.Consequently,the large nonmetallic inclusions were separated,and the content of total oxygen was reduced.The quality of steel was greatly improved.

  10. Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorie M. Dilley

    2011-03-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Open or recently closed fractures would be more susceptible to enhancing the permeability of the system. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will assist in fracture stimulation site selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures (Moore, Morrow et al. 1987), and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. These fluid inclusions are faithful records of pore fluid chemistry. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. This report presents the results of the project to determine fracture locations by the chemical signatures from gas analysis of fluid inclusions. With this project we hope to test our assumptions that gas chemistry can distinguish if the fractures are open and bearing production fluids or represent prior active fractures and whether there are chemical signs of open fracture systems in the wall rock above the fracture. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a method developed for the geothermal industry which applies the mass quantification of fluid inclusion gas data from drill cuttings and applying known gas ratios and compositions to determine depth profiles of fluid barriers in a modern geothermal system (Dilley, 2009; Dilley et al., 2005; Norman et al., 2005). Identifying key gas signatures associated with fractures for isolating geothermal fluid production is the latest advancement in the application of FIS to geothermal systems (Dilley and Norman, 2005; Dilley and Norman, 2007). Our hypothesis is that peaks in FIS data are related to location of fractures. Previous work (DOE Grant DE-FG36-06GO16057) has indicated differences in the

  11. Trace Elements in Fluid Inclusions in the Carlin-Type Gold Deposits, Southwestern Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文超; 胡瑞忠; 漆亮; 方维萱

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz from the Lannigou and Yata Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for their trace elements (Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Pt, etc. ). The results show that quartz fluid inclusions entrapped at different ore-forming stages contain higher Co, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn. It has been found for the first time that the ore-forming fluids responsible for the Carlin-type gold deposits are rich in Pt. From this it can be concluded that basic volcanic rocks seem to be one of the im portant sources of ore-forming materials for the Carlin-type gold deposits.

  12. Analysis of individual fluid inclusions using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe: progress toward calibration for trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménez, Bénédicte; Philippot, Pascal; Bonnin-Mosbah, Michelle; Simionovici, Alexandre; Gibert, François

    2002-02-01

    A critical problem for conducting quantitative analysis of individual fluid inclusions using Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF) technique relates to the standardization and the calibration of the X-ray spectra. In this study, different approaches have been tested for calibration purposes: (a) the use of chlorine when Cl content can be estimated either from melting point depressions of undersaturated fluid inclusions or from saturation limits for halite-bearing fluid inclusions, (b) the use of calcium from synthetic fluid inclusions of known CaCl 2 content as an external standard. SXRF analysis was performed on individual fluid inclusions from the Chivor and Guali emerald deposits, Columbia. These well-known samples contain a single fluid inclusion population for which detailed crush-leach analyses are available, thus providing a relevant compositional reference frame. Concentration estimates were also compared to Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis carried out independently on the same fluid inclusions. Results of the calibration tests indicate that major (Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Mn) and trace element (Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb) concentration estimates can be performed without precise knowledge of the analytical volume and the inclusion's 3D geometry. Although the standard deviation of the SXRF results can be relatively high depending on the calibration mode used, mean concentration estimates for most elements are in good agreement with PIXE and crush-leach analysis. Elemental distributions within single fluid inclusions were also established. Associated correlation diagrams argue for the homogeneous distribution of most elements in the fluid inclusion. In contrast, Br shows a bimodal distribution interpreted to reflect a significant enrichment of the vapor portion of the inclusion fluid.

  13. Towards biomarker analysis of hydrocarbons trapped in individual fluid inclusions: First extraction by ErYAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Zebühr, Yngve; Broman, Curt

    2006-12-01

    Fluid inclusions act as sealed vessels containing information about the fluid environment in which the minerals precipitated, and until decrepitated, the chemical composition of the fluid inside the inclusion stays intact. In many cases fluid inclusions contain trapped hydrocarbons, which may provide useful information in paleontological, organic geochemical and astrobiological research since they act as containers of non-contaminated organic matter with a defined minimum age. Here we present a novel concept for extraction of fluid inclusions in preparation for application to extract single fluid inclusions. The method is based on the illumination of a sample with an ErYAG laser ( λ=2940nm). The wavelength of the laser is absorbed by water and organic material, and with the minerals encapsulating the inclusions transparent to the wavelength, the fluid will expand and the inclusion will decrepitate. The initial results of our study demonstrate that fluid inclusions can be extracted by the use of an ErYAG laser, and that organic biomarkers may survive the process, readily available for GC-MS analysis.

  14. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history

  15. Second Hydrocarbon—Generation from Organic Matter Trapped in Fluid Inclusions in Carbonate Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施继锡; 余孝颖

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism and significance of second hydrocarbon-generation from organic matter trapped in fluid inclusions in carbonate rocks are discussed.The types of organic matter and the relationship between them are also reviewed.The organic matter trapped in inclusions and crystals,which account for more than 20%of the total organic matter in carbonate rocks,may be of great significance in the generation of hydrocarbons.High-temperature oil resulting from second hydrocarbon-generation should be an important target,in addition to natural gas,in oilgas prospecting in regions of high-maturity carbonate rocks.

  16. A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Song, Y.; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 ?? 0.3 mm with 0.05 ?? 0.05 mm or 0.1 ?? 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure (P; about 100 MPa at 22 ??C) and temperature (T; about 500 ??C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 ??C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C18H38 between 350 and 400 ??C, isotopic exchanges between C18H38 and D2O and between C19D40 and H2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P-T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be formed; (3

  17. Evolution of hydrocarbon migration style in a fractured reservoir deduced from fluid inclusion data, Clair Field, west of Shetland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Martin; Parnell, John; Mark, Darren [Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Carr, Andrew [Advanced Geochemical Systems Ltd., Towles Fields, Burton on the Wolds, Leicestershire LE12 5TD (United Kingdom); British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Przyjalgowski, Milosz [Department of Physics, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland); Feely, Martin [Department of Geology, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2008-02-15

    A petrographic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study was performed on sandstones from the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks of the Clair Field, west of Shetland. Fluid inclusion petrographic and microthermometric observations were collected from quartz, K-feldspar and calcite cements and veins. Vein and cement minerals host both aqueous and hydrocarbon two-phase (liquid and vapor-filled) fluid inclusions indicating that cementation occurred during oil charging. The location of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the paragenetic sequence of the reservoir rocks indicates that hydrocarbon migration during early-stage diagenesis occurred via intergranular pores as well as fractures, whereas towards the later stages of diagenesis, as porosities were occluded, hydrocarbon migration was predominantly fracture controlled. The microthermometric characteristics of primary and secondary aqueous fluid inclusions in association with hydrocarbon fluid inclusions indicates that cementation and veining during oil charging occurred at temperatures up to 180 C. Salinity values are variable (0-10.9 wt% NaCl eq.) indicating that fluid mixing occurred during veining and cementation. Basin modeling and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that temperatures of up to 180 C could not have been attained through burial alone. The high temperatures attained during late-stage diagenesis are interpreted to be caused by high temperature, short-lived fluids circulating within the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks in association with late Cretaceous and Paleocene magmatism. These high temperature fluid flow events were not recorded in the vitrinite reflectance data because of their short duration. (author)

  18. Fluids immiscibility and fluid inclusions%流体不混溶性和流体包裹体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章

    2011-01-01

    Most fluid inclusion trapped from a homogeneous fluid but some may trapped from a heterogeneous fluids (immiscibility process). In the nature, there are a lot of immiscible processes and systems, including immiscibility between basic magma and felsic magma, magma and hydro-thermal fluids; magma and CO2 fluid; saline fluids and CO2 fluid etc. The fluid inclusions trapped from homogeneous and heterogeneous processes are with different characteristics and in somewhat is not easy to be distinguished. The immiscibility process is an important process of mineralization. Especially in the gold deposition, pegmatite formation and porphyry Cu-Mo system.%大多数流体包裹体是捕获于均匀体系,但有一部分包裹体捕获自非均匀体系(不混溶体系).在自然界存在着许多不混溶的过程,这包括基性岩浆和酸性岩浆之间,岩浆与热液,岩浆与CO2,盐水溶液与CO2等.液体的不混溶性对于成矿作用十分重要,这方面有3个典型的例子,第一个是金矿的成矿作用与NaCl-H2O-CO2体系流体的不混溶有着重大的关系;第二个例子是斑岩铜矿;第三个例子是伟晶岩,发现在伟晶岩演化和成矿作用中存在着岩浆和热液的不混溶作用.实际上不混溶的大部分证据是从流体包裹体的研究中获得的.现在的问题是如何来确定哪些包裹体是从不混溶过程中捕获的.这种捕获于不混溶过程中的流体包裹体怎么来确定他的Th和成分.这种捕获于不混溶过程中的流体包裹体怎么与"卡脖子""拉伸作用"中捕获的包裹体和捕获自均匀体系的流体包裹体相区分.

  19. Fluids in the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, eastern Finland: Fluid inclusion evidence for the formation conditions of zircon and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poutiainen, M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In the studied zircon and apatite crystals, data recorded two different compositional types of fluid inclusions: Type 1 H2O-CO2, low salinity inclusions (XCO2 = 0.42 to 0.87; XNaCl = 0.001 to 0.005 with bulk densities of 0.73 to 0.87 g/cm3, and Type 2 H2O moderate salinity (XNaCl = 0.03 to 0.06 inclusions with densities of 0.83 to 1.02 g/cm3. The Type 1 inclusions are not present in apatite. In zircon, the observed fluid inclusion types occur in separate domains: around (Type 1 and outside (Type 2 the apparent core. Fluid inclusions are further subdivided into pseudosecondary and secondary inclusions. Using a combination of SEM-EDS, optical characteristics and crushing-stage, various daughter and captive minerals were identified. The fluid inclusion data suggest that the pseudosecondary Type 1 and Type 2 inclusions in zircon and apatite were trapped during the pre-emplacement evolution of the carbonatite at mid-crustal conditions (P≥4 kbar, T≥625°C. The Type 1 fluid was depleted in CO2, during crystal fractionation and cooling leading to a fluid phase enriched in water and alkalies. Fenitization was obviously induced by these saline aqueous fluids. During emplacement of the carbonatite to the present level, zircon phenocrysts were intensively fractured, some Type 1 inclusions were re-equilibrated, and multiphase Type 2 inclusions were trapped. It is assumed that all these inclusions in zircon and the pseudosecondary Type 2 inclusions in apatite have a magmatic origin. In apatite, calcite inclusions occur side-by-side with the secondary Type 2 inclusions. These calcites co-existed with the aqueous fluid during fracturing and metamorphic re-crystallization of apatites. Probably, this metamorphic fluid also is responsible for the transport and deposition of at least some of the calcite at low temperatures (200-350°C.

  20. Fluid-melt Inclusions in Fluorite of the Huanggangliang Skarn Iron-Tin Deposit and Their Significance to Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娟; 王京彬; 王玉往; 毛骞

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, fluid-melt inclusions are found in fluorite of the Huanggangliang skarn iron-tin deposit (HSID). The fluorite was formed in the main stage of mineralization, named the hydro-skarnization stage. The inclusions contain various components such as Fe, Mg and Cr from deep sources. The melts of primary inclusions are mainly Ca- and F-rich and those of secondary inclusions tend to become Si-rich. During this evolution process, the melts and iron daughter minerals decreased and even vanished. These facts reveal that the evolution of the primary mineralizing fluids and the differentiation of the fluids and melts are the main factors leading to the deposition of Fe, Sn and other elements. This discovery confirms the magmatic genesis of the HSID and has filled in the gaps in the research of magmatogenic skarn deposits and furnished new methods for such research. Furthermore, it has enlarged the scope of the research on fluid inclusions.

  1. Fluid inclusions in high-grade metamorphic rocks from S.W. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenberg, H.E.C.

    1980-01-01

    In part one of this thesis, isochoric sections, based on a modified Redl i ch-Kwong equat ion, are presented for the systems C02, C02-N2, N2-CHll and H20-C0 2, This allows the P-T interpretation of fluid inclusion freezing data in terms of the above-mentioned reference systems. Part two deals with f

  2. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine, Hemlo, and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU HUANZHANG(卢焕章); JAYANTA. GUHA; DON. C. HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that it is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As, Hg, Sb, Ba, V and Mo. The genetic concepts range from syngenetic to epigenetic types of mineralization. This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationship of Hg-As minerals with respect to fluid inclusions in the Williams mine (formerly known as the Page Williams mine) covering the A and C ore zones.

  3. Fluid inclusions in high-grade metamorphic rocks from S.W. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenberg, H.E.C.

    1980-01-01

    In part one of this thesis, isochoric sections, based on a modified Redl i ch-Kwong equat ion, are presented for the systems C02, C02-N2, N2-CHll and H20-C0 2, This allows the P-T interpretation of fluid inclusion freezing data in terms of the above-mentioned reference systems. Part two deals with f

  4. Isotopic re-equilibration of fluid inclusions in natural speleothem by artificial heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Ryu; Kina, Yudai

    2017-04-01

    Isotopic compositions of inclusion water in speleothems are promising new climatic proxies. Oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O) may provide direct estimate for past temperature changes. Several studies, however, used hydrogen isotope ratio of water (δD) because the δ18O may be affected by re-equilibration between water and host calcite. Thus, precise knowledge about magnitude and reaction rate of the re-equilibration has a fundamental importance for paleoclimate studies using speleothems. To evaluate the re-equilibration effect, we measured isotope composition of fluid inclusions in natural stalagmites, which had been heated in laboratory before isotope measurement. Several (3-5) subsamples were cut from the same depth of stalagmites. Then, each sub-sample was heated at different interval (0 - 80 hours) under continuous evacuation using a turbomolecular pump. The experiments were conducted under three different temperatures (25, 70, and 105˚ C). The δ18O and δD values of fluid inclusions in a sub-sample was measured using a semi-automated system, which was modified based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Uemura et al., 2016). Under the 105˚ C hating, the inclusion δ18O value of a layer shows a small increase from the initial to ca.30 hours heating, and then after that it appears to stay flat. This preliminary result suggests that a limited amount of calcite reacts with inclusion water, and ca. 5% of fluid inclusion water may be re-equilibrated with surrounding host calcite at the 105˚ C. The magnitude of re-equilibration effect is not significant for estimating glacial-interglacial temperature changes but measurable. On the other hand, the δ18O value shows no trend under the room temperature experiment. The δD value shows no trend at any experimental conditions, suggesting that loss of inclusion water during long-time evacuation does not cause the δ18O enrichment. Uemura, R. et al. (2016) Precise oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determination of

  5. Correlation of fluid inclusions and reservoired oils to infer trap fill history in the South Viking Graben, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, G.H.; Pottorf, R.J. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas (United States); Jenssen, A.I. [Esson Norge a.s., Forus (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    Organic geochemical correlations between fluid inclusions and associated oils and oil-shows in Mesozoic reservoirs in the Sleipner area demonstrate generation from the same source rock organic facies (type II) for inclusions in wells 15/9-1 and 15/9-19. For well 15/9-9 the oil show is from a mixed type II/III source rock, whereas the fluid inclusion is from a type II source. all fluid inclusions are less thermally mature than the associated free oils and are thought to represent the earliest hydrocarbon yield from the source rocks. GC/MS/MS analyses of the fluid inclusions proved essential for resolving biomarker compounds and correlating them to reservoired fluids. Among the biomarkers, bisnorhopane contents in the fluid inclusions are consistently lower than the associated reservoired oil. The expected dilution effect of bisnorhopane as progressively more hydrocarbons are generated from kerogen maturation is not observed. The difference in bisnorhopane amounts in fluid inclusions and oils is primarily due to varying hydrocarbon yields, through time, from different source rocks.

  6. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of telluride mineralization at Mahd Adh Dhahab, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, A.M.; Kelly, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Mahd Adh Dhahab is unique among Precambrian gold deposits in that it displays many characteristics of epithermal precious metal districts. Au-Ag-Cu-Zn-Pb mineralization occurs principally in the third of five generations of quartz veins. Sulfur isotopic equilibrium was generally maintained among sulfides which range in delta/sup 34/S from -1.8 (galena) to 6.4 (pyrite). The narrow range in delta/sup 34/S of sulfides is inconsistent with large variations in f02 calculated from chlorite +/- pyrite +/- hematite assemblages. Galena-sphalerite pairs yield temperatures in the range 160-270/sup 0/C for stage 3 veins, which fall within the 120-300/sup 0/C range defined by fluid inclusion thermometry. Fluid salinities are in the range 0.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The trends indicate mixing of delta/sup 18/O approx. = 0 waters with heavier more oxidized waters during stage 4 deposition which led to non-equilibrium oxidation of H/sub 2/S. deltaD values of vein chlorites fall within a narrow range of -65 to -75, while deltaD measurements of inclusion fluids in quartz display a wider spread from -13 to -43; the lighter values may reflect contamination by secondary inclusions. The stable isotope data indicate probable derivation of both sulfur and carbon from igneous sources. District-wide variation in sulfur and oxygen isotopes indicate the presence of several hydrothermal centers, which has possible significance to exploration.

  7. Ancient microbes from halite fluid inclusions: optimized surface sterilization and DNA extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions in evaporite minerals (halite, gypsum, etc. potentially preserve genetic records of microbial diversity and changing environmental conditions of Earth's hydrosphere for nearly one billion years. Here we describe a robust protocol for surface sterilization and retrieval of DNA from fluid inclusions in halite that, unlike previously published methods, guarantees removal of potentially contaminating surface-bound DNA. The protocol involves microscopic visualization of cell structures, deliberate surface contamination followed by surface sterilization with acid and bleach washes, and DNA extraction using Amicon centrifugal filters. Methods were verified on halite crystals of four different ages from Saline Valley, California (modern, 36 ka, 64 ka, and 150 ka, with retrieval of algal and archaeal DNA, and characterization of the algal community using ITS1 sequences. The protocol we developed opens up new avenues for study of ancient microbial ecosystems in fluid inclusions, understanding microbial evolution across geological time, and investigating the antiquity of life on earth and other parts of the solar system.

  8. Determining Pressure with Daughter Minerals in Fluid Inclusion by Raman Spectroscopy:Sphalerite as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuping; ZHENG Haifei; ZHANG Lifei

    2009-01-01

    Raman frequency of some materials,including minerals.molecules and ions, shifts systematically with changing pressure and temperature.This property is often used as a pressure gauge in high pressure experiments with the hydrothermal diamond anvil cell(HDAC).Since the system of fluid inclusion is similar to that of HDAC,it can also be used to determine the internal pressure of fluid inclusions.Sphalerite is a common daughter mineral.In this study,the frequency shift of the 350 cm-1 peak of sphalerite has been studied from 296 to 523 K and from 0.07 to 2.00 GPa using the HDAC.The global slope of the isotherms(σV30/σp)T is 0.0048 in the studied pressure range. No significant variation of the slopes with temperature has been observed.The correlation between the frequency shift of the 350 cm-1 peak of sphalerite and pressure and temperature is constrained as P=208.33(△Vp)350+3.13T-943.75.This relationship may be used to estimate the internal pressure of the sphalerite-bearing fluid inclusions.

  9. Effect of Thermal Buoyancy on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Tundish without Flow Control Devices--Part Ⅱ: Inclusion Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2005-01-01

    Following up the fluid flow simulation in a 60 t tundish, the trajectories of inclusions in the 60 t tundish without flow control are simulated by considering the force balance between the drag force and the inertial buoyancy force. The Stochastic model yields more accurate inclusion motion than the non-Stochastic model due to including the effect of the turbulent fluctuation. The average residence time of inclusions decreases with increasing size. The thermal buoyancy favors inclusions removal especially the small inclusions. Using solute transport like the dye injection in water model and copper addition in the real steel tundish cannot accurately study the motion of the inclusions. In the simulation, more than 68% inclusions bigger than 10μm are removed to the top, and less than 32% enters the mold. The thermal buoyancy has little effect on the fraction of inclusions moved to the top of the inlet zone, and it mainly favors the removal of inclusions smaller than 100μm to the top surface of the outlet zone. For inclusions bigger than 100μm , the effect of thermal buoyancy on their motion can be ignored compared to the inertial buoyancy effect.

  10. Fluid-inclusion data on samples from Creede, Colorado, in relation to mineral paragenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T.L.; Roedder, Edwin; Bethke, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Published and unpublished data on 2575 fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Creede, Colorado, Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu vein deposit collected in our laboratories from 1959 to 1981 have shown that the average salinity (wt. % NaCl equivalent, hereinafter termed wt.% eq.) and homogenization temperature (Th), and the ranges of these two parameters for fluid inclusions in sphalerite, quartz, fluorite, and rhodochrosite, respectively, are 8.1 (4.6 - 13.4), 239?C (195-274?C); 6.1 (1.1-10.0), 260?C (190->400?C); 10.7 (6.1-11.1), 217?C (213-229?C) and 260?C (247-268?C) (bimodal distribution of Th); and 9.9 (9.3 - 10.6), 214?C (185-249?C). Inclusions have been measured in minerals from four of the five stages of mineralization previously recognized at Creede. The few inclusions of fluids depositing rhodochrosite (A-stage, earliest in the paragenesis) yield Th and salinity values more similar to those of the low-temperature (average Th 217?C) fluids forming some of the much later fluorite (C-stage) than to any of the other fluids. Th measurements on A-stage quartz range from 192?C to 263?C and average 237?C. The early, fine-grained, B-stage sphalerites yielded Th of 214 to 241?C and salinities of 6.1 to 10.2 wt. % eq. D-stage sphalerite (late in the paragenesis) has been studied in detail (growth-zone by growth-zone) for several localities along the OH vein and reveals a generally positive correlation among Th, salinity and iron content of the host sphalerite. The deposition of D-stage sphalerite was characterized by repeated cycling through different regions of salinity/Th space, as Th and salinity generally decreased with time. Seventeen salinity-Th measurements were made on D-stage sphalerite from one locality on the Bulldog Mountain vein system, which, like the OH vein, is one of four major ore-producing vein systems at Creede. These data suggest a lower Th for a given salinity fluid from sphalerite on the Bulldog Mountain vein than on the OH vein. The very high values

  11. A method for temperature estimation in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs by using synthetic fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Giovanni; Orlando, Andrea; Chiarantini, Laura; Borrini, Daniele; Weisenberger, Tobias B.

    2016-04-01

    Super-hot geothermal systems in magmatic areas are a possible target for the future geothermal exploration either for the direct exploitation of fluids or as a potential reservoirs of Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Reservoir temperature measurements are crucial for the assessment of the geothermal resources, however temperature determination in the high-temperature (>380°C) zone of super-hot geothermal systems is difficult or impossible by using either mechanical temperature and pressure gauges (Kuster device) and electronic devices. In the framework of Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration (IMAGE) project, we developed a method to measure high reservoir temperature by the production of synthetic fluid inclusions within an apparatus that will be placed in the high-temperature zone of geothermal wells. First experiments were carried out by placing a gold capsule containing pre-fractured quartz and an aqueous solution (10 wt.% NaCl + 0.4 wt.% NaOH) in an externally heated pressure vessel. Experimental pressure-temperature conditions (i.e. 80-300 bars and 280-400°C) were set close to the liquid/vapour curve of pure H2O or along the H2O critical isochore. The experiments showed that synthetic fluid inclusions form within a relatively short time (even in 48 hours) and that temperatures calculated from homogenization temperatures and isochores of newly formed inclusions are close to experimental temperatures. A second set of laboratory experiments were carried out by using a stainless steel micro-rector in which a gold capsule (containing the pre-fractured quartz and the aqueous solution) was inserted together with an amount of distilled water corresponding to the critical density of water. These experiments were conducted by leaving the new micro-reactor within a furnace at 400°C and were aimed to reproduce the temperature existing in super-hot geothermal wells. Synthetic fluid inclusions formed during the experiments had trapping temperature

  12. Understanding Detection Limits in Fluid Inclusion Analysis Using an Incremental Crush Fast Scan Method for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, N. J. F.; Parnell, J.; Longerich, H. P.

    2012-03-01

    We propose formulae for the determination of the detection and reporting limits applied to fluid inclusion volatile analysis, adapted from LA-ICP-MS formulae, and applicable to samples of limited size that are available in planetary science studies.

  13. Organic compounds in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz-Analogues of prebiotic chemistry on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Mayer, Christian; Schmitz, Oliver J; Rosendahl, Pia; Bronja, Amela; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Mulder, Ines; Sattler, Tobias; Schöler, Heinz F

    2017-01-01

    The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.

  14. Cretaceous mantle of the Congo craton: Evidence from mineral and fluid inclusions in Kasai alluvial diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Charles W.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Stern, Richard A.; Hagadorn, James W.; Hurlbut, James F.

    2016-11-01

    Alluvial diamonds from the Kasai River, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are sourced from Cretaceous kimberlites of the Lucapa graben in Angola. Analysis of 40 inclusion-bearing diamonds provides new insights into the characteristics and evolution of ancient lithospheric mantle of the Congo craton. Silicate inclusions permitted us to classify diamonds as peridotitic, containing Fo91-95 and En92-94, (23 diamonds, 70% of the suite), and eclogitic, containing Cr-poor pyrope and omphacite with 11-27% jadeite (6 diamonds, 18% of the suite). Fluid inclusion compositions of fibrous diamonds are moderately to highly silicic, matching compositions of diamond-forming fluids from other DRC diamonds. Regional homogeneity of Congo fibrous diamond fluid inclusion compositions suggests spatially extensive homogenization of Cretaceous diamond forming fluids within the Congo lithospheric mantle. In situ cathodoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal large heterogeneities in N, N aggregation into B-centers (NB), and δ13C, indicating that diamonds grew episodically from fluids of distinct sources. Peridotitic diamonds contain up to 2962 ppm N, show 0-88% NB, and have δ13C isotopic compositions from - 12.5‰ to - 1.9‰ with a mode near mantle-like values. Eclogitic diamonds contain 14-1432 ppm N, NB spanning 29%-68%, and wider and lighter δ13C isotopic compositions of - 17.8‰ to - 3.4‰. Fibrous diamonds on average contain more N (up to 2976 ppm) and are restricted in δ13C from - 4.1‰ to - 9.4‰. Clinopyroxene-garnet thermobarometry suggests diamond formation at 1350-1375 °C at 5.8 to 6.3 GPa, whereas N aggregation thermometry yields diamond residence temperatures between 1000 and 1280 °C, if the assumed mantle residence time is 0.9-3.3 Ga. Integrated geothermobaromtery indicates heat fluxes of 41-44 mW/m2 during diamond formation and a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 190-210 km. The hotter

  15. Geology, fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope characteristics of the El Cobre VHMS deposit, Southern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazañas, Xiomara; Alfonso, Pura; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Proenza, Joaquín Antonio; Fallick, Anthony Edward

    2008-09-01

    The El Cobre deposit is located in eastern Cuba within the volcanosedimentary sequence of the Sierra Maestra Paleogene arc. The deposit is hosted by tholeiitic basalts, andesites and tuffs and comprises thick stratiform barite and anhydrite bodies, three stratabound disseminated up to massive sulphide bodies produced by silicification and sulphidation of limestones or sulphates, an anhydrite stockwork and a siliceous stockwork, grading downwards to quartz veins. Sulphides are mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite; gold occurs in the stratabound ores. Fluid inclusions measured in sphalerite, quartz, anhydrite and calcite show salinities between 2.3 and 5.7 wt% NaCl eq. and homogenisation temperatures between 177 and 300°C. Sulphides from the stratabound mineralisation display δ 34S values of 0‰ to +6.0‰, whilst those from the feeder zone lie between -1.4‰ and +7.3‰. Sulphides show an intra-grain sulphur isotope zonation of about 2‰; usually, δ 34S values increase towards the rims. Sulphate sulphur has δ 34S in the range of +17‰ to +21‰, except two samples with values of +5.9‰ and +7.7‰. Sulphur isotope data indicate that the thermochemical reduction of sulphate from a hydrothermal fluid of seawater origin was the main source of sulphide sulphur and that most of the sulphates precipitated by heating of seawater. The structure of the deposit, mineralogy, fluid inclusion and isotope data suggest that the deposit formed from seawater-derived fluids with probably minor supply of magmatic fluids.

  16. Formation of Strata—bound Ore Deposits in China:Studies on Fluid Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章; 刘从强

    1990-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies were made on the basis of the geological data on the strata-bound ore de-posits of China including those of Pb,Zn,Au,Ag,Sb,U,Hg,W,quartz-crystal and sparry-calcite.An attempt was made to approach the model of formation for each type of ore depos-its by considering the material sources,the migration of fluids and the conditions of mineralization.It is found that ore-forming fluids (especially H2O)originate as heated underground water reacts with the wallrocks and dissolves Na+,Ca2+,K+,Cl+,HCl- and Mg2+ .The ore fluids are mainly of NaCl-Ca-HCO3-H2O system with salinities ranging from 4to 14wt.%.NaCl equivalent and densities ranging from 0.9 to 1.0g/cm3.It may be concluded that the deposits were formed at temperatures ranging from 150 to 250℃ under pressures from 300 to 1000 bars.Ore deposition may have been controlled by temperature and pressure or by the mixing among different fluids.

  17. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Amber J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

  18. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randive Kirtikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  19. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as ...

  20. C-O-H-S magmatic fluid system in shrinkage bubbles of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic volatiles include multiple phases in the C-O-H-S system of shrinkage bubbles for which a conceptual model is still unclear during melt inclusion formation [1,2,3,4]. The present study aims to qualitatively explore the evolution of the volatile migration, during and after the formation of the shrinkage bubble in melt inclusions trapped by olivines from Holocene to present at San Cristóbal volcano (Nicaragua), Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Combined scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy observations allow to define the mineral-fluid phases inside typical shrinkage bubbles at ambient temperature. The existence of residual liquid water is demonstrated in the shrinkage bubbles of naturally quenched melt inclusion and this water could represents the principal agent for chemical reactions with other dissolved ionic species (SO42-, CO32-, etc.) and major elements (Mg, Fe, Cu, etc.) [4,5]. With the objective of following the cooling story of the bubble-inclusion system, the new methodological approach here estimate the interval of equilibrium temperatures for each SEM-Raman identified mineral phase (carbonates, hydrous carbonates, sulfurs, sulfates, etc.). Finally, two distinct mechanisms are proposed to describe the evolution of this heterogeneous fluid system in bubble samples at San Cristóbal which imply a close re-examination for similar volcanoes in subduction zone settings: (1) bubbles are already contracted and filled by volatiles by diffusion processes from the glass and leading to a C-O-H-S fluid-glass reaction enriched in Mg-Fe-Cu elements (2) bubbles are formed by oversaturation of the volatiles from the magma which is producing an immiscible metal-rich fluid. [1]Moore et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 806-823 [2]Wallace et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 787-794 [3]Lowenstern (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 672-673 [4]Esposito, et al. (2016). Am. Mineral. 101, 1691-1708 [5]Kamenetsky et al. (2001). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 184, 685-702

  1. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  2. Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2016-08-01

    During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment

  3. Genesis and Debelopment of Porosity in Carbonate Reservoirs—Fluid Inclusion Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃建雄; 曾允孚

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in minerals filled in pores of reservoir rocks can be used as a good indicator of pore genesis and development so as to shed light on oil generation,migration and accumulation.The relationship between pore evolution and oil generation has been established based on fluid inclusion studies on the Lower Ordovician carbonate reservoir strata in the Ordos Baisn,Northwest China.Seven stages of porosity development can be recogmized.i.e.,the penecontemporaneous,the early and middle-late diagenetic,the supergene,the early,middle and late re-burying stages.The dissolution pores an fissures formed in the supergene and middle-late reburying stage and the structural fractures formed in the late re-burying stage constitute the major traps of oil and gas.The major phase of oil migration and accumulation took place between Late Jurassic and Cretaceous,Corresponding to the middle and late re-burying stages.The generation and accumulation of oil can be closely related to Yenshanian tectonics.

  4. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  5. The influence of the α-β phase transition of quartz on fluid inclusions during re-equilibration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Gerald; Bakker, Ronald J.

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the α-β quartz phase transition on the properties of fluid inclusions was investigated experimentally. The experiments were designed to have no gradients in pressure and fugacity between fluid inclusions and pore fluid. Deformation due to pressure differences were also excluded in this study. H2O-rich fluid inclusions with similar densities were synthesized in quartz at approximately 625 °C and 280 MPa in the α-quartz stability field, and at approximately 675 °C and 320 MPa in the β-quartz stability field. The experimental set-up prevented any pressure differences during loading and unloading of the experiments. These inclusions were re-equilibrated at the same temperature-pressure-fluid conditions, and changes in total homogenization temperature and ice melting temperature were recorded. Fluid inclusions are sensitive monitors of fluid conditions during entrapment, which record minor variation in temperature and pressure and display a corresponding distribution pattern in homogenization temperatures. Fluid inclusions re-equilibrated in the α-quartz stability field were not affected by changes in density. Fluid inclusions re-equilibrated in the β-quartz stability field revealed density loss of - 0.6% at 320 MPa to - 3.0% at 280 MPa, which was caused by the α-β quartz phase transition. Consequently, density loss, which is probably caused by the formation of micro-cracks at the transition from α- to β-quartz is more efficient at lower pressures. In addition, re-equilibration experiments were performed with a pure D2O pore fluid, to investigate diffusion processes at these experimental conditions. Diffusion of D2O is more efficient in β-quartz stability field, and may result in near total exchange of the original H2O content within only 19 days. Fluid inclusions re-equilibrated in the α-quartz stability field contain only half the amount of D2O within the same experimentation run time, up to 53 mol% D2O.

  6. Easily altered minerals and reequilibrated fluid inclusions provide extensive records of fluid and thermal history: gypsum pseudomorphs of the Tera Group, Tithonian-Berriasian, Cameros Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acebrón, Laura; Goldstein, Robert; Mas, Ramon; Arribas, Jose

    2012-06-01

    This study reports a complex fluid and thermal history using petrography, electron microprobe, isotopic analysis and fluid inclusions in replacement minerals within gypsum pseudomorphs in Tithonian-Berriasian lacustrine deposits in Northern Spain. Limestones and dolostones, formed in the alkaline lakes, contain lenticularly shaped gypsum pseudomorphs, considered to form in an evaporative lake. The gypsum was replaced by quartz and non-ferroan calcite (Ca-2), which partially replaces the quartz. Quartz contains solid inclusions of a preexisting non-ferroan calcite (Ca-1), anhydrite and celestine. High homogenization temperatures (T h) values and inconsistent thermometric behaviour within secondary fluid inclusion assemblages in quartz (147-351°C) and calcite (108-352°C) indicate high temperatures after precipitation and entrapment of lower temperature FIAs. Th are in the same range as other reequilibrated fluid inclusions from quartz veins in the same area that are related to Cretaceous hydrothermalism. Gypsum was replaced by anhydrite, likely during early burial. Later, anhydrite was partially replaced by Ca-1 associated with intermediate burial temperatures. Afterward, both anhydrite and Ca-1 were partially replaced by quartz and this by Ca-2. All were affected during higher temperature hydrothermalism and a CO2-H2O fluid. Progressive heating and hydrothermal pulses, involving a CO2-H2O fluid, produce the reequilibration of the FIAs, which was followed by uplift and cooling.

  7. Geology, mineralogy and fluid inclusion data from the Arapucan Pb Zn Cu Ag deposit, Canakkale, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Yüksel; Gültekin, Ali Haydar; Onal, Ayten

    2005-07-01

    The Arapucan Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit occurs as hydrothermal veins in diabase and altered Triassic metasandstones adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusive igneous rocks. The deposit is an important commercial source of base metal in northwestern Turkey. Potential by-products are silver and gold. The geology of the area includes a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, Triassic sedimentary rocks with carbonate blocks, Tertiary granitoids and Neogene volcanics. The mineral assemblage includes galena, quartz, calcite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite as well as minor bismuthinite, tetrahedrite, pyrolusite, hematite, scheelite, malachite, magnetite, limonite and rutile. Silver is associated with tetrahedrite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for the formation of three hypogene alteration types of decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization and argillic alteration. These alteration styles show a rough spatial zonation. The ore stage clearly postdates hydrothermal alteration, as indicated by the occurrence of ore minerals in vuggy cavities and fractures in silica bodies. The deposit contains evidence of at least two periods of hypogene mineralization separated by a period of faulting. In addition to Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag and Au, the ores contain substantial quantities of W, Bi, Sb and Te. Average δ 34S values for galena and pyrite are -3.95 and -2.24‰, respectively, suggesting an igneous source for both the sulphur and metals. However, geological and geochemical interpretations suggest that at least some of the metals were leached from the metasandstones and diabases. Fluid inclusions in main-stage sphalerite homogenize at 229-384 °C with salinities ranging from 1.7 to 18.5 eq.wt% NaCl. The deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic) and a dilute meteoric fluid. The narrow range of δ 34S (galena and pyrite) values (-5.2 to -1.2‰ CDT) suggests that the sulphur source of the hydrothermal fluids

  8. Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths,Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Volcanoes along the Syrian rift, which extend a distance of about 1000 km, brought to the surface mantle xenoliths within erupted basalts, during multiples periods of volcanic activity. Xenoliths in early Cretaceous volcanoes originate in the garnet peridotite field of the subcontinental mantle, whereas those in recent Cenozoic volcanoes, the prime object of this study, are issued from shallower levels (spinel peridotite field). The recent discovery of sapphirine-bearing websterite in Tel Thanoun, a small volcanic diatreme inside the larger Quaternary volcanic field (Djebel Al Arab), allows us to estimate the P-T evolution and fluid-rock interaction at the volcanic source. Harzburgites and lherzolites are equilibrated at a temperature of about 1000 °C at a depth of 35-40 km. Sapphirine appears to have formed during cooling, at depth at a temperature of about 900 °C, at a time where spinel exsolution occurred in harzburgite and lherzolite pyroxenes. This occurred in the presence of a high-density pure CO2 fluid phase, still present in primary fluid inclusions. The highly-aluminous sapphirine-bearing protolith might be former garnet websterite (possibly uplifted during cretaceous magmatism), which resided and cooled in the spinel peridotite stability field, and was then dragged and brought to the surface by quaternary basalts.

  9. P-T evolution and fluid inclusion characteristics of retrograded eclogites, Münchberg Gneiss Complex, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemd, Reiner

    1989-06-01

    Kyanite eclogites occur as part of the Münchberger nappe pile in NE-Bavaria, West Germany. Eclogites are overprinted by subsequent amphibolite facies metamorphism. The preservation of primary eclogitic textures as well as symplectitic textures are indicative of rapid decompression. Eclogite formation is estimated to have occurred under conditions of high H2O-activities at pressures between 20 and 26 kbar and temperatures ranging between 590 and 660° C, as is shown by the coexistence of omphacite (Jd 50), kyanite, zoisite and quartz. Minimum pressure estimates, independent of the water activity, range between 9 and 16 kbar at the relevant temperatures. Detailed studies of fluid inclusion reveal two predominant groups of aqueous-brine inclusions: high salinity (14 17 wt% NaCl equiv.) and low salinity (0 8 wt% NaCl equiv.) inclusions. Fluid compositions of both groups of inclusions yield isochores passing close to the estimated amphibolite facies PT-field. The compositions of these fluids are in good agreement with fluid compositions considered from mineral equilibria. None of the fluid inclusions has densities appropriate for eclogite facies metamorphism, but probably reflect later amphibolite facies metamorphism.

  10. Sequential extraction and compositional analysis of oil-bearing fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks from Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The free oils, adsorbed oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions have been extracted separately and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in reservoir rock samples collected from the Kuche Depression. The results demonstrate that the molecular compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions are significantly different from those of the free oils (the current oils). Compared with the current oil, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions are characterized by relatively high values of parameters Pr/nC17and Ph/nC18, low values of Pr/Ph, hopanes/steranes, C30-diahopane/C30-hopane and Ts/Tm, low content of C29Ts terpane and high maturities as indicated by C29 steranes 20S/(20R+20S). In addition, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions correlate very well with the oils in northern and central Tarim Basin, which were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks. The adsorbedoils appear to be an intermediate type between free oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The above analytical data indicate that there are at least two oil-charging episodes for these reservoir rock samples. The early charging oils were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks, and the later charging oils, from Triassic-Jurassic terrestrial source rocks. The primary marine oils were overwhelmingly diluted by the following terrestrial oils.

  11. Fluid Inclusions of Calcite and Sources of Ore-forming Fluids in the Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) District, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Runsheng; LIU Congqiang; HUANG Zhilong; MA Deyun; LI Yuan; HU Bin; MA Gengsheng; LEI Li

    2004-01-01

    The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) district is a typical representative of the well-known medium-to large-sized carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge) deposits, occurring in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn Ore-forming Zone.Generally, fluid inclusions within calcite, one of the major gangue minerals, are dominated by two kinds of small (1-10μm) inclusions including pure-liquid and liquid. The inclusions exist in concentrated groups along the crystal planes of the calcite. The ore-forming fluids containing Pb and Zn, which belong to the Na+-K+-Ca2+-C1--F--SO42- type, are characterized by temperatures of 164-221 ℃, medium salinity in 5-10.8 wt% NaCl, and medium pressure at 410xl0s to 661 x 10s Pa. The contents of Na+-K+ and Cl--F-, and ratios of Na+/K+-Cl-/F- in fluid inclusions present good linearity. The ratios of Na+/K+ (4.66-6.71) and C1-/F- (1 8.21-31.04) in the fluid inclusions of calcite are relatively high, while those of Na+/K+ (0.29-5.69) and Cl-/F- (5.00-26.0) in the inclusions of sphalerite and pyrite are relatively low. The ratio of Na+/K+increases in accord with those of C1-/F, which indicates that ore-forming fluid of deep source participates in the mineralization. The waters of fluid inclusions have δD values from -43.5‰ to -55.4‰ of calcite. The δ18Ov-sMow values of the ore-forming fluids, calculated values, range from 17.09‰ to 18.56‰ of calcite and 17.80‰ to 23.14‰ for dolomite.δ13 Cv-PDB values range from -1.94‰ to -3.31‰ for calcite and -3.35‰ to 0.85‰ for the ore-bearing dolomite. These data better demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from metamorphic water and magmatic hot fluid, in relation to the metamorphism of the Kunyang Group in the basement and magmatic hydrothermalism. The deposit itself might have resulted from ascending cycles of ore-forming fluid, enriched in Pb and Zn. The Huize Zn-Pb- (Ag-Ge)deposits related to carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb sulphides.

  12. Formation of magnesite and siderite deposits in the Southern Urals—evidence of inclusion fluid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, W.; Krupenin, M.

    2013-02-01

    World-class deposits of magnesite and siderite occur in Riphean strata of the Southern Urals, Russia. Field evidence, inclusion fluid chemistry, and stable isotope data presented in this study clearly proof that the replacement and precipitation processes leading to the formation of the epigenetic dolomite, magnesite and hydrothermal siderite were genetically related to evaporitic fluids affecting already lithified rocks. There is, however, a systematic succession of events leading to the formation of magnesite in a first stage. After burial and diagenesis the same brines were modified to hot and reducing hydrothermal fluids and were the source for the formation of hydrothermal siderite. The magnesites of the Satka Formation as well as the magnesites and the siderites of the Bakal Formation exhibit low Na/Br (106 to 222) and Cl/Br (162 to 280) ratios plotting on the seawater evaporation trend, indicating that the fluids acquired their salinity by evaporation processes of seawater. Temperature calculations based on cation exchange thermometers indicate a formation temperature of the magnesites of ~ 130 °C. Considering the fractionation at this temperature stable isotope evidence shows that the magnesite forming brines had δ18OSMOW values of ~ +1 ‰ thus indicating a seawater origin of the original fluid. Furthermore it proves that these fluids were not yet affected by appreciable fluid-rock interaction, which again implies magnesite formation in relatively high crustal levels. In contrast to the magnesites, the siderite mineralization was caused by hydrothermal fluids that underwent more intense reactions with their host rocks in deeper crustal levels compared to the magnesite. The values of 87Sr /86Sr in the siderites are substantially higher compared to the host rock slates. They also exceed the 87Sr /86Sr ratios of the magnesites and the host rock limestones indicating these slates as the source of iron as a consequence of water-rock interaction. The siderites

  13. Extremely halophilic archaea from ancient salt sediments and their possible survival in halite fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Gerbl, F. W.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Frethem, C.

    2008-09-01

    Halophilic archaebacteria (haloarchaea) thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such as natural brines, marine solar salterns and alkaline salt lakes; they have also been isolated from ancient subsurface salt sediments of great geological age (195-280 million years) and some of those strains were described as novel species (1). The cells survived perhaps while being enclosed within small fluid inclusions in the halite. The characterization of subsurface microbial life is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. We attempted to simulate the embedding process of extremely halophilic archaea and to analyse any cellular changes which might occur. When enclosing haloarchaea in laboratory grown halite, cells accumulated preferentially in fluid inclusions, as could be demonstrated by pre-staining with fluorescent dyes. With increased time of embedding, rod-shaped cells of Halobacterium salinarum strains were found to assume roundish morphologies. Upon dissolution of the salt crystals, these spheres were stable and viable for months when kept in buffers containing 4 M NaCl. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following fixation with glutaraldehyde suggested a potentially gradual transformation from rods to spheres. This notion was supported by fluorescence microscopy of Halobacterium cells, following embedding in halite and staining with SYTO 9. One-dimensional protein patterns of rods and spheres, following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were similar except that the S-layer protein appeared reduced by about 15 - 20 % in spheres. The reddish-orange pigmentation of spheres was much lighter compared to that of rod-shaped cells, suggesting lowered concentrations of carotenoids; this was confirmed by extraction and spectrometry of pigments. The data suggested that Halobacterium cells are capable of forming specific

  14. Au-bearing magnetite mineralizaion in Kashmar (alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, geochemistry and fluid inclusions;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in the central part of the Khaf- Kashmar- Bardaskan volcano-plotunic belt (briefly KKBB. Several IOCG deposits such as Tanourjeh Au-bearing magnetite deposit and Kuh-e-Zar Specularite-rich Au deposit have been explored in KKBB. Geology, alteration, mineralization, geochemistry and fluid inclusion results in Kashmar suggest the IOCG type Au-bearing magnetite mineralization. These IOCG deposits at KKBB form at an active continental arc related to SSZ-type Sabzevar oceanic subduction. Materials and methods Use of Landsat 7+, IRS and Aster satellites. Petrography and alteration Studies in 150 thin sections of volcanic and intrusive rocks. Sampling of ore-bearing quartz vein and mineralography. Preparation of 28 geochemistry samples by the chip composite method of ore-bearing quartz vein and analyzing them in the ACME laboratory by Aqua Regia 1DX1. Fluid inclusions studies of 14 samples of quartz and barite related to the ore minerals of ore-bearing quartz vein by THM600 stage of Linkam company. Results Magmatic events in Kashmar occur at Paleocene-Eocene and include: (1 old mafic - intermediate volcano-plutonic series; (2 felsic volcanic and granitoids; and (3 parallel swarm dykes which are youngest (Almasi et al., 2016. Geochemically, Kashmar rocks are metaluminous to highly peraluminous and Tholeitic to calc-alkaline and shoshonitic in composition (Almasi et al., 2016. The field characteristics, together with isotope and geochemical analyses show that all rock types are essentially co-magmatic and post-collisional I-type (Almasi et al., 2016. Alteration of Kashmar is described in two ways: (1 intense ellipsoidal-linear Argillic-Sillicification and low sericitic with Silica caps and with medium widespread and propylitic alterations in triple regions, next to Dorouneh fault; and (2 Medium Hematite-Carbonate-Chlorite-Silicification alterations in Kamarmard heights. In parts of near the Doruneh fault, sometimes

  15. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  16. Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Design of two crushing devices for release of the fluid inclusion volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublyansky, Yuri

    2012-06-01

    Two crushing cells have been described for the release of volatiles from fluid inclusions in minerals in vacuum, static gas, and gas-flow applications. To minimize the adsorption of released volatiles on the freshly created mineral surfaces, both devices employed heated crushing. In the MTSN (Museo Tridentine di Scienze Naturali) crusher, samples were disintegrated by a piston driven by an induction coil. For efficient crushing, the electromagnet operated in dynamic impulse mode. In the LFU (Leopold-Franzens-Universität) crusher, the sample was disintegrated through the combined action of compression (manually operated hydraulic ram) and attrition. Crushers are able to be used in off-line and on-line modes, in gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses.

  18. Source and evolution of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids in the northern Iberian Pyrite Belt massive sulphide deposits (SW Spain): evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Velasco, Francisco; Boyce, Adrian J.; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2003-08-01

    A fluid inclusion and stable isotopic study has been undertaken on some massive sulphide deposits (Aguas Teñidas Este, Concepción, San Miguel, San Telmo and Cueva de la Mora) located in the northern Iberian Pyrite Belt. The isotopic analyses were mainly performed on quartz, chlorite, carbonate and whole rock samples from the stockworks and altered footwall zones of the deposits, and also on some fluid inclusion waters. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in quartz mostly range from 120 to 280 °C. Salinity of most fluid inclusions ranges from 2 to 14 wt% NaCl equiv. A few cases with Th=80-110 °C and salinity of 16-24 wt% NaCl equiv., have been also recognized. In addition, fluid inclusions from the Soloviejo Mn-Fe-jaspers (160-190 °C and ≈6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and some Late to Post-Hercynian quartz veins (130-270 °C and ≈4 wt% NaCl equiv.) were also studied. Isotopic results indicate that fluids in equilibrium with measured quartz (δ18Ofluid ≈-2 to 4‰), chlorites (δ18Ofluid ≈8-14‰, δDfluid ≈-45 to -27‰), whole rocks (δ18Ofluid ≈4-7‰, δDfluid ≈-15 to -10‰), and carbonates (δ18Oankerite ≈14.5-16‰, δ13Cfluid =-11 to -5‰) evolved isotopically during the lifetime of the hydrothermal systems, following a waxing/waning cycle at different temperatures and water/rock ratios. The results (fluid inclusions, δ18O, δD and δ13C values) point to a highly evolved seawater, along with a variable (but significant) contribution of other fluid reservoirs such as magmatic and/or deep metamorphic waters, as the most probable sources for the ore-forming fluids. These fluids interacted with the underlying volcanic and sedimentary rocks during convective circulation through the upper crust.

  19. Morphology, origin and infrared microthermometry of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the Radka epithermal copper deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bailly, Laurent; Ramboz, Claire; Rouer, Olivier; Bény, Jean-Michel

    2002-08-01

    Pyrite samples from the Radka epithermal, replacement type, volcanic rock-hosted copper deposit, Bulgaria, have been studied using near-infrared (IR) microscopy. Two generations of pyrite based on their textures, composition and behaviour in IR light can be distinguished. Electron microprobe analyses, X-ray elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between crystal zoning, trace element contents and IR transmittance of pyrite. The observed crystal zoning is related to variable arsenic contents in massive fine-grained and colloform pyrite from the early pyrite-quartz assemblage, and cobalt contents in pyrite crystals from the late quartz-pyrite vein assemblage. There is a negative correlation between trace element content and IR transmittance of pyrite. The IR transparency of pyrite is thus a sensitive indicator of changes in trace element concentrations. Fluid inclusions have only been found in the second pyrite generation. Scanning electron microscopy observations on open fluid inclusion cavities permitted the crystallographic features of vacuoles to be determined. A characteristic feature of primary fluid inclusions in pyrite is a negative crystal habit, shaped mainly by {100}, {111} and {210}. This complicated polyhedral morphology is the reason for the observed opacity of some isometric primary inclusions. Secondary fluid inclusion morphology depends on the nature of the surface of the healed fracture. Recognition of the primary or secondary origin of fluid inclusions is enhanced by using crystallographically oriented sections. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions indicate that the second pyrite generation was deposited at maximum P-T conditions of 400 °C and 430 bar and from a fluid of low bulk salinity (3.5-4.6 wt%), possibly KCl-dominant. There are large ranges for homogenisation temperatures in secondary inclusions because of necking-down processes. Decrepitation features of some of

  20. Fluid inclusion petrology and microthermometry of the Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system, IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2), Site U1414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Krenn, Kurt; Micheuz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present new data from microthermometry of fluid inclusions entrapped in hydrothermal veins along the Cocos Ridge from the IODP Expedition 344 Site U1414. The results of our study concern a primary task of IODP Expedition 344 to evaluate fluid/rock interaction linked with the tectonic evolution of the incoming Cocos Plate from the Early Miocene up to recent times. Aqueous, low saline fluids are concentrated within veins from both the Cocos Ridge basalt and the overlying lithified sediments of Unit III. Mineralization and crosscutting relationships give constraints for different vein generations. Isochores from primary, reequilibrated, and secondary fluid inclusions crossed with litho/hydrostatic pressures indicate an anticlockwise PT evolution during vein precipitation and modification by isobaric heating and subsequent cooling at pressures between ˜210 and 350 bar. Internal over and underpressures in the inclusions enabled decrepitation and reequilibration of early inclusions but also modification of vein generations in the Cocos Ridge basalt and in the lithified sediments. We propose that lithification of the sediments was accompanied with a first stage of vein development (VU1 and VC1) that resulted from Galapagos hotspot activity in the Middle Miocene. Heat advection, either related to the Cocos-Nazca spreading center or to hotspot activity closer to the Middle America Trench, led to subsequent vein modification (VC2, VU2/3) related to isobaric heating. The latest mineralization (VC3, VU3) within aragonite and calcite veins and some vesicles of the Cocos Ridge basalt occurred during crustal cooling up to recent times. Fluid inclusion analyses and published isotope data show evidence for communication with deeper sourced, high-temperature hydrothermal fluids within the Cocos Plate. The fluid source of the hydrothermal veins reflects aqueous low saline pore water mixed with invaded seawater.

  1. Motions of deformable inclusions in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, I. V.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of rigid particle and compressible gas bubble motion in a horizontally oscillating vessel with a compressible fluid. A nonlinear differential equation describing motion of inclusions with respect to the vessel is derived and solved by the method of direct separation of motions. It is shown that rigid particles and gas bubbles can move both in nodes and antinodes of the pressure, depending on their size, density, and vibration parameters. The conditions under which different kinds of motion can incur have been determined. An expression for the critical radius of the bubbles which are affected by the negligible vibrational force is found. Also an approximate expression has been obtained for the average velocity of bubble's motion in the fluid; relationship between this velocity and bubble radius and vibration parameters has been revealed. A simple physical explanation of the noticed effects is proposed. Series of numerical experiments has been conducted, their results confirming those obtained theoretically. These results may be of interest for development of the flotation theory and other technological processes.

  2. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  3. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  4. Graphite-bearing CO 2-fluid inclusions in granulites: Insights on graphite precipitation and carbon isotope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan

    2005-08-01

    Graphite in deep crustal enderbitic (orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz) granulites (740°C, 8.9 kb) of Nilgiri hills, southern India were investigated for their spectroscopic and isotopic characteristics. Four types of graphite crystals were identified. The first type (Gr I), which is interstitial to other mineral grains, can be grouped into two subtypes, Gr IA and Gr IB. Gr IA is either irregular in shape or deformed, and rough textured with average δ 13C values of -12.7 ± 0.4‰ ( n = 3). A later generation of interstitial graphite (Gr IB) shows polygonal crystal shapes and highly reflecting smooth surface features. These graphite grains are more common and have δ 13C values of -11.9 ± 0.3‰ ( n = 14). Both subtypes show well-defined Raman shifts suggesting a highly crystalline nature. Cores of interstitial graphite grains have, on average, lower δ 13C values by ˜0.5‰ compared to that of the rim. The second type of graphite (Gr II) occurs as solid inclusions in silicate minerals, commonly forming regular hexagonal crystals with a slightly disordered structure. The third type of graphite (Gr III) is associated with solid inclusions (up to 100 μm) that have decrepitation halos of numerous small (pure CO 2 with varying density (1.105 to 0.75 g/cm 3). The fourth type of graphite (Gr IV) is found as daughter crystals within primary type CO 2-fluid inclusions in garnet and quartz. These fluid inclusions have a range of densities (1.05 to 0.90 g/cm 3), but in general are significantly less dense than graphite-free primary, pure CO 2 fluid inclusions (1.12 g/cm 3). Raman spectral characteristics of graphite inside fluid inclusions suggest graphite crystallization at low temperature (˜ 500°C). The precipitation of graphite probably occurred during the isobaric cooling of CO 2-rich peak metamorphic fluid as a result of oxyexsolution of oxide phases. The oxyexsolution process is evidenced by the magnetite-ilmenite granular exsolution textures and the

  5. Fluid inclusion and H-O isotope evidence for immiscibility during mineralization of the Yinan Au-Cu-Fe deposit, Shandong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Gu, X. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, S. Y.; Li, K.; Li, B. H.; Lv, P. R.

    2011-07-01

    The fluid inclusion and H-O isotope studies have provided the evidences for the source of ore-forming fluids, and helped to recognize two types of immiscibility and their relationships with mineralization. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic geochemistry shows that the earlier ore-forming fluids during the anhydrous skarn stage (I) and the hydrous skarn-magnetite stage (II) were mainly derived from magmatic water, while the later fluids during the quartz-sulfide stage (III) and the carbonate stage (IV) were mainly from magmatic water mixed with small amounts of meteoric water. Various types of fluid inclusions, including abundant vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions, CO 2-H 2O inclusions, and less abundant liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions and melt inclusions, are present in hydrothermal minerals of different stages. The liquid-vapor fluid inclusions are mainly composed of H 2O, with significant amounts of CO 2 and a small amount of CH 4. In the opaque-bearing fluid inclusions, the hematite and fahlore (tetrahedrite) were identified. The homogenization temperature of the aqueous fluid inclusions decreases from Stage I (520-410 °C), through Stage II (430-340 °C) and III (250-190 °C), to Stage IV (190-130 °C). The coexistence of melt inclusions with simultaneously trapped vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions and daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions in garnet, diopside and epidote of Stages I and II suggests an immiscibility between silicate melt and hydrothermal fluid. It is an effective mechanism on scavenging and transporting ore-forming components from magmas. The aqueous fluid inclusions with various vapor/liquid ratios (from 65%) commonly coexist with simultaneously trapped liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions and CO 2-H 2O inclusions in the quartz of Stage III, and the different kinds of the fluid inclusions have similar

  6. Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control

  7. A reinterpretation of the δDH2O of inclusion fluids in contemporaneous quartz and sphalerite, Creede mining district, Colorodo: a generic problem for shallow orebodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Bethke, Philip M.; Rye, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    Water extracted from fluid inclusions in quartz from shallow epithermal ore deposits often has a hydrogen isotope composition (δD) different from that of water extracted from inclusions in associated minerals. This difference is usually attributed to the involvement of primary fluids from multiple sources. Isotopic and homogenization and freezing temperature determinations on fluid inclusions from contemporaneous quartz and sphalerite from the epithermal, silver and base metal orebodies of the OH vein, Creede district, Colorado, suggest an alternative explanation. In near-surface deposits, differences between δDH2O of inclusion fluids in ore minerals and quartz may result, instead, from contamination during extraction of the fluids contained in primary inclusions by shallow ground water trapped in pseudosecondary inclusions in quartz.

  8. Fluid inclusions associated with exsolution quartz needles in omphacite of UHP eclogites from the main hole of Chinese continental scientific drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Shen, K.; Liou, J.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Abundant primary fluid inclusions are recognized in omphacite of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD), located at the southern Sulu orogenic belt. The eclogites consist of garnet, omphacite, coesite and rutile. Mineral and fluid inclusions are distributed alternatively and parallel to each other. The solid inclusions occur as needles with a length of 10~100 m and a width of 1~10 m whereas the fluid inclusions occur as tubes with the size varying from less then 3~5 m to greater then 50 m. The mineral inclusions were identified as quartz. Most fluid inclusions contain a gas bubble, a liquid phase and one to several solids. The liquid and gas phases are determined as H2O. The solid phases include halite, quartz and calcite, as well as opaque and unknown minerals. Some small thin-tubed fluid inclusions contain little or no solid and even without gas bubble; they contain dominantly water. The inclusion fluid was estimated to contain components in the system of NaCl-CaCl2-CO2-H2O-SiO2 with possibly trace Fe and Mg. We suggest that these fluid inclusions were conventional primary ones, and trapped during omphacite crystallization; upon decompression they acted as nucleation site for the crystallographically controlled precipitation of quartz from the omphacite matrix. Therefore the omphacite is considered to be one of the major fluid carriers during subduction of continental crust to mantle depths.

  9. Evidence of microstructures and fluid inclusions for the origin of polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks in Daqingshan resion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhengHong; XU ZhongYuan; WANG KeYong

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Daqingshan region, are typical microfabrics of, and provide information for, deep crust deformation and metamorphism. The quartz ribbons have straight boundaries and extend stably along gneissosity. They truncate other mineral grains in the rocks and may contain inclusions of such minerals that are lens-shaped and oriented. They frequently end into branching termination. Analysis fluid inclusions in polycrystalline quartz ribbons reveal that the complex types of fluid inclusions are inhomogeneously distributed. They are obviously different from inclusions captured at granulite facies, in both fluid compositions and T-P estimations. Based on microfabric and fluid inclusion analysis, the polycrystalline quartz ribbons are suggested to be formed by SO2-rich fluids filling micro-fractures that are parallel to early gneissosity. The SO2 composition is derived from the deformed host rocks. The fluid phase has significant effects on the rheological characteristics, fracturing of rocks, and formation of quartz ribbons.

  10. Regional fluid flow as a factor in the thermal history of the Illinois basin: Constraints from fluid inclusions and the maturity of Pennsylvanian coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements on Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois basin indicate significantly higher thermal maturity than can be explained by present-day burial depths. An interval of additional sedimentary section, now removed by erosion, has been suggested to account for the discrepancy. Although burial could indeed account for the observed maturity levels of organic matter, fluid-inclusion temperatures provide a stringent additional constraint. In this article, we combine measurements of coal maturity with fluid-inclusion temperatures from three sites to constrain the basin's thermal and burial history: the Fluorspar district at the Illinois basin's southern margin, the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc district at the basin's northern margin, and a north-central location. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of a north-south cross section through the basin tests scenarios both with and without regional fluid flow. Vitrinite reflectance values can be matched assuming burial by 1.8-2.8 km of southward-thickening additional, post-Pennsylvanian sedimentary section. In the central and northern Illinois basin, however, these burial depths and temperatures are not sufficient to account for the fluid-inclusion data. To account for both parameters with burial alone does not appear feasible. In contrast, our best hypothesis assumes a wedge of post-Pennsylvanian sediment-thickening southward to about 1.2 km and a brief period of magmatism in the Fluorspar district. Significant advective heat redistribution by northward regional fluid flow accounts for fluid-inclusion temperatures and coal maturities throughout the basin. The modeling results demonstrate the potential contribution of advective heat transport to the thermal history of the Illinois basin.

  11. Fluid inclusions and PVTX modelling: examples from the Garn Formation in well 6507/2-2, Haltenbanken, Mid-Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teinturier, S.; Pironon, J. [CREGU-UMR, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Walgenwitz, F. [CSTJF, TotalFinaElf, Pau (France)

    2002-06-01

    Fluid inclusions study and multi-techniques quantitative analyses have been coupled to reconstitute PVTX conditions of aqueous and petroleum fluid entrapment of a local Haltenbanken area (well 6507/2-2) from the Garn Formation. Unusual low temperature behaviour showing the liquid portion separating into two liquids has been described. This behaviour is typical of a gas condensate/volatile mixture with high methane content and heavy alkanes. The variable liquid-vapour ratio, compositions and morphologies of all petroleum inclusions can be interpreted as a result of a combination of heterogeneous trapping and necking down. Thus, all petroleum inclusions can be related to a single petroleum source. Three main episodes of fluid entrapment can be distinguished. The first one corresponds to the water trapped within detrital quartz microfractures, at around 50{sup o}C and 50 bar; the second to the petroleum fluid arrival in the biphase field of a critical system around 100-120{sup o}C and 190-230 bar. The third one to the main trapping of present-day petroleum inclusions during the recrystallisation of quartz cements (around 110-160{sup o}C and 230-280 bar) within the last few million years of a short and relatively rapid burial.(author)

  12. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max;

    2016-01-01

    We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. ...

  13. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spadin, F.; Marti, Dominik; Hidalgo-Staub, R.

    2015-01-01

    Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser-induced v......Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser......-induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences...

  14. Geochemical characteristics of the fluid inclusions in the Gangxi Fault Belt, Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-wei; DAI Jin-xing; CHU Feng-you; HAN Xi-qiu

    2007-01-01

    We studied the geochemical characteristics of the fluid inclusions in the Ordovician carbonates and the Oligocene Shahejie Formation sandstones from 15 wells in the Gangxi Fault Belt, Huanghua Depression. The fluid inclusions are all secondary with gas/liquid ratio of 5%~10%. Base on Raman they are mainly composed of H2O, CO2 and CH4. The homogenization temperatures, combined with burial and geothermal history of the host rock, indicate that the fluid flows in the Shahejie Formation and the Ordovician carbonates were trapped in Neocene. Using a VG5400 mass spectrometer, the helium isotopic compositions were analyzed. Interpretation of results suggested a significant amount of mantle-derived helium mainly accumulating in the intersections of the NWW trending Xuzhuangzi and NE trending Gangxi faults. The maturity of hydrocarbon decreases from the intersection to the outside pointing out that the fluid related to the NWW trending Xuzhuangzi and NE trending Gangxi faults.These factors implied the fluid inclusions have a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Gangxi Fault Belt experienced intensive Neo-tectonic activities in Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions manifested its tectonic status of extensional stress field. Mantle uplift caused the movement of magma that carried mantle-derived gases and deep heat flows, the deep-rooted tension faults provided the passages for the gases and heat flows to shallow crust levels.

  15. Hydrothermal phlogopite and anhydrite from the SH2 well, Sabatini volcanic district, Latium, Italy: fluid inclusions and mineral chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Cavarretta, G.; De Vivo, B.; Tecce, F.

    The SH2 well (2498.7 m) was drilled vertically in 1982-1983 as an exploratory hole to assess the geothermal potential of the area north of Bracciano Lake, Latium, Italy, located in the Sabatini volcanic district. Microthermometry of primary and secondary two-phase and multiphase liquid-rich inclusions in anhydrite yields pressure-corrected temperatures of homogenization (trapping temperatures) that range from 144 to 304/sup 0/C and that are generally coincident with measured in-hole temperatures. The fluids have a variable salinity from 0.5 to 14.0 wt% NaCl equivalent and also contain Ca/sup 2 +/ at least. Rare liquid CO/sub 2/-bearing aqueous inclusions have been verified by laser Raman spectroscopy. Also, rare liquid hydrocarbons(.) have been observed. Clathrates have been observed upon freezing, and crushing studies reveal noncondensable gas at P > 1 atm in some inclusions. Microthermometry of primary two-phase inclusions yields pressure-corrected temperatures of homogenization (trapping temperatures) that range from 178 to 298/sup 0/C and are also generally coincident with in-hole measured temperatures. Freezing studies show a variable fluid salinity (0.2-7.8 wt% NaCl equiv.); the fluid contains Ca/sup 2 +/ at least. If one assumes that the current hydrologic regime existed during anhydrite and phlogopite formation, the pressure of formation ranged from 148 to 220 bars for phlogopite and 120 to 220 bars for anhydrite. The variation of fluid-inclusion salinities, the phlogopite zoning, and the chemical variation of the anhydrite and phlogopite suggest that different fluids and/or episodic conditions were operative in this geothermal system.

  16. Occurrence of silicate melt, carbonate-rich melt and fluid during medium pressure anatexis of metapelitic gneisses (Oberpfalz, Bavaria) revealed by melt and fluid inclusions study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Silvio; O'Brien, Patrick; Hecht, Lutz; Wunder, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades our understanding of partial melting processes in the lower crust profited from the investigation of fluid inclusions (Touret et al., 2009) and more recently of anatectic melt inclusions (Cesare et al., 2011) within enclaves and high-grade terranes. The latter finding allowed us to directly analyse the original anatectic melt (Ferrero et al., 2012; Bartoli et al., 2013) preserved within peritectic phases, i.e. mainly garnet, but also ilmenite and spinel, before fractionation, mixing and contamination processes took place. Furthermore, the occurrence of primary fluid inclusions (FI) and anatectic melt inclusions (MI) within enclaves allowed the characterization of the COH fluid present during anatexis under fluid+melt immiscibility conditions (Ferrero et al., 2014). Primary crystallized MI, or "nanogranites", and FI have been identified to occur as clusters in garnet from stromatic migmatites (Zeilengneise) from Oberpfalz, Eastern Bavaria (Moldanubian Zone). During the late Carboniferous, these Grt+Bt+Sill+Crd+Spl metapelitic gneisses underwent HT/MP metamorphism, followed by a HT/LP event (Tanner & Behrmann, 1995). Nanogranites, ≤20 µm in size, consist of Qtz+Bt+Wm+Ab±Ap, and show abundant nanoporosity, localized in the quartz. Fluid inclusions are smaller, generally ≤10 µm, and contain CO2+N2+CH4 plus siderite, pyrophillite and cristobalite, mineral phases not observed in the surrounding rock or as mineral inclusion in garnet. Polycrystalline inclusions containing Cc+Wm+Opx±Qz, commonly ≤10 µm in diameter, occur in the same cluster with MI and FI. Microstructural features, negative-crystal shape and the well-developed crystalline faces of calcite within inclusions suggest that they may result from the crystallization of a carbonate-rich melt. The lack of arrays of carbonate-bearing MI, verified by cathodoluminiscence investigation, supports their primary nature, i.e. they formed during garnet growth. This would suggest the occurrence

  17. A Preliminary Study on Fluid Inclusions and Mineralization of Xitieshan Sedimentary-Exhalative (SEDEX) Lead-Zinc Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lijuan; ZHU Xinyou; WANG Jingbin; DENG Jiniu; WANG Yuwang; ZHU Heping

    2008-01-01

    The Xitieshan lead-zinc deposit is located at the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin,Qinghai Province, China, and had developed a complete marine sedimentary-exhalative system. Ourpreliminary study of ore-forming fluids shows that fluid inclusions in quartz from altered stockworkrocks that represent the pipe facies have a wide range of temperature and salinity. The intense fluidactivities are characteristics of the pipe facies of the exhalative system. Fluid inclusions in carbonatesnear the unstratified ore bodies hosted in the thick-bedded marble which represents vent-proximalfacies are large in size and have moderate to high temperatures. They represent unerupted sub-seafloorfluid activity. Fluids in altered stockwork rocks and carbonates have similar H2O-NaCl-CO2 system,both belonging to the sedimentary-exhalative system. The fluids migrate from the pipe facies to theunstratified ore bodies. Boiling of the fluids causes the separation of CO2 vapor and liquid H2O. Whenthe fluids migrate into the unconsolidated thick-bedded marble, the escape of CO2, decreasingtemperature and pressure as well as some involvement of seawater into the fluids result in the unmixingof fluids with high and low salinity and deposition of ore-forming materials. The two unmixed fluids were trapped in unconsolidated carbonates and the ore-forming materials were deposited in theunconsolidated carbonates to form the sedimentary-exhalative type unstratified ore bodies. The ore-forming temperature of unstratified ore bodies is up to high temperature indicating that there is a hugeore-forming potential in its deep.

  18. Physical characterization of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex pellets prepared by a fluid-bed coating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lu; Xingwang Zhang; Jie Lai; Zongning Yin; Wei Wu

    2009-01-01

    Meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin (ME-β-CD) inclusion complex was prepared by a fluid-bed coating technique upon solvent removal and simultaneous depositing onto the surface of nonpareil pellets and using PVP K30 as a binding agent to facilitate good coating. The resultant pellets were spherical and intact in shape with good flowability and friability. SEM analysis showed that the pellets were smooth and had a tightly coated inclusion complex layer. In vitro dissolution of the inclusion complex pellets in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was dramatically enhanced at an ME/CD ratio of 1/1. DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry proved the absence of crystallinity in the ME/CD inclusion complexes. Moreover, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry together with Raman spectrometry indicated that the thiazole ring of ME was possibly included in the cavity of β-CD.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration and fluid inclusion geothermometry of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prol-Ledesma, R.M. (Inst. de Geofisica and DEPFI, UNAM, Cd. Univ., Coyoacan 04510 (MX)); Browne, P.R.L. (Geothermal Inst. and Geology Dept., Auckland Univ., Private Bag, Auckland (NZ))

    1989-01-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field, located in Puebla State, Mexico, occurs in a caldera; drillholes to 3000 m depth encountered a sequence of Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks that range in composition from rhyolite to basalt but are dominantly andesitic. These rest upon the local basement comprising limestone and siltstone of Cretaceous age, which was encountered below 2500 m in the northern part of the field and 1000 m in its southern part. Examination of 29 cores, mostly from below 900 m depth, from 14 wells show that the hydrothermal minerals that occur in the volcanic host rocks include quarts, calcite, epidote, amphibole, sericite, smectite, illite, chlorite, biotite, pyrite and hematite. Their distribution mainly reflects the prevailing hydrological and thermal regime where temperatures locally exceed 300{degrees} C. A preliminary model for the hydrology of the field based upon the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy and fluid inclusion data suggests that dilute hot water ascends via faults in the Central Caldera collapse area of the field and moves laterally outward to elsewhere within the caldera.

  20. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Kahang Cu- Mo deposit is situated approximately 73 Km northeast of Isfahan. Asadi (2007 identified a geological reserve of 40 Mt (proven reserve grading at 0.53 Cu, 0.02 Mo and estimated reserve of 120 Mt. All the rock types in the region have been subjected to hydrothermal solutions which gave rise to three different alteration facies. The dacite and rhyodacite volcanic rocks and granitic- granodioritic stocks have experienced phyllic alteration. Disseminated and stockwork siliceous veins are the major styles of mineralization in this zone. Intermediate argillitic alteration developed on a part of dacitic and rhyodacitic rocks whereas andesite and basaltic-andesite plus related pyroclastic rocks have been subjected to propyllitic alteration. This paper presents the results of geological and mineralogical studies carried out in the Kahang area. This preliminary information is integrated with additional data on ore mineralogy, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in view of understanding the genesis of the Cu- Mo deposit and the nature of the fluids involved in ore formation. Materials and Methods A total of 18 polished thin sections were prepared at the University of Isfahan for optical study. Fluid inclusions study was carried out on 8 double polished quartz thin sections (stockworks containing ore mineralization from phyllic zone. H – O stable isotope analysis was performed on 4 quartz samples from siliceous stockworks (from phyllic altered zone and one vein epidote sample (from propyllitic zone. All isotopic analyses were performed at the University of Oregan, Oregan, USA. Discussion In the investigated mineralization area, the hypogene zone is characterized by the presence of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite. Hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite and azurite are the predominant minerals of supergene zone. The major textures of the primary sulfides are disseminated, vein and veinlet. Pyrite is the most common

  1. Decrepitometry of fluid inclusions in quartz from the guadalcazar granite of Mexico; principles and application to mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssoulis, S. L.; Rankin, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    A simple acoustic decrepitometric method, with which samples of granite quartz are heated to about 600°C while the number of decrepitations are counted, has been developed to study rock samples derived from the mineralized guadalcazar granite in Mexico. Decrepitation temperatures for individual inclusions have also been determined by observing the point at which they rupture upon heating using a microscope heating stage. Decrepitation temperatures of individual fluid inclusions in granite quartz are influenced by a variety of factors notably size, shape, composition, homogenization temperature and proximity to the surface. There is a positive correlation between total decrepitation activity and fluid inclusion abundances (determined optically using point counting methods). Decrepitographs show a period of low intensity decrepitation activity below 390°C followed by a period of intensive decrepitation up to 570°C. The onset of massive decrepitation at around 390°C is constant for all samples, but variations in decrepitation activity often occur between mineralized and barren samples. These variations reflect complex differences in the fluid inclusion populations, but illustrate the potential for applying simple audio-decrepitometry as an aid to mineral exploration in granite terrains.

  2. P- V- T properties of fluids in the system H 2O ± CO 2 ± NaCl: New graphical presentations and implications for fluid inclusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip E.; Lamb, William M.

    1989-06-01

    Understanding the role of fluids in geologic processes requires a knowledge of the P- V- T properties of fluids over a wide range of conditions. Comparisons of several published equations of state with available experimental data for fluids composed of H 2O and CO 2 lead to the conclusion that the hard-sphere modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state of Kerrick and Jacobs (1981) most accurately predicts the P- V- T properties in this binary system. To model the volumetric properties in the H 2OCO 2NaCl system a formulation is presented involving a linear (ideal) interpolation between a pure-CO 2 isochore predicted by the equation of state of Kerrick. and Jacobs (1981) and an H 2O-NaCl isochore predicted by an empirical equation derived from the regression of available P- V- T data for the H 2O-NaCl system. This formulation is applicable over a wide range of temperatures (>350°C) and pressures (2-10 kbars) and is especially suitable for high pressures and low-to-moderate temperatures (fluid densities ≥ 1.0 cm 3). Determination of the appropriate isochore for an H 2OCO 2NaCl fluid inclusion requires (1) the relative salinity (NaCl/H 2O + NaCl), (2) bulk density of the combined gas and liquid CO 2 phases, and (3) volume percent estimate of the aqueous p the total homogenization temperature. The commonly encountered problem of estimating the volume percents of phases in inclusions may be avoided in some applications, and several new P- X(CO 2) diagrams have been constructed and contoured with (a) the solvi in the mixed volatile system and (b) the measured density of the CO 2 phase. The effects of H 2OCO 2 clathrates during microthermometric observations in the laboratory are evaluated and in most instances can be minimized or avoided. Application of these results to fluid inclusion studies have led to improved determinations of (1) pressures and temperatures of fluid entrapment in a variety of geologic settings and (2) pressures and temperatures of

  3. Ore Characteristics and Fluid Inclusion of the Base Metal Vein Deposit in Moncong Bincanai Area, Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmariyadi Asmariyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i4.146This paper is dealing with ore characteristics and fluid inclusion of the Moncong Bincanai, Biringbulu Subregency of Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The mineralization is a vein type, with the orientation of N170oE /65oSW, hosted in open-space filling within basalt. The mineralization consists of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. Vein thickness ranges from 5 - 17 cm, showing a crustiform banding texture, with a sequence from outer to centre: quartz, carbonate (siderite, sulphide. The quartz displays primary growth textures such as comb, crystalline, saccharoidal, and colloform. Analytical methods applied include AAS and fluid inclusion microthermometry. Chemical composition of the vein indicates an average of Pb = 47.92%, Cu = 1.27%, Zn = 1.02%, and Fe = 9.46%, which shows a significant concentration of Pb. Fluid inclusion microthermometry results indicate a range of formation temperature of 240 - 250C and salinity of the responsible hydrothermal fluid of 2.1 - 2.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The deposit is categorized into low-sulfidation epithermal deposits, which was formed within a range of 410 - 440 m below paleosurface.

  4. Daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside from Tongguanshan Copper Deposit by SEM/EDS and LRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Zengqian Hou; Zhusen Yang; Wenyi Xu; Yifeng Meng; Baohua Wang

    2004-01-01

    Tongguanshan copper deposit of Tongling large ore belt is one of the typical skarn copper deposits. Based on careful observation under microscope many daughter minerals including transparent ones and opaque ones have been distinguished in the fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside. The results of SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer) and LRM (laser Raman microprobe) analysis show that these daughter minerals in garnet are sylvite, halite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and carbonate. Sylvite daughter mineral is very popular in garnet and diopside. The existence of so much sylvite daughter mineral and other daughter minerals in the fluid inclusions indicates that the ore-forming fluid is of supper-high salinity and high potassium concentration. High potassium concentration in the fluid inclusions agrees with K-rich mesotype-acid rock and K-silicate alteration that occurred widely in this area. The daughter mineral assemblage in garnet and diopside is similar to the mineral assemblage of oreforming stage that followed skarn stage.

  5. Simulation of Fluid and Inclusions Dynamics during Filtration Operations of Ductile Iron Melts Using Foam Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Maldonado, O.; Adams, A.; Oliveira, L.; Alquist, B.; Morales, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The use of ceramic foam filters in ductile iron foundries to reduce the number of inclusions that reach the casting has been widely accepted. However, the exact mechanisms contributing to foam filter effectiveness are not yet known; this limits the ability to maximize filter performance and inclusion reduction. The objective of this work is to qualify and quantify the effects of the foam filter structure on inclusion retention. This has been accomplished through the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical model, based on physical water modeling and mathematical simulations. It was found that the casting rate and inclusion density play minor roles in the capture ratio, while inclusion size is the most influent variable. One mechanism for capturing inclusions involves the direct impact of an inclusion on the web wall and its adhesion after crossing over the liquid film. Two additional mechanisms involve the entrainment of inclusions by buoyancy-lift forces into low-velocity fields and the ulterior adhesion through buoyancy effects. The second mechanism is the entrainment of inclusions into microrecirculating flows; the inclusions remain in these flows for times that exceed the mold filling time. The latter mechanism has limited intensity for inclusions approximately 30 to 100 μm in size. In order to enhance the effects of this mechanism in this range of sizes, the vorticity magnitude in the microfree shear flows in the filter’s pores must be increased, through changes in the structure geometry of this device.

  6. Fluid inclusions and preliminary studies of hydrothermal alteration in core hole PLTG-1, Platanares geothermal area, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Platanares geothermal area in western Honduras consists of more than 100 hot springs that issue from numerous hot-spring groups along the banks or within the streambed of the Quebrada de Agua Caliente (brook of hot water). Evaluation of this geothermal area included drilling a 650-m deep PLTG-1 drill hole which penetrated a surface mantling of stream terrace deposits, about 550 m of Tertiary andesitic lava flows, and Cretaceous to lower Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the lower 90 m of the drill core. Fractures and cavities in the drill core are partly to completely filled by hydrothermal minerals that include quartz, kaolinite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, barite, fluorite, chlorite, calcite, laumontite, biotite, hematite, marcasite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, and sphalerite; the most common open-space fillings are calcite and quartz. Biotite from 138.9-m depth, dated at 37.41 Ma by replicate 40Ar/39 Ar analyses using a continuous laser system, is the earliest hydrothermal mineral deposited in the PLTG-1 drill core. This mid-Tertiary age indicates that at least some of the hydrothermal alteration encountered in the PLTG-1 drill core occured in the distant past and is unrelated to the present geothermal system. Furthermore, homogenization temperatures (Th) and melting-point temperatures (Tm) for fluid inclusions in two of the later-formed hydrothermal minerals, calcite and barite, suggest that the temperatures and concentration of dissolved solids of the fluids present at the time these fluid inclusions formed were very different from the present temperatures and fluid chemistry measured in the drill hole. Liquid-rich secondary fluid inclusions in barite and caicite from drill hole PLTG-1 have Th values that range from about 20??C less than the present measured temperature curve at 590.1-m depth to as much as 90??C higher than the temperature curve at 46.75-m depth. Many of the barite Th measurements (ranging between 114?? and 265??C) plot above the

  7. Discovery and Significance of High CH4 Primary Fluid Inclusions in Reservoir Volcanic Rocks of the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pujun; HOU Qijun; WANG Keyong; CHEN Shumin; CHENG Rihui; LIU Wanzhu; LI Quanlin

    2007-01-01

    Comparing compositions of the fluid inclusions in volcanic rocks to the contents and isotopes of the gases in corresponding volcanic reservoirs using microthermometry, Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrum analysis, we found that: (1) up to 82 mole% methane exists in the primary inclusions hosted in the reservoir volcanic rocks; (2) high CH4 inclusions recognized in the volcanic rocks correspond to CH4-bearing CO2 reservoirs that are rich in helium and with a high 3He/4He ratio and which show reversed order of δ13C in alkane; (3) in gas reservoirs of such abiotic methane (>80%)and a mix of CH4 and CO2, the enclosed content of CH4 in the volcanic inclusions is usually below 42mole%, and the reversed order of δ13C in alkane is sometimes irregular in the corresponding gas pools;(4) a glassy inclusion with a homogeneous temperature over 900℃ also contains a small portion of CH4although predominantly CO2. This affinity between gas pool and content of inclusion in the same volcanic reservoirs demonstrates that magma-originated gases, both CH4 and CO2, have contributed significantly to the corresponding gas pools and that the assumed hydrocarbon budget of the bulk earth might be much larger than conventionally supposed.

  8. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry of the Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system, IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2), Site U1414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, J.; Kurz, W.; Krenn, K.; Micheuz, P.

    2015-12-01

    We present new data from microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions entrapped in hydrothermal veins within lithified sediments and Cocos Ridge (CCR) basalt from IODP Expedition 344 site U1414 (Costa Rica) and concern on a primary task of Expedition 344, i.e. to evaluate fluid/rock interaction, the hydrologic system, and the geochemical processes (indicated by composition and volume of fluids) active within the incoming Cocos Plate. Mineralization of the veins and crosscutting relationships gives constraints for the different generation of veins. Calcium carbonate, commonly aragonite in the upper part and calcite in the lower part of the igneous basement, is usually present in veins as a late phase following the quartz precipitation and the clay minerals formation. The sequence of vein generations in the lithified sediments close to the contact within the CCR basalt is characterized by smaller veins filled by quartz, followed by massive intersecting calcite veins. A high fluid pressure can be concluded, due to wall rock fragments embedded within the filling and fractured mineral grains in the ground mass, which are close to the veins. This requires that the magmatic basement and the lithified sediments were covered by sequences of low permeability sediments forming a barrier that enabled build up elevated fluid pressure. The investigation of fluid inclusions in the lowest units of borehole 344-U1414, give clues about the source of the fluids and about the vein evolution within the incoming Cocos Plate close to Middle American Trench. The microthermometric analyses of the primary, almost aqueous, inclusions indicate a temperature range during entrapment between 200 and 420°C. The data indicate that seawater within the Cocos Ridge aquifer communicated with high-temperature fluids and/or were modified by heat advection. We consider the Galapagos hotspot and/ or the Cocos-Nazca spreading center as heat source. Fluids originated from mobilized sediment pore water

  9. Discovery of Sr-bearing and LREE daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Maoniuping rare earth element (REE) deposit, located in Mianning area of Sichuan Province, is of unique geological characteristics and is large in scale. Some studies have shown that there are large amounts of multi phase fluid inclusions in fluorite, quartz and calcite. Besides the daughter minerals of halite, barite and gypsum, Sr bearing minerals (celestite, strontianite), apatite and eight light rare earth element (LREE) minerals have been found by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer techniques. The abundant occurrence of these daughter minerals shows that the ore-forming fluid is rich in Sr, Ba and LREE contents, and is related to nordmarkite in genesis.

  10. External micro-PIXE analysis of fluid inclusions: Test of the LABEC facility on samples of quartz veins from Apuan Alps (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Giuntini, L.; Ruggieri, G.; Dini, A.

    2008-05-01

    Fluid inclusions are small portions, usually smaller than 100 μm, of fluid trapped within minerals during or after growth. Their characteristics provide therefore fundamental information on nature and evolution of fluids present in the past in different geological environments. At the LABEC laboratory in Firenze, high-salinity fluid inclusions in quartz crystals, coming from the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex, were analysed at the external scanning microbeam. Results, although still preliminary, have already provided us with hints on fluid-rock interaction processes during the metamorphism of the Apuan Alps.

  11. Geologic setting, depths of emplacement, and regional distribution of fluid inclusions in intrusions of the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nine mid-Tertiary calc-alkaline stocks, a subvolcanic porphyry system, and coeval volcanic rocks are exposed in a 45-km-long east-trending belt across the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah. The intrusions vary systematically from west to east in texture, style of emplacement, extent of contact metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization. Pressure-depth estimates based on metamorphic mineral assemblages, stratigraphic reconstructions, and fluid inclusion data indicate a regular variation in paleodepths ranging from about 11 km on the west to less than 1 km on the east. These data indicate that the central Wasatch Mountains have been tilted down to the east about 20?? during the late Cenozoic. Fluid inclusion populations in igneous quartz also vary systematically with paleodepth. -from Author

  12. Metamorphic fluid flow in the northeastern part of the 3.8-3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (SW Greenland): A re-evalution of fluid inclusion evidence for early Archean seafloor-hydrothermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijlen, Wouter; Appel, P. W. U.; Frezzotti, M. L.;

    2006-01-01

    segregations showed that they were affected by variable recrystallization which controlled their fluid inclusion content. The oldest unaltered fluid inclusions found are present in vein crystals that survived dynamic and static recrystallization. These crystals contain a cogenetic, immiscible assemblage of CO2......-NaCl (0.2-3.7 eq. wt% NaCl.) These successive fluid inclusion assemblages record a retrograde P-T evolution close to a geothermal gradient of similar to 30 degrees C/km, but also indicate fluid pressure variations and the introduction of highly reducing fluids at similar to 200-300 degrees C and 0......Fluid inclusions in quartz globules and quartz veins of a 3.8-3.7 Ga old, well-preserved pillow lava breccia in the northeastern Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB) were studied using microthermometry, Raman spectrometry and SEM Cathodoluminescence Imaging. Petrographic study of the different quartz...

  13. Fluid inclusion chemistry of adularia-sericite epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the southern Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mark P.; Strmic Palinkas, Sabina; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Microthermometry, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the temperature, apparent salinity, and composition of individual fluid inclusions in adularia-sericite Au-Ag epithermal veins from the Karangahake, Martha, Favona, and Waitekauri deposits, southern Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Quartz veins contain colloform to crustiform bands that alternate with coarse-grained quartz and amethyst. The ore mineralization occurs only in colloform to crustiform bands.

  14. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Fluid inclusions hidden in coesite-bearing zircons in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks from southwestern Sulu terrane in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fulai; XU Zhiqin

    2004-01-01

    Primary fluid inclusions, together with coesite mineral inclusions, are identified in the same zircon domains by laser Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) image and micro-texture analysis in paragneiss and eclogite from the main drilling hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in southwestern Sulu terrane. Most fluid inclusions are characterized by CO2 (gas)-H2O (liquid) two-phase, a few by H2O one-phase liquid inclusions. These features indicate that the eclogite and its country-rocks may be located in the "wet system" rather than in the "dry system" during UHP metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating indicates that the timing of trapping the fluid and coesite inclusions in metamorphic zircon domains is about 233.7 ± 4.3 Ma, which may represent the age of zircon growth in the stage of pressure decrease but temperature increase during the retrograde period of UHP metamorphism thus indicating the fluid activity still under the UHP conditions. The zircons further overgrew at about 213.2 ± 5.2 Ma in response to amphibolite-facies retrogression. Therefore, fluid activity in the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks principally occurred during the exhumation of UHP slab in the Middle to Late Triassic. The present results not only provide insight into the fluid property and fluid-rock interaction mechanism in the Sulu-Dabie UHP terrane, but also present a new means to exactly identify the primary fluid inclusions preserved in zircons from the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  16. Pressure-temperature condition and hydrothermal-magmatic fluid evolution of the Cu-Mo Senj deposit, Central Alborz: fluid inclusion evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tale Fazel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Senj deposit has significant potential for different types of mineralization, particularly porphyry-like Cu deposits, associated with subduction-related Eocene–Oligocene calc-alkaline porphyritic volcano-plutonic rocks. The study of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits aims to identify and characterize the pressure, temperature, volume and fluid composition, (PTX conditions of fluids under which they were trapped (Heinrich et al., 1999; Ulrich and Heinrich, 2001; Redmond et al., 2004. Different characteristics of the deposit such as porphyrtic nature, alteration assemblage and the quartz-sulfide veins of the stockwork were poorly known. In this approach on the basis of alterations, vein cutting relationship and field distribution of fluid inclusions, the physical and chemical evolution of the hydrothermal system forming the porphyry Cu-Mo (±Au-Ag deposit in Senj is reconstructed. Materials and Methods Over 1000 m of drill core was logged at a scale of 1:1000 by Pichab Kavosh Co. and samples containing various vein and alteration types from different depths were collected for laboratory analyses. A total of 14 samples collected from the altered and least altered igneous rocks in the Senj deposit were analyzed for their major oxide concentrations by X-ray fluorescence in the SGS Mineral Services (Toronto, Canada. The detection limit for major oxide analysis is 0.01%. Trace and rare earth elements (REE were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometery (ICP-MS, in the commercial laboratory of SGS Mineral Services. The analytical error for most elements is less than 2%. The detection limit for trace elements and REEs analysis is 0.01 to 0.1 ppm. Fluid inclusion microthermometry was conducted using a Linkam THMS600 heating–freezing stage (-190 °C to +600 °C mounted on a ZEISS Axioplan2 microscope in the fluid inclusion laboratory of the Iranian Mineral Processing Research Center (Karaj, Iran. Results

  17. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho cobalt belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses--a reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Burlinson (2013) questions the veracity of the H2 concentrations reported for fluid inclusion extracts from minerals in the Idaho cobalt belt (Table 2; Landis and Hofstra, 2012) and suggests that they are an analytical artifact of electron-impact mass spectrometry. He also declares that H2 should not be present in fluid inclusions because it is invariably lost by diffusion and is never detected in fluid inclusions by laser Raman. We welcome this opportunity to reply and maintain that the reported H2 contents are accurate. Below we explain why Burlinson’s criticisms are invalid.

  18. New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-07-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us simultaneously to measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the online water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δ D robustness. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water, resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δ D and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed in a copper tube, attached to the line, and after system stabilisation it is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements, a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain &delta D; and δ18O isotopic compositions of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5 ‰ for δ D and 0.4 ‰ for δ18O for water measurements for an extended range (-210 to 0 ‰ for δ D and -27 to 0 ‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to the isotope ratio mass

  19. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  20. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-12-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  1. Episodic fluid movements in superimposed basin:Combined evidence from outcrop and fluid inclusions of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Combined evidence from the outcrop and the fluid inclusion assemblage (FIA) analysis indicates that there exist two episodes of fluid flow controlled by the tectonic activity. The first episode was recorded mainly in the reservoir rock of the Honghuayuan Formation,representing the fluid flow of hydrocarbon charging. The second episode occurred mainly along the fault systems,representing the fluid move-ment when the ancient oil reservoir was destroyed. The host mineral morphology,homogeneous tem-perature,and salinity of the FIAs record an episodic fluid movement. Characters of high homogenous temperature,low salinity and a quick temperature variation of the first episode fluid flow may indicate an early-stage fluid eruption,and correspondingly,fine-grained calcite was formed. Temperature of the erupted fluid tended to decrease during its mixing with the upper formation fluid and finally had the same temperature as the upper formation. From then on,the temperature was rather steady and fa-vored the growth of the coarse calcite. Due to this character of the temperature variation of the episodic fluid flow,we can use the homogenous temperature of the FIA of the coarse calcite to date the forma-tion and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir. Episodic fluid flow was known for its inhomogeneous trapping,which resulted in the failure of dating according to the burial history. But taking a close look at its temperature variation,we think that the latest stage of fluid flow,characterized by steady state temperature and grow of the coarser crystals,can be used for dating. It will be of great value if this method is proved to be effective. The formation and the destruction time of the Majiang ancient oil reservoir were dated to be in the Indosinian Period and the late Yanshan-early Hymalayan Period respectively. This conclusion is in great discrepancy with the common accepted idea that the Majiang ancient oil reservoir was formed and destroyed during the

  2. Seawater fluid inclusions preserved within Cambrian-Ordovician marine cements indicate Cambrian-Ordovician seawater precipitated low-magnesium calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.J.; Goldstein, R.H. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The San Saba Member of the Wilberns Formation (Llano Uplift, Texas) contains a series of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician hardgrounds. Bladed low-Mg calcite cements are truncated at hardground surfaces and overlain by shallow marine limestones, indicating a syndepositional shallow marine origin. Primary one-phase fluid inclusions within bladed cements have marine salinities, suggesting that these low-Mg calcite cements formed as a precipitate from Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician seawater and have not undergone recrystallization. Stable isotope analysis of the bladed cement yields delta O-18 values that cluster between [minus]5.6--[minus]6.0 ([per thousand] PDB) which is comparable to those previously reported for Early Ordovician marine calcite. The delta C-13 values are more positive than those reported for this time interval (0.6--1.3 [per thousand] PDB). Trace element analysis indicates that strontium content ranges from 200 to 2,200 ppm. Iron ranges from below detection by electron microprobe to 800 ppm. Mg is generally below detection, however, cements in one hardground display Mg contents that increase progressively toward pore centers. Trace element data lack covariance that would suggest recrystallization. In addition, closed system recrystallization cannot be supported here due to a lack of microdolomite inclusions. Stable isotope, trace element, and fluid inclusion data are consistent with submarine cementation at or below the sediment-water interface. These cements have not undergone significant recrystallization and preserve a primary low Mg calcite mineralogy. These data suggest that early Paleozoic seawater differed chemically from modern seawater. Moreover, preservation of ancient seawater, within fluid inclusions, may provide a direct means of determining those differences.

  3. In situ cryogenic Raman spectroscopic studies on the synthetic fluid inclusions in the systems H2O and NaCl-H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Salt-hydrates have diagnostic cryogenic Raman spectra, which can reflect the composition of the parent solutions. As analogue to the natural fluid inclusions, the synthetic inclusions can be used to validate numerous assumptions related to fluid inclusion research. They can also be used to test the feasibility of application of laser Raman spectroscopy to individual fluid inclusion analysis. Using the technique proposed by Sterner and Bodnar(1984), synthetic inclusions of the systems H2O and NaCl-H2O (with NaCl as 5.12 wt%, 9.06 wt%, 16.6 wt% and 25 wt%) were formed under the pressures from 50Mpa to 100Mpa and at the temperatures from 500℃ to 600℃. In situ cryogenic Raman spectra were collected at about -180℃ by combined use of freezing- heating stage and Laser Raman Microscopy. It is shown that hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O), the salt-hydrate of NaCl in the fluid inclusions has the specific Raman spectrum and can be used as the standard to verify the existence of NaCl in the aqueous inclusions. The crystalline ice other than amorphous ice (glasses) formed from the aqueous phase whthin the synthetic inclusions during the initial freezing, but hydrohalite did not form. Subsequent warming of these inclusions induced a phase change, typically between approximately -40 and -22℃, that represents the hydrohalite crystallization event but not a eutectic melting event. So, for fluid inclusions in the system NaCl-H2O, interpretation of phase behavior below the eutectic temperature (-20.8℃) should be made with caution. The ratios of the relative intensity and the area of Raman spectra between 3423 cm-1 peak of hydrohalite and 3098 cm-1 peak of ice show positive correlations to the salinities in aqueous inclusions, which can be used to determine the salinity of NaCl- H2O system inclusions.

  4. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF INCLUSIONS FLOTATION IN STEELS FOR AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Máximo Fernandes Marins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of inert gas bubbling in steel refining ladle aims the removal of non-metallic inclusions, in addition to thermal and compositional homogenization. Through physical and mathematical models of a secondary ladle refining, the effects of bubbling flow of inert gas and the number of porous plugs located at the bottom of the ladle are investigated. The velocity fields and flotation of non-metallic inclusions are analyzed by physical and mathematical modeling. The results are validated by analysis of images (PIV and the macroscopic model is compared by industrial results for inclusions analysis for steels used in the automotive sector

  5. Study of genesis in Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit using fluid inclusion, southeast of Saqqez, the Kurdistan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Qahr-abad fluorite deposit is located in the area of 36°10′ 3′′ N and 46°34′ 21′′E within the Sanandaj-Sirjan district east of the Kurdistan province , Iran and it is located ~57 km southeast of the city of Saqqez (Kholghi Khasraghi, 1999. This deposit is developed as scatter lenses, veins, and veinlets (stockwork structure within carbonate rocks of Elika formation and controlled by the regional NW–SE trending Zagross thrust nappe system. Fault trends in this area are perpendicular to fault trends in the Zagros zone. The fault dips are nearly vertical and mineralization has occurred in the brecciation fault zone (Talaii, 2010. The rough geological instruction of the deposit has indicated that it is similar to worldwide Epithermal deposits. The mineralization occurs as replacement (type I/ open-space (type II vein fillings and bodies within Mesozoic lime stones (mostly Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic members of the Elika Formation, where they crop out to form horst structures. The mineralization is typically associated with post Pliocene disjunctive faults, which in part appear to have served as channel ways for the fluorite forming fluids that are representative of the geological setting of the mineralized area. Fluorite occurs in several color variations such as green, violet, blue, white or colorless, and is accompanied by quartz, barite and calcite (Moslehi, 2013. Materials and methods The minerals sampled for the fluid inclusion study include fluorite from mineralization stages. Samples covered all ore types. Micro thermometry analyses for 23 samples were performed after careful microscopic observation of 35 sections and 30 doubly polished sections. Micro thermometry was undertaken using a Linkam THS600 heating-freezing stage, with a measurable temperature range of between −196 and +600 °C (precision of freezing data and homogenization temperature of ±0.2 °C. Micro thermometry was undertaken in the

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of Fluid-Bearing Natural Gas Inclusions for Geothermometer and Geobarometer of Overpressured Environments in Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is a very difficult problem to directly determine fluid pressure during hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in sedimentary basins. pVt modeling of coupling hydrocarbon fluid inclusion of its coeval aqueous fluid inclusion provides a powerful tool for establishing the relationship of formation pressure evolution with time. Homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion can routinely be measured under microthermometric microscopy. Crushing technique has been employed to obtain the composition of fluid inclusions, and the commercial software VTFLINC easily and rapidly completes the construction of p-t phase diagram. The minimum trapping pressure of hydrocarbon fluid inclusion would be then determined in the p-t space. In this paper, three samples of YC21-1-1 and YC21-1-4 wells at YC21-1 structural closure, Qiongdongnan basin, South China Sea, were selected for the pVt modeling practice, and the formation pressure coefficient (equals to fluid pressure/hydrostatic pressure) changing trend with time has primarily been established. The modeling results also indicate that the reservoirs of Lingshui and Yacheng formations in YC21-1 structure are within a very high potential system and would have undergone a discharging of thermal fluids through top seal rupture, which depicts that there is a very high risk for natural gas exploration in this area.

  7. He, Ne and Ar isotope compositions of fluid inclusions in hy-drothermal sulfides from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclusionshave been measured in hydrothermal sulfide samples from the TAG hydrothermal field at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid-inclusion 3He/4He ratios are 2.2-13.3 times the air value (Ra), and with a mean of 7.2 Ra. Com-parison with the local vent fluids (3He/4He=7.5-8.2 Ra) and mid-ocean ridge basalt values (3He/4He=6-11 Ra) shows that the variation range of 3He/4He ratios from sulfide-hosted fluid inclu-sions is significantly large. Values for 20Ne/22Ne are from 10.2 to 11.4, which are significantly higher than the atmospheric ratio (9.8). And fluid-inclusion 40Ar/36Ar ratios range from 287 to 359, which are close to the atmospheric values (295.5). These results indicate that the noble gases of fluid inclu-sions in hydrothermal sulfides are a mixture of mantle- and seawater-derived noble gases; the partial mantle-derived components of trapped hydrothermal fluids may be from the lower mantle; the helium of fluid inclusions is mainly from upper mantle; and the Ne and Ar components are mainly from seawater.

  8. Fluid Inclusion Petrography:A Discussion%流体包裹体岩相学的一些问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章

    2014-01-01

    Petrographic microscopy of a rock and mineral sample is the first and at same time essential step of any fluid inclusion study. Fluid inclusion is a paleogeofluid trapped in minerals. To distinguish the primary and secondary fluid inclusions is an essential step, then a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions can be made only when textural relationship between fluid inclusion and the host mineral and rock are considered. This is the major subject for fluid inclusion petrography. A few methods to describe the essential part of fluid inclusion petrography are included.%流体包裹体岩相学是流体包裹体研究的基础和前提。在流体包裹体研究过程中,我们十分重视和强调选择什么样的流体包裹体去做测温和分析。在流体色裹体岩相学中区分原生和次生包裹体十分重要。只有选择了原生流体包裹体后才能进行显微测温学和流体包裹体成分分析。这种选择包裹体的过程(或步骤),确定流体包裹体的分类以及在显微镜下观察流体包裹体捕获后的変化,是流体包裹体岩相学(Fluid inclusion petrography)最主要的内容。本文叙述流体包裹体岩相学的内容和区分原生和次生流体包裹体的一些实例和方法,阐述了流体包裹体与主矿物之关系。

  9. Technical Note: How accurate can stalagmite formation temperatures be determined using vapour bubble radius measurements in fluid inclusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Spadin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stalagmites are natural archives containing detailed information on continental climate variability of the past. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures allow determination of stalagmite formation temperatures by measuring the radius of stable laser-induced vapour bubbles inside the inclusions. A reliable method for precisely measuring the radius of vapour bubbles is presented. The method is applied to stalagmite samples for which the formation temperature is known. An assessment of the bubble radius measurement accuracy and how this error influences the uncertainty in determining the formation temperature is provided. We demonstrate that the nominal homogenisation temperature of a single inclusion can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.25 °C, if the volume of the inclusion is larger than 105 μm3. With this method, we could measure in a proof-of-principle investigation that the formation temperature of 10–20 yr old inclusions in a stalagmite taken from the Milandre cave is 9.87 ± 0.80 °C, while the mean annual surface temperature, that in the case of the Milandre cave correlates well with the cave temperature, was 9.6 ± 0.15 °C, calculated from actual measurements at that time, showing a very good agreement. Formation temperatures of inclusions formed during the last 450 yr are found in a temperature range between 8.4 and 9.6 °C, which corresponds to the calculated average surface temperature. Paleotemperatures can thus be determined within ±1.0 °C.

  10. Orientation, composition, and entrapment conditions of fluid inclusions in the footwall of the northern Snake Range detachment, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Matthew J.; Siebenaller, Luc; Teyssier, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Footwall rocks of the northern Snake Range detachment fault (Hampton and Hendry's Creeks) offer exposures of quartzite mylonites (sub-horizontal foliation) that were permeated by surface fluids. An S-C-C‧ mylonitic fabric is defined by dynamically recrystallized quartz and mica. Electron backscatter diffraction analyses indicate a strong preferred orientation of quartz that is overprinted by two sets of sub-vertical, ESE and NNE striking fractures. Analyses of sets of three perpendicular thin sections indicate that fluid inclusions (FIs) are arranged according to macroscopic fracture patterns. FIs associated with NNE and ESE-striking fractures coevally trapped unmixed CO2 and H2O-rich fluids at conditions near the critical CO2-H2O solvus, giving minimum trapping conditions of T = 175-200 °C and ˜100 MPa H2O-rich FIs trapped along ESE-trending microcracks in single crystals of quartz may have been trapped at conditions as low as 150 °C and 50 MPa indicating the latest microfracturing and annealing of quartz in an overall extensional system. Results suggest that the upper crust was thin (4-8 km) during FI trapping and had an elevated geotherm (>50 °C/km). Footwall rocks that have been exhumed through the brittle-ductile transition in such extensional systems experience both brittle and crystal-plastic deformation that may allow for circulation of meteoric fluids and grain-scale fluid-rock interactions.

  11. The study of mineralization and fluid inclusion in Dehsalm Mahour 2 lead deposit, east of Lut block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mahour 2 lead mineralization area is located, about 145 km west of Nehbandan and 2 km northwest of Mahour polymetal deposit and in the eastern part of Lut Block. The area comprises of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks (Eocene intruded by several intrusive rocks mainly as dioritic dykes and stocks. Mineralization as veins and filling the space, occurred in altered andesitic rocks. Supergene zone is characterized by azurite, malachite, linarite and iron oxides (hematite and limonite whereas, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and magnetite are the main minerals of hypogene zone. And, quartz and calcite are main gangue. The area is dominated by four types of alteration including silicic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic. Fluid inclusions study on quartz mineral sections polished reveals the presence of 1.0 to 5.6 percent salt and homogeneous temperature between 278 to 570 ° C. The high temperature with low salinity zone mineralization in this area is likely related to another generation of mineralization in the area. The results of fluid inclusions show that the mineralization is probably a mixture of magmatic fluid and atmospheric, although there is doubt. Several similar criteria including form of deposit, primary ore deposit, alteration facies, tectonic environment and magmatic series document that there should be a correlation between the origin of the studied mineralization area and that of the Mahour polymetal deposit.

  12. Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: A mantle connection for mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Li, Y.; Goldfarb, R.; He, Y.; Zaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit (>100 t Au) occurs about 200 km inboard of the northern margin of the North China craton. The deposit is mainly hosted by syenite of a middle Paleozoic alkalic intrusive complex that was emplaced into Late Archean basement rocks. Both groups of rocks are intruded by Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal-melt granite dikes and stocks, some within a few kilometers of the deposit. The gold ores were deposited during this latter magmatic period at about 150 Ma, a time that was characterized by widespread regional north-south compression that formed the east-west-trending Yanshan deformational belt. The ores include both the telluride mineral-bearing, low sulfide quartz veins and the highly K-feldspar-altered syenite, with most of the resource concentrated in two orebodies (1 and 70). Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates heterogeneous trapping of low-salinity (e.g., 5-7 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids that varied from a few to 60 mole percent nonaqueous volatile species. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapor phase in these inclusions is dominated by CO2, but may be comprised of as much as 9 mole percent H2S and 20 mole percent N2; methane concentrations in the vapor phase are consistently interaction of ore fluids with surrounding crustal rocks, which may have contributed additional He to the fluids. A mantle source for at least some of the components of the gold-forming fluid is consistent with upwelling of hot asthenosphere and erosion of as much as 100 to 150 km of cool Archean lithosphere beneath the craton during this time. The Dongping deposit is located along the 100-km-wide north-south gravity lineament, which marks the western border of the thinned crust. As both regional metamorphism of Mesoproterozoic and younger cover rocks, and widespread granite magmatism, also occurred at ca. 150 Ma, it is unclear as to whether one or both of these also contributed fluid and/or metals to the hydrothermal system. Importantly, these

  13. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...... used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent...... water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i...

  14. Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope evidence for the genesis of Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit lies in the Lut block metallogenic province of Eastern Iran. This deposit consists of ore-bearing vein emplaced along fault zone and hosted by Late Eocene monzonite porphyry. Hydrothermal alteration minerals developed in the wall rock include quartz, kaolinite, illite, and calcite. Microscopic studies reveal that the vein contains galena and sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and pyrite as hypogene minerals and cerussite, anglesite, covellite, malachite, hematite, and goethite as secondary minerals. Fluorite and quartz are the dominant gangue minerals and show a close relationship with sulfide mineralization. Calculated δ34S values for the ore fluid vary between -9.9‰ and -5.9‰. Sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that the ore-forming aqueous solutions were derived from magmatic source and mixed with isotopically light sulfur, probably leached from the volcanic and plutonic country rocks. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions indicates homogenization temperatures of 151-352 °C. Salinities of ore-forming fluids ranged from 0.2 to 16.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The ore-forming fluids of the Sechangi deposit are medium- to low-temperature and salinity. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Pb-Zn (-Cu) mineralization. The key factors allowing for metal transport and precipitation during ore formation include the sourcing of magmatic fluids with high contents of metallogenic elements and the mixing of these hydrothermal fluids with meteoric waters resulting in the formation of deposit. In terms of the genetic type of deposit, the Sechangi is classified as a volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal-related vein deposit.

  15. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine,Hemlo,and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢焕章; ANDDON.C.HARRIS

    2002-01-01

    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As,Hg,Sb,Ba,V and Mo.The genetic concepts range from syngenetc to epigenetic types of mineralization.This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationshp of Hg-As minerals with respect of fluid inclusions in the Williams mine(formerly known as the Page Williams mine)covering the A and C ore zones.

  16. Preliminary mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of the Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Hall, W.E.; Cunningham, C.G.; Czamanske, G.K.; Afifi, A.M.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Mahd adh Dhahab mine, located about 280 km northeast of Jiddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has yielded more than 2 million ounces of gold from periodic production during the past 3,000 years. A new orebody on the southern side of the ancient workings, known as the South orebody, is being developed by Gold Fields-Mahd adh Dhahab Limited. A suite of samples was collected from the newly exposed orebody for preliminary mineralogic, stable isotope, fluid inclusion, and geochemical studies. The Mahd adh Dhahab deposit is in the carapace of a Proterozoic epizonal rhyolite stock that domed pyroclastic and metasedimentary rocks of the Proterozoic Halaban group. Ore of gold, silver, copper, zinc, tellurium, and lead is associated with north-trending, steeply dipping quartz veins in a zone 1,000 m long and 400 m wide. The veins include an assemblage of quartz-chlorite-pyrite-hematite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-precious metals, which is similar to the mineral assemblage at the epithermal deposit at Creede, Colorado. The primary ore contains abundant chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and pyrite in addition to a complex precious metal assemblage. Gold and silver occur principally as minute grains of telluride minerals disseminated in quartz-chlorite-hematite and as inclusions in chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Telluride minerals include petzite, hessite, and sylvanite. Free gold is present but not abundant. All of the vein-quartz samples contained abundant, minute inclusions of both low-density, vapor-rich fluids and liquid-rich fluids. Primary fluid inclusions yielded homogenization temperatures of from 110? to 238? C. Preliminary light-stable isotope studies of the sulfide minerals and quartz showed that all of the d34S values are between 1.2 and 6.3 per mil, which is a typical range for hydrothermal sulfide minerals that derive their sulfur from an igneous source. The data-suggest that the sulfide sulfur isotope geochemistry was controlled by exchange with la large sulfur isotope

  17. Methane-rich fluid inclusions and their hosting volcanic reservoir rocks of the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pu-Jun; HOU Qi-jun; CHENG Ri-hui; LI Quan-lin; GUO Zhen-hua; HUANG Yu-long

    2004-01-01

    Methane-rich fluids were recognized to be hosted in the reservoir volcanic rocks as primary inclusions.Samples were collected from core-drillings of volcanic gas reservoirs with reversed δ12C of alkane in the Xujiaweizi depression of the Songliao Basin. The volcanic rocks are rhyolite dominant being enriched in the more incompatible elements like Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Th with relative high LREE, depleted HREE and negative anomalies of Ti and Nb,suggesting a melt involving both in mantle source and crustal assimilation. Primary fluids hosted in the volcanic rocks should have the same provenance with the magma. The authors concluded that the enclosed CH4 in the volcanics are mantle/magma-derived alkane and the reversed δ13C of alkane in the corresponding gas reservoirs is partly resulted from mixture between biogenic and abiogenic gases.

  18. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  19. Origin of the Rubian carbonate-hosted magnesite deposit, Galicia, NW Spain: mineralogical, REE, fluid inclusion and isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilias, Stephanos P.; Pozo, Manuel; Bustillo, Manuel; Stamatakis, Michael G.; Calvo, José P.

    2006-10-01

    The Rubian magnesite deposit (West Asturian—Leonese Zone, Iberian Variscan belt) is hosted by a 100-m-thick folded and metamorphosed Lower Cambrian carbonate/siliciclastic metasedimentary sequence—the Cándana Limestone Formation. It comprises upper (20-m thickness) and lower (17-m thickness) lens-shaped ore bodies separated by 55 m of slates and micaceous schists. The main (lower) magnesite ore body comprises a package of magnesite beds with dolomite-rich intercalations, sandwiched between slates and micaceous schists. In the upper ore body, the magnesite beds are thinner (centimetre scale mainly) and occur between slate beds. Mafic dolerite dykes intrude the mineralisation. The mineralisation passes eastwards into sequence of bedded dolostone (Buxan) and laminated to banded calcitic marble (Mao). These show significant Variscan extensional shearing or fold-related deformation, whereas neither Rubian dolomite nor magnesite show evidence of tectonic disturbance. This suggests that the dolomitisation and magnesite formation postdate the main Variscan deformation. In addition, the morphology of magnesite crystals and primary fluid inclusions indicate that magnesite is a neoformed hydrothermal mineral. Magnesite contains irregularly distributed dolomite inclusions (modified basinal brines that have reacted and equilibrated with intercalated siliciclastic rocks. Magnesite formation is genetically linked to regional hydrothermal dolomitisation associated with lithospheric delamination, late-Variscan high heat flow and extensional tectonics in the NW Iberian Belt. A comparison with genetic models for the Puebla de Lillo talc deposits suggests that the formation of hydrothermal replacive magnesite at Rubian resulted from a metasomatic column with magnesite forming at higher fluid/rock ratios than dolomite. In this study, magnesite generation took place via the local reaction of hydrothermal dolostone with the same hydrothermal fluids in very high permeability zones at

  20. A new method of reconstituting the P-T conditions of fluid circulation in an accretionary prism (Shimanto, Japan) from microthermometry of methane-bearing aqueous inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Thiéry, Régis; Vacelet, Maxime; Ramboz, Claire; Cluzel, Nicolas; Le Trong, Emmanuel; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    In paleo-accretionary prisms and the shallow metamorphic domains of orogens, circulating fluids trapped in inclusions are commonly composed of a mixture of salt water and methane, producing two types of fluid inclusions: methane-bearing aqueous and methane-rich gaseous fluid inclusions. In such geological settings, where multiple stages of deformation, veining and fluid influx are prevalent, textural relationships between aqueous and gaseous inclusions are often ambiguous, preventing the microthermometric determination of fluid trapping pressure and temperature conditions. To assess the P-T conditions of deep circulating fluids from the Hyuga unit of the Shimanto paleo-accretionary prism on Kyushu, Japan, we have developed a new computational code, applicable to the H2O-CH4-NaCl system, which allows the characterization of CH4-bearing aqueous inclusions using only the temperatures of their phase transitions estimated by microthermometry: Tmi, the melting temperature of ice; Thyd, the melting temperature of gas hydrate and Th,aq, homogenization temperature. This thermodynamic modeling calculates the bulk density and composition of aqueous inclusions, as well as their P-T isochoric paths in a P-T diagram with an estimated precision of approximatively 10%. We use this computational tool to reconstruct the entrapment P-T conditions of aqueous inclusions in the Hyuga unit, and we show that these aqueous inclusions cannot be cogenetic with methane gaseous inclusions present in the same rocks. As a result, we propose that pulses of a high-pressure, methane-rich fluid transiently percolated through a rock wetted by a lower-pressure aqueous fluid. By coupling microthermometric results with petrological data, we infer that the exhumation of the Hyuga unit from the peak metamorphic conditions was nearly isothermal and ended up under a very hot geothermal gradient. In subduction or collision zones, modeling aqueous fluid inclusions in the ternary H2O-CH4-NaCl system and not

  1. Geochronology, fluid inclusions and isotopic characteristics of the Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Wu, Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Guorui; Hu, Yanqing; Zhang, Yunfu; Luo, Dafeng; Mao, Zhihao; Xu, Bei

    2016-09-01

    The large Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is located in the Derbugan metallogenic belt of the northern Great Xing'an Range. The vein-style orebodies of the deposit occur in the NWW-trending fault zones. The ore-forming process at the deposit can be divided into three stages: an early quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite-pyrrhotite-sphalerite-galena-chalcopyrite stage, a middle quartz-carbonate-pyrite-sphalerite-galena-silver-bearing minerals stage, and a late quartz-carbonate-pyrite stage. The sericite sample yielded a 40Ar -39Ar plateau age of 138 ± 1 Ma and an isochron age of 137 ± 3 Ma, and the zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of monzogranite porphyry was 143 ± 2 Ma, indicating that the ages of mineralization and monzogranite porphyry in the Chaganbulagen deposit should be the Early Cretaceous, and that the mineralization should be slightly later than the intrusion of monzogranite porphyry. There are only liquid inclusions in quartz veins of the Chaganbulagen deposit. Homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of the fluid inclusions from the early stage are 261-340 °C, 0.65-0.81 g/cm3, and 0.7-6.3 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. Fluid inclusions of the middle stage have homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of 209-265 °C, 0.75-0.86 g/cm3, and 0.5-5.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. For fluid inclusions of the late stage, their homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities are 173-219 °C, 0.85-0.91 g/cm3, and 0.4-2.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. The ore-forming fluids of the deposit are generally characterized by moderate temperature and low salinity and density, and belong to an H2O-NaCl ± CO2 ± CH4 system. The δ18Owater values calculated for ore-bearing quartz vary from - 17.9‰ to - 10.8‰, and the δDV-SMOW values from bulk extraction of fluid inclusion waters vary from - 166‰ to - 127‰, suggesting that the ore-forming fluids consist dominantly of meteoric water. The δ34SV-CDT values range from 1.4‰ to 4.1‰. The 206Pb/204

  2. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho cobalt belt is a 60-km-long alignment of deposits composed of cobaltite, Co pyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold with anomalous Nb, Y, Be, and rare-earth elements (REEs) in a quartz-biotite-tourmaline gangue hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Lemhi Group. It is the largest cobalt resource in the United States with historic production from the Blackbird Mine. All of the deposits were deformed and metamorphosed to upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade in the Cretaceous. They occur near a 1377 Ma anorogenic bimodal plutonic complex. The enhanced solubility of Fe, Co, Cu, and Au as chloride complexes together with gangue biotite rich in Fe and Cl and gangue quartz containing hypersaline inclusions allows that hot saline fluids were involved. The isotopes of B in gangue tourmaline are suggestive of a marine source, whereas those of Pb in ore suggest a U ± Th-enriched source. The ore and gangue minerals in this belt may have trapped components in fluid inclusions that are distinct from those in post-ore minerals and metamorphic minerals. Such components can potentially be identified and distinguished by their relative abundances in contrasting samples. Therefore, we obtained samples of Co and Cu sulfides, gangue quartz, biotite, and tourmaline and post-ore quartz veins as well as Cretaceous metamorphic garnet and determined the gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratios of fluid inclusion extracts by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The most abundant gases present in extracts from each sample type are biased toward the gas-rich population of inclusions trapped during maximum burial and metamorphism. All have CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of evolved crustal fluids, and many yield a range of H2-CH4-CO2-H2S equilibration temperatures consistent with the metamorphic grade. Cretaceous garnet and post-ore minerals have high RH and RS values suggestive of reduced sulfidic conditions. Most extracts have anomalous 4He produced by decay of U and Th and

  3. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies of the Mesloula Pb-Zn-Ba ore deposit, NE Algeria: Characteristics and origin of the mineralizing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouar, Rabah; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Sami, Lounis; Boyce, Adrian J.; Kolli, Omar; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2016-09-01

    In the Saharan Atlas (NE Algeria), the Triassic evaporitic formation was brought to the surface through the thick Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary cover as diapirs due to the effect of Atlasic tectonic events. The diapir piercing began in the Jurassic and has continued through present day. Many outcrops of several square kilometres are distributed in a large area (approximately 80 km wide) that extends northeasterly over 300 km towards Tunisia. The diapiric evaporitic formation is often accompanied by the emplacement of Pb-Zn-Ba-F mineralization. The Mesloula massif is an example of these deposits. Fluid inclusion and sulphur, carbon and oxygen isotope studies were carried out on Pb-Zn-Ba mineralization and associated gangue carbonates. Gypsum of the Triassic formation was also analysed for its sulphur isotope composition to show the role of evaporates in the generation of this typical peridiapiric deposit. Gypsum from the Triassic formation showed a narrow range of δ34SVCDT values, ranging from +14.6 to +15.5‰ (n = 8). This range is comparable to that of Triassic seawater sulphates. Sulphide minerals yielded δ34SVCDT values between 0 and + 11.7‰ (n = 15), indicating that sulphide sulphur was likely derived from Triassic sulphates through thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) because fluid inclusion microthermometric measurements yielded a mean temperature of 150 °C. Residual sulphate in such a system would have been enriched in 34S; this is reflected in the barite δ34SVCDT values, which range from +21.1 to +33.5‰ (n = 5). The δ13CVPDB values of calcite minerals, ranging from +2.1 to +6.3‰ (n = 4), indicate an inorganic carbon origin, likely from the host carbonate rocks. δ18OVSMOW values were between +21.9 and + 24.9‰, indicating that the most likely source of mineralizing fluids was formation water.

  4. Evidence of microstructures and fluid inclusions for the origin of polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks in Daqingshan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline quartz ribbons in high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Daqingshan region, are typi- cal microfabrics of, and provide information for, deep crust deformation and metamorphism. The quartz ribbons have straight boundaries and extend stably along gneissosity. They truncate other mineral grains in the rocks and may contain inclusions of such minerals that are lens-shaped and oriented. They frequently end into branching termination. Analysis fluid inclusions in polycrystalline quartz rib- bons reveal that the complex types of fluid inclusions are inhomogeneously distributed. They are ob- viously different from inclusions captured at granulite facies, in both fluid compositions and T-P esti- mations. Based on microfabric and fluid inclusion analysis, the polycrystalline quartz ribbons are suggested to be formed by SO2-rich fluids filling micro-fractures that are parallel to early gneissosity. The SO2 composition is derived from the deformed host rocks. The fluid phase has significant effects on the rheological characteristics, fracturing of rocks, and formation of quartz ribbons.

  5. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing fluid inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2006-06-01

    We report detailed molecular geochemistry of oil-bearing fluid inclusions from a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The presence of abundant biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before the Great Oxidation Event is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis than previously thought and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. It also implies that eukaryotes survived several extreme climatic events, including the Paleoproterozoic “snowball Earth” glaciations. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Paleoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution of life through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

  6. Contribution of infrared microscopy to studies of fluid inclusions hosted in some opaque ore minerals: possibilities, limitations, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past two decades, several studies of fluid inclusions hosted in some opaque ore minerals using near-infrared microscopy have been performed. Results indicated that this method can be applied to several sulfidic ores and metal oxides depending on their electronic band structures and infrared-active vibration modes. Infrared transmittance of individual ore minerals can be best characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Infrared microscopic observations are limited to the near-infrared region to about 2.3 μm depending on the IR sensitivity of the IR camera. The trace element content in ore minerals can be another limiting factor for optical observations in near-infrared light. Still, IR transmittance gradually decreases upon heating caused by shifting of IR absorption edges for higher wavelengths. Possibilities and limitations of studying fluid inclusions hosted in opaque minerals by near-infrared light microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are discussed.

  7. Determination of pressure from measured Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite and its application in fluid inclusions and HDAC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xueyin; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Zheng, Haifei

    2016-12-01

    A new geobarometry was derived from the quantified relationships among Raman vibrational frequencies of anhydrite, pressure and temperature, as determined from in-situ micro-Raman spectroscopy of natural anhydrite crystals measured at p-T conditions up to 560 °C and 1400 MPa by using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). With this geobarometry, the pressure in HDAC experiments and in anhydrite-bearing fluid inclusions can be determined directly from the ν1, 1016, ν3, 1128 and ν3, 1160 Raman frequency shifts of anhydrite at high p-T conditions relative to their values measured at ambient conditions. The pressure can be determined to an accuracy of better than 30 MPa based on the attainable accuracy of ±0.1 cm-1 for the fitted ν1 Raman peak positions, provided the measured spectra are calibrated using the emission peak of an external fluorescent light source. The feasibility and reliability of this geobarometry were verified by rebuilding the p-T history of two fluid inclusions from the ν1 frequency shifts of anhydrite daughter minerals from room to high temperatures, and by measuring the phase-transition pressures of calcite-CaCO3(II)-CaCO3(III) sequence at ambient temperature in a HDAC experiment using anhydrite as a Raman pressure sensor.

  8. Influence of isotopic re-equilibration on speleothem and fluid inclusion isotope ratios after primary calcite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Tobias; Haderlein, Astrid; Weißbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in speleothems (notably stalagmites) have been used since decades to successfully infer paleotemperatures and deduce paleo-environmental information. In addition, recent technical developments allow to increasingly use fluid inclusions as an archive for drip-water and together with the surrounding calcite as paleothermometer. A basic requirement for isotope data interpretation is the complete knowledge of the fractionation between calcite and fluid. Most laboratory and in-situ cave experiments focus on calcite growth and the isotope fractionation between calcite and feed solution. Potential isotope exchange and re-equilibration processes after the initial deposition have mostly been neglected. However, experiments of Oelkers et al. (2015) showed that the isotope exchange between minerals and fluid can proceed rapidly (within days), even at chemical equilibrium. In hydrous Mg carbonates a similar process of continuous isotope exchange between carbonate and fluid was observed after the carbonate precipitation was completed (Mavromatis et al., 2015). These observations suggest that the isotope ratios of speleothem calcite may be affected by this continuous exchange, likely driving the isotope composition continuously towards equilibrium at the respective cave conditions. In addition, fluid inclusions are suspected to be sensitive to an isotope exchange with the surrounding carbonate highlighting the need to precisely understand and quantify this effect. We assessed the oxygen isotope exchange between calcite and solution at chemical equilibrium conditions with theoretical estimates and laboratory experiments over an intermediate time scale (hours-weeks). A large isotope gradient (~20 ‰)) between solution and calcite was prepared in the experiment to investigate the dynamics of this re-equilibration process. We used a theoretical model based on a Rayleigh fractionation approach and the direct comparison with the experiment to determine

  9. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  10. Application of Scanning-Imaging X-Ray Microscopy to Fluid Inclusion Candidates in Carbonates of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakano, Tsukasa; Miyake, Akira; Akihisa, Takeuchi; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Kitayama, Akira; Matsuno, Junya; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to search for such fluid inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, a nondestructive technique using x-ray micro-absorption tomography combined with FIB sampling was developed and applied to a carbonaceous chondrite. They found fluid inclusion candidates in calcite grains, which were formed by aqueous alteration. However, they could not determine whether they are really aqueous fluids or merely voids. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM). In refractive index, n=1-sigma+i(beta), in the real part, 1-sigma is the refractive index with decrement, sigma, which is nearly proportional to the density, and the imaginary part, beta, is the extinction coefficient, which is related to the liner attenuation coefficient, mu. Many phases, including water and organic materials as well as minerals, can be identified by SIXM, and this technique has potential availability for Hayabusa-2 sample analysis too. In this study, we examined quantitative performance of d and m values and the spatial resolution in SIXM by using standard materials, and applied this technique to carbonaceous chondrite samples. We used POM ([CH2O]n), silicon, quartz, forsterite, corundum, magnetite and nickel as standard materials for examining the sigma and mu values. A fluid inclusion in terrestrial quartz and bi-valve shell (Atrina vexillum), which are composed of calcite and organic layers with different thickness, were also used for examining the spatial resolution. The Ivuna (CI) and Sutter's Mill (CM) meteorites were used as carbonaceous chondrite samples. Rod- or cube-shaped samples 20-30 micron in size were extracted by using FIB from cross-sectional surfaces of the standard materials or polished thin sections of the chondrites, which was previously observed with SEM. Then, the sample was attached to a thin W-needle and imaged by SIXM system at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. The slice thickness was 109.3 nm

  11. Petroleum migration and mixing in the northwestern Junggar Basin (NW China): constraints from oil-bearing fluid inclusion analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Cao; Suping Yao [Nanjing University (China). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Zhijun Jin [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Beijing (CN)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Abundant oil-bearing fluid inclusions are present in four reservoir sandstone samples from the slope and fault zone areas in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin (NW China). Free oil in intergranular pores, adsorbed oil on grain surfaces, and petroleum in inclusions hosted by mineral grains of these samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical results indicate similar biomarker distributions in the three bitumen fractions of the samples collected from the slope area, which correlate well with characteristic of the source rocks in the Lower Permian Fengcheng Formation. This is in contrast to the fault zone, where the three bitumen fractions vary significantly in their geochemical signatures, suggesting that all of the three Permian source sequences rocks (including the Lower Permian Jiamuhe and Fengcheng formations, and the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe Formation) have been mature and contributed to the oils in the fault zone. The presence of an unresolved hydrocarbon hump and a full range of unaltered n-alkanes in the gas chromatograms of samples collected from the fault zone indicate an earlier hydrocarbon biodegradation and subsequent injection of fresh oils, distinctly different from that in the slope area. Petrographic and microthermometric investigations of oil-bearing fluid inclusions suggest a single oil charge in the slope area (to the Lower Triassic reservoir, occurring during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time). In the fault zone, oil migration and mixing took place mainly during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic and Cretaceous, followed by gas migration in the Tertiary period. The different petroleum migration and mixing histories in the slope and fault zones are attributed to the effect of fault-controlled oil and gas migration. (author)

  12. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  13. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  14. Fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope evidence for the origin of the Ahangran Pb-Ag deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ahangaran Pb-Ag deposit is located in the Hamedan province, west Iran, 25 km southeast of the city of Malayer . . The deposit lies in the strongly folded Sanandaj-Sirjan tectonic zone, in which the ore bodies occur as thin lenses and layers. The host rocks of the deposit are Early Cretaceous carbonates and sandstones that are unconformably underlain by Jurassic rocks. Ore minerals include galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and supergene iron oxide minerals. Gangue minerals consist of barite, dolomite, chlorite, calcite and quartz. The mineralization occurs as open-space fillings, veins, veinlets, disseminations, and massive replacements. Alteration consists of silicification, sericitization, and dolomitization. In this study, we carried out studies of mineralogy, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes to determine the source of sulfur and the physico-chemical conditions of formation. Materials and methods Seventy samples of different host rocks, alteration, and mineralization were collected from surface outcrops and different tunnels. Twenty of the samples were prepared for mineralogical studies at Tarbiat Modarres University in Tehran and 25 for petrological studies at the University of Bu-Ali Sina. Fluid-inclusion studies were done on 5 samples of quartz and calcite at Pouya Zamin Azin Company in Tehran using a Linkam THM 600 model heating-freezing stage (with a range of -196 to 480ºC. The accuracy and precision of the homogenization measurements are about ±1°C. Salinity estimates were determined from the last melting temperatures of ice, utilizing the equations by Bodnar and Vityk (1994 and for CO2 fluids using equations by Chen (1972. Nine samples of sulfides and barite were crushed and separated by handpicking under binocular microscope and powdered with agate mortar and pestle. About one gram of each sample was sent to the Stable Isotope and ICP/MS Laboratory of Queen’s University, Canada for

  15. Search for Fluid Inclusions in a Carbonaceous Chondrite Using a New X-Ray Micro-Tomography Technique Combined with FIB Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Uesugi, K.; Nakano, T.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early solar system aqueous fluids are preserved in some H chondrites as aqueous fluid inclusions in halite (e.g., [1]). Although potential fluid inclusions are also expected in carbonaceous chondrites [2], they have not been surely confirmed. In order to search for these fluid inclusions, we have developped a new X-ray micro-tomography technique combined with FIB sampling and applied this techniqu to a carbanaceous chondrite. Experimental: A polished thin section of Sutter's Mill meteorite (CM) was observed with an optical microscope and FE-SEM (JEOL 7001F) for chosing mineral grains of carbonates (mainly calcite) and sulfides (FeS and ZnS) 20-50 microns in typical size, which may have aqueous fluid inclusions. Then, a "house" similar to a cube with a roof (20-30 microns in size) is sampled from the mineral grain by using FIB (FEI Quanta 200 3DS). Then, the house was atached to a thin W-needle by FIB and imaged by a SR-based imaging microtomography system with a Fresnel zone plate at beamline BL47XU, SPring-8, Japan. One sample was imaged at two X-ray energies, 7 and 8 keV, to identify mineral phases (dual-enegy microtomography: [3]). The size of voxel (pixel in 3D) was 50-80 nm, which gave the effective spatial resolution of approx. 200 nm. A terrestrial quartz sample with an aqueous fluid inclusion with a bubble was also examined as a test sample by the same method. Results and discussion: A fluid inclusion of 5-8 microns in quartz was clearly identified in a CT image. A bubble of approx. 4 microns was also identified as refraction contrast although the X-ray absorption difference between fluid and bubble is small. Volumes of the fluid and bubble were obtained from the 3D CT images. Fourteen grains of calcite, two grains of iron sulfide and one grain of (Zn,Fe)S were examined. Ten calcite, one iron sulfide and one (Zn,Fe)S grains have inclusions >1 micron in size (the maximum: approx. 5 microns). The shapes are spherical or irregular. Tiny inclusions (sample as

  16. Phase equilibrium modeling, fluid inclusions and origin of charnockites in the Datian region of the northeastern Cathaysia Block, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zi-Long; Yu, Sheng-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Charnockites in the Datian region of the northeastern Cathaysia Block, South China have an assemblage of garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, anti-perthite, K-feldspar, biotite, quartz and ilmenite. Phase equilibrium modeling indicates that the Datian charnockite was formed at T = 845-855 °C and P = 8.2-8.4 kbar with corresponding water activity lower than 0.50. Fluid inclusions in the Datian charnockite are dominated by N2 and CO2 with minor CH4. The fluids homogenized to liquid at -153.0 to -138.8 °C and 18.3-21.6 °C, respectively, showing a low-density nature. The low-density fluids could be attributed to selective leakage of water due to the affinity of water to melt and decompression-dominated retrograde process. Combined with previous studies, a two-stage formation model is proposed to interpret the petrogenesis of the Datian charnockite, viz emplaced at the Paleoproterozoic and underwent the granulite-facies metamorphism during the Phanerozoic tectonic event.

  17. Characterization of gas chemistry and noble-gas isotope ratios of inclusion fluids in magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam alunite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and isotope data were obtained for the active gas and noble gas of inclusion fluids in coarse-grained samples of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam alunite from well-studied deposits (Marysvale, Utah; Tambo, Chile; Tapajo??s, Brazil; Cactus, California; Pierina, Peru), most of which are discussed in this Volume. Primary fluid inclusions in the alunite typically are less than 0.2 ??m but range up to several micrometers. Analyses of the active-gas composition of these alunite-hosted inclusion fluids released in vacuo by both crushing and heating indicate consistent differences in the compositions of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam fluids. The compositions of fluids released by crushing were influenced by contributions from significant populations of secondary inclusions that trapped largely postdepositional hydrothermal fluids. Thermally released fluids gave the best representation of the fluids that formed primary alunite. The data are consistent with current models for the evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam fluids. Magmatic-steam fluids are vapor-dominant, average about 49 mol% H2O, and contain N2, H2, CH4, CO, Ar, He, HF, and HCl, with SO2 the dominant sulfur gas (average SO2/ H2S=202). In contrast, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids are liquid-dominant, average about 88 mol% H2O, and N2, H2, CO2, and HF, with H2S about as abundant as SO2 (average SO2/H2 S=0.7). The low SO2/H2S and N2/Ar ratios, and the near-absence of He in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, are consistent with their derivation from degassed condensed magmatic fluids whose evolution from reduced-to-oxidized aqueous sulfur species was governed first by rock and then by fluid buffers. The high SO2/H2S and N2/Ar with significant concentrations of He in magmatic-steam fluids are consistent with derivation directly from a magma. None of the data supports the entrainment of atmospheric gases or mixing of air-saturated gases in meteoric water in either magmatic

  18. Fluid inclusion and cathodoluminescence studies on fluorite from the Kerio valley, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogola, J. S.; Behr, H. J.; van den Kerkhof, A. M.

    1994-04-01

    The Kerio valley lies between the Elgeyo escarpment and the Tugen hills which mark the western margin of the Kenya rift valley. The main fluorite deposits are located in the southern part of the valley at Kimwarer, Choff and Kamnaon. Three types of inclusion fillings were identified: Liquid+Vapour, Liquid+Daughter Minerals and Liquid. The L+V type is dominant. Inclusions occur as clusters, trails along the crystal growth zones and as isolated ones. Low salinities, apparently lower than the 5% wt. NaCl equivalent, were established. Homogenization temperatures suggest that fluorite mineralization took place at different stages and at temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. Isolated readings above 180°C may be referring to the original inclusions in limestone. These measurements and the absence of CO 2 in the inclusions, as well as the occurrence of vugs and crustifications with fluorite, suggest that mineralization took place at relatively shallow depths. Emission spectrum lines representing Eu 2+, Dy 3+, Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ in fluorite were identified. Sm 3+ was detected only in the pinkish luminescence of veined fluorite, whereas the pinkish zone in banded fluorite contains Tb 3+. Eu 2+ which gives the strongest emission lines in the blue part of the visible spectrum, apparently is responsible for the strong blue cathodoluminescence (CL) in fluorite. The dominance of Eu 2+ peaks further points to the fact that fluorite mineralization in the Kerio valley took place in an environment that was enriched in Lanthanide Rare Earth Elements (LREE). The presence of rare earths and radioactive elements in fluorite points towards their enrichment in the environment of fluorite mineralization. A juvenile origin of mineral forming solutions is proposed. Two generations of fluorite were established: allotriomorphic fluorite, forming the matrix, and the idiomorphic variety, occurring either in barite or in druzes in early fluorite. Barite in turn forms idiomorphic crystals in

  19. Tourmalinization at the Darasun goldfield, Eastern Transbaikalia: Compositional, fluid inclusion and isotopic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Prokofiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoned tourmaline (schorl-dravite in the matrix of hydrothermal explosive breccia and ore veins in gold deposits, Chita region, Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia, are associated with Na- and K-rich porphyry-type subvolcanic intrusives. δ18O values of tourmaline from three gold deposits (Darasun, Talatui, Teremkinskoye are +8.3‰, +7.6‰, and +6.0‰ and calculated δ18O values of fluids responsible for the tourmalinization are +7.3‰, +7.7‰, and +4.2‰, respectively. These data imply an igneous fluid source, except at the Teremkin deposit where mixing with meteoric water is indicated. Wide ranges of Fe3+/Fetot and the presence of vacancies characterize the Darasun deposit tourmaline indicating wide ranges of ƒ(O2 and pH of mineralizing fluids. Initial stage tourmalines from the gold deposits of the Darasun ore district are dravite or high mg schorl. Second stage tourmaline is characterized by oscillatory zoning but with Fe generally increasing towards crystal rims indicating decreasing temperature. Third stage tourmaline formed unzoned crystals with xMg (mole fraction of Mg close to that of the first stage tourmaline, due to a close association with pyrite and arsenopyrite. From Fe3+/Fetot values, chemical composition and crystallization temperatures, logf(O2 of mineralizing fluids ranged from ca. −25 to −20, much higher than for the gold-bearing beresite–listvenite association, indicating that tourmalinization was not related to gold mineralization.

  20. Analysis of hopanes and steranes in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, S; Lausmaa, J; Sjövall, P; Broman, C; Thiel, V; Hode, T

    2010-01-01

    Steranes and hopanes are organic biomarkers used as indicators for the first appearance of eukaryotes and cyanobacteria on Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions may provide a contamination-free source of Precambrian biomarkers, as the oil has been secluded from the environment since the formation of the inclusion. However, analysis of biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions, which is often necessary due to the presence of different generations of inclusions, has not been possible due to the small size of most inclusions. Here, we have used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to monitor in real time the opening of individual inclusions trapped in hydrothermal veins of fluorite and calcite and containing oil from Ordovician source rocks. Opening of the inclusions was performed by using a focused C(60)(+) ion beam and the in situ content was precisely analysed for C(27)-C(29) steranes and C(29)-C(32) hopanes using Bi(3)(+) as primary ions. The capacity to unambiguously detect these biomarkers in the picoliter amount of crude oil from a single, normal-sized (15-30 mum in diameter) inclusion makes the approach promising in the search of organic biomarkers for life's early evolution on Earth.

  1. Fluid mixing as the mechanism of formation of the Dajing Cu-Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn ore deposit, Inner Mongolia--Fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李新俊; 谭骏

    2003-01-01

    Dajing Cu-Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn ore deposit, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, is a fissure-filling hydrothermal ore deposit. The δD values of quartz-hosted inclusion water are centered at -100‰ - -130‰. Theδ34S values of sulfide ore minerals andδ13C values of carbonate gangue minerals vary from -0.3‰ to 2.6‰ and from -2.9‰ to -7.0‰, respectively. Integrated isotopic data point to two major contributions to the mineralizing fluid that include a dominant meteoric-derived groundwater, and sulfur and carbon species from hypogene magma. Linear trends are exhibited on the gaseous H2O versus CO2 plot, and plots of CO, N2, CH4, and C2H6. It is shown by quantitative simulation that magma degassing cannot explain the linear trends. Hence, these linear trends are interpreted in terms of mixing of CO2-rich magmatic fluid with meteoric-derived groundwater. The groundwater circulated in Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and absorbed CO, N2, CH4, C2H6 and radiogenic Ar from organic matter. Cooling effects resulting from mixing have caused the precipitation of ore minerals.

  2. Biomarkers in fluid inclusions: A new tool in constraining source regimes and its implications for the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Hashem; Hoffmann, Christopher F.

    1989-01-01

    Biomarkers in fluid inclusions can constrain source regimes for hydrocarbons associated with Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have been detected in fluid inclusions in sphalerite and dolomite intimately associated with Pb-Zn sulfides in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. The hydrocarbons are more mature than those in the host rocks to the ore and are therefore derived from an external source. Furthermore, there are differences between the biomarker components of hydrocarbons in inclusions in Pb-Zn prospects, but they are all different from hydrocarbons in organic-rich strata and also in oils from the Canning Basin. Yet, the hydrocarbons are mature and oil-like, suggesting that mature organic-rich strata deeper in the basin, which are less significant as potential source rocks for petroleum generation in the Canning Basin, have contributed to the ore-forming fluids.

  3. Biomarkers in fluid inclusions: A new tool in constraining source regimes and its implications for the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etminan, H.; Hoffmann, C.F. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Biomarkers in fluid inclusion s can constrain source regimes for hydrocarbons associated with Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have been detected in fluid inclusions in sphalerite and dolomite intimately associated with Pb-Zn sulfides in the Canning Basin Western Australia. The hydrocarbons are more mature than those in the host rocks to the ore and are therefore derived from an external source. Furthermore, there are differences between the biomarker components of hydrocarbonas in inclusions in Pb-Zn prospects, but they are all different from hydrocarbons in organic-rich strata and also in oils from the Canning Basin. Yet, the hydrocarbons are mature and oil-like, suggesting that mature organic-rich strata deeper in the basin, which are less significant as potential source rocks for petroleum generation in the Canning Basin, have contributed to the ore-forming fluids.

  4. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies in kalchoye Copper- gold deposit, East of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvary

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kalchoye Copper-gold deposit is located about 110 kilometers east of Esfahan province and within the Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks. Sandy tuff and andesite lava are important members of this complex.The form of mineralization in area is vein and veinlet and quartz as the main gangue phase. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena and weathered minerals such as goethite, iron oxides, malachite and azurite. Studies in area indicate that ore mineralization Kalchoye is low sulfide, quartz type of hydrothermal ore deposits and results of thermometry studies on quartz minerals low- medium fluid with low potential mineralization is responsible for mineralization in this area.

  5. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  6. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  7. Helium isotopic compositions in fluid inclusions of the Gangxi fault belt in the Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Weiwei; DAI Jinxing; YANG Chiyin; TAO Shizhen; HOU Lu

    2005-01-01

    The authors obtained 30 core samples from 15 wells in Gangxi fault belt, Huanghua Depression. Using a VG5400 mass spectrometer, the helium isotopic compositions in fluid inclusion of these samples were analysed. Interpretation of results suggests a significant amount of mantle-derived helium in the inclusions, which were likely trapped during Neocene. Mantle-derived helium have mostly accumulated in the intersections of the NWW trending Xuzhuangzi and NE trending Gangxi faults, and decreased away from the intersections. This pattern implied a close relationship to the local tectonic setting. Gangxi fault belt experienced intensive neo-tectonic activities in the Cenozoic. Widespread faulted-depressions and strong volcanic eruptions manifested its tectonic status of extensional stress field. Mantle uplift caused the movement of magma that carried mantle-derived gas, and the deep-rooted tension faults provided the passages for the gases to shallow crust levels. High-content abiogenic CO2 pools occurred in the study area, hence, using the helium isotopic compositions is of great significance to the exploration of abiogenic natural gases.

  8. An evaporated seawater origin for the ore-forming brines in unconformity-related uranium deposits (Athabasca Basin, Canada): Cl/Br and δ 37Cl analysis of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Banks, David A.; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Cathelineau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Analyses of halogen concentration and stable chlorine isotope composition of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz and carbonate veins spatially and temporally associated with giant unconformity-related uranium deposits from the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) were performed in order to determine the origin of chloride in the ore-forming brines. Microthermometric analyses show that samples contain variable amounts of a NaCl-rich brine (Cl concentration between 120,000 and 180,000 ppm) and a CaCl 2-rich brine (Cl concentration between 160,000 and 220,000 ppm). Molar Cl/Br ratios of fluid inclusion leachates range from ˜100 to ˜900, with most values between 150 and 350. Cl/Br ratios below 650 (seawater value) indicate that the high salinities were acquired by evaporation of seawater. Most δ 37Cl values are between -0.6‰ and 0‰ (seawater value) which is also compatible with a common evaporated seawater origin for both NaCl- and CaCl 2-rich brines. Slight discrepancies between the Cl concentration, Cl/Br, δ 37Cl data and seawater evaporation trends, indicate that the evaporated seawater underwent secondary minor modification of its composition by: (i) mixing with a minor amount of halite-dissolution brine or re-equilibration with halite during burial; (ii) dilution in a maximum of 30% of connate and/or formation waters during its migration towards the base of the Athabasca sandstones; (iii) leaching of chloride from biotites within basement rocks and (iv) water loss by hydration reactions in alteration haloes linked to uranium deposition. The chloride in uranium ore-forming brines of the Athabasca Basin has an unambiguous dominantly marine origin and has required large-scale seawater evaporation and evaporite deposition. Although the direct evidence for evaporative environments in the Athabasca Basin are lacking due to the erosion of ˜80% of the sedimentary pile, Cl/Br ratios and δ 37Cl values of brines have behaved conservatively at the basin

  9. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. [Freezing-point depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  11. Fluid Inclusion Studies of the Skarn—type Tin Mineralization at Red—A—ven,Northwest Dartmoor,England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭齐鸣; A.V.BROMLEY

    1992-01-01

    Two principal hydrothermal events have been recognized ,which resulted in the tin-bearing skarns at Red-A-ven ,Northwest Dartmoor.Tin was enriched during both the early (occurring as tin-bearing andradite) and late hydrothermal events (mainly as malayaite stannite and cassiterite,accompanied by boron silicates and minor tungsten).Thermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in diopside,garnet,malayaite,tourmaline-quartz and axinite were carried out,suggesting that the early skarns were formed at the temperature above 600℃and the salinities ranging from 10 to 20 wt.% NaCl eq.while the late skarns at the temperatures of 350-460℃ and the salinities ranging from 30 to 50wt.% NaCl eq.The estimated minimum depths are 2856m(850 bar) for the early event and 2526m(185 bar) for the late event.The birefringence of the andradite might be related with the superimposition of late hydrothermal fluids.

  12. Major element compositions of fluid inclusions from hydrothermal vein-type deposits record eroded sedimentary units in the Schwarzwald district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin F.; Burisch, Mathias; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    Mixing of sedimentary formation fluids with basement-derived brines is an important mechanism for the formation of hydrothermal veins. We focus on the sources of the sediment-derived fluid component in ore-forming processes and present a comprehensive fluid inclusion study on 84 Jurassic hydrothermal veins from the Schwarzwald mining district (SW Germany). Our data derive from about 2300 fluid inclusions and reveal differences in the average fluid composition between the northern, central, and southern Schwarzwald. Fluids from the northern and southern Schwarzwald are characterised by high salinities (18-26 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), low Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.1-0.4), and variable Cl/Br mass ratios (30-1140). In contrast, fluids from the central Schwarzwald show even higher salinities (23-27 wt% NaCl+CaCl2), higher Ca/(Ca+Na) mole ratios (0.2-0.9), and less variable Cl/Br mass ratios (40-130). These fluid compositions correlate with the nature and thickness of the now eroded sedimentary cover rocks. Compared to the northern and the southern Schwarzwald, where halite precipitation occurred during the Middle Triassic, the sedimentary basin in the central Schwarzwald was relatively shallow at this time and no halite was precipitated. Accordingly, Cl/Br ratios of fluids from the central Schwarzwald provide no evidence for the reaction of a sedimentary brine with halite, whereas those from the northern and southern Schwarzwald do. Instead, elevated Ca/(Ca+Na), high SO4 contents, and relatively low Cl/Br imply the presence of a gypsum dissolution brine during vein formation in the central Schwarzwald which agrees with the reconstructed regional Triassic geology. Hence, the information archived in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal veins in the crystalline basement has the potential for reconstructing sedimentary rocks in the former overburden.

  13. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  14. Evolution of fluid-rock interactions: fluid inclusion, isotopic, and major/minor element chemistry of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock in core RN-17B, Reykjanes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    The Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, hosts a seawater-dominated geothermal system. Previous studies indicate an evolution of the system from meteoric to seawater. The inclined 4-inch diameter RN-17B drill core was collected from 2798.5 m to 2808.5 m (~2555 m below surface) at in situ temperature of approximately 330°C. Samples for this study were obtained from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The core contains hydrothermally altered rocks of basaltic composition. Hydrothermal alteration ranges from upper greenschist to lower amphibolite grade, dependent on protolith size and composition. Veins in the core grade inward from radial epidote + acicular hornblende + titanite + pyrite, to clearer equant and compositionally zoned epidote vein centers. Felted amphibole replaces hyaloclastite and smaller crystalline clasts within the core, but is absent from the centers of crystalline pillow basalt fragments. Amphibole in vein selvages and vesicle fillings is green and acicular. Electron microprobe analyses of amphibole indicate it spans a compositional range of ferrohornblende through paragasite. The pistacite component (Xps) of vein epidote ranges from 16.5 to 36.7. The Xps component shows both normal and reverse zoning within single epidote crystals across this range, and follows no distinct pattern. Vein epidote adjacent to the wall rock has a higher aluminum concentration than vein centers. This may be due to mobilization of aluminum from plagioclase in the wall rock during albitization. Solutions flowing through open fractures may have lower Al-content and thus precipitate more Fe-rich epidote than those next to the fracture walls. Primary fluid inclusions in epidote range in size from <1 to 10 μm in diameter. Secondary fluid inclusions are <1 μm in diameter and not measurable. Calculated fluid inclusion salinities range from 0.5 to 7.6 weight percent NaCl, with lower salinities adjacent to the wall rock and higher salinities in the vein centers

  15. Quartz-Amethyst Hosted Hydrocarbon-Bearing Fluid Inclusions from the Green Ridge Breccia in the Snoqualmie Granite, North Cascades, WA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Feely

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 m in longest dimension. The brecciated granite blocks are cemented by quartz-amethyst euhedra (<10 cm in longest dimension bearing vugs. A notable feature is the presence of centimetric scale amber coloured oil inclusions within the quartz-amethyst crystals. Fluid inclusion studies using Transmitted Light Petrography, UV Microscopy, Microthermometry, Laser Raman Microspectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry record the presence and the fluid composition of three fluid inclusion types hosted by the euhedra: primary Type 1 (liquid rich two-phase (L + V aqueous inclusions and secondary Type 2 bituminous two-phase (S + L inclusions and Type 3 amber coloured oil bearing two-phase immiscible liquid inclusions. The Green Ridge Breccia was the locus for convective hydrothermal fluid flow that formed the quartz-amethyst vugs formed at T~390 °C assuming a trapping pressure of ~1.65 kb. Later, hydrocarbon fluids migrated downwards from the roof source rock (e.g., the Guye Sedimentary Member and were trapped in the euhedra. This was followed by unroofing of the batholith and exposure of the Green Ridge Breccia. This study highlights the potential for other oil migrations into the Snoqualmie Batholith in areas where it forms the basement capped by the Guye Sedimentary Member.

  16. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  17. An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications%当前流体包裹体研究和应用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池国祥; 周义明; 卢焕章

    2003-01-01

    本文概要总结近年来流体包裹体研究和应用的发展情况,包括流体包裹体岩相学,PVTX研究,分析技术和应用等四个方面.岩相学方面的主要进展反映在"流体包裹体组合" 概念的提出和应用.在PVTX研究方面,人工包裹体和热液金刚石压腔的应用极大地促进了我们对地质流体体系相特征的了解.各种分析技术不断涌现或改进,其中以 Laser-Raman对气体成分和 LA-ICP-MS对溶质成分的分析尤其有用.流体包裹体的应用领域一直以矿床学研究为主,当前和今后一段时间仍将如此.但是,流体包裹体在地球科学的其它领域,尤其是石油地质以及岩浆和地球内部过程的研究等方面,正得到越来越多的应用.%This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

  18. First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Khosrojerdi, Majid

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3. Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid

  19. Helium,neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclu-sions in massive sulfides from the Jade hydrothermal field,the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigang; QIN Yunshan; ZHAI Shikui

    2004-01-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope compositions of fluid inclusions have been measured in massive sulfide samples from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough. Huid-inclusion 3He/4He ratios are between 6.2 and 10.1 times the air value (Ra), and with a mean of 7.8Ra, which are consistent with the mid-ocean ridge basalt values [3He/4He≈(6Ra~11Ra)]. Values for 20Ne/22Ne are from 10.7 to 11.3, which are significantly higher than the atmospheric ratio (9.8).And the fluid-inclusion 40Ar/36Ar ratios range from 287 to 334, which are close to the atmosperic values (295.5). These results indicate that the noble gases of trapped hydrothermal fluids in massive sulfides are a mixture of mantle- and seawater-derived components, and the helium of fluid inclusions is mainly from mantle, the nelium and argon isotope compositions are mainly from seawater.

  20. Geochemistry of oil in fluid inclusions in a middle Proterozoic igneous intrusion: implications for the source of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, A. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences; Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Inst. of Marine Science; Volk, H.; George, S.C. [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Ridley, J. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2004-08-01

    The ca. 1280 Ma dolerite sill within the Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in the Roper Superbasin, Australia, contains evidence for at least two episodes of hydrocarbon migration represented, respectively, by solid bitumen with a ketone-rich extract, and a mixture of a high maturity gas-condensate and a lower maturity oil within oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The ketone isomers are formed by flash pyrolysis of kerogen during the intrusion of the dolerite sill [Org.Geochem. 21(1994) 829] and represent the first and oldest phase of hydrocarbon migration. The gas condensate and oil were subsequently trapped as a mixture within fluid inclusions at diagenetic temperatures and pressures of around 110 {sup o}C and 250 bars, significantly after cooling of the sill and likely during the Neoproterozoic reactivation of the Roper Superbasin. Either (1) these fluids migrated together and mixed in the reservoir or (2) an earlier oil charge was flushed by a later condensate charge and the oil-condensate mixture was trapped within single fluid inclusions. Oil inclusions occur chiefly within albitised zones of labradorite laths within the dolerite matrix, and within transcrystalline microfractures cutting vein calcite and rarely vein quartz. Oil inclusions trapped in the vein calcite are accompanied by hypersaline Ca/Mg brines. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of oil extracted from inclusions within the dolerite matrix shows that the oil is non-biodegraded and was therefore trapped relatively quickly within the host minerals. Trace amounts of biomarkers indicate that the inclusion oil is of a biogenic origin and excludes any abiotic processes that are apparent sources of hydrocarbons in many crystalline rocks. Monomethylalkanes, pentacyclic terpanes chiefly comprising hopanes and diahopanes, and very low concentrations of steranes and diasteranes indicate input from cyanobacterial organic matter with a minor contribution from eukaryotes. The hydrocarbons are likely derived from

  1. The determination of sulphate in fluid inclusions using the M.O.L.E. Raman microprobe. Application to a keuper halite and geochemical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubessy, J.; Geisler, D.; Kosztolanyi, C.; Vernet, M.

    1983-01-01

    Sulphate concentrations have been determined in fluid inclusions by Raman spectroscopy using the M.O.L.E. microprobe after verifying that the sulphate determination is proportional to the total sulphate in the aqueous phase. Comparison of miSO4. values in primary fluid inclusions with associated mother brine from actual solar salt works demonstrates their chemical equivalence. Keuper halite of marine origin has also been studied. The inclusions contain solid phases: anhydrite and possibly gypsum and glauberite as well. The moiality of the total dissolved sulphate in the aqueous phase is lower than that obtained during present sea-water evaporation at the halite stage of precipitation. Some geochemical hypotheses are proposed to account for this anomaly.

  2. Origin and timing of Dauphiné twins in quartz cement in fractured sandstones from diagenetic environments: Insight from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, András; Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2016-09-01

    Electron backscattered diffraction techniques (EBSD) show that Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Our study documents that under diagenetic temperatures (twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those aligned parallel to the fracture wall. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails implies that twinning is a by-product of the formation of the wall-normal inclusion assemblages. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion assemblages from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research timing as well as magnitude of paleostress in some diagenetic settings.

  3. Reconstructing the growth of a fracture set using fluid inclusion microthermometry, El Alamar Formation (Triassic), NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Eichhubl, P.; Laubach, S.

    2012-12-01

    Aperture-frequency data collected by scanline surveys of natural fractures in tight-gas sandstones and their outcrop analogs commonly follow a power-law aperture size scaling distribution that spans the aperture range from the microscale (apertures power-law equation represents the fracture intensity whereas the exponent reflects the relative abundance of large to small fractures. Comparing data sets collected in rock units from different tectonic regimes and burial settings, and from different structural positions within mesoscopic structures in the same rock unit, we find that the coefficient increases with increasing fracture strain but the exponent stays relatively constant. This suggests that microscopic fractures (microfractures) grow along with macroscopically visible fractures (macrofractures) throughout the evolution of the fracture set. To test this interpretation, we modeled the development of a power-law set of fractures consistent with the observation of incremental fracture opening through the crack-seal mechanism of repeated cycles of fracture opening and cementation. The simulation is an Excel routine that randomly distributes fracture opening increments among a set of active fractures. We compared the modeled sequence of cement increments and the resulting aperture size distribution against fracture scaling and cement timing data collected from the Triassic El Alamar Formation in NE Mexico. Cement timing was inferred through crosscutting relationships and comparison with fluid inclusion microthermometric data from other fracture sets that indicate that the fracture set used for this field validation formed during uplift and ambient cooling. Thus, opening temperature for this fracture set, serves as a proxy for fracture timing. The field scaling and fluid inclusion data are broadly consistent with the numerical simulation. New microfractures appear to have formed throughout the period of active fracture growth. Some microfractures grew to large

  4. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  5. Raman spectroscopic measurements of CO2 density: Experimental calibration with high-pressure optical cell (HPOC) and fused silica capillary capsule (FSCC) with application to fluid inclusion observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chou, I.-Ming; Hu, W.; Burruss, R.C.; Sun, Q.; Song, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method for the determination of CO2 densities in fluid inclusions, especially for those with small size and/or low fluid density. The relationship between CO2 Fermi diad split (??, cm-1) and CO2 density (??, g/cm3) has been documented by several previous studies. However, significant discrepancies exist among these studies mainly because of inconsistent calibration procedures and lack of measurements for CO2 fluids having densities between 0.21 and 0.75g/cm3, where liquid and vapor phases coexist near room temperature.In this study, a high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsules were used to prepare pure CO2 samples with densities between 0.0472 and 1.0060g/cm3. The measured CO2 Fermi diad splits were calibrated with two well established Raman bands of benzonitrile at 1192.6 and 1598.9cm-1. The relationship between the CO2 Fermi diad split and density can be represented by: ??=47513.64243-1374.824414????+13.25586152????2-0.04258891551????3 (r2=0.99835, ??=0.0253g/cm3), and this relationship was tested by synthetic fluid inclusions and natural CO2-rich fluid inclusions. The effects of temperature and the presence of H2O and CH4 on this relationship were also examined. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges

    2017-03-01

    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  7. Primary migration and secondary alteration of the Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir in Ordos Basin,China―Application of fluid inclusion gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions(FI)often represents the initial geochemical characteristics of palaeo-fluid in reservoir rock.Influence on composition and carbon isotopic composition of gas during primary migration,reservoir-forming and subsequent secondary alterations are discussed through comparing fluid inclusion gas with coal-formed gas and natural gas in present gas reservoirs in the Ordos Basin.The results show that primary migration of gas has significant effect on the molecular but not on the carbon isotopic composition of methane.Migration and diffusion fractionation took place during the secondary migration of gas in Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir according to carbon isotopic composition of methane in FIs.Composition and carbon isotopic composition of natural gas were nearly unchanged after the gas reservoir forming through comparing the FI gases with the natural gas in present gas reservoir.

  8. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: dmeeroff@fau.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  9. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian, Jilin Province, China: Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JingGui; ZHAO JunKang; CHEN JunQiang; KEISUKE Nagao; HIROCHiKA Sumino; SHEN Kun; MEN LanJing; CHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45-0.08 Ra, 10.2-8.8 and 306-430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123-102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition- crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as: (1

  10. Microthermometric measurement of fluid inclusions and its constraints on genesis of PGE-polymetallic deposits in Lower Cambrian black rock series, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; SUN Xiaoming; MA Mingyang

    2005-01-01

    Systematic microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic deposits hosted in the Lower Cambrian black rock series in southern China were performed, and the results suggest: (1) there exist two types of fluid inclusions. TypeⅠis of NaCl-H2O system with low-medium salinity, and its homogenization temperatures (Th) and salinities are 106.9- 286.4℃ and ( 0.8- 21.8) wt%NaCl eq. respectively; TypeⅡ is of CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system with medium-high salinities, and its homogenization temperatures and salinities range from 120.1℃ to 269.6℃ and ( 11.4- 31.4) wt%NaCl eq., respectively. The typeⅡ fluid inclusions have been discovered for the first time in this kind of deposits; (2) two generations of ore-forming fluids were recognized. Characteristics of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic ores and carbonate-quartz stockworks in the underlying phosphorites are almost of no difference, they may represent ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenic stage. The peak value of homogenization temperature of those fluid inclusions is about 170℃, while their salinities possess a remarkable bimodal distribution pattern with two peak values of (27-31) wt%NaCl eq. and (4-6) wt%NaCl eq. On the contrary, fluid inclusions in the carbonate-quartz veins in the hanging wall may represent ore-forming fluids at the post-metallogenetic stage. The homogenization temperatures and the peak values of salinities are mostly 130-170℃ and (12-14) wt%NaCl eq., respectively; (3) nobel gas isotopic composition analyses in combination with the microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions suggest that the ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenetic stage were probably derived from mixing of basinal hot brines with the CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system and seawater with the NaCl-H2O system; (4) in the Early Cambrian, the basinal hot brines were trapped in the Caledonian basins, which were distributed along the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton, and where giant thick

  11. Decrepitation Thermometry and Compositions of Fluid Inclusions of the Damoqujia Gold Deposit,Jiaodong Gold Province,China:Implications for Metallogeny and Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liqiang; Deng Jun; Zhang Jing; Guo Chunying; Gao Bangfei; Gong Qingjie; Wang Qingfei; Jiang Shaoqing; Yu Haijun

    2008-01-01

    The recently discovered Damoqujia (大磨曲家) gold deposit is a large shear zone-hosted gold deposit of disseminated sulphides located in the north of the Zhaoping (招平) fault zone, Jiaodong (胶东) gold province, China. In order to distinguish the temperature range of cluster inclusions from different mineralization stages and measure their compositions, 16 fluid inclusions and 5 isotopic geochemistry samples were collected for this study. Corresponding to different mineralization stages, the multirange peaks of quartz decrepitation temperature (250-270, 310-360 and 380-430℃(2) indicate that the activity of ore-forming fluids is characterized by multistage. The ore-forming fluids were predominantly of high-temperature fluid system (HTFS) by CO2-rich, and SO2-4-K+ type magmatic fluid during the early stage of mineralization and were subsequently affected by low-temperature fluid system (LTFS) of CH4-rich, and Cl--Na+/Ca2+ type meteoric fluid during the late stage of mineralization. Gold is transferred by Au-HS- complex in the HTFS, and Au-Cl- complex can be more important in the LTFS. The transition of fluids from deeper to shallow environments results in mixing between the HTFS and LTFS, which might be one of the most key reasons for gold precipitation and large-scale mineralization. The ore-forming fluids are characterized by high-temperature, strong-activity, and superimposed mineralization, so that there is a great probability of forming large and rich ore deposit in the Damoqujia gold deposit. The main bodies are preserved and extend toward deeper parts, thereby suggesting a great potential in future.

  12. The composition of fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits Poland: Genetic and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; Hofstra, A.H.; Emsbo, P.; Kozlowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of fluids extracted from ore and gangue sulfide minerals that span most of the paragenesis of the Silesian-Cracow district was determined using a newly developed ion chromatographic (IC) technique. Ionic species determined were Na+, NH+4, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Rb+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Cl-, Br-, F-, I-, PO3-4, CO2-3, HS-, S2O2-3, SO2-4, NO-3, and acetate. Mineral samples included six from the Pomorzany mine and one from the Trzebionka mine which are hosted in the Triassic Muschelkalk Formation, and two samples of drill core from mineralized Upper Devonian strata. Nine paragenetically identifiable sulfide minerals occur throughout the Silesian-Cracow district. These include from earliest to latest: early iron sulfides, granular sphalerite, early galena, light-banded sphalerite, galena, dark-banded sphalerite, iron sulfides, late dark-banded sphalerite with late galena, and late iron sulfides. Seven of the minerals were sampled for fluid inclusion analysis in this study. Only the early iron sulfides and the last galena stage were not sampled. Although the number of analyses are limited to nine samples and two replicates and there is uncertainty about the characteristics of the fluid inclusions analyzed, the data show clear temporal trends in the composition of the fluids that deposited these minerals. Fluid inclusions in minerals deposited later in the paragenesis have significantly more K+, Br-, NH+4, and acetate but less Sr2+ than those deposited earlier in the paragenesis. The later minerals are also characterized by isotopically lighter sulfur and significantly more Tl and As in the solid minerals. The change in ore-fluid chemistry is interpreted to reflect a major change in the hydrologic regime of the district. Apparently, the migrational paths of ore fluids from the Upper Silesian basin changed during ore deposition and the fluids which deposited early minerals reacted with aquifers with very different geochemical characteristics than those that deposited

  13. Chemical Compositions of Fluid Inclusions in the Jalal –Abad iron oxide deposit, North West of Zarand, Using LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi Shahraki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Poshtebadam Bafq Zarand district in central Iran is a world class iron oxide province. This region contains over two billion tons of iron ore reserves within more than 34 major magnetic anomalies and deposits in an area of 7,500 km2 (Stosch et al., 2011. The Jalal-Abad iron ore deposit (200Mt at 45% Fe, 1.18% S and 0.08% P is located 38 km northwest of Zarand, 16 km southeast of the Rizu town in the Kerman province, Iran. Iron ore deposits are hosted by the Early Cambrian Rizu Series, composed mainly of sedimentary, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks which are dominated by dolomite, sandstone, shale, siltstone, tuff, ignimbrite and rhyodacite. The origin of the iron oxide deposits is controversial and various genetic models have been suggested. Some researchers believe in magmatic origins or Kiruna type, while others suggest metasomatic replacement from pre-existing rocks (Stosch et al., 2011. LA-ICP-MS has been used to characterize the multi element chemistry of the diverse fluid inclusions found in the Jalal–Abad iron oxide deposit. The aim of this investigation was to understand the genesis of the ore body and identify possible hydrothermal fluid sources in the Jalal-Abad district. Sampling and method of study About 100 samples from different types of ore were collected from surface outcrops and a drill core whose association with mineralization are well established. Thin sections, polished thin sections and polished sections were prepared. SEM studies (FEI 5900LV and LA-ICP-MS analyses of fluid inclusions were carried out in the School of Earth and Environment, the University of Leeds, UK. Fluid inclusions were studied using a Linkam THM-600 heating-freezing stage mounted on Zeiss petrography microscope at the Iranian Mineral Processing Research Center. Result and discussion Jalal Abad deposit is hosted by the early Cambrian volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Rizu series. Stratabound mineralization occurs in a variety of

  14. FORTRAN programs for generating fluid inclusion isochores and fugacity coefficients for the system H 2O-CO 2-NaCl at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Teresa Suter; Helgeson, Harold C.

    Program DENFIND permits calculation of pressures and temperatures corresponding to isochores for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids which can be used to generate pressure corrections of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures. Program FUGCO facilitates calculation of fugacity coefficients in the system H 2O-CO 2-NaCl as a function of pressure, temperature and fluid composition. Both programs employ a modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state for the ternary system (Bowers and Helgeson, 1983a), which is applicable to fluids containing up to 35 wt. % NaCl (relative to H 2O + NaCl) at pressures above 500 bars and temperature from 350 to 600°C.

  15. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  16. Granite-hosted molybdenite mineralization from Archean Bundelkhand cratonmolybdenite characterization, host rock mineralogy, petrology, and fluid inclusion characteristics of Mo-bearing quartz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Pati; M K Panigrahi; M Chakarborty

    2014-07-01

    The dominantly high-K, moderate to high SiO2 containing, variably fractionated, volcanic-arc granitoids (± sheared) from parts of Bundelkhand craton, northcentral India are observed to contain molybdenite (Mo) in widely separated 23 locations in the form of specks, pockets, clots and stringers along with quartz ± pyrite ± arsenopyrite ± chalcopyrite ± bornite ± covellite ± galena ± sphalerite and in invisible form as well. The molybdenite mineralization is predominantly associated with Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, Raksa Shear Zone, and localized shear zones. The incidence of molybdenite is also observed within sheared quartz and tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) gneisses. The fluid inclusion data show the presence of bi-phase (H2O–CO2), hypersaline and moderate temperature (100°–300°C) primary stretched fluid inclusions suggesting a possible hydrothermal origin for the Mo-bearing quartz occurring within variably deformed different granitoids variants of Archean Bundelkhand craton.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Studies and Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements of Hydrothermal Fluorites from P?hrenk, Kir?ehir, Central Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorite mineralization occurs along fractures and cracks of Middle Eocene and Pliocene limestones and marls in the north and northeast of the P?hrenk region (?i?ekdagi, Kirsehir). Tb/Ca ( Tb/La and Y/Ho ratios were obtained from REE contents of fluorites which have revealed that mineralization is of hydrothermal type. Negative Ce anomalies and positive Eu anomalies reflect that hydrothermal solutions once had high oxygen fugacity. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that homogenization temperatures of mineralization varied between 90oC and 200oC, and hydrothermal solutions are composed of NaCl + KCl + MgCl2 + H2O. In addition, salinity measurements show that hydrothermal solutions were mixed with meteoric or rock formation water. Geologic setting, REE geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies suggest that mineralization was deposited from a solution generated by mixing of magmatic and meteoric water under epithermal conditions.

  18. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  19. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of fluid inclusions in speleothems using laser absorption spectroscopy: Application to stalagmites from Borneo and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Fleitmann, Dominik; Nele Meckler, Anna; Leuenberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Speleothems are recognised as key continental archives for paleoclimate reconstructions. They contain fluid inclusions representing past drip water trapped in the calcite structure. Speleothem can be precisely dated and therefore the oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of fluid inclusions constitute powerful proxies for paleotemperature or to investigate changes in the moisture source over several interglacial-glacial cycles. To liberate fluid inclusion water and to analyse its isotopic composition, a new online extraction method developed at Bern is used. The principle can be summarised as follows: Prior to crushing, the sample is placed into a copper tube, fixed to the line previously heated to 140° C and flushed with a nitrogen and standard water mixture. Thereafter, the speleothem sample is crushed using a simple hydraulic crushing device and the released water from fluid inclusions is transferred by the nitrogen-standard water mixture flow to a Picarro L1102-i isotopic liquid water and water vapor analyser. The measuring principle is based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that allows us to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Reproducibility of standard water measurements is typically better than 1.5 o for δD and 0.4 o for δ18O. With this method, we successfully analysed δD and δ18O isotopic composition of a stalagmite from Northern Borneo (tropical West Pacific) covering almost two glacial-interglacial cycles from MIS 12 to early MIS 9 (460-330 ka) as well as recent samples from Switzerland and Borneo. These results are used in combination with calcite δ18O to reconstruct paleotemperature. Currently, we are measuring a stalagmite from Milandre cave (Jura, Switzerland) covering the Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas cold phase and the Holocene.

  20. Spherical particles of halophilic archaea correlate with exposure to low water activity – implications for microbial survival in fluid inclusions of ancient halite

    OpenAIRE

    Fendrihan, S.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M; Gerbl, F W; Holzinger, A.; Grösbacher, M; Briza, P; A. Erler; C. Gruber; Plätzer, K; Stan-Lotter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Viable extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) have been isolated from million-year-old salt deposits around the world; however, an explanation of their supposed longevity remains a fundamental challenge. Recently small roundish particles in fluid inclusions of 22 000- to 34 000-year-old halite were identified as haloarchaea capable of proliferation (Schubert BA, Lowenstein TK, Timofeeff MN, Parker MA, 2010, Environmental Microbiology, 12, 440–454). Searching for a method to produce such p...

  1. Science Letters: Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉子龙; 陈汉林; SANTOSHM.; 杨树锋

    2004-01-01

    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7℃, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8℃ translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86-0.88g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  2. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-long; Chen, Han-lin; Santosh, M; Yang, Shu-feng

    2004-10-01

    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7 degrees C, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8 degrees C translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86-0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  3. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-long; Chen, Han-lin; Santosh, M; Yang, Shu-feng

    2004-01-01

    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel, and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around −56.7 °C, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3–23.8 °C translating into CO2 densities of the order of 0.86–0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions. PMID:15362187

  4. Discovery of ultrahigh-T spinel-garnet granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Altay orogenic belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-long (厉子龙); CHEN Han-lin (陈汉林); SANTOSH M.; YANG Shu-feng (杨树锋)

    2004-01-01

    We first report discovery of the spinel-garnet-orthopyroxene granulite with pure CO2 fluid inclusions from the Fuyun region of the late Paleozoic Altay orogenic belt in Central Asia, NW China. The rock is characterized by an assemblage of garnet, orthopyroxene, spinel, cordierite, biotite, plagioclase and quartz. Symplectites of orthopyroxene and spinel,and orthopyroxene and cordierite indicate decompression under UHT conditions. Mineral chemistry shows that the orthopyroxenes have high XMg and Al2O3 contents (up to 9.23 wt%). Biotites are enriched in TiO2 and XMg and are stable under granulite facies conditions. The garnet and quartz from the rock carry monophase fluid inclusions which show peak melting temperatures of around -56.7 ℃, indicating a pure CO2 species being presented during the ultrahigh-T metamorphism in the Altay orogenic belt. The inclusions homogenize into a liquid phase at temperatures around 15.3-23.8℃ translating into CO2densities of the order of 0.86-0.88 g/cm3. Based on preliminary mineral paragenesis, reaction textures and petrogenetic grid considerations, we infer that the rock was subjected to UHT conditions. The CO2-rich fluids were trapped during exhumation along a clockwise P-T path following isothermal decompression under UHT conditions.

  5. Role of evaporitic sulfates in iron skarn mineralization: a fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope study from the Xishimen deposit, Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    The Xishimen iron skarn deposit in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton, contains 256 Mt @ 43 % Fe (up to 65 %). The mineralization is dominated by massive magnetite ore along the contact zone between the early Cretaceous Xishimen diorite stock and middle Ordovician dolomite and dolomitic limestones with numerous intercalations of evaporitic beds. Minor lenticular magnetite-dominated bodies also occur in the carbonate rocks proximal to the diorite stock. Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by extensive albitization within the diorite stock and extreme development of magnesian skarn along the contact zone consisting of diopside, forsterite, serpentine, tremolite, phlogopite, and talc. Magmatic quartz and amphibole from the diorite and hydrothermal diopside from the skarns contain abundant primary or pseudosecondary fluid inclusions, most of which have multiple daughter minerals dominated by halite, sylvite, and opaque phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectrometry confirm that pyrrhotite is the predominant opaque phase in most fluid inclusions, in both the magmatic and skarn minerals. These fluid inclusions have total homogenization temperatures of 416-620 °C and calculated salinities of 42.4-74.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion data thus document a high-temperature, high-salinity, ferrous iron-rich, reducing fluid exsolved from a cooling magma likely represented by the Xishimen diorite stock. Pyrite from the iron ore has δ34S values ranging from 14.0 to 18.6 ‰, which are significantly higher than typical magmatic values (δ34S = 0 ± 5 ‰). The sulfur isotope data thus indicate an external source for the sulfur, most likely from the evaporitic beds in the Ordovician carbonate sequences that have δ34S values of 24 to 29 ‰. We suggest that sulfates from the evaporitic beds have played a critically important role by oxidizing ferrous iron in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, leading to precipitation of massive

  6. Role of evaporitic sulfates in iron skarn mineralization: a fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope study from the Xishimen deposit, Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    The Xishimen iron skarn deposit in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton, contains 256 Mt @ 43 % Fe (up to 65 %). The mineralization is dominated by massive magnetite ore along the contact zone between the early Cretaceous Xishimen diorite stock and middle Ordovician dolomite and dolomitic limestones with numerous intercalations of evaporitic beds. Minor lenticular magnetite-dominated bodies also occur in the carbonate rocks proximal to the diorite stock. Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by extensive albitization within the diorite stock and extreme development of magnesian skarn along the contact zone consisting of diopside, forsterite, serpentine, tremolite, phlogopite, and talc. Magmatic quartz and amphibole from the diorite and hydrothermal diopside from the skarns contain abundant primary or pseudosecondary fluid inclusions, most of which have multiple daughter minerals dominated by halite, sylvite, and opaque phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectrometry confirm that pyrrhotite is the predominant opaque phase in most fluid inclusions, in both the magmatic and skarn minerals. These fluid inclusions have total homogenization temperatures of 416-620 °C and calculated salinities of 42.4-74.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion data thus document a high-temperature, high-salinity, ferrous iron-rich, reducing fluid exsolved from a cooling magma likely represented by the Xishimen diorite stock. Pyrite from the iron ore has δ34S values ranging from 14.0 to 18.6 ‰, which are significantly higher than typical magmatic values (δ34S = 0 ± 5 ‰). The sulfur isotope data thus indicate an external source for the sulfur, most likely from the evaporitic beds in the Ordovician carbonate sequences that have δ34S values of 24 to 29 ‰. We suggest that sulfates from the evaporitic beds have played a critically important role by oxidizing ferrous iron in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, leading to precipitation of massive

  7. NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J.; Dubessy, J. (CREGU and GDR CNRS-CREGU, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Sawatzki, J. (BRUKER Analytische Messtechnik Gmbh, Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1,064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  8. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: A reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions in fracture-filling quartz and calcite from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture-filling calcite and quartz from the Lopra-1/1A well (at 2380 m and 3543 m depth contains both aqueous low-salinity fluid inclusions and hydrocarbon-dominated fluid inclusions. Microthermometry indicates that the aqueous fluids contain 0.2 to 1.4 equivalent weight% NaCl and occasionally contain traces of hydrocarbons. Homogenisation to liquid occurred between 90°C and 150°C. Modelling based on these fluid inclusion observations indicates that during burial the basaltic section was subjected to temperatures of 160°C and 170°C, occasional pressures of 600–700 bars and the simultaneous percolation of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. These fluid conditions may also be relevant to the formation of zeolite observed in the Lopra-1/1A well.

  9. Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Gamble’s Fluid: Is the Fluid Toxic? Can It Be Made Safer by Inclusion of Solid Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Karote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP, in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP.

  10. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified

  11. Treating leachate by Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Iván Méndez Novelo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachates are formed from liquids, mainly rainwater, percolating through solid wastes during stabilisation. Their composition is variable and highly toxic; leachate treatment is therefore a complex task. Leachates represent a high risk to health due to the Yucatan Peninsula’s highly permeable soil. The results are presented from applying the Fenton process to treating leachate from the sanitary Merida landfill, Yucatan, Mexico. The Fenton process consists of treating the contaminant load with an H2O2 and FeSO4 combination in acidic conditions. Optimal reaction time, pH value, Fenton reagent dose, post treatment coagulation – flocculation doses and increased biodegradability index were all determined. Optimal oxidation conditions and doses were 202+ minute contact time, 4 pH, 600 mg/L H2O2 concentration and 1,000 mg/L Fe. Average organic matter removal rate, measured as CODS and TOC, were 78% and 87% respectively. The biodegradability index increased from 0.07 to 0.11 during the Fenton process and up to 0.13 when the Fenton process was followed by coagulation-flocculation.

  12. Determination of paleo-pressure for a natural gas pool formation based on PVT characteristics of fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks--A case study of Upper-Paleozoic deep basin gas trap of the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Jingkui; XIAO Xianming; LIU Dehan; SHEN Jiagui

    2004-01-01

    It has been proved to be a difficult problem to determine directly trapping pressure of fluid inclusions. Recently, PVT simulation softwares have been applied to simulating the trapping pressure of petroleum inclusions in reservoir rocks, but the reported methods have many limitations in practice. In this paper, a method is suggested to calculating the trapping pressure and temperature of fluid inclusions by combining the isochore equations of a gas-bearing aqueous inclusion with its coeval petroleum inclusions. A case study was conducted by this method for fluid inclusions occurring in the Upper-Paleozoic Shanxi Formation reservoir sandstones from the Ordos Basin. The results show that the trapping pressure of these inclusions ranges from 21 to 32 MPa, which is 6-7 MPa higher than their minimum trapping pressure although the trapping temperature is only 2-3℃ higher than the homogenization temperature. The trapping pressure and temperature of the fluid inclusions decrease from southern area to northern area of the basin.The trapping pressure is obviously lower than the state water pressures when the inclusions formed. These data are consistent with the regional geological and geochemical conditions of the basin when the deep basin gas trap formed.

  13. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry as a potential minerals exploration tool: Case studies from Creede, CO, Jerritt Canyon, NV, Coeur d'Alene district, ID and MT, southern Alaska mesothermal veins, and mid-continent MVT's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Hofstra, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation now permit quantitative analysis of gas species from individual fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion gas data can be applied to minerals exploration empirically to establish chemical (gas composition) signatures of the ore fluids, and conceptually through the development of genetic models of ore formation from a framework of integrated geologic, geochemical, and isotopic investigations. Case studies of fluid inclusion gas chemistry from ore deposits representing a spectrum of ore-forming processes and environments are presented to illustrate both the empirical and conceptual approaches. We consider epithermal silver-gold deposits of Creede, Colorado, Carlin-type sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits of Jerritt Canyon, Nevada, metamorphic silver-base-metal veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana, gold-quartz veins in accreted terranes of southern Alaska, and the mid-continent base-metal sulfide deposits of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT's). Variations in gas chemistry determine the redox state of the ore fluids, provide compositional input for gas geothermometers, characterize ore fluid chemistry (e.g., CH4CO2, H2SSO2, CO2/H2S, organic-rich fluids, gas-rich and gas-poor fluids), identify magmatic, meteoric, metamorphic, shallow and deep basin fluids in ore systems, locate upwelling plumes of magmatic-derived volatiles, zones of boiling and volatile separation, interfaces between contrasting fluids, and important zones of fluid mixing. Present techniques are immediately applicable to exploration programsas empirical studies that monitor fluid inclusion gas threshold concentration levels, presence or absence of certain gases, or changes in gas ratios. We suggest that the greater contribution of fluid inclusion gas analysis is in the integrated and comprehensive chemical dimension that gas data impart to genetic models, and in the exploration concepts based on processes and environments of ore formation derived from

  14. The formation of the Yichun Ta-Nb deposit, South China, through fractional crystallization of magma indicated by fluid and silicate melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghu; Li, Jiankang; Chou, I.-Ming; Jiang, Lei; Ding, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The Yichun Ta-Nb deposit, which is located in Jiangxi Province, South China, can be divided into four lithological zones (from bottom upward): two-mica granite, muscovite granite, albite granite, and lepidolite-albite granite zones. It remains controversial whether these distinct vertical zones were formed through late magmatic-hydrothermal metasomatic alteration or fractional crystallization of magma. To investigate the evolution mechanism of rock- and ore-forming fluid in this deposit, we studied fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and lepidolite in these four granite zones. These fluid inclusions are mainly composed of H2O-NaCl, and have homogenization temperatures ranging from 160 °C to 240 °C, with densities between 0.86 and 0.94 g/cm3 and salinities between 0.5 and 6.5 wt% NaCl equivalent. Raman spectroscopic analyses showed that the daughter minerals contained in silicate melt inclusions are mainly quartz, lepidolite, albite, muscovite, microcline, topaz, and sassolite. From the lower to upper granite zones, the albite contents in silicate melt inclusions increase, while the muscovite contents decrease gradually until muscovite is substituted by lepidolite in the lepidolite-albite granite zone. Additionally, the calculated densities of the silicate melt inclusions exhibit decreasing trends from bottom upward. The total homogenization temperatures of silicate melt inclusions, which were observed under external pressures created in the sample chamber of a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell, decreased from 860 °C in the lower lithological zone to 776 °C in the upper lithological zone, and the initial melting temperatures of solid phases were 570-710 °C. The calculated initial H2O contents of granitic magma showed an increasing trend from the lower (∼2 wt% in the two-mica granite zone) to the upper granitic zones (∼3 wt% in the albite granite zone). All of these features illustrate that the vertical granite zones in the Yichun Ta-Nb deposit formed through

  15. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  16. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian-Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ˜110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained simply by the

  17. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The Bou Jaber Ba-F-Pb-Zn deposit is located at the edge of the Bou Jaber Triassic salt diapir in the Tunisia Salt Diapir Province. The ores are unconformity and fault-controlled and occur as subvertical column-shaped bodies developed in dissolution-collapse breccias and in cavities within the Late Aptian platform carbonate rocks, which are covered unconformably by impermeable shales and marls of the Fahdene Formation (Late Albian–Cenomanian age). The host rock is hydrothermally altered to ankerite proximal to and within the ore bodies. Quartz, as fine-grained bipyramidal crystals, formed during hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of barite, fluorite, sphalerite, and galena in decreasing abundance. The ore zones outline distinct depositional events: sphalerite-galena, barite-ankerite, and fluorite. Fluid inclusions, commonly oil-rich, have distinct fluid salinities and homogenization temperatures for each of these events: sphalerite-galena (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 112 to 136 °C); ankerite-barite (11 to 17 wt% NaCl eq., and Th from 100 to 130 °C); fluorite (19 to 21 wt% NaCl eq., Th from 140 to 165 °C). The mean temperature of the ore fluids decreased from sphalerite (125 °C) to barite (115 °C) and increased during fluorite deposition (152 °C); then decreased to ∼110 °C during late calcite precipitation. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions in fluorite are metal rich (hundreds to thousands ppm Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) but the inclusions in barite are deficient in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe. Inclusions in fluorite have Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of several thousand, consistent with dissolution of halite while the inclusions analysed in barite have values lower than seawater which are indicative of a Br-enriched brine derived from evaporation plus a component of halite dissolution. The salinity of the barite-hosted fluid inclusions is less than obtained

  18. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2017-06-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a ∆log fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  19. Genesis of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb Deposit, Southern Great Xing’an Range, NE China: A Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunda Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bairendaba deposit is the largest Ag-Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia. Vein and disseminated ores occur in biotite-plagioclase gneiss and quartz diorite along regional EW trending faults. Microthermometric data for H2O-NaCl ± CH4  ± CO2 fluid inclusions record a decrease in homogenization temperature and salinity of ore-forming fluids with time. Early and main-stage mineralization have homogenization temperatures of 242°–395°C and 173°–334°C, respectively, compared with 138°–213°C for late-stage mineralization. Fluid salinities for early mineralization have a bimodal distribution, dominantly 4.2–11.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, with 35.2–37.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent for a small population of halite-bearing inclusions. Main- and late-stage fluids have salinities of 2.1–10.2 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 0.7–8.4 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate the interaction of a magmatic fluid with wall rocks in early mineralization, followed by the introduction of meteoric water during late-stage mineralization. Values of –15.9‰ to –12‰ (δ13CPDB for hydrothermal quartz indicate that organic-rich strata were the source of carbon. Sulfur had a magmatic source, based on values of –0.1‰ to 1.5‰ (δ34SV-CDT for sulfide minerals. The Bairendaba deposit is a typical mesothermal system with mineralization controlled by structure.

  20. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  1. Effect of Thermal Buoyancy on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Tundish without Flow Control Devices--Part Ⅰ: Fluid Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-feng; ZHI Jian-jun; MOU Ji-ning; CUI Jian

    2005-01-01

    The κ-ε two-equation model is used to simulate the fluid flow in the continuous casting tundish coupling with the effect of thermal buoyancy. The natural convection induced by the thermal buoyancy generates an upward flow pattern especially at the outlet zone, and has little effect on the fluid flow in the inlet zone. The maximum viscosity is 700 times larger than the laminar viscosity, which indicates the strong turbulent flow in the tundish. The maximum temperature difference in the whole tundish is 8.2 K. The temperature near the stopper rod and the short wall is obviously lower than that in the inlet zone. The existence of the stopper rod has a big effect on the fluid flow entering the SEN and the mold. All the characteristics of the tundish geometry should be considered to accurately simulate the fluid flow in the tundish.

  2. 江西东乡铜矿流体包裹体研究%Study on the fluid inclusion from Dongxiang copper deposit, Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡逸涛; 倪培; 沈昆; 朱筱婷; 黄苏锦; 张秀昌; 徐积辉

    2011-01-01

    According to the study on the metallogenic fluid characteristic from Dongxiang copper deposit, we examine themetallogenic mechanism, the nature and origin of ore-forming fluid. Based on petrographic observations of ore-bearing quartz collected from the deposit, we have found that there are three different generations of quartz. Fluid inclusion studies show that the homogenization temperature and primary salinities are 144 ~ 195℃ and 0.35% ~4. 95% NaCleqv in the first generation, respectively. The second generation formed in relatively higher temperature range 193-298℃, and salinities are 1. 40% ~ 6. 59% NaCleqv. The thrid generation of quartz mainly consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite and quartz, the primary inclusions are generally three types; vapor (type II), brine (type I), and daughter-mineral bearing multiphase inclusions (type V) in the third generation. The statistics on the measured filling temperatures of type II and type V reveal peaks at 300 ~ 340℃ and 280 - 320℃ respectively, while those on the salinities of fluid inclusions peak at 0. 35% ~ 5. 86% NaCleqv and 29. 4% ~41. 9% NaCleqv respectively. Raman analysis of the fluid inclusions indicates that, in the gaseous phase, water vapor is dominant with small amount of CO2 and CH4. Hydrogen and Oxygen isotopic compositions are within the range of magmatic water. Fluid boiling resulted in the discharge of a large amount of copper from Cu-bearing fluid.%本文主要对江西东乡铜矿成矿流体进行研究,探讨其成矿机制,分析成矿流体性质以及成矿流体来源.通过石英中流体包裹体的岩相学研究和显微测温可以发现,第一阶段石英中流体包裹体的温度介于144~195℃,流体盐度0.35%~4.95%NaCleqv,第二阶段的流体温度有所升高,均一温度193~298℃,盐度1.40%~6.59%NaCleqv.第三阶段属于成矿期流体,捕获了富气相、富液相和含子晶三相包裹体,其端员均一温度主要在300~340℃和280~320

  3. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  4. SEM-Cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion study of quartz veins in Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit,South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaa, M.; Fujimaki, H.; Ken-Ichiro, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Hugo Dummett porphyry copper-gold deposit in Oyu Tolgoi, South Mongolia is a high-sulfidation type deposit which consists of Cu-Au bearing quartz veins. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluid inclusion microthermometer were performed to elucidate the relationship between CL structures, fluid inclusion microthermometer of different quartz generations, and ore forming process of the Hugo Dummett deposit. Hydrothermal quartz from quartz-sulfide veins in the porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Hugo Dummett, revealing the following textures: (1) euhedral growth zones (2) embayed and rounded CL-bright cores, with CL-dark and CL-gray overgrowths, (3) concentric and non concentric growth zones, and (4) CL dark/bright microfractures. These textures indicate that many veins have undergone fracturing, growth of quartz into fluid-filled space and quartz dissolution of quartz. SEM-CL imaging indicates vein quartz in the Hugo Dummett deposit, initially grew as individual CL-bright crystals 356 ± 10°C liquid-reservoir (average Th value for fluid inclusions in the crystal cores is 359°C). In contract, SEM-CL imaging shows the edges of the micron-scale growth zones of varying CL intensity, reflecting quartz precipitation at some later time, when the Hugo Dummett deposit hydrothermal system had cooled, when reservoir conditions were about 211 ± 25°C (average Th value of 212°C). Crystal growth is SEM-CL evidence of the vein quartz having been partly dissolved. Pressure change has a large effect on quartz solubility and may have been responsible for quartz dissolution and precipitation textures in the cooling hydrothermal system. CL-dark microfractures homogenization temperatures lower 169 ± 16°C (average Th value 170°C) than CL bright and CL gray. Temperature and pressure of the mineralized fluid estimates a pressure of formation of 0.3-0.5 kbar (lithostatic), was formed at approximately 2 km depth, as well as a formation temperature

  5. Experimental petrology for the thermobarometric determination of mineral paragenesis: the fluid inclusions; Petrologia experimental para la determinacion termobarometrica de paragenesis minerales: las inclusiones fluidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo; Torres Rodriguez, Vicente; Birkle, Peter [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-05-01

    There is a great number of phenomena in nature in which some fluid participates as the main component. Such is the case of oil deposits formation, of metallic minerals, geothermal systems, metamorphic and diagenetic deposits. The common denominator of all of them is that in some part of their stages important physico-chemical processes occurred in the related fluids, leaving evidence of such phenomena in the fluid inclusions. The Geothermal Department has petrologic vanguard tools for reservoir problems resolution, since it has laboratories for the study on fluid inclusions by means of the technique called cryoscopic-microthermometry that permits the definition of physico-chemical conditions of the brine that participated or participates in the hydrothermal systems formation. The method simultaneously permits to know the characteristics of the initial brine that participated in the interaction water-rock phenomenon, observe the boiling phenomena, and determine conditions of initial pressure in the reservoirs. [Espanol] Existe un gran numero de fenomenos en la naturaleza en los que participa algun fluido como componente principal. Tal es el caso de la formacion de yacimientos de petroleo, de minerales metalicos, de sistemas geotermicos, yacimientos metamorficos y diageneticos. El comun denominador de todos ellos es que en alguna de sus etapas ocurrieron procesos fisicoquimicos importantes en los fluidos relacionados, quedando evidencia de tales fenomenos en las inclusiones fluidas. El Departamento de Geotermia cuenta con herramientas petrologicas de vanguardia para la resolucion de problemas en yacimientos, ya que tiene laboratorios para el estudio de las inclusiones fluidas por medio de la tecnica denominada microtermometria-crioscopica que permite definir condiciones fisicoquimicas de la salmuera que participo o participa en la formacion de sistemas hidrotermales. El metodo permite simultaneamente conocer las caracteristicas de la salmuera inicial que participo en

  6. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    stockwork. One of them is the east-west-oriented 6th vein zone in the northern part of the deposit, which contains quartz-molybdenite veins and late quartz-galena-sphalerite veins. This is interpreted as a telescoping between porphyry and epithermal environments. It is supported by microscopic studies of mineral paragenesis, which reveal the presence of enargite and tennantite-tetrahedrite, luzonite, sphalerite, and galena, generally in a gangue of quartz, followed by a late carbonate and gypsum stage. On-going fluid inclusion studies are being carried out on quartz samples from the different mineralization stages. Five types of fluid inclusions were distinguished according to their nature, bubble size, and daughter mineral content: vapor-rich, aqueous-carbonic, brine, polyphase brine and liquid-rich inclusions. Cathodoluminescence images from the porphyry veins reveal four generations of quartz. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are associated with two different dark luminescent quartz generations, which contain typical brine, aqueous-carbonic and vapour-rich H2O fluid inclusions, with some of them coexisting locally as boiling assemblages. Epithermal veins are mainly characterized by liquid-rich H2O fluid inclusions. Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions reveal a major difference in homogenisation temperatures between the early quartz-molybdenite- chalcopyrite stage (Thtotal between 3600 and 4250C) and the late quartz-galena-sphalerite vein stage (Thtotal 300-2700C), which is attributed to the transition from a porphyry to an epithermal environment in the Kadjaran deposit.

  7. Solid-state flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes prepared using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Kaialy, Waseem; Ghori, Muhammad U; Trivedi, Vivek; Snowden, Martin J; Alexander, Bruce David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the apparent solubility and dissolution properties of flurbiprofen through inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins. Especially, the efficacy of supercritical fluid technology as a preparative technique for the preparation of flurbiprofen-methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was evaluated. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing and were evaluated by solubility, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, practical yield, drug content estimation and in vitro dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were conducted to study the possibility of molecular arrangement of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The studies support the formation of stable molecular inclusion complexes between the drug and cyclodextrin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the dissolution properties of flurbiprofen were significantly enhanced by the binary mixtures prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing. The amount of flurbiprofen dissolved into solution alone was very low with 1.11±0.09% dissolving at the end of 60min, while the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 200bar released 99.39±2.34% of the drug at the end of 30min. All the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C exhibited a drug release of more than 80% within the first 10min irrespective of the pressure employed. The study demonstrated the single step, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide process as a promising approach for the preparation of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in solid-state.

  8. Carbonic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  9. He-Ar Isotopic Systematics of Fluid Inclusions in Pyrites from PGE-polymetallic Deposits in Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoming; WANG Min; XUE Ting; MA Mingyang; LI Yinhe

    2004-01-01

    He-Ar isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions trapped in pyrites from some representative PGEpolymetallic deposits in Lower Cambrian black rock series in South China were analyzed by using an inert gas isotopic mass spectrometer. The results show that the ore-forming fluids possess a low 3He/4He ratio, varying from 0.43x10-8 to 26.39×10-8, with corresponding R/Ra value of 0.003-0.189. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios are 258-287, close to those of airsaturated water (ASW). He-Ar isotopic indicator studies show that the ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from the formation water or basinal hot brine and sea water, while the content of mantle-derived fluid or deep-derived magmatic water might be negligible. The PGE-polymetallic mineralization might be related to the evolution of the Caledonian miogeosynclines distributed along the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton. During the Early Cambrian, the formation water or basinal hot brine trapped in Caledonian basins which accumulated giant thick sediments was expelled and migrated laterally along strata because of the pressure generated by overlying sediments. The basinal hot brine ascended along faults, mixed with sea water and finally deposited ore minerals.

  10. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  11. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  12. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  13. Spherical particles of halophilic archaea correlate with exposure to low water activity--implications for microbial survival in fluid inclusions of ancient halite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrihan, S; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M; Gerbl, F W; Holzinger, A; Grösbacher, M; Briza, P; Erler, A; Gruber, C; Plätzer, K; Stan-Lotter, H

    2012-09-01

    Viable extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) have been isolated from million-year-old salt deposits around the world; however, an explanation of their supposed longevity remains a fundamental challenge. Recently small roundish particles in fluid inclusions of 22 000- to 34 000-year-old halite were identified as haloarchaea capable of proliferation (Schubert BA, Lowenstein TK, Timofeeff MN, Parker MA, 2010, Environmental Microbiology, 12, 440-454). Searching for a method to produce such particles in the laboratory, we exposed rod-shaped cells of Halobacterium species to reduced external water activity (a(w)). Gradual formation of spheres of about 0.4 μm diameter occurred in 4 M NaCl buffer of a(w) ≤ 0.75, but exposure to buffered 4 M LiCl (a(w) ≤ 0.73) split cells into spheres within seconds, with concomitant release of several proteins. From one rod, three or four spheres emerged, which re-grew to normal rods in nutrient media. Biochemical properties of rods and spheres were similar, except for a markedly reduced ATP content (about 50-fold) and an increased lag phase of spheres, as is known from dormant bacteria. The presence of viable particles of similar sizes in ancient fluid inclusions suggested that spheres might represent dormant states of haloarchaea. The easy production of spheres by lowering a(w) should facilitate their investigation and could help to understand the mechanisms for microbial survival over geological times.

  14. A fluid inclusion study of blueschist-facies lithologies from the Indus suture zone, Ladakh (India): Implications for the exhumation of the subduction related Sapi-Shergol ophiolitic mélange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Himanshu Kumar; Kharya, Aditya; Singh, P. Chandra; Rolfo, Franco; Groppo, Chiara; Tiwari, Sameer K.

    2017-09-01

    The best occurrence of blueschist-facies lithologies in Himalaya is that of the Shergol Ophiolitic Mélange along the Indus suture zone in Ladakh region of north-western India. These lithologies are characterized by well preserved lawsonite-glaucophane-garnet-quartz assemblages. This paper presents for the first time the results of a detailed fluid inclusion study on these lithologies, in order to understand the fluid P-T evolution and its tectonic implications. The blueschist rocks from Shergol Ophiolitic Mélange record metamorphic peak conditions at ∼19 kbar, 470 °C. Several types of fluid inclusions are trapped in quartz and garnet, most of them being two-phase at room temperature. Three types of fluid inclusions have been recognised, basing on microtextures and fluid composition: Type-I are primary two-phase carbonic-aqueous fluid inclusions (VCO2 - LH2O); Type-II are two-phase (LH2O - VH2O) aqueous fluid inclusions, either primary (Type-IIa) or secondary (Type-IIb); Type-III are re-equilibrated fluid inclusions. In the Type-I primary carbonic-aqueous inclusions, H2O is strongly predominant with respect to CO2; the homogenization temperature of CO2 range from -7 to -2 °C. The clathrate melting temperature in such inclusions varies in between +7.1 and +8.6 °C. Type-II two-phase aqueous fluid inclusions show a wide range of salinity, from 7.8-14 wt.% NaCleq (Type-IIa) to 1.65-6.37 wt.% NaCleq (Type-IIb) with accuracy ±0.4 wt.% NaCleq. Type-I and Type-IIa primary fluid inclusions are hosted in peak minerals (garnet and quartz included in garnet), therefore they were likely entrapped at, or near to, peak P-T conditions. The dominantly aqueous fluid of both Type-I and Type-IIa inclusions was most likely produced through metamorphic devolatilization reactions occurring in the subducting slab. Despite their primary nature, the isochores of Type-I and Type-IIa inclusions do not intersect the peak metamorphic conditions of the blueschist mineral assemblage

  15. Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: Integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Stoffregen, R.E.; Vikre, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Summitville Au-Ag-Cu deposit is a classic volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation deposit. It occurs in the Quartz Latite of South Mountain, a composite volcanic dome that was emplaced along the coincident margins of the Platoro and Summitville calderas at 22.5??0.5 Ma, penecontemporaneous with alteration and mineralization. A penecontemporaneous quartz monzonite porphyry intrusion underlies the district and is cut and overlain by pyrite-quartz stockwork veins with traces of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. Alteration and mineralization proceeded through three hypogene stages and a supergene stage, punctuated by at least three periods of hydrothermal brecciation. Intense acid leaching along fractures in the quartz latite produced irregular pipes and lenticular pods of vuggy silica enclosed sequentially by alteration zones of quartz-alunite, quartz-kaolinite, and clay. The acid-sulfate-altered rocks host subsequent covellite+enargite/luzonite+chalcopyrite mineralization accompanied by kaolinite, and later barite-base-metal veins, some containing high Au values and kaolinite. The presence of both liquid- and vapor-rich fluid inclusions indicates the episodic presence of a low-density fluid at all levels of the system. In the mineralized zone, liquid-rich fluid inclusions in healed fractures in quartz phenocrysts and in quartz associated with mineralization homogenize to temperatures between 160 and 390 ??C (90% between 190 and 310 ??C), consistent with the range (200-250 ??C) estimated from the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between coexisting alunite and pyrite. A deep alunite-pyrite pair yielded a sulfur-isotope temperature of 390 ??C, marking a transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure at a depth of about 1.5 km. Two salinity populations dominate the liquid-rich fluid inclusions. One has salinities between 0 and 5 wt.% NaCl equivalent; the other has salinities of up to 43 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The occurrence of high-salinity fluid inclusions in vein

  16. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯, TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (Management and Handling Rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor, LPI inorganic (LPIin and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  18. Light Hydrocarbons in Fluid Inclusions and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis:A Case Study of the Songxi Ag(Sb) Deposit,Eastern Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoming; David I.NORMAN; SUN Kai; WANG Min; CHEN Binghui; CHEN Jingde; YU Shoujun

    2003-01-01

    The Songxi deposit is a newly discovered large Ag (Sb) deposit. By using a suite of high-vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometer systems, the authors have recognized many kinds of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions of minerals. These hydrocarbons are mainly composed of C1-C4 saturated alkanes, while the contents of C2-C4 unsaturated alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are quite low, suggesting that the metallogenic processes have not been affected by magmatic activities. Chemical equilibrium studies show that these hydrocarbons may be a mixture of organic gases generated by microorganism activity and those by thermal cracking of type-II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, and the former may constitute more than two-thirds, implying that microorganism might have played an important role in the metallogenesis. The equilibrium temperature of the latter is about 300(C, which is much higher than the geothermal temperature at the estimated depth of metallogenesis. Thus, the light hydrocarbons generated by thermal cracking of kerogens probably originated in the deep part of the sedimentary basins and then migrated through a long distance to shallower horizons of the basin. Based on the composition of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Songxi deposit was formed in a continental rift. The analytical data presented in this paper support from one aspect the genetic model that the Songxi deposit may be a sedimentary hot brine transformed deposit instead of a submarine basic volcanic exhalation and low-medium temperature volcanic hydrothermal fluid filling deposit proposed by most previous researchers.

  19. Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect, Anarak Metallogenic Complex, Central Iran: a geological, mineralogical and fluid inclusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tale Fazel, Ebrahim; Mehrabi, Behzad; Tabbakh Shabani, Amir Ali

    2015-02-01

    The Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Belt, and is characterized by copper-iron oxide and gold veins, stockworks and breccias hosted by the Eocene Kuh-e Dom arc intrusion. Mineralization is located within NE-SW to WNW-ESE sinistral faults and likely formed in a subduction-related continental margin that is typical of IOCG deposit systems. The deposits have a distinct metal composition of Fe, Cu, Bi, Co, Mo and LREE with gold (up to 3 g/t), and the mineral assemblages are quartz, hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, emplectite, magnetite, free gold, calcite, barite, chlorite, and tourmaline. Three paragenetic stages of mineralized quartz veins are distinguished in the Kuh-e Dom prospect, including: (i) hematite-bearing quartz veins, (ii) quartz-sulfide stockwork and breccia veins, and (iii) quartz-calcite±sulfide infilling veins. Sodic (albitization), potassic, and quartz-calcite±chlorite pervasive alterations are commonly associated with these three mineralization stages. Three types of fluid inclusions have been identified at Kuh-e Dom, including: aqueous two-phase (H2O-NaCl-CaCl2±FeCl2), halite-saturated aqueous (H2O-NaCl±KCl), and CO2-bearing (H2O-CO2±CH4 and CO2±CH4) fluid inclusions. A hypersaline (~35 wt% NaCl equiv.), aqueous magmatic fluid was released at about 400 °C and a pressure of nearly 4 kbar, forming early hematite-bearing quartz veins. These high salinity fluids were progressively diluted further away from Kuh-e Dom intrusion due to substantial input of meteoric water and mixing with the magmatic components during the middle and late stages of mineralization. The mineralogy, alteration, and fluid composition of the Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect compared well with Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits worldwide.

  20. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Criteria for recognition of localization and timing of multiple events of hydrothermal alteration in sandstones illustrated by petrographic, fluid inclusion, and isotopic analysis of the Tera Group, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acebrón, Laura; Goldstein, R. H.; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2011-11-01

    Stratigraphic relations, detailed petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions, and fine-scale isotopic analysis of diagenetic phases indicate a complex thermal history in Tithonian fluvial sandstones and lacustrine limestones of the Tera Group (North Spain). Two different thermal events have been recognized and characterized, which are likely associated with hydrothermal events that affected the Cameros Basin during the mid-Cretaceous and the Eocene. Multiple stages of quartz cementation were identified using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence on sandstones and fracture fills. Primary fluid inclusions reveal homogenization temperatures (Th) from 195 to 350°C in the quartz cements of extensional fracture fillings. The high variability of Th data in each particular fluid inclusion assemblage is related to natural reequilibration of the fluid inclusions, probably due to Cretaceous hydrothermal metamorphism. Some secondary fluid inclusion assemblages show very consistent data (Th = 281-305°C) and are considered not to have reequilibrated. They are likely related to an Eocene hydrothermal event or to a retrograde stage of the Cretaceous hydrothermalism. This approach shows how multiple thermal events can be discriminated. A very steep thermal gradient of 97-214°C/km can be deduced from δ18O values of ferroan calcites (δ18O -14.2/-11.8‰ V-PDB) that postdate quartz cements in fracture fillings. Furthermore, illite crystallinity data (anchizone-epizone boundary) are out of equilibrium with high fluid inclusion Th. These observations are consistent with heat-flux related to short-lived events of hydrothermal alteration focused by permeability contrasts, rather than to regional heat-flux associated with dynamo-thermal metamorphism. These results illustrate how thermal data from fracture systems can yield thermal histories markedly different from host-rock values, a finding indicative of hydrothermal fluid flow.

  2. The mangazeya Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposit hosted in sedimentary rocks, Sakha-Yakutia, Russia: Mineral assemblages, fluid inclusions, stable isotopes (C, O, S), and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikina, E. Yu.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Klubnikin, G. K.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The succession of mineral assemblages, chemistry of gangue and ore minerals, fluid inclusions, and stable isotopes (C, O, S) in minerals have been studied in the Mangazeya silver-base-metal deposit hosted in terrigenous rocks of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt. The deposit is localized in the junction zone of the Kuranakh Anticlinorium and the Sartanga Synclinorium at the steep eastern limb of the Endybal Anticline. The deposit is situated at the intersection of the regional Nyuektame and North Tirekhtyakh faults. Igneous rocks are represented by the Endybal massif of granodiorite porphyry 97.8 ± 0.9 Ma in age and dikes varying in composition. One preore and three types of ore mineralization separated in space are distinguished: quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite (I), quartz-carbonate-sulfide (II), and silver-base-metal (III). Quartz and carbonate (siderite) are predominant in ore veins. Ore minerals are represented by arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, fahlore, and less frequent sulfosalts. Three types of fluid inclusions in quartz differ in phase compositions: two- or three-phase aqueous-carbon dioxide (FI I), carbon dioxide gas (FI II), and two-phase (FI III) containing liquid and a gas bubble. The homogenization temperature and salinity fall within the ranges of 367-217°C and 13.8-2.6 wt % NaCl equiv in FI I; 336-126°C and 15.4-0.8 wt % NaCl equiv in FI III. Carbon dioxide in FI II was homogenized in gas at +30.2 to +15.3°C and at +27.2 to 29.0°C in liquid. The δ34S values for minerals of type I range from-1.8 to +4.7‰ (V-CDT); of type II, from-7.4 to +6.6‰; and of type III, from-5.6 to +7.1‰. δ13C and δ18O vary from-7.0 to-6.7‰ (V-PDB) and from +16.6 to +17.1 (V-SMOW) in siderite-I; from-9.1 to-6.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +18.9 (V-SMOW) in siderite-II; from-5.4 to-3.1‰ (V-PDB) and from +14.6 to +19.5 (V-SMOW) in ankerite; and from-4.2 to-2.9‰ (V-PDB) and from +13.5 to +16.8 (V-SMOW) in calcite. The data on mineral assemblages, fluid

  3. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zafar-abad iron ore deposit, situated in the NW part of Divandarreh (lat. 36°01'14" and long. 46°58'22". The ore body is located on the northern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. The Zafar-abad Fe-skarn deposit is one of the important, medium- size mineral deposits in western Iran. REE patterns of skarn magnetite were among others studied in Skarn deposit by (Taylor, 1979 Hydrothermal alteration and fluid-rock interaction significantly affect total contents of REE and their patterns in fluids. Moreover, fractionation of REE by chemical complication, adsorption effects and redox reactions are characteristic processes determining REE behavior during crystallization. Stable isotope data for oxygen and sulfur have been widely used with great success to trace the origin and evolution history of paleo-hydrothermal fluids of meteoric, magmatic, and metamorphic. Materials and methods The present study investigates REE and stable Isotope geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Zafar-abad deposit and temperature of trapped fluid inclusions based on geothermometry analysis. In order to study the major, trace and REE compositions of Zafar-abad magnetite, twelve samples were collected from surface of ore exposures. The emphasis during sampling was on ores with primary textures. Discussion The Zafar-abad district is situated in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. Sedimentary sequences dominantly composed of calcareous and conglomerate rocks. Various meta-sedimentary rocks are intercalated with the sedimentary rocks, and comprise biotite and muscovite-rich schist, calc-schist, calc-silicate rock. Several distinct ductile tectonic fabrics have been identified around the Zafar-abad deposit. The main ore body at Zafar-abad is in the form of a roughly horizontal, discordant, lens to tabular-shaped body plunging 10° NW, where it appears to

  4. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Fluid Inclusion Data from the Tumanpınarı Volcanic Rock-Hosted Fe-Mn-Ba Deposit, Balıkesir-Dursunbey, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haydar Gultekin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tumanpınarı mineralization is a volcanic rock-hosted epithermal Fe-Mn-Ba deposit located in the southwestern part of Dursunbey, Balıkesir, Turkey. The deposit constitutes one of the most important deposits of the Havran-Dursunbey metallogenic sub-province in which numerous Early Miocene Fe-Mn-Ba deposits are distributed. The ore occurs as open-space fillings in faults, fractures, and breccias in the andesite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for four types of hypogene alteration in decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization, hematization and argillic alteration. The mineral assemblage includes pyrolusite, psilomelane, hematite, and barite as well as minor magnetite, manganite, poliannite, limonite, braunite, bixbyite, galena, pyrite, and goethite. Mineralogically, three ore types are recognized as pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite + barite ore, pyrolusite + psilomelane + poliannite ore and barite + pyrolusite + psilomelane + hematite ore (barite-dominant ore. In addition to Fe, Mn and Ba, the ore contains substantial quantities of Pb, Zn, As. Chemically, the transition from fresh to altered rocks has little effect on the elemental levels for Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Rb, Sr and H2O. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions hosted in the main stage quartz and barite ranged from 113 to 410 °C with salinities ranging from 0.4 to 14.9 eq. wt % NaCl, respectively. Overall, the available data suggest that the deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic and a dilute meteoric fluid.

  5. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  6. Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (NW Iran): Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies and Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2015-04-01

    The Qaradagh batholith is located in NW Iran, neighboring the Meghri-Ordubad granitoid in southern Armenia. This magmatic complex is emplaced in the northwestern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, which formed through north-eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the central Iranian domain in the late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic and hosts most of the porphyry copper deposits and prospects in Iran, such as Sarcheshmeh and Sungun. The Qaradagh batholith is comprised of Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks occurring as multi-episode stocks, where the dominant rock type is granodiorite. Hydrothermal alterations have also occurred in these rocks including potassic, phyllic-sericitic, argillic and propylitic alterations and silicification. These alterations are accompanied by vein-type and disseminated Cu, Mo and Au mineralization. The Qarachilar area is located in the central part of the Qaradagh batholith, which hosts mono-mineralic and quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets (several mm to hydrothermal aqueous fluids have most likely experienced boiling and also mixed with low temperature and low salinity superficial fluids. Occurrence of boiling is also supported by the coexistence of liquid-rich and vapor-rich 2-phase inclusions as well as multi-phase halite-bearing inclusions which homogenize in a similar range of TH. The calculated minimum pressure at the time of entrapment is estimated about 50 to 120 bar, which is equal to the hydrostatic depth of 500-1100 m. Stable isotope studies of O, H and S on the quartz and sulfide samples taken from quartz-sulfide veins-veinlets reveal a magmatic origin for the ore-bearing fluid and its sulfur content. The δ18O values for quartz and fluid are about 11.13-12.47 ‰ and 5.78-6.89 ‰ (SMOW), respectively, the δD values are about -93 and -50 ‰ and the δ34S values of sulfide minerals are about -1.37-0.49‰ (VCDT). Re-Os model ages calculated for molybdenite samples range between 25.19±0.19 and 31.22±0

  7. Auriferous Quartz Veins from the Dongping Gold Deposit,NW Hebei Province and Metallogenesis—Fluid Inclusion Rb—Sr Isochron Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫测辉; 王秀璋; 等

    1996-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit,situated on the northern margin of the North China Platform,is a composite deposit composed of auriferous quartz vein-type and altered rock-type ore bodies.It is hosted in the inner contact zone of an alkaline intrusion which was intruded in to Archean metamorphic rocks and was formed not later than the Hercynian period.Auriferous quartz veins of the deposit are dated with the fluid inclusion Rb-Sr isochron method at 103±4Ma ,indicating that the gold deposit was formed in the Yenshanian period,86Sr/86Sr source tracing shows the ore-forming materials came dominantly from alkaline intrusions.These results combined with other isotope and REE data,suggest that the Dongping gold deposit is not a traditiolal magmatic hydrothermal deposit,but a reworked hydrothermal deposit related to heated and evolved meteoric water.

  8. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  9. Review on Landfill Leachate Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain A. Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to eliminate solid urban wastes. An important problem associated to landfills is the production of leachates. This study is a review of landfill leachate treatments. Approach: The advantages and disadvantages of the various existing leachate treatments discussed under the items: (i Leachate channeling (combined treatment with domestic sewage, recycling (ii Biological processing (aerobic and anaerobic (iii Chemical/physical treatment (flotation, coagulation/flocculation, chemical precipitation, adsorption, ammonium stripping, chemical oxidation, ion exchange and electrochemical treatment (iv Membrane filtration (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Conclusion: The major fraction of old or biologically treated leachate was large recalcitrant organic molecules that are not easy removed during biological treatment. So that, in order to meet strict quality standards for direct discharge of leachate into the surface water, a development of integrated methods of treatment, a combination of biological, chemical, physical and membrane process steps, were required. Today, the use of membrane technologies, more especially Reverse Osmosis (RO, either as a main step in a landfill leachate treatment chain or as single post-treatment step had shown to be an indispensable means of achieving purification.

  10. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman's test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (pbiogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p<0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency ultrasound pretreatment can be potentially used for wastewater management especially with integration of anaerobic processes.

  11. Apparent Formation Factor for Leachate-Saturated Waste and Sediments: Examples from the USA and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip J Carpenter; Ding Aizhong; Cheng Lirong; Liu Puxin; Chu Fulu

    2009-01-01

    The formation factor relates bulk resistivity to pore fluid resistivity in porous materials. Understanding the formation factor is essential in using electrical and electromagnetic methods to monitor leachate accumulations and movements both within and around landfills. Specifically, the formation factor allows leachate resistivity, the degree of saturation, and, possibly, even the hydraulic conductivity of the waste to be estimated from non-invasive surface measurements. In this study, apparent formation factors are computed for three landfills with different types of waste as well as sediments contaminated by landfill leachate. Resistivity soundings at the closed Mallard North landfill in suburban Chicago (Illinois, USA) mapped leachate surfaces that were confirmed by monitoring wells. The resistivity of leachate-saturated waste from resistivity sounding inversions was then divided by the leachate resistivity values measured in-situ to compute apparent formation factors (Fa) ranging from 1.6 to 4.9. A global Fa of 3.0±1.9 was computed for the entire monitored portion of this landfill At a nearby mixed laboratory waste landfill, a 2D inverted resistivity section was used to compute an Fa of 2.9. Finally, a distinctly different Fa value of 10.6±2.8 was computed for leachate-saturated retorted oil and organic compounds. The Fa for aquifers containing contaminated groundwater fall in the same range as aquifers with normal groundwater, 1.7-3.9. However, models from inverted sounding curves over these contaminated areas exhibit unusually low resistivity layers, which may be diagnostic of contamination.

  12. Geology, Ore-microscopy and Fluid inclusion study on Auriferous Quartz Veins at the Gidami Gold Mine, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodnik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    The gold deposits are represented by auriferous quartz veins and aplitic dykes that are cutting through granitic rocks. The main lode of gold is confined to two principal veins occupying fracture zones and fissures. The main auriferous vein is striking mainly NNW-SSE with dipping 85° NE, it extends up to 450 m with an average thickness 120 cm. The second vein is striking NW-SE and dipping 60° E, it extends for 150 m with an average thickness 35 cm. The gold bearing veins are made up of fine grained quartz that is always massive, milky-white with reddish or greenish tint. They commonly include vugs, some of them are occasionally filled with iron oxides, carbonate and clay minerals. Sometimes the quartz veins enclose remnants of altered wall rock materials as an indication for the metamorphic or syntectonic nature of the veins. Brecciation, comb layering, swelling and nodules manganese dendrites are usually detected. The microscopic examination for thin and polished sections of auriferous quartz veins revealed that quartz and calcite are the predominant minerals commonly associated with accessory minerals (fluorite, apatite, zircon, muscovite and sericite). Ore mineral assemblage is found as disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite covellite, galena and pentlandite). Ilmenite and goethite are the main iron oxide mineral phases. Gold most commonly occurs as small inclusions within pyrite or goethite. Gold also occurs as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides) or as disseminated grains in the altered wall rocks. Hydrothermal alteration includes silicification, kaolinitization, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins. Petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions revealed that the majority of inclusions are of primary/pseudosecondary nature that occur in clusters and along growth zones or along intra-granular planar trails (pseudosecondary

  13. Modalités de formation des veines de quartz aurifère du district d'El Callao (Venezuela) : études texturales et des inclusions fluides The El Callao district (Venezuela) gold-bearing quartz veins mode of formation: textural and fluid inclusion studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Aurélie; Chauvet, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Les veines de quartz aurifères du district d'El Callao (bouclier Guyanais, Venezuela) se composent essentiellement de quartz en peigne, plus ou moins recristallisés. Plusieurs générations ont été définies, démontrant ainsi que leur formation résulte d'ouvertures successives. L'étude des inclusions fluides associées à ces différentes générations de quartz montre que des fluides à CO2-H2O-sels-(±CH4), de faible salinité, accompagnent la formation de ces veines. Gold-bearing quartz veins from th...

  14. Organic Gases in Fluid Inclusions of Ore Minerals and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis: A Case Study of the Changkeng Au-Ag Deposit, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The newly discovered Changkeng Au-Ag deposit is a new type of sediment-hosted precious metal deposit. Most of the previous researchers believed that the deposit was formed by meteoric water convection. By using a high vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometric system, nine light hydrocarbons have been recognized in the fluid inclusions in ore minerals collected from the Changkeng deposit. The hydrocarbons are composed mainly of saturated alkanes C1-4 and unsaturated alkenes C2-4 and aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the alkanes are predominant, while the contents of alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are very low. The Σalka/Σalke ratio of most samples is higher than 100, suggesting that those hydrocarbons are mainly generated by pyrolysis of kerogens in sedimentary rocks caused by water-rock interactions at medium-low temperatures, and the metallogenic processes might have not been affected by magmatic activity. A thermodynamic calculation shows that the light hydrocarbons have reached chemical equilibrium at temperatures higher than 200?C, and they may have been generated in the deep part of sedimentary basins (e.g., the Sanzhou basin) and then be transported by ore-forming fluids to a shallow position of the basin via a long distance. Most of the organic gases are generated by pyrolysis of the type II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, only a few by microorganism activity. The compositions and various parameters of light hydrocarbons in gold ores are quite similar to those in silver ores, suggesting that the gold and silver ores may have similar metallogenic processes. Based on the compositions of organic gases in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Changkeng deposit may be of a tectonic setting of continental rift. The results of this study support from one aspect the authors' opinion that the Changkeng deposit is not formed by meteoric water convection, and that its genesis has a close relationship with the evolution of the Sanzhou basin, so

  15. Mineralogical, geochemical, fluid inclusion and isotope study of Hohentauern/Sunk sparry magnesite deposit (Eastern Alps/Austria): implications for a metasomatic genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim Zadeh, Amir M.; Ebner, Fritz; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The magnesite deposit of Hohentauern/Sunk, hosted in Viseán carbonate rocks, is one of the best-exposed examples of "Veitsch type" sparry magnesite deposits, which are located in the Veitsch nappe of the Austroalpine Greywacke zone (Eastern Alps/Austria). The sparry magnesite is stratiform and stratabound within the Viseán Steilbachgraben Formation and displays distinct metasomatic features and textures. The sparry magnesite of the Hohentauern/Sunk deposit is characterized by pinolites, rosettes and banded (zebra) textures. Due to microinclusions of dolomite and redolomitzation, the CaO/MgO of magnesite is elevated. Concentrations of selected major and trace elements (Fe-Mn, Sr-Ba, Cr-Ni) in sparry magnesite indicate formation in a marine/evaporitic environment and by Mg2+-metasomatism. The REE patterns of magnesite are characterized by low LREE/HREE, depletion of LREE and a negative Ce anomaly. The δ18O (9.59 to 12.32 ‰ SMOW) and δ13C (-2.23 to -0.02 ‰ PDB) values of magnesite overlap with those published for magnesite formed by metasomatic replacement of dolomite. Fluid inclusions in the sparry magnesite indicate a high salinity (22.4 mass% NaCl equivalent) of the Mg-rich fluid; it is of marine/evaporitic origin. All geological, petrographical and geochemical features support a diagenetic dolomitization of the carbonate host rocks followed by magnesite formation via metasomatic replacement and redolomitization. Sm-Nd geochronology indicates a Late Carboniferous to Early Permian age for magnesite formation triggered by intraformational circulation of fluids derived from buried Carboniferous evaporites.

  16. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions from the Palaeoproterozoic:A review of biogeochemical results from time-capsules 》2.0 Ga old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon C. GEORGE; Adriana DUTKIEWICZ; Herbert Volk; John RIDLEY; David J.MOSSMAN; Roger BUICK

    2009-01-01

    The observation of oil inclusions trapped prior to 2.0 Ga in Palaeoproterozoic rocks and the ability to obtain detailed molecular geochemical information from them provide a robust way for understanding the early biogeochemical evolution of the Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI) in ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada were trapped in quartz and feld-spar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The 2.1 Ga FA Formation sandstone of the Franceville Basin in Gabon that hosts the Oklo natural fission re-actors has also been discovered to contain abundant Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing FIs. This oil occurs within H2 and CO2-dominated inclusions trapped in syntaxial quartz overgrowths and intragranular and transgranular microfractures in detrital quartz, and was most likely trapped 2.1-1.98 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of both FI oils reveal a wide range of compounds, including n-alkanes, isopre-noids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring bio-markers including terpanes, hopanes, methylhopanes, steranes and diasteranes. To ensure a reliable interpretation of oil inclusions, a comprehensive series of outside-rinse blanks and procedural system blanks was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative amounts of the hydro-carbons in these blanks were compared to the FI extracts, so as to provide confidence limits on the experimental integrity of each compound class. Maturity ratios based on reliably detected compound classes show that the FI oils were generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. The presence of biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited prior to 2.0 Ga is consistent with early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this

  17. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions from the Palaeoproterozoic:A review of biogeochemical results from time-capsules >2.0 Ga old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon; C.; GEORGE; Adriana; DUTKIEWICZ; Herbert; VOLK; John; RIDLEY; David; J.; MOSSMAN; Roger; BUICK

    2009-01-01

    The observation of oil inclusions trapped prior to 2.0 Ga in Palaeoproterozoic rocks and the ability to obtain detailed molecular geochemical information from them provide a robust way for understanding the early biogeochemical evolution of the Earth. Oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI) in ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada were trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The 2.1 Ga FA Formation sandstone of the Franceville Basin in Gabon that hosts the Oklo natural fission reactors has also been discovered to contain abundant Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing FIs. This oil occurs within H2O and CO2-dominated inclusions trapped in syntaxial quartz overgrowths and intragranular and transgranular microfractures in detrital quartz, and was most likely trapped 2.1-1.98 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of both FI oils reveal a wide range of compounds, including n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers including terpanes, hopanes, methylhopanes, steranes and diasteranes. To ensure a reliable interpretation of oil inclusions, a comprehensive series of outside-rinse blanks and procedural system blanks was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative amounts of the hydrocarbons in these blanks were compared to the FI extracts, so as to provide confidence limits on the experimental integrity of each compound class. Maturity ratios based on reliably detected compound classes show that the FI oils were generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. The presence of biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited prior to 2.0 Ga is consistent with early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this

  18. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Kirana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals content as well as magnetic and electrical properties of leachate from Sarimukti, West Java were studied in an attempt to seek correlation between heavy metals content and magnetic/electrical properties. Such correlation is expected to open the way for the use of magnetic/electrical properties as proxy indicators for the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate. The number of leachate samples studied is 21; 15 were taken spatially at depth of 1 m while the remaining 6 samples were taken vertically at a particular point. Measurement results showed that the heavy metals content in the leachate has a smaller concentration, except for Fe. The correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals content was found to be not so significant. The best correlation coefficient between magnetic susceptibility with heavy metals in leachate was found in Zn. Correlation between electrical conductivity and heavy metal is also not so significant, except for Zn and Cd. The use of magnetic properties as proxy indicator for heavy metals content in leachate is plausible provided that the magnetic susceptibility exceeds certain threshold value. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and heavy metal content would be good if each quantity has a large value.

  20. Fluid inclusions of Youqialang lead-silver deposit in Tibet%西藏尤卡朗铅银矿床流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 赖健清; 冯志兴; 宋学军

    2011-01-01

    西藏尤卡朗铅银矿床位于班公湖-怒江结合带以南、雅鲁藏布江结合带以北的冈底斯-念青唐古拉山中生代岩浆弧.矿区的含矿地层为上侏罗统拉贡塘组顶部的石英岩层,矿体受到裂隙构造控制.含矿脉体的石英中发现两类流体包裹体,即Ⅰ型水溶液包裹体和Ⅱ型H2O-CO2包裹体,均-温度为160℃~250℃,推测成矿温度为中温.流体盐度范围为1.65%~12.29%,峰值在3%~5%之间,部分数据具有较高的盐度值,表明高盐度的岩浆热液流体来源,受后期地下水热液的混合.热地下水的不断涌入改变了热液的成分,是成矿作用的重要因素,成矿流体中还含有CO2,对于铅锌硫化物的沉淀起到促进的作用.%The Youqialang lead-silver deposit in Tibet is located in Gandise-Nyainqentanglha range Mesozoic magmatic arc, in the south of Bangonghu-Nujiang junction belt and north of Yaluzangbu River junction belt. Its ore-bearing strata are quartzite on the top of Lagongtang Formation of Upper Jurassic. The orebodies are controlled by structural fractures. Quartz in orebearing veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, they are aqueous inclusions( Type Ⅰ ) and H2O-CO2 inclusions (Type Ⅱ ). According to the range of their homogenization temperatures ( 160 ℃ ~250 ℃ ) ,we inferred that the ore-forming temperature of the deposit was mesotherm.The salinity ranges from 1.65% ~ 12. 29% ,and its peak value ranges from 3% ~5%. Part of the data with higher salinity reflects that the source of high-salinity magmatic hydrothermal fluids is mixed by heated groundwater in the later period. The composition of the hydrotherm changed due to the inburst of thermal groundwater, which is an important factor of mineralization. Ore-forming fluids also contain CO2, which promoted the deposition of lead and zinc sulfide.

  1. Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions of the Xiaotieshan Lead Zinc Polymetallic Deposit in Gansu Province%甘肃小铁山铅锌多金属矿床流体包裹体特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁婉娟; 严光生; 李景朝; 左群超; 杜泽忠; 甄世军; 张志辉; 李永胜

    2016-01-01

    为探讨甘肃小铁山矿床的成矿流体来源、性质及其演化过程,对其含矿石英脉、重晶石样品开展了系统的流体包裹体研究.结果表明,包裹体类型主要为气液两相包裹体、纯气体包裹体、纯液体包裹体以及含CO2的三相包裹体.显微测温结果表明,小铁山矿床下盘脉状矿体中石英的流体包裹体的均一温度为174~452℃,盐度为0.88%~9.86%NaCleqv;重晶石中流体包裹体的均一温度为149~388℃,盐度为2.07%~12.16%;块状矿体中的流体包裹体均一温度为178~296℃,盐度为1.91%~14.46%NaCleqv.氢氧同位素研究显示,含矿石英脉状中δ18OH2O为-1.14‰~4.68‰,δDV-SMOW为-88.0‰~-153.2‰,结合包裹体的岩相学、流体性质等特征,推断成矿热液应为岩浆流体与加热海水的混合流体.%In order to discuss the source,character,and the evolution process of the ore-forming fluid of the Xiaoteishan deposit A systematic fluid inclusion study has been carried out on ore-bearing quartz veins and barite samples of the Xiao-tieshan deposit.Results show that there are several types of fluid inclusions including liquid-gaseous inclusion,pure gase-ous inclusion,pure liquid inclusion,and CO2-bearing three phase inclusions.The microthermometric results show that hom-ogenization temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in quartz and barite veins from the vein-type orebody at the bot-tom of the Xiaotieshan deposit vary from 174℃ to 452℃ and from 0. 88% to 9. 86% NaCleqv,and from 149℃ to 388℃and from 2. 07%to 12. 16%respectively.In addition,homogenization temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions of the massive orebody of the Xiaotieshan deposit vary from 178℃to 296℃ and from 1 . 91%to14. 46%NaCleqv respectively.Hy-drogen and oxygen isotope studies show that δ18O and δDV-SMOW values of water in fluid inclusions of the ore-forming quartz vein vary from -1 . 14‰ to 4. 68‰ and from -88. 0‰ to -153. 2

  2. Diamond growth from C-H-N-O recycled fluids in the lithosphere: Evidence from CH4 micro-inclusions and δ13C-δ15N-N content in Marange mixed-habit diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Karen V.; Shirey, Steven B.; Stern, Richard A.; Steele, Andrew; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-11-01

    Mixed-habit (octahedral+ cuboid) diamonds from the Marange alluvial deposits in the eastern Zimbabwe craton have high nitrogen and hydrogen contents that provide an opportunity to evaluate diamond growth mechanisms and C-N-H-O bearing fluids in the lithospheric keel. Light grey cuboid sectors with hydrogen-containing defects trap abundant dispersed CH4 inclusions (Raman peaks at 2917 cm-1) associated with graphite (Raman peaks at 1580 cm-1). Clear octahedral sectors are richer in nitrogen and free of any such inclusions. Core to rim co-variations of δ13C-δ15N and N content can be explained by a mixing trend between earlier fluids that are CH4-rich and later fluids that are more CO3- or CO2-rich. Marange diamonds have limited overall δ13C variation, but do show fractionation during growth towards higher δ13C values. This trend can be explained by diamond precipitation from mixed CH4 and CO2 fluids, where isotopic fractionation occurs as the amount of fluid wanes. Calculated δ15N values for diamond source fluids evolving in this manner are between + 2.3 and + 6.4‰. These N isotopic compositions require CH4-rich and CO3-/CO2-rich 'end-member' fluids to have a recycled metasedimentary component perhaps introduced with subduction of eclogite.

  3. Preliminary studies of fluid inclusions in Damoqujia gold deposit along Zhaoping fault zone, Shandong province, China%山东招平断裂带大磨曲家金矿床流体包裹体初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立强; 邓军; 张静; 王庆飞; 高帮飞; 周应华; 郭春影; 江少卿

    2007-01-01

    The Damoqujia gold deposit, discovered recently and located in the north of Zhaoping fault zone, is a large altered rock type deposit. In this paper, we report the preliminary research results of the fluid inclusions and discuss its metallogenic implications. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions fall into four ranges: 310 ~ 350℃, 230 ~ 270℃, 160 ~ 200℃ and 110 ~ 150℃;corresponding to the four stages of hydrothermal ore-forming processes: coarse grain pyrite-milk white quartz stage ( Ⅰ ), smoky gray Au-bearing quartz-fine grain pyrite stage ( Ⅱ ), Au-bearing polymetallic sulfide-quartz stage ( Ⅲ ), and quartz-carbonate stage ( Ⅳ ).Ore-forming fluid is with low salinity and low density, ranging from 1.4 WtNaCl% to 13.6 WtNaCl% and from 0.48g/cm3 to 1.03g/cm3respectively. The inclusions are dominated by H2O and CO2 in gaseous compositions, and Na + and K + in positive ions, SO42 - and Cl -in negative ions of liquid compositions. Au-S complex is the major form for transportation of gold. The pressure varied from 260MPa to 340MPa during the formation of CO2-bearing inclusions at the early mineralization; the fluids are rich in SO2-4 and Na +. The pressure is 26 -49 × 105 Pa during the formation of the aqueous salt inclusions in late mineralization, the inclusions are rich in Cl- (F-),Na+. δ18Oqurrtz is 10. 64 ~ 12. 68‰, and the corresponding δ18OH2O and δD is - 5.44 ~ 6. 47‰ and - 95.52 ~ -106.48‰respectively. Based on the studies about compositions and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of inclusions, it is evidenced that ore-forming fluid is magmatic hydrothermal fluid in early period, but affected by meteoric water in late.

  4. An investigation of Water-gas interface migration of the upper Paleozoic gas pool of the Ordos Basin using reservoir fluid inclusion information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Jingkui; XIAO Xianming; LIU Dehan; LI Xianqing; SHEN Jiagui

    2004-01-01

    There is a particular characteristic in the for-mation of the Upper Paleozoic gas pool in the Ordos Basin that is its water-gas interface migrated regional during geological history.However,there has been lack of detailed research on this paper,the formation time of hte fluid inclusions formed in the water-gas transition zone of the gas pool was deduced using their trapping temperatures and combining of the burial with geothermal history of the basin.On the basis of this,the isochrone of water-gas interface migration for the gas pool was mapped .The result shows that the gas pool began to form around the yanan Area at about 165Ma,and then developed and enlarged toward the north direction.The gas pool finally formed at about 129 Ma.Since the basin uplifted from the late Cretaceous and gas supply decreased,the water-gas interface of the gas pool migratec back to the present position.

  5. Comparison of clumped isotope signatures of dolomite cements to fluid inclusion thermometry in the temperature range of 73-176 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Rosemarie E.; Azmy, Karem; Tripati, Aradhna; Olanipekun, Babatunde-John

    2017-02-01

    Widespread application of the novel clumped isotope paleothermometer (Δ47) using dolomite samples from shallow crustal settings has been hindered by a lack of adequate constraints on clumped isotope systematics in dolomites that formed at temperatures greater than 50 °C. Consequently, many high-temperature applications involving diagenetic dolomites have required an assumption that the relationship between temperature and Δ47 in diagenetic dolomite resembles the theoretical temperature dependence for calcite. Here we present Δ47 results from dolomite cements for which precipitation temperatures were determined independently using fluid inclusion microthermometry. We compare a rock-based ;calibration; for samples from the temperature range of ∼73 to 176 °C to previously published laboratory-derived calibrations for synthetic calcites. This novel combination of approaches yields results that are broadly consistent with results reported from controlled laboratory experiments, providing an important confirmation of the utility of clumped isotopes in real-world systems. Our results suggest that the Δ47 of dolomite cements may provide key information in the reconstruction of burial and thermal histories and also in the recognition of potential petroleum reservoirs.

  6. Sulfide composition and microthermometry of fluid inclusions in the leg 111 sheeted dike section of Ocean Drilling Program hole 504B, Costa Rica rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeps, D. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (West Germany)); Herzig, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-10

    Hole 504B of the Ocean Drilling Program is dedicated to the study of crustal structure and hydrothermal processes in 5.9-m.y.-old oceanic basement. Continuing the work of previous legs, hole 504B was extended 212.3 m to a total depth of 1,562.3 m below seafloor (bsf) during leg 111 in 1986. Quartz-sulfide veins occur at a depth of 1,369-1,388 m bsf in basalts of the sheeted dike complex. The ore minerals are predominantly pyrite, less chalcopyrite, rare Co-rich Cu-Fe-S phases, and a thiospinel (linnaeite/carrollite). Microprobe analyses yield a high Co content in zoned vein pyrites (>8 wt%) as well as in the Cu-Fe-S phases (>5 wt%). Up to 35.8 wt% CO was detected in the thiospinel. A Co/Ni ratio of > 100 distinguishes the vein pyrite from pyrite in the basaltic wall rock and from pyrite formed as an alteration product of olivine (Co/Ni < 5). The Co/Ni ratios correlate positively with Cu and negatively with As. Co-rich, nonstoichiometric Cu-Fe-S sulfides in chalcopyrite are interpreted as metastable phases which have been quenched at a high temperature and prohibited from exsolution of the stable products chalcopyrite and pyrite. Fluid inclusions in quartz from the quartz-sulfide veins are two-phase and vary from liquid- to vapor-dominated. Their salinities range from 4.2 to 7.2 wt% equivalent NaCl and average 5.5 wt%. Pressure (360 bars) corrected average filling temperatures vary from 271 to 408 C with a maximum of 486 C. This is consistent with calculated quartz formation temperatures for a single quartz separate (+4.2{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O) using oxygen isotope thermometry. The {delta}{sup 18}O value of the hydrothermal fluid was determined to be +1.7{per thousand}. The temperature data indicate fluid alteration of the sheeted dikes at about 350 to 500 C.

  7. The Inclusive Classroom: How Inclusive Is Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Claudette M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the position that inclusion is limited; inclusion does not go far enough. The inclusive classroom has been assessed to be of benefit both to the teacher and student. There are, however, limits set on inclusion. In most classrooms only children with learning disability are included omitting those with severe disabilities,…

  8. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  9. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  10. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃(-) removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  11. LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

  12. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian,Jilin Province,China:Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEISUKE; Nagao; HIROCHIKA; Sumino

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45―0.08 Ra, 10.2―8.8 and 306―430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123―102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition-crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as

  13. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill si...

  14. Generation and evolution of Cenozoic alkaline rocks from the Chukchi peninsula, Russia: Insight from melt and fluid inclusions%俄罗斯Chukchi半岛新生代碱性岩的形成和演化:熔体和流体包裹体证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina P.Solovova; Theodoros Ntaflos; Andrei Girnis; Natalya N.Kononkova; Vyacheslav V.Akinin

    2007-01-01

    Melt and fluid inclusions were studied in the minerals of Cenozoic olivine melanephelinites from the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia. The rock contain several generations of olivine phenocrysts varying in composition at mg= 0.88 ~ 0.77. The phenocrysts bear fluid and melt inclusions recording various stages of melt crystallization in volcanic conduits and shallow magma chambers. Primary fluid inclusions are CO2-dominated with a density of up to 0.93 g/cm3. All fluid inclusions are partially leaked, which is indicated by haloes of tiny fluid bubbles around large fluid inclusions in minerals. Melt inclusions contain various daughter crystals, which were completely resorbed in thermometric experiments at about 1230℃. Assuming that this temperature corresponds to the entrapment conditions of the CO2 fluid inclusions, the minimum pressure of the beginning of magma degassing is estimated as 800MPa. Variations in the compositions of homogenized silicate melt inclusions indicate that olivine was the earliest crystalline phase followed by clinopyroxene, nepheline and orthoclase. This sequence is in agreement with the mineralogy of the rocks. The melts are strongly enriched in incompatible trace elements and volatiles (in addition to CO2, high Cl, F, and S contents were detected). There are some differences between the compositions of melts trapped in minerals from different samples. Variations in SiO2, FeO, and incompatible element contents are probably related to melt generations at various levels in a homogeneous mantle reservoir.

  15. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  16. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  17. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  18. Evaluation of argon ages and integrity of fluid-inclusion compositions: Stepwise noble gas heating experiments on 1.87 Ga alunite from Tapajós Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.; Juliani, Caetano

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analyses are reported for active (N2, CH4, CO, CO2, H2, O2, HF, HCl, H2S, SO2) and noble (He, Ar, Ne) gases released by crushing and step heating of magmatic-hydrothermal alunite from the Tapajós gold province in Brazil. This is the oldest known alunite (40Ar/39Ar age of 1.87 Ga), and because it has undergone minimal postdepositional thermal or tectonic strain, it is excellent material to test the retention of gas species in fluid inclusions and within the crystal structure over geological time. The gas compositions of a single sample, in combination with Ar age-spectrum data derived from stepwise heating of 10 related samples, have been used to constrain the limits of modification of primary gas compositions in fluid inclusions and the possible extent of the loss of radiogenic Ar. The observed variations in the isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar released by stepwise heating have been used to identify the residence sites and determine the diffusion coefficients of the gases in the mineral. The data suggest that the only modification to primary gas compositions after entrapment in fluid inclusions and formation of the mineral is due to radiogenic and nucleogenic processes which affect the noble gas isotopic compositions.

  19. Investigation of oil-pool formation from the homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions and biomarkers in reservoir rocks: a genetic model for the Deng-2 oil-pool in the Jiyuan Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Weiwei [Geochemical Institute of Chinese Academy, Guizhou (China); University of Petroleum, Shandong (China); Li Zhaoyang [University of Petroleum, Shandong (China); Jin Qiang; Wang Weifeng [Geochemical Institute of Chinese Academy, Guizhou (China)

    2002-11-01

    The Jiyuan Depression is a frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Henan Province, China. In recent years, oil was discovered in the Deng-2 well in the lower Tertiary, though the tectonics and petroleum geology of the Depression are very complex. A series of experiments on fluid inclusions in the oil-bearing sandstones from the Deng-2 well were made that included measurement of the homogenization temperatures of gas-liquid inclusions and GC-MS analysis of biomarkers either in the sandstone pores or in the fluid inclusions. The Deng-2 oil-reservoir was formed at about 78{sup o}C, corresponding to a burial depth of about 2200 m. The present burial depth is about 700 m because of erosion and fault-block uplift in Oligocene time. Although oil in the sandstone pores is now heavily biodegraded, the biomarkers in the inclusions show slight biodegradation representing a watering and biodegradation process that did not occur before formation of the Deng-2 oil- pool. Having investigated the structural evolution of the Deng-2 trap, it is concluded that the oil discovered in the Tertiary reservoir of Deng-2 well migrated from Mesozoic reservoirs through active faults around the Deng-2 trap. As the oil migrated from the Mesozoic to the Tertiary reservoir, the Deng-2 trap was uplifted close to the depth of active biodegradation (subsurface temperature lower than 80{sup o}C and to a burial depth shallower than 2250 m from the thermal gradient of 3.1{sup o}C/100 m) so that the oil in the inclusions shows a slight biodegradation. Because of the continuous uplift of the Deng-2 trap during the Tertiary and Quaternary, the reservoired oil has been more heavily biodegraded compared to that in the inclusions. (author)

  20. Kaolinite sorption of Cd, Ni and Cu from landfill leachates: influence of leachate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrangeli Papini, M; Majone, M; Rolle, E

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal speciation in landfill leachates plays a significant role in determining the mobility during the percolation through soils. The complexation characteristics of landfill leachate directly affects heavy metal solubility and the extent of the interaction with soils, lowering or raising the sorbed amount depending on the relative affinity of the complexed metal and uncomplexed form to soil adsorption sites. In this paper, the adsorption of Cd, Ni and Cu onto kaolinite from three leachates (collected from landfill at different fermentation stage) is studied, also in comparison with metal speciation by two different operative procedures. The heavy metals, at their natural concentration, were divided into operational classes according to an exchange-based procedure and by fractionation on the basis of molecular weight (exchange onto Chelex100 resin and ultrafiltration, respectively). All the experiments were performed also on synthetic solutions designed according to leachate composition and theoretical speciation. The experimental results have shown leachate complexing capacity is strongly dependent on landfill age, and that broad parameters such as COD, DOC, pH, ionic strength and VFA concentration are not able to predict it. It is notheworthy that the strong complexing capacity of leachate can cause extraction of metals from the solid phase instead of adsorption from the liquid one.

  1. 江西永平铜多金属矿床流体包裹体及硫同位素研究%Fluid Inclusions and Sulfur Isotope of the Yongping Copper-polymetallic Deposit in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军军; 曹殿华; 杨昔林; 邱昌容; 王训军; 阚迎松

    2016-01-01

    永平铜多金属矿床位于华南地区十杭裂谷带南侧,是一个与晚侏罗世二长花岗斑岩侵入体有关的斑岩-矽卡岩矿床。矿区存在斑岩型钼矿和矽卡岩型铜矿两种矿化类型。其中,斑岩型钼矿含矿石英脉中主要发育I型气液两相包裹体、II型CO2三相包裹体和III型含子矿物多相包裹体,早期石英-硫化物阶段流体包裹体的形成温度介于202~359℃之间,盐度介于4.62~36.68 wt%NaCl之间;晚期石英-碳酸盐-硫化物阶段均一温度介于211~318℃之间,盐度范围为2.07~11.47 wt%NaCl。矽卡岩铜矿主要发育I型气液两相包裹体,早期矽卡岩阶段均一温度达到406~486℃,盐度为9.21~9.89 wt%NaCl;石英-硫化物阶段均一温度介于137~335℃之间,盐度值范围为4.98~13.20 wt%NaCl;晚期碳酸盐阶段包裹体均一温度只有89~151℃,盐度范围介于2.07~19.13 wt%NaCl之间。激光拉曼结果显示两者流体包裹体中具有相似的气相成分,都以CO2和H2O为主,成矿流体总体上属于H2O-CO2-NaCl体系。含Mo成矿流体中存在CH4,具有低氧逸度特征,在流体演化早期形成Mo矿化中心,石英-硫化物阶段含Mo流体相对于含Cu流体具有更高的温度和压力。矿石中金属硫化物的δ34S值变化于–0.2‰~+1.9‰之间,这表明成矿物质硫源主要来自深源岩浆。结合地质特征,认为该矿床是与晚侏罗世花岗质岩浆密切相关的斑岩钼-矽卡岩铜矿床,铜和钼矿化存在分带现象,岩浆系统的中心部位具有斑岩型钼矿化,外围及和碳酸盐岩的接触带形成斑岩-矽卡岩型铜钨铅锌矿化。%The Yongping copper-polymetallic deposit, located in the southern segment of Shi-Hang rift zone, is a porphyry-skarn type deposit related to the late Jurassic monzogranite intrusions. The mineralization at Yongping can be divided into two types: porphyry type and skarn type. Petrographic study of fluid inclusions suggests that three dominant types

  2. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  3. Treatment of Landfill Leachate at Army Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    e.g., training residues; propellant, explosive , or pyrotechnic residues; and abandoned transformers. Such materials may be mixed with the general...Schanche, L. J. Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Charateristics, Control, and Treatment of Leachate at Military Installations, Interim Report N-97

  4. 赣南漂塘钨矿锡石及共生石英中流体包裹体研究%Fluid Inclusion Studies on Coexisting Cassiterite and Quartz from the Piaotang Tungsten Deposit, Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东; 倪培; 袁顺达; 吴胜华

    2013-01-01

    The Piaotang tungsten deposit is a large vein type W-polymetallic deposit in southern Jiangxi Province,assemblage of W and Sn is one important feature of this deposit.Based on detailed petrographic observations and the means of Fluid Inclusion Assemblage (FIA),we carried out microthermometric and Raman microspectroscopic studies of fluid inclusions in quartz and coexisting cassiterite in quartz veins which tin mineralized significantly.The results show that,the physical and chemical conditions of cassiterite and quartz formation are not consistent,and the fluid evolution process related to the two types of minerals are also significantly different.The primary fluid inclusions in cassiterite reflect the actual temperature and pressure conditions of cassiterite formation.The fluid related to tin mineralization for NaCl-H2O system with high temperature and medium to low salinity.The study indicate that,the fluid related to tin mineralization may be mainly from crystallization and differentiation of magma,and the cooling of fluid is the main mechanism of tin precipitation in the fluid.%漂塘钨矿床是赣南地区一大型石英脉型钨多金属矿床,钨锡共生是该矿床的重要特征.在详细的岩相学观察基础上,采用“流体包裹体组合”(FIA)的研究方法,对该矿床锡矿化显著的(绿柱石)、锡石、黑钨矿-石英脉阶段石英脉中锡石及与其共生的石英中流体包裹体进行了显微测温和拉曼探针的分析.结果表明,锡石与共生石英形成的物理化学条件并不一致,两类矿物中流体包裹体揭示的流体演化过程也明显不同.锡石中原生的流体包裹体反映了锡石形成时真实的温压条件,与锡矿化相关的流体为高温、中-低盐度的NaCl-H2O流体体系.研究认为,锡石中流体可能主要来自于岩浆的结晶分异,流体体系的冷却是锡在流体中沉淀的主要机制.

  5. 白云鄂博矿床碳酸岩墙/脉和赋矿白云岩中流体包裹体研究%Fluid inclusion study of carbonatite dykes/veins and ore-hosted dolostone at the Bayan Obo ore deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦朝建; 裘愉卓; 周国富; 王中刚; 张台荣; 肖国望

    2007-01-01

    Fluid inclusion study has been carried out for the carbonatite dykes/veins and the ore-hosted dolostone of the Bayan Obo superlarge REE-Fe-Nb deposit in order to provide the evidence and constraint for their origin. Based on the detailed geological observation and mineralogical investigation, the heating and cooling stage and laser Raman spectroscopy were mainly used for the laboratory work of this study. Following results have been obtained: (1) The discovery of melt and melt-fluid inclusions from carbonatite dykes/veins in the Dulahara and Jianshan Mountains, combined with the fine-grained (aplitic) texture of rocks, as well as the types and features of fluid inclusions such as CO2 enrichment, higher homogenization temperature, provides a direct evidence for the magmatic origin of these dykes/veins. (2) The carbonatite dykes/veins distributed in two regions, nearby the axis of the Kuangou anticline and in the east to Bayan Obo town, mainly show coarse-grained texture. No melt inclusion was found, and the fluid inclusions possess features of less CO2, lower homogenization temperature and higher salinity. They are tentatively identified as veins formed by some carbonate-rich hydrothermal solution. (3) Bedding carbonate layers/lens within the hanging wall and foot wall of ore-hosted dolostone, previously recognized as of magmatic origin, mainly composed by dolomite. The existence of single phase pure aqueous inclusions with very low homogenization temperature indicates their sedimentary origin. (4) The ore-hosted dolostone possesses apparent bedding and laminated structures. No melt inclusion was found, but, both single phase pure aqueous inclusions and CO2bearing multi-phase fluid inclusions coexisted in dolostones. In the direction towards ore-bodies, the homogenization temperature and CO2 contents of fluid inclusion show an increasing tendency. It indicates the sedimentary origin of dolostone superimposed by late fluid metasomatism.

  6. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  7. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Ferrer, I; Rutherford, D W; Wershaw, R L; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2003-01-20

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species.

  8. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume.

  9. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  10. Improvement of Landfill Leachate Biodegradability with Ultrasonic Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mahvi Amirhossein; Roodbari Aliakbar; Nabizadeh Nodehi Ramin; Naseri Simin; Dehghani Mohammadhadii; Alimohammadi Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Leachate from mature landfills is typically characterized by high ammonium (NH4+) content, low biodegradability (low BOD5/COD ratio) and high fraction of refractory and large organic molecules such as humic and fulvic acids. Mature leachate effluents are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as...

  11. An investigation of recalcitrant organic compounds in leachates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recalcitrant organic compounds remain a key challenge in landfill leachate management as they are resistant to microbial degradation and have potential to damage the water environment. Conventional leachate characterisation methods are time consuming and limited by their inability to provide compositional analysis. This research therefore investigates the characteristics of recalcitrant organic compounds in leachates and undertakes a feasibility study of the possible use of UV absorption and ...

  12. A review ofLA-ICPMS analysis for individual fluid inclusions and its applications in ore deposits%单个流体包裹体成分LA-ICPMS分析与矿床学应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乐兵; 魏俊浩; 张道涵; 谭俊; 田宁; 赵志新

    2015-01-01

    LA−ICPMS has become a most powerful technique for the research on ore-forming fluid. Except for the noble gases, F, O, H, N and polyatomic species, all elements and the Sr and Pb isotope compositions of individual fluid inclusion can be analyzed quantitatively by LA−ICPMS. The recent developments about the LA−ICPMS analysis of individual fluid inclusion, including the various aspects of laser ablation, aerosol transport, ICPMS detection and the data reduction were reviewed. Then, the applications of individual fluid inclusion analysis by LA−ICPMS in the ore deposits were summarized. This technique is used in characterizing the mineralization processes, such as tracing the source of ore-forming fluid and metals, and deciphering the processes about fluid transport and metal deposition. The results show that the vapor transport of metals needs to be re-evaluated, and significant future progress can be achieved by combination of the femtosecond-laser and MC−ICPMS based on the detailed field researches and microthermometric measurements.%LA-ICPMS分析技术能准确测量单个流体包裹体中除稀有气体,F,O,H,N与多原子相组分外的所有元素及Sr和Pb同位素组成,是新兴的研究成矿流体特征的重要手段。对近年来测试过程中包裹体剥蚀、气溶胶传输、ICPMS测量及数据处理等4个关键步骤的研究进展进行总结,并就LA−ICPMS分析技术在矿床学研究中的应用进行归纳,其可以精细地刻画多种热液系统中成矿流体与成矿物质的来源、运移、沉淀及富集等地球化学过程。同时指出,金属气相转运机制有待进一步研究,而在野外地质调查及微观热力学测试基础上,飞秒激光与MC−ICPMS联用分析单个流体包裹体成分将是未来矿床学研究的重要突破口。

  13. 成油环境中的流体包裹体:分析步骤与PTX重建%Fluid inclusions in petroleum environments:analytical procedure for PTX reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques PIRONON

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fluids from petroleum basins are present in diagenetic minerals as fluid inclusions. They are the witnesses of the original oil or gas composition and the memory of the pressure and temperature conditions at the time of fluid emplacement. Brines are always present as non-miscible phase at equilibrium with oils in reservoir. The analytical procedure is based on the individual analysis of both aqueous and petroleum inclusions. Temperature of phase transitions is measured by microthermometry, dissolved methane content of aqueous inclusions is quantified by Raman spectrometry, CH4 and CO2 content of petroleum inclusions is approximated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and the volume of petroleum inclusions is reconstructed by confocal scanning laser microscopy.Thermodynamic models are based on Duan and Peng-Robinson equations of state and are applied to aqueous and petroleum inclusions respectively. The intersection of the isochores of the two fluid systems gives the true pressure and temperature conditions of fluid trapping. The knowledge of the fluid pressure allows us to reconstruct the hydrodynamic evolution of reservoirs in various geodynamic regimes.%石油盆地内的古流体以流体包裹体的形式保存在成岩矿物中,它们代表了初始石油或气相的组成并记录了流体捕获时的温度和压力条件.在储集层中卤水通常以不混溶相的形式与石油共存.一般利用单个包裹体分析法对水溶液和石油包裹体进行研究,利用显微测温法来确定相转变的温度,利用拉曼光谱定量来分析水溶液包裹体中溶解甲烷的含量.石油包裹体中CH4和CO2的含量可以利用傅立叶变换红外光谱分析来估算,通过共聚焦扫描激光显微镜来重建石油包裹体的体积.利用Duan和Peng-Robinson方程可进行热力学模拟,并分别应用于水溶液和石油包裹体体系.两类流体体系等容线的交点可用来确定流体捕获时的实际温度和压力条

  14. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (pWillow plants were able to survive in landfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning.

  15. Leachate migration and its impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S

    1998-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsular and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. In this report current status of the landfill site related issues were studied along with potential solutions on them. Also the fundamental mathematical derivations to describe the movement of the leachate in geologic medium was studied. These results shall be used to assess the leachate migration in the specific landfill site in the 2nd R and D year.

  16. Water hyacinth system for municipal landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.S.; Biswas, N.; Bewtra, J.K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Batch experiments were conducted in a green house environment to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat municipal landfill leachate. The experiments were carried out on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Three leachate dilutions were used in the study. In addition to plant growth, leachate constituents such as pH, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate, reactive phosphate, total iron, potassium and chloride were also determined. These parameters were analyzed at different times covering the duration of the experiments. The experimental data showed that water hyacinth system was capable of reducing total nitrogen in the leachate. The pH level remained around 8.0. High consumption of alkalinity during the first three weeks was observed, which could be attributed to nitrification of ammonia. Ammonia nitrogen and total reactive phosphate were removed completely, whereas potassium and chloride remained unchanged. Landfill leachate has a negative impact on plant growth. As the concentration of leachate increases, its toxicity increases resulting in the decrease in the growth of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth system seems to be a promising technology for treating municipal landfill leachate. However, additional studies are required to investigate the system tolerance for some pollutants that might be present in leachate at wide ranges of concentrations such as salinities, hydrogen ion concentration, and heavy metals. (author)

  17. Grouped fluid inclusion composition analysis and application in Shaya Uplift%群体包裹体成分分析法及在沙雅隆起的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锦; 郑伦举; 贾存善; 席斌斌

    2011-01-01

    改进后的群体包裹体成分分析方法,能够同时收集油气包裹体中气体、轻烃和重质烃组分.液氮快速冷冻法能将样品破碎至单个颗粒矿物,较好地保持了矿物晶型;球磨法打开包裹体,不会导致包裹体成分性质的变化.沙雅隆起9个储层样品游离烃、吸附烃和油气包裹体全组分的制备和分析结果表明,根据包裹体烃中气体和轻烃可大致判断样品的成熟度;3种赋存状态液态烃的生物标志物和碳同位素分析结果揭示了沉积环境和油气成藏过程的差异.%The improved composition analysis method for grouped fluid inclusion may collect gas, light and heavy hydrocarbons at the same time.Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze samples and break them into single minerals, keeping crystal form unchanged.Ball milling is applied to open fluid inclusion whose components and properties are protected during this process.Composition analyses of free hydrocarbon,adsorbed hydrocarbon and petroleum inclusion in 9 reservoir samples from the Shaya Uplift have indicated that, the compositions of gas and light hydrocarbon in inclusions may be used judge sample maturity.The biomarker and carbon isotope of liquid hydrocarbons may show the differences in sedimentary environment and accumulation.

  18. The Evidence from Inclusions in Pumices for the Direct Degassing of Volatiles from the Magma to the Hydrothermal Fluids in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zenghui; ZHAI Shikui; ZHAO Guangtao

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the evidence in support of the direct magma degassing as the principal mechanism of volatilesreleasing into the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough, as contrasted to the argument for the hydrothermal strippingof volatiles from the volcanic rocks.Laser Raman microprobe and stepped-heating techniques are employed to determine the compositions and contents of thevolatiles in pumices in the middle Okinawa Trough. The results show that the volatiles are similar to the gases in the hy-drothermal fluids and hydrothermal minerals in composition, the mean percent content of each component and variationtrend. This indicates the direct influence of magma degassing on the hydrothermal fluids. In addition, the contents ofvolatiles in pumices are rather low and do not support the hydrothermal stripping as the main mechanism to enrich the fluidswith gases. The results are consistent with the idea that the direct magma degassing is more important than hydrothermalstripping in supplying gases to the hydrothermal fluids in the Okinawa Trough.

  19. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  20. Homogenization temperature and its significance for primary fluid inclusion in halite formed in Chaka salt lake, Qardam basin%内陆盐湖石盐流体包裹体均一温度指示意义的现代过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴起; 倪培; 董海良; 王天刚

    2007-01-01

    Halite precipitation with water and air temperature was observed in detail, and homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in halite formed in ancient and modern Chaka Salt Lake was studied. Halite precipitates mainly in August every year and largely precipitates between 13 and 15pm at one day when water temperatures reach 20℃ but can seldom reach 30℃. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in halite formed in Chaka Salt Lake range from 14℃ to 38℃ with an average of 23.7℃. The number of inclusions appears an obvious peak value at homogenization temperatures between 18 ~ 25℃, which probably represent the water temperature in which halite mainly precipitates when water temperatures reach 20℃. Therefore, homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in halite formed in Chaka Salt Lake can well reflect the water temperature.

  1. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.

    2010-02-01

    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (δ34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O

  2. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  3. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  4. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  5. Constraining the period of hydrocarbon accumulation by fluid inclusion, molecular biomarker and ESR dating techniques: A case study from the Tazhong 45 well, Tarim Basin%塔中45井油气藏成藏期的厘定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鼐; 张宝收; 赵瑞华; 杨晓光; 南燕云; 赵澄雨

    2012-01-01

    在塔中45井的萤石中发现两期烃包裹体:第Ⅰ期烃包裹体为产于萤石中的发黄色弱荧光的原生液相烃包裹体,沿萤石生长纹分布,与萤石同生;第Ⅱ期烃包裹体为产于萤石中的发蓝白色强荧光的次生气液相烃包裹体,分布在萤石的愈合缝中,晚于萤石形成.烃包裹体组分分析和赋存矿物测年结果表明,第Ⅰ期油来源于中上奥陶统,是一期成熟油的充注;第Ⅱ期油应形成于喜马拉雅期,主要来源于高成熟的寒武系烃源岩,是由寒武系原油裂解后再一次大规模轻质油侵入而形成的,第Ⅱ期是奥陶系萤石层段的油气藏主要成藏期.%Two distinct generations of hydrocarbon inclusions are found in vein fluorite from the Ordovician carbonate reservoirs in the Tazhong 45 well, Tarim Basin. The first generation of inclusions is characterized by weak yellow fluorescence, liquid phase, and distribution along the fluorite growth bands. The second generation of inclusions is of strong white fluorescence, gas-liquid phase, and occurrence in the suture lines of fluorite. Based on an integrated investigation of trapping temperature, formation water salinity, molecular compositions of the aqueous and petroleum fluid inclusions, and isotope and ESR dating of the host minerals, it is concluded that: (1) the fluorite vein was formed by a deep fluoride-rich fluid brought into the Ordovician carbonate formation through deep faults during the Permian; (2) the fluoride-rich fluid was a low temperature hydrothermal fluid probably generated from an acidic magmatic activity in the region during the Late Hercynian; (3) the charge of mature liquid hydrocarbons from the Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock was concomitant with the fluorite crystallization in the Tazhong 45 carbonate reservoirs, which resulted in the formation of the first generation of petroleum inclusions in the fluorite growth bands; (4) the second generation of hydrocarbon inclusions

  6. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea

    2014-09-19

    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  7. Assessment of landfill leachate toxicity reduction after biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Tišler, Tatjana; Zgajnar-Gotvajn, Andreja

    2012-02-01

    In the present article, the efficiency of biological treatment of landfill leachates was evaluated by implementation of physicochemical characterisation and a complex toxicity assessment. An array of toxicity tests using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, alga Desmodesmus subspicatus, crustacean Daphnia magna, and embryo of fish Danio rerio, as well as unconventional methods using biochemical biomarkers (protein content, enzymes cholinesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase), were employed. Toxicity of leachates varied depending on the season of collection in relation to their different physicochemical characteristics. Uncommon effects of leachates on organisms, such as hormetic-like increases of algal growth and reproduction of daphnids, were identified. New approaches using the activities of enzymes were found unsuitable for routine hazard assessment of leachates. Although physicochemical parameters and toxicity decreased significantly after biological treatment, the effluents did not meet the demands of the current Slovenian legislation; thus, the existing biological treatment was found inappropriate. The development of advanced treatment techniques for landfill leachates is thus encouraged.

  8. Homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in laboratory grown halite and its implication for paleotemperature reconstruction%实验室合成石盐包裹体的均一温度以及古气候意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡巍; 倪培; 葛晨东; 王天刚; 王国光; 刘吉强; 赵超

    2011-01-01

    石盐是表生环境下形成蒸发岩系的主要矿物,在形成过程中捕获大量的原生包裹体.通过低温冷冻测温技术,可以得到石盐中原生包裹体的一系列均一温度,如何正确理解这些数据是应用石盐原生包裹体恢复古气候的关键.石盐沉积可以发生在气水界面以及水体底部,其均一温度记录了卤水结晶的温度.Lowenstein et al.(1998)曾经用水浴法在恒定水温下合成了人工合成石盐,进行原生包裹体的均一温度研究,然而如何用水温来恢复古气温是古环境解释的关键.本次实验通过40℃下(气温,烘箱中蒸发)人工合成石盐,在岩相学观察基础上,对形成于气水界面漏斗晶中的包裹体和在底水沉积人字晶中的包裹体的均一温度进行低温冷冻测温法测定.测温过程中石盐包裹体可以得到一系列均一温度(10.6~39.9℃),而只有最大均一温度才能反映卤水结晶时的温度,两种类型的包裹体也显示了相似的最大均一温度.因此在浅水环境下,两种包裹体都可以用来反映古气温.%Halite is a major evaporate mineral in the surface environment, and it contains abundant fluid inclusions formed during crystal formation, which can record the brine temperatures of crystal growth in ancient oceanic salt ponds and salt lakes in geological history. Using the "cooling nucleation method" , homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in halite can be measured. However, the interpretation and application of the homogenization temperature in palaeotemperature reconstruction is not straightforward. Fluid inclusions in halite can be captured in cumulate halite crystals formed at the air-water interface or in chevron halite crystals formed at the water-sediment interface. Lowenstein et al. (1998) carried out a microthermometric analysis on halite crystals grown in the laboratory through evaporation of halite-saturated brines in flasks submerged in water baths; however how to

  9. 利用流体包裹体研究喀斯特溶洞 ——桂林和杭州地区古水文条件的对比%Study of karst caves using fluid inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2001-01-01

    During the formation of stalactite and stalagmite in karst caves carbonate minerals often trap gas and aqueous fluids, forming immiscible fluid inclusion population when they are crystallizing.Samples of stalactite formed in the Pleistocene were taken from the karst caves in Guilin and Hangzhou and fluid inclusions in these samples were studied.The data of the immiscible fluid inclusions with the highest densities were used to determine the paleotemperatures in the two localities,to calculate the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous solutions and to estimate pH values of the aqueous solutions. Moreover,the saturation degrees of CaCO3 during the formation of the stalactite samples in the two localities were also calculated that has revealed the cause of more developed karst geomorphology in the southwest of China than in the southeast.%喀斯特溶洞中石钟乳和石笋在形成过程中,碳酸盐矿物结晶时,常常捕获周围水溶液和气体,形成不混溶流体包裹体组合。我们在桂林和杭州洞穴中分别采集更新世形成的钟乳石样品,对于其中流体包裹体进行测定和研究,利用最大密度不混溶流体包裹体确定两地的古温度,计算出两地更新世气体CO2在水溶液中的溶解度,同时测定和估算出水溶液中的pH值。另外,计算出两地钟乳石样品形成过程中的CaCO3饱和度,揭示了喀斯特地貌西南地区比东南地区更为发育的原因。

  10. He-Ar isotopic system of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the molybdenum deposits in south margin of North China Block and its trace to metallogenetic and geodynamic background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU LaiMin; ZHANG GuoWei; GUO Bo; LEE Ben

    2009-01-01

    The helium and argon isotopic compositions of the ore-forming fluids from the molybdenum deposits such as Jinduicheng, Donggou, Shijiawan, and Sandaozhuang, which are located in the East Qinling molybdenum belt in south margin of North China Block (SMCNB), are reported in this paper. The origin and the evolution of the ore-forming fluids and their coupled-relationships with the intra-continental collision and orogenic process of Qinling Orogen in Mesozoic-Cenozoic have been discussed. The 3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar values (3He/4He=1.38-3.64 Ra, and 40Ar/36Ar=295.68-346.39, respectively) of the fluid inclusions in pyrite from the molybdenum deposits in East Qinling suggest that, the ore-forming fluid system is mixed by two end members. One is the high temperature deep-derived fluid congenetic with the porphyries generated by crust-mantle mixing, and the other is the low-temperature meteoric water which is rich in crustal radiogenic He with the component of atmospheric Ar. From the Pb isotopic composition, and ore-bearing potential of the porphyry and the regional stratum, we can conclude that the ore-forming materials of the deposits in the East Qinling molybdenum belt are derived from the deep source by the mixing of lower crust and upper mantle. Therefore, the formation of the molybdenum deposits in SMNCB can be related to the crust-mantle interaction, which is accompanied by the intra-continental orogenic and extension process in the post-collision period of Qinling Orogen. The granitic porphyries which are related to Mo mineralization are not simple crust-remelting type granites or S type granites, but belong to syntexis-type or mantle-derived granites, hence their formation has a profound and regional geodynamic background.

  11. Inclusive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Judy; Burnette, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This review of five recent (1992 and 1993) books and journal articles is intended to illuminate characteristics of inclusive schools. The review defines inclusion as more than merely regular class placement for students with disabilities, to include a philosophy which celebrates diversity and the provision of a continuum of educational options.…

  12. Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lukischa

    2008-01-01

    The placement and education of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has generated a challenge and varied opinions for educators, families, and service providers. It is likely that with recent litigation and legislation which supports inclusion and increasing pressure from advocates of inclusion, the trend towards including…

  13. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  14. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  15. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  16. 陕西神河钡矿床矿物流体包裹体特征与成矿物理化学条件%Fluid inclusion characteristics and metallogenic physicochemical conditions of Shenhe barium deposit, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜华; 刘家军; 柳振江; 翟德高; 邢永亮

    2011-01-01

    The Shenhe barium deposit in Shaanxi Province occurs in the northern ore zone of the early Paleozoic South Qinling barium metallogenic belt. Barite and witherite are main ore minerals. Microthermometric analyses show that the homogenization temperature ranges of the fluid inclusions in barite, witherite and barytocalcite are 108 -205°C(with main peak at 130~170°C), 118-274°C (with main peak at 150-210°C) and 146~227°C,respectively, and the salinity ranges of the fluid inclusions in the barite, witherite and barytocalcite zv(NaCleq) are 0.53% ~ 9.86% , 0.18% ~ 8.95 % and 4.03% ~ 7.31 % , respectively. Laser Raman analyses show that the gas and liquid phase composition of the fluid inclusions in barite is H2O, the gas phase compositions of the fluid inclusions in witherite are composed of CO2, N2, H2S and CH4, the gas phase compositions of the fluid inclusions in barytocalcite include CO2 and N2, and the gas phase compositions of the fluid inclusions in quartz consist of CO2, N2, H2S and CH4. It is concluded that metallogenic conditions of various kinds of barium minerals were different. The formation of witherite was possibly associated with thermochemical sulfate reduction, which consumed lots of organic gases and SG4 in hydrothermal fluids and also inhibited the formation of barite when witherite was formed. The authors thus hold that thermochemical sulfate reduction transferred carbon from organic gases into witherite. Relatively high fluid temperatures, the existence of CO2, fairly high Ba + concentrations, and the environment of high HS concentrations and rapid diffusion of H2S in ore-forming fluids before thermochemical sulfate reduction constituted important factors for witherite formation.%陕西神河钡矿床位于南秦岭钡成矿带的北矿带,重晶石和毒重石为主要的矿石组成.显微测温分析表明,重晶石、毒重石和钡解石内流体包裹体的均一温度范围分别为108~205℃(峰值130~170℃)、118~274

  17. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg mineralization at Fedj Hassène orefield, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejaoui, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fedj Hassène district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within subparallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassène, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm3 and 1.11 g/cm3 and pressure close to 200 bars. Microthermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194°C. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156°C and 210°C and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The δ34S (VCDT values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6‰ to 6,4‰ (average=5,6‰. Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the ?34S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassène in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern Algeria

  18. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  19. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  20. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-01-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (water (δ18OH2O = +7.4 to +7.7 ‰), and dominantly crustal-derived source of sulfur (δ34S = -4.6 to -2.9 ‰) in the hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  1. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-09-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses.

  2. Geochronological, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion constraints for a premetamorphic development of the intrusive-hosted Björkdal Au deposit, northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billström, K.; Broman, C.; Jonsson, E.; Recio, C.; Boyce, A. J.; Torssander, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Björkdal gold deposit, bound to a quartz vein system which is mainly hosted by a quartz-monzodioritic intrusion, is situated at the easternmost part of the 1.9 Ga Skellefte base metal district in the Fennoscandian shield. Three fluid stages may be distinguished, referred to as a “barren” stage, a main gold stage, and a remobilization stage, respectively. From oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence, it is argued that fluids of different origins (magmatic and surface waters) penetrated the ore zone at the inferred stages, but regional metamorphic fluids appear essentially only to have redistributed elements. Early quartz veining took place during a pre-metamorphic stage at ca. 1.88 Ga, as evidenced by unradiogenic galena data and an Sm-Nd scheelite errorchron of 1,915 ± 32 Ma (MSWD = 0.25). Temporarily, the main ore-forming stage was closely related to the first barren stage and took place during a major uplift event close to 1.88 Ga. Although other source rocks cannot be totally ruled out, available isotope data (O, S, Sr and Pb) are seemingly consistent with the view that these elements, and by inference other ore elements, were derived from the host intrusion.

  3. 晚期折返过程含石墨流体包裹体及其意义:以印度两个不同地体为例%Graphite bearing fluid inclusions and their implications to late-stage exhumation processes: Case studies from two disparate terrains in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.K.Panigrahi; S.Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Archean greenstone belts and Proterozoic granulite mobile belts are products of fundamentally different tectonic processes that culminated in different levels of crustal incision. The present study focuses on graphite-bearing fluid inclusions from two such terrains in India, the Angul domain of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and Hutti-Maski schist belt of the eastern Dharwar greenstone-granite belt. In both cases, a high population of such inclusions within the fluid inclusion assemblage rules out the possibility of graphite being a captive phase, and instead confirms that it was deposited by the fluid within the inclusion cavity. Graphite is usually observed to be occurring with either pure water or a pure carbonic ( CO2 only) liquid, or with a CH4 dominated carbonic liquid without vapor at room temperature. Graphite precipitation in inclusions is brought about by reaction of the CO2 and CH4 trapped as a homogeneous fluid to give rise to H2O and C (graphite). Molar volume calculations for the CO2-CH4 mixture assuming an appropriate PVTX relationship indicates that there is a substantial increase in volume with decreasing pressure at a given temperature. The reaction producing graphite and H2O from CH4 and CO2 involves substantial volume reduction, and hence would be favored when the rock undergoes rapid exhumation. Graphite-bearing inclusions in quartz in a late-stage leucosome from migmatites in the Angul domain of the EGMB are accompanied by other fluid inclusion evidence for isothermal decompression. In the Hutti-Maski schist belt of the eastern Dharwar Craton, graphite-bearing inclusions occur in structurally controlled quartz veins (often auriferous ) within metamorphosed mafic volcanics (schists and amphibolites). The Raman spectra indicate that graphites in fluid inclusions from the Hutti-Maski schist belt have both ordered (O) and the disordered (D) peaks, whereas those from the Angul area of EGMB lack the disordered (D) peaks, process. However, the Hutti

  4. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  5. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  6. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  7. Integrated Approach to Investigate the Effect of Leachate on Groundwater around the Ikot Ekpene Dumpsite in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, geochemical, and hydrogeological measurements have been integrated to assess the effect of leachate on groundwater quality within the dumpsite in Ikot Epene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria, and its environs. The resistivity values and depth of burial of the geomaterials, constrained by geology, were used in producing resistivity cross sections which show the geoelectric distribution of the subsurface near and away from the dumpsite. The observed high conductivity in subsurface layers closed to the dumpsite is symptomatic of the leachate-loaded conductive fluid leached and drained into the subsurface. The hydrochemical results of some species conform to WHO standards, while some were found to be relatively higher due to dissolution, leaching, and draining of leachate related contaminants in the soil. The correlation indices of the ion pairs show no significant effect on the paired ions, indicating that the significant value of some of the individual ions is not geologic but due to precipitation from the leachate residue. In general, the effect of leachate is more dominant in the immediate groundwater pathway near the dumpsite than aquifer repositories away from it. The crossplots of the water resistivity and bulk resistivity show exponential increase for the different layers.

  8. 豫西吉家洼金矿成矿作用过程:来自成矿流体的约束%Metallogenic Process of the Jijiawa Gold Deposit in Western Henan:Constraints from Fluid Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴康; 叶会寿; 李正远; 颜正信; 王小雨; 韩新志

    2014-01-01

    豫西吉家洼金矿位于熊耳山金多金属矿集区西部,是一构造蚀变岩-石英脉混合型金矿床。其热液成矿过程包括4个矿化阶段:黄铁矿-石英阶段(Ⅰ)、石英-黄铁矿阶段(Ⅱ)、石英-多金属硫化物阶段(Ⅲ)和石英-碳酸盐阶段(Ⅳ)。通过流体包裹体显微测温、拉曼光谱和H、O同位素分析,获得了成矿流体的温度、盐度、密度和成矿流体的类型和来源,探讨了成矿作用的机理。其结果显示如下:Ⅰ、Ⅱ阶段发育CO2三相包裹体和气液两相包裹体,Ⅲ、Ⅳ阶段主要发育气液两相包裹体。从第Ⅰ阶段到Ⅳ阶段,流体包裹体的均一温度分别为232~333℃、143~266℃、135~227℃和106~166℃;对应的盐度为3.76%~16.05%、1.74%~17.34%、0.7%~17.26%和0.35%~11.34%。表明成矿流体由早阶段中低温、中低盐度的CO2-H2 O-NaCl体系,向晚期的低温、低盐度的H2 O-NaCl体系演化。H、O同位素组成特征显示,成矿流体以岩浆水为主,有不同比例大气降水混合。流体混合作用和流体不混溶作用是促使金发生沉淀、富集的重要因素,水-岩反应对金的沉淀也有促进作用。%The Jijiawa gold deposit is located in the western part of Xiong'er mountain gold polymetallic ore dis-trict,Henan Province.It represents a mixing gold deposit,consisting of structure-controlled alteration type,as well as the quartz vein type.The ore-forming process can be divided into four stages:pyrite-quartz vein stage (Ⅰ),quartz-pyrite vein stage(Ⅱ),quartz-polymetallic sulfides stage(Ⅲ),quartz-carbonate vein stage(Ⅳ). Through the studies of fluid inclusion microscopic temperature measurement,Laser-Raman spectra and H and O isotopes,we obtained the ore-forming fluid temperature,salinity,density and the type and source of ore-forming fluid,and discussed the mechanism of mineralization.The results show as follows:Two types of

  9. Fluid Inclusions of the Dongping gold Telluride Deposit in Hebei Province,China:Involvement of Mantle Fluid in Metallogenesis%河北省东坪碲化物金矿床流体包裹体研究:地幔流体与成矿关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景文; 李荫清

    2001-01-01

    河北省东坪碲化物金矿床是我国迄今为止发现的一个比较典型的碲化物金矿床,矿化为含金石英大脉和含金钾长石脉,两者之间在空间上为过渡关系。为探讨成矿流体的来源,尤其是地幔流体参与成矿的程度,笔者从研究成矿流体入手,应用显微测温、激光拉曼光谱分析对矿区主矿脉进行了比较系统的流体包裹体均一温度、盐度、成分的测试,并测定了He-Ar同位素组成。结果显示,东坪碲化物金矿床中的流体包裹体主要为CO2-NaCl-H2O型和H2O-NaCl型,整体以CO2广泛发育为特征;矿区的成矿温度为250~400℃,集中于300~340℃;成矿压力为40~180 MPa,主要为60~100 MPa;流体成分主要为CO2和H2O,含少量H2S、N2、CH4、CO和C2H2;流体盐度w(NaCleq)为5%~7%;流体总密度为0.48~0.79 g/cm3;矿脉中石英的R/Ra比值高达0.3~5.2,明显高于地壳流体(0.001)。基于碲富集、高R/Ra比值、成矿流体富CO2,笔者认为矿床成矿作用与地幔活动有着密切的关系。%The Dongping deposit is a unique typical gold telluride deposit ever discovered in China.Gold mineralization occurs either as auriferous quartz veins or as fractured auriferous K-feldspar veins,which connect each other in strike.In this paper the homogenization temperatures and salinity of the fluid inclusions as well as their composition and He-Ar isotopic components were systematically measured based on samples from No.1 and No.70 Veins,the most important gold veins in the mine.The fluid inclusions in the Dongping mine can be divided into CO2 and H2O types,both characterized by enrichment in CO2.The fluid inclusion bubbls are 10~30 μm in diameter,mostly in the range of 10~20 μm.The first melting temperatures of CO2 range from -56.2 to -57.4℃,and their melting temperature of CO2-clathrates vary from +5.1 to +7.6℃.The homogenization temperatures of H2O-rich CO2 inclusions

  10. Supercritical water oxidation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Chen, Chongming; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia as an important ingredient in landfill leachate was mainly studied. Based on Peng-Robinson formulations and Gibbs free energy minimization method, the estimation of equilibrium composition and thermodynamic analysis for supercritical water oxidation of ammonia (SCWO) was made. As equilibrium is reached, ammonia could be totally oxidized in SCW. N(2) is the main product, and the formation of NO(2) and NO could be neglected. The investigation on SCWO of landfill leachate was conducted in a batch reactor at temperature of 380-500 °C, reaction time of 50-300s and pressure of 25 MPa. The effect of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio, reaction time and temperature were investigated. The results showed that COD and NH(3) conversion improved as temperature, reaction time and oxygen excess increased. Compared to organics, NH(3) is a refractory compound in supercritical water. The conversion of COD and NH(3) were higher in the presence of MnO(2) than that without catalyst. The interaction between reaction temperature and time was analyzed by using response surface method (RSM) and the results showed that its influence on the NH(3) conversion was relatively insignificant in the case without catalyst. A global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data to estimate the reaction rate of NH(3). The activation energy with and without catalyst for NH(3) oxidation were 107.07 ± 8.57 kJ/mol and 83.22 ± 15.62 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. 黔东南罗里金矿包裹体特征及成因探讨%Fluid Inclusion Features and Genesis of the Loli Gold Deposit in Southeastern Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余超; 余大龙

    2011-01-01

    石英脉型金矿是我国南方金矿重要的矿床类型,黔东南黎平罗里金矿就是其中之一。黎平罗里金矿为贫硫化物石英脉型金矿;矿脉相互关系、矿石结构构造和成矿流体盐度等特征均表明其成矿的多期多阶段性;金主要形成于成矿阶段,成矿流体均一温度主要集中在150~300℃,盐度集中在0.36%~15.76%,密度集中在0.59~0.97g/cm3,流体包裹体气相成分主要为H2 O、CO2、CH4和少量的N2;Au的成矿流体在沿构造缝隙上升到地表浅层的过程中与围岩发生交代作用形成蚀变,分出相对富含H2O的流体和相对富含CO2的流体。Phillips通过富CO2流体和贫CO2流体的比较研究,证明CO2在金矿形成过程中的作用是缓冲流体pH值、保持Au在流体中的高含量,并且在有利容矿岩石中使Au沉淀。从某种意义上来说,CO2的含量可以作为石英脉型金矿勘探的标志。%The Luoli gold deposit in Liping County of southeastern Guizhou,just like other gold-bearing quartz deposits in southern China,is a low-sulfide gold-bearing quartz deposit.The characteristics of geology,quartz fluid inclusions homogenization temperature,salinity,and Raman spectrum suggest that the deposit formation process can be divided into 4 stages: vein formation stage,mineral formation stage,carbonate stage and supergene stage.Ore-forming fluid uniformity temperatures concentrate in 150~300℃.The salinity of ore-forming fluid is between 0.36~15.76 6wt%.The mineralization density ranges from 0.59 to 0.97 g/cm3.The fluid inclusion composition is dominated by H2O,CO2,CH4,and N2.When the mineralization fluid of Au rose to the shallow subsurface along fissures,it caused metasomatic alteration with surrounding rocks,separating the fluids rich in H2O and CO2.According to Phillips et al.,CO2 plays the role of pH buffering in gold forming process and keeping the high content of Au in the fluid,making precipitation of Au in the lucrative rocks

  12. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses...

  13. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Adsorption, biomass waste, heavy metal, synthetic water, leachate. INTRODUCTION ... Gadd, 1993; White et al., 1997). There is also ..... The performance of natural clay as a barrier to the diffusion of municipal ...

  14. levels of some physiochemical parameters in leachates from open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano .... waste water treated and directive (European Union. 2000), there has ... Sample Treatment ... biological oxygen demand determination of the leachate sample in mg/l was.

  15. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  16. Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions in Jiama Copper-Pollymetallic Ore Deposit, Tibet and Its Geological Significance%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床流体包裹体特征及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 赵财胜; 吕志成; 严光生; 甄世民

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered Jiama super large copper-polymetallic deposit is located in the middle section of Gangdese metallogenic belt, Tibet. Systematic studies including petrography, microthermometry, laser Raman microprobe and SEM/EDS were carried out on the primary fluid inclusions in metallogentic granite and major ore bodies. The analytical results show that dominant fluid inclusions from skarn ore related to metallogensis include liquid-rich, gas-rich two-phase and daughterminerals bearing polyphase types. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions range from 225 ℃ to 500 ℃. The average of the salinities of ore-forming fluid is 36. 2% NaCleq and the densities vary from 0.89 to 0.98 g/cm3. The ore-forming fluids belong to NaCl - H2O type characterized by highmoderate temperature, high salinity, low density and strong reduction. Besides H2O, the gas compositions are immiscible system rich in CH4, H2S, CO2 and N2 etc. The occurrence of organic matter, such as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6, suggests that the ore-forming materials were formed in a reduced environment. Based on estimation of mineralization pressure and the relationship between pressure and depth in fracture zones, the mineralization depth is considered to be at 2.2 - 8.3 km. The analytical results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic elements show that ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water mixed with meteoric water later. The coexistence of daughter-minerals bearing multiphase inclusions and those liquid-and gas-rich inclusions with different filling degrees, together with their similar homogenization temperatures and much different salinities, indicates that ore-forming fluids had experienced boiling.%甲玛矿床是位于西藏冈底斯成矿带中段的超大型铜多金属矿床.成矿相关岩体和主矿体中的流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温、激光拉曼探针及扫描电镜/能谱分析结果表明:与成矿有关的流体包裹体主要有富液相、富气相

  17. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  18. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  19. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  20. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara E Silva, Pablo Pena; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Resaffe, Pryscila; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Gusmão, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate the toxicity of leachates from virgin and beached plastic pellets to embryo development of the brown mussel (Perna perna). We compared the efficiency of two test procedures, and evaluated the toxicity of beached pellets collected in a coastal marine protected area. We observed that mussel embryo is sensitive to leachate from both virgin and beached pellets. However, the toxicity of the leachate from beached pellets was much higher than that of virgin pellets. We suggest contaminants adsorbed onto the surface of beached pellets were responsible for the high toxicity of leachate from beached pellets, while the toxicity of leachate from virgin pellets was mainly due to plastic additives. Our results suggest microplastic debris may be harmful even if ingestion is not the only or main pathway of interaction of marine organisms with contaminated plastic debris.

  1. Impact of leachate composition on the advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining importance as an alternative to the biological or physicochemical treatments for the management of leachates. In this work, it has been studied the effect of the characteristics of the leachate (content in humic acids, landfill age and degree of stabilization) on the wet oxidation process and final quality of the treated effluent. A high concentration of humic acids in the leachate had a positive effect on the COD removal because this fraction is more easily oxidizable. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the simultaneous presence of humic acid and the intermediates generated during the oxidation process improved the degradation of this acid, since such intermediates are stronger initiators of free radicals than the humic acid itself. Similar values of COD removals (49% and 51%) and biodegradability indices (0.30 and 0.35) were observed, after 8 h of wet oxidation, for the stabilised leachate (biologically pretreated) and the raw one, respectively. Nevertheless, final colour removal was much higher for the stabilised leachate, achieving values up to 91%, whereas for the raw one only 56% removal was attained for the same reaction time. Besides, wet oxidation treatment was more efficient for the young leachate than for the old one, with final COD conversions of 60% and 37%, respectively. Eventually, a triangular "three-lump" kinetic model, which considered direct oxidation to CO2 and partial oxidation through intermediate compounds, was here proposed.

  2. 沉积盆地中的流体包裹体:理论基础、图解与分析方法%Fluid inclusions in sedimentary basins:Theoretical basis, diagrams, analytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean DUBESSY

    2004-01-01

    This paper is focused on the methods to study fluid inclusions in order to get the relevant information. First, the H2 Osalts systems are described and special attention is made upon the determination of the composition from microthermometric data and using new analytical techniques. Application to the study of fluid mixing is exemplified. The different diagrams of H2O-( gas)-salts systems with special attention of the CO2-CH4 system are presented. The complexity of the H2 O-( gas)-salts systems at low temperature, due to the presence of clathrates, is described. The use of micro-Raman spectrometry is specially focused for methanebearing aqueous fluids. The identification of the immiscibility process based on phase diagrams analysis is detailed.%本文主要介绍如何利用流体包裹体来获得合理的数据.首先对H2O-体系进行总结,着重介绍利用显微测温法和其他新的分析技术来确定流体的组成,并举例说明流体混合在流体包裹体研究中的应用.介绍了H2O-(气)-盐体系特别是CO2-CH4体系的图解,探讨了在低温下由于笼合物的形成H2O-(气)-盐体系的复杂相变.重点介绍显微激光拉曼光谱仪在含甲烷水溶液流体中的应用,并根据相图详细讨论了如何确定流体的不混溶.

  3. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  4. He, Ne and Ar isotope compositions of fluid inclusions in hy-drothermal sulfides from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Zhigang; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Rona, P. A. , Klinkhammer, G. , Nelsen, T. A. et al. , Black smokers, massive sulphides and vent biota at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature, 1986, 321: 33.[2]Edmonds, H. N. , German, C. R. , Green, D. R. H. et al. , Continuation of the hydrothermal fluid chemistry time series at TAG, and the effects of ODP drilling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3487.[3]Charlou, J. L. , Donval, J. P. , Jean-Baptiste, P. et al. , Gases and helium isotopes in high temperature solutions sampled before and after ODP Leg158 drilling at TAG hydrothermal field (26°N, MAR), Geophys. Res. Lett., 1996, 23: 3491. [4]Rudnicki, M. D. , Elderfield, H. , Helium, radon and manganese at the TAG and Snakepit hydrothermal vent fields, 26°and 23°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1992, 113: 307. [5]Butterfield, D. A. , Massoth, G. J. , McDuff, R. E. et al. , Geochemistry of fluids from Axial Seamount hydrothermal emissions study vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Subseafloor boiling and subsequent fluid-rock interaction, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 12895. [6]Baker, E. T. , Lupton, J. E. , Changes in submarine hydrothermal 3He/heat ratios as an indicator of magmatic/tectonic activity, Nature, 1990, 346: 556. [7]Jean-Baptiste, P. , Fouquet, Y. , Abundance and isotopic composition of helium in hydrothermal sulfides from the East Pacific Rise at 13°N, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1996, 60: 87. [8]Stuart, F. M. , Turner, G. , Duckworth, R. C. et al. , Helium isotopes as tracers of trapped hydrothermal fluids in ocean-floor sulfides, Geology, 1994, 22: 823. [9]Stuart, F. M. , Duckworth, R. , Turner, G. et al. , Helium and sulfur isotopes in sulfide minerals from Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 1994, 139: 387. [10]Turner, G. , Stuart, F. , Helium/heat ratios and deposition temperatures of sulphides from the ocean floor, Nature, 1992, 357: 581.[11

  5. Analysis of Errors Involved in the Estimation of Leachate Pollution Index Due to Nonavailability of Leachate Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of maintaining a solid waste landfill is managing the leachate through proper treatment to prevent pollution into the surrounding ground and surface water. Any assessment of potential impact of a landfill on groundwater quality requires consideration of the component of leachate most likely to cause an envionental impact as well as the source of concentration of those components. Leachate pollution index (LPI is an environmental index used to quantify and compare the leachate contamination potential of solid waste landfill. This index is based on concentration of 18 pollutants in leachate and their corresponding significance. That means, for calculating the LPI of a landfill, concentration of these 18 parameters are to be known. However, sometimes the data for all the 18 pollutants included in the LPI may not be available to calculate the LPI. In this study, the possible errors involved in calculating the LPI due to nonavailability of data are reported by the author. The leachate characteristic data for solid waste landfill at Chittagong in Bangladesh have been used to estimate these errors. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the errors may be high if the data for the pollutants having significantly high or low concentration are not available. However, LPI can be reported with a marginal error if the concentrations of the nonavailable pollutants are not completely biased.

  6. Landfill Leachates Treatment by /UV, /, Modified Fenton, and Modified Photo-Fenton Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi Naumczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as H2O2/UV, O3/H2O2, modified Fenton, and modified photo-Fenton processes have been investigated in terms of the treatment of landfill leachate with ratio of BOD5/COD in the range of 0.22 to 0.24. The modification of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes consisted in the inclusion of precipitation and separation of humic substances at pH 3. Due to the precipitation, the value of COD decreased by 39% and BOD5 by 7.1%. The modification of the processes allowed us to improve the efficiency and to decrease the doses of reagents necessary to continue the process. Modified photo-Fenton process proved to be the most effective (92.7% COD removal of all processes investigated. Additionally, modified-Fenton process was much more effective than the other two processes when compared up to 120 min, while after longer times it gave the least satisfactory results. After 30 min of modified-Fenton process BOD5/COD ratio increased to 0.43. The parameter referred to as “efficiency of oxidants” was used to estimate the efficiency of all the processes—its value varied from 178 to 239%. Various substances including phthalates, hydrocarbons, silanes, and siloxanes were identified in raw and treated leachate.

  7. Mesozoic vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization in the Pyrenees: Lead isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence from the Les Argentières and Lacore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marguerite; Baron, Sandrine; Boucher, Adrien; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The Axial Zone of the Pyrenees contains numerous sedimentary-exhalative Pb-Zn deposits formed during the Early Palaeozoic, which have been the subject of several studies. In addition to these, base-metal vein-type mineralizations are also exposed within the Axial Zone metasediments. These deposits, however, have not been investigated in depth and the timing and geodynamic context of their formation has not been specifically addressed. The vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of Les Argentières and Lacore are located in Devonian terranes of the eastern Pyrenees, south of the Mesozoic Aulus basin. They are interpreted as having been emplaced under an extensional setting. They are characterized by silver-rich tetrahedrite that occurs with Pb-Zn sulphides deposited by low-temperature NaCl-CaCl2 brines. Lead isotopic 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios acquired on galena show more radiogenic values compared to those from the Palaeozoic sedimentary-exhalative mineralization, thus indicating younger ages. According to the model ages, the formation of the two deposits may be narrowed down to middle Late Triassic and Late Jurassic periods, respectively, which allows us to argue in favour of the role of pre-Alpine rifting phases in hydrothermal fluids circulation and mineralization deposition in a vein system bounding the Mesozoic Aulus basin.

  8. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...

  9. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...

  10. Inclusion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Colver, David

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion analysis is the name given by Operis to a black box testing technique that it has found to make the checking of key financial ratios calculated by spreadsheet models quicker, easier and more likely to find omission errors than code inspection.

  11. Kinetics of Organic Matter Biodegradation in Leachate from Tobacco Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briški, F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of wastes and leachate evolved in landfills is today an imperative due to rigorous environmental protection legislation. In this work, biodegradation of the organic fraction in tobaccowaste leachate was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at initial concentra tion of activated sludge of 3.03 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of organic matter in leachate, expressed as COD, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 g dm–3 . The working volume of the reactor (Fig. 1 was 7 dm3 within the cylindrical porous liner and it was filled with the suspension of leachate and activated sludge . The liner was designed such that it did not allow activated sludge to pass through. Continuous up-flow aeration was provided by a membrane pump. The temperature during the biodegradation process was 23 ± 2 °C. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature in reactor were monitored continuously by probes connected to a remote meter. Toxicity of leachate was performed by toxicity test using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri before starting with the biodegradation in the batch reactor. The obtained results showed that effective concentration of leachate is EC 50 = 1.6 g dm–3 and toxicity impact index is TII50 = 9.99, meaning that untreated leachate must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the biodegradation process of leachate in batch reactor are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 2. The ratio γXv/γX was almost constant throughout the experiments and ranged from 0.69 do 0.73. This implies that the concentration of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments, and average yield was 5.26 %. The important kinetic and stoichiometric parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely the Y, Ks, Kd, and μmax were calculated from the batch experiments (Table 2. The experimental results of the influence of initial substrate concentrations on substrate degradation rate, and influence of

  12. Mineralization, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope studies in the carbonate hosted Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit (NE Anarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi

    2015-10-01

    , crustification banding,andbotryoidaltexture. The host rock has undergone dolomitization alteration Hypogene minerals include chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, barite, and calcite. Supergene minerals include malachite, azurite, covellite, chrysocolla, chalcocite, cerussite, smithsonite, native copper and iron oxide minerals. Sulfantimonides and sulfardenides are abundant in low- and moderate temperature stages of the deposit, while bismuth sulfides generally occur in higher temperature ores, according to Malakhov, 1968. Analysis of rich ore samples indicates copper is the most abundant heavy metal in the ore (average 20.28 wt%, followed by zinc (average ~ 1 wt% and arsenic (average ~ 1 wt%, respectively. Thepresence of many trace elements in the ore, such as Sb, Pb, Ag and V, are very important. Element pairs such as Ag-Cu, Zn-Cd, Zn-Sb, Fe-V and Pb-Mo are correlated with each other. The Baqoroq ore minerals are rich in As, Sb and poor in Bi. Highamountsof antimony usually occur in a low temperature stage (Marshall and Joensuu, 1961. Malakhov (1968 suggested thata high Sb/Biratio in the ore indicates a low temperature of formation for the Baqoroq deposit. Sulfide mineralization fluids were found to have homogenization temperatures between 259 and 354°C and salinities between 8.37 and 13.18 wt% NaCl eq. Surface water apparently diluted theore-bearing fluids in the final stages and deposited sulfide-freecalcite veins at relatively low temperatures (78 to 112 °C and low salinities (3.59 to 6.07 wt% NaCl eq.. The δ34S values of barite of the Baqoroq deposit range from +13.1 to +14.37‰from whichδ34S values of ore fluids were calculated to vary between -8.57‰ and -7.23‰. Sulfur within natural environments is derived ultimately from either igneous or seawater sources (Ohmoto and Rye, 1979. Barite δ34S values of Baqoroq deposit lie within the range of Cretaceous-age oceanic sulfate values. The reduction of sulfate to sulfide couldhave been caused either by

  13. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature exists relating to Inclusive Design. The literature can be divided into theory concerning methodology and case studies concerning practice. With such a large body of theoretical literature available, the question arises as to how closely practice matches that theory....... This paper is a survey of the methods used in the execution of self-declared inclusively design products based on an analysis of academic papers, posters and oral presentations. The case studies are divided into two groups, product design and assistive technology. Design steps were assigned to six categories...

  14. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  15. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  16. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fluid inclusion study of the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan ore field, Xinjiang Province%新疆东天山白山钼矿床流体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项楠; 杨永飞; 吴艳爽; 周可法

    2013-01-01

    The Baishan Mo deposit in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Province, is a large-giant porphyry deposit discovered in the eastern Jueluotag tectonic belt According to paragenesis and crosscutting relationship of the stockworks, ore-forming veinlets in order from early to late are the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets, quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-molybdenite veinlets, quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets and the late stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets. The hydrothermal quartz in the early quartz-potassic feldspar veinlets mainly contain pure CH4 (PC-type), CH4-H2O (Cl-type) and NaCl-H2O (W-type); these fluid inclusions mainly homogenize at temperatures of 320℃ to 420℃ , and yield salinities of 1. 98% to 8. 79% NaCleqv. The quartz-potassic feldspar-molybdenite veinlets contain daughter mineral-bearing (S-type) and W-type fluid inclusions, with homogenization temperatures ranging from 260℃ to 400℃ and salinities of 1. 49% to 8. 65% NaCleqv. The quartz-molybdenite veinlets and quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets contain W-, S- and C2 (CO2-H2O) types of fluid inclusions that are generally homogenized at temperatures of 200℃ to 240℃ and 140℃ to 240℃ , with salinities of 2. 14% to 8. 10% NaCleqv and 0. 33% to 10. 22% NaCleqv, respectively. The late-stage quartz-carbonate-fluorite veinlets only contain the W-type fluid inclusions mainly which homogenize at l00℃ to 160℃ , yielding salinities of 0. 17% to 4. 86% NaCleqv. The estimated pressures range from 105 ~ 221 MPa for the early-stage veinlets to 15 ~ 285MPa for the quartz-polymetallic sulfide veinlets. In a word, the ore-forming fluids evolve from high temperature, carbonic and reducing magmatic to low temperature and low salinity meteoric. The decrease of temperature and the reduction of high-valent molybdenum of HMoO4- result in the precipitation of molybdenite.%白山钼矿位于东天山觉罗塔格成矿带东段,是新疆极具代表性的大型-超大型斑

  18. 含油流体包裹体:地球化学分析与地质应用%Oil-bearing fluid inclusions:geochemical analysis and geological applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon C GEORGE; Herbert VOLK; Manzur AHMED

    2004-01-01

    利用含油流体包裹体可以获得与原油和源区常规分析同等质量的可靠地球化学数据.细致而又小心谨慎地对待各测试步骤(如样品清洗、背景空白等)是成功进行包裹体油气成分分析的基础.从技术上来说,每一分析步骤都具有挑战性,但如果我们能按步骤循序渐进,就不仅能够分析那些含有大量石油包裹体的样品(如当今或古油藏样品),而且可以测试含极少量石油包裹体的样品(如迁移路径或极古老岩石样品).包裹体中可被测试的碳氢化合物多种多样,包括低分子量的碳氢化合物、n-链烷、类异戊二烯、生物标志物、芳香族碳氢化合物等.流体包裹体内石油成分分析在地质上有广泛应用,比如可以更好地重建储集区石油重注史、确定盆地中以前未知的活性源岩.在储集区内由生物降解造成的石油再造和(或)水洗作用经常被抹去,流体包裹体分析则可以解释储集区复杂成油阶段,当然更可以去除钻孔泥浆添加剂或其他污染物的影响.此外,也可以获知地球早期生物圈碳氢化合物的组成及多样性,以及在勘探区或盆地进行二次迁移路径填图.%Reliable geochemical information of similar quality to conventional analyses of crude oils and source rocks can be obtained from oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI). Carefully controlled analytical procedures including sample clean-up, procedural blanks and attention to detail are essential for the successful analysis of inclusion oils. The procedures are technically challenging, but if they are carefully followed, successfully analysed samples can include not only those with high abundances of oil inclusions, such as in current or palaeo oil reservoirs, but also samples with low amounts of oil inclusions, such as those from oil migration pathways or from very ancient rocks. A full range of hydrocarbons can be measured from inclusions, including low molecular weight

  19. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently.

  20. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  1. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

  2. The Comet Assay for the Evaluation of Genotoxic Potential of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Widziewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic assessment of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment was conducted with two human cell lines (Me45 and NHDF and Daphnia magna somatic cells. The alkali version of comet assay was used to examine genotoxicity of leachate by DNA strand breaks analysis and its repair dynamics. The leachate samples were collected from Zabrze landfill, situated in the Upper Silesian Industrial District, Poland. Statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallice ANOVA rank model were observed between DNA strand breaks in cells incubated with leachate before and after treatment (P<0.001. Nonparametric Friedman ANOVA confirmed time-reliable and concentration-reliable cells response to leachate concentration. Examinations of chemical properties showed a marked decrease in leachate parameters after treatment which correlate to reduced genotoxicity towards tested cells. Obtained results demonstrate that biological cotreatment of leachate together with municipal wastewater is an efficient method for its genotoxic potential reduction; however, treated leachate still possessed genotoxic character.

  3. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  4. Retrograde P-T-t-D path in a segment of the West-European Variscan belt: evidence for an anticlockwise path in the Canigou Massif (Eastern Pyrenees) from fluid inclusion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, P.; Laumonier, B.; Marignac, C.; Boiron, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Pyrenees, and especially in the Canigou Massif, Variscan orogeny consisted of a protracted series of tectono-thermal and magmatic events in Westphalian-Stephanian times (no more than 10ca 320-300 Ma). Eight deformation events (Di, i=1, ., 8) serves as a referentialD1 to D8) provide a frame for the thermal and magmatic events. The main deformation events were D3 D3 (nappe stacking, regional flat S3 schistosity), resulting from a subduction of the Ebroan micro-plate; D6 (folding the northward underthrusting of the Ebroan foreland; D6 (folding at upper crustal scale, with 10 km-size upright folds); D8 (development of dextral-reverse mylonitic fault zones). Two major thermal events are recorded: a syn-D3, mainly low-grade, barrovian metamorphism (M3); an low to high-grade, syn-D4 LP-HT metamorphism (M4); M4 isograds were folded by D6 folds. Granitic magmatism (ca 305 Ma) spanned the D4 (M4)-D7D4/M4-D7 interval. Silicate mineralMineral data allow the characterisation of the M3 to M4 path and the M4 peak conditions (540°C at ca. 9 km depth, i.e., a near 60°C.km-1 gradient). But they are unable to decipher the retrograde path. For this, fluid inclusions (FI) in quartz veins formed at different levels of the metasedimentary pile have been studied: early (pre-D3) quartz veins, deformed veins, and late (syn-D7) undeformed tensional veins. Results: (i) M4/D4 peak conditions were confirmed by FI having trapped volatile-bearing (CO2-dominated with minor CH4 and N2) fluids of mild salinity, recording the advection of hot fluids from beneath. (ii) The consequences of D6 perturbationfolding were recorded by various paths, according to the position of the samples in the mega-folds. In the cores of the synforms, rocks experienced both T and P increases (the latter, possibly linked to the development of now-eroded sedimentary basins at the surface). (iii) Syn- to post-D7 fluid circulation is recorded by a new set of FI, which involved purely aqueous fluids of mild to low

  5. Fluid inclusion and carbon oxygen isotope studies of Qiongbulake copper deposit in Awulale Mountains, Xinjiang%阿吾拉勒山琼布拉克铜矿床流体包裹体及碳氧同位素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗勇; 廖思平; 杨武斌; 单强; 周昌平

    2011-01-01

    Located in Yining County of Xinjiang, the Qiongbulake copper deposit was formed in relation to magmatic hydrothermal fluids. These fluids formed a stockwork of calcite veinlets. The distribution of veins and fluid inclusions in these veins records the progressive pressure, temperature, and compositional evolution of the hydrothermal fluids that formed this copper deposit. This paper aims to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the mineralizing system and to understand the mechanism that controlled the accumulation of this large, massive Cu deposit. On the basis of the studies by means of inclusion petrography, microthermometry and carbon, oxygen stable isotope, the authors systematically studied characteristics of the ore-forming fluids and the origin of the Qiongbulake copper deposit. Three types of fluid inclusions in calcite were recognized, I.e., VLtype inclusions, Lva type inclusions and LVb type inclusions, with no CO2 phrase fluid inclusions and daughter phrase fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusions associated with calcite display moderate-low homogenization temperature (92.3~ 355.91C ), moderate-low salinities (ωCNaClep) 0.88% ~ 16.89%) and low density (0.62~1.04g/cm3). C and O isotope determinations of calcite show δ 13Cpdb values of - 7.37‰~-4.19‰ and δ Osmowvalues of 9.63‰ ~ 11.91‰, suggesting that the ore-forming fluids were derived from the mantle and volcanism. On the whole, the Qiongbulake copper deposit is a moderate-low hydrothermal ore deposit.%琼布拉克铜矿床位于新疆伊宁县境内,前人对该矿床的成因一直存在争议.文章通过对琼布拉克铜矿床方解石中的流体包裹体进行系统的岩相学、显微测温学和碳氧稳定同位素分析研究,探讨了成矿流体的来源及演化.研究表明:琼布拉克铜矿床的流体包裹体主要为气-液两相包裹体,另有少量的气相包裹体,未见富CO2和含子矿物的流体包裹体,显示出张性构造环境流

  6. Biosorption of gold from computer microprocessor leachate solutions using chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Letícia N; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2015-11-01

    The biosorption of gold from discarded computer microprocessor (DCM) leachate solutions was studied using chitin as a biosorbent. The DCM components were leached with thiourea solutions, and two procedures were tested for recovery of gold from the leachates: (1) biosorption and (2) precipitation followed by biosorption. For each procedure, the biosorption was evaluated considering kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects. The general order model was able to represent the kinetic behavior, and the equilibrium was well represented by the BET model. The maximum biosorption capacities were around 35 mg g(-1) for both procedures. The biosorption of gold on chitin was a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It was found that precipitation followed by biosorption resulted in the best gold recovery, because other species were removed from the leachate solution in the precipitation step. This method enabled about 80% of the gold to be recovered, using 20 g L(-1) of chitin at 298 K for 4 h.

  7. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Adelaida [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Urtiaga, Ane [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail: urtiaga@unican.es; Rivero, Maria-Jose [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    The feasibility of removing ammonium from landfill leachates by electrochemical oxidation was studied. Raw leachates and biologically/physico-chemically pretreated leachates from a municipal landfill site were treated. Boron doped diamond was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode, both electrodes with an area of 70 cm{sup 2}. The effects of the applied current density (15-90 mA cm{sup -2}), the initial ammonium concentration (480-2000 mg L{sup -1}), and the initial chloride concentration were experimentally studied. Total ammonium removal was obtained after 360 min of processing and almost half of the initial ammonium nitrogen was oxidized to nitrate. On the other hand, the concentration of chloride enhanced the rate of ammonium oxidation. In addition, the amount of N-NH{sub 4} {sup +} transformed into N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} decreased when additional chloride was provided.

  8. A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON DENITRIFICATION OF WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  9. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Klauck

    Full Text Available In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill. and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.. Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment and negative control (tap water. The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  10. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepa showed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  11. Development of methods for detecting viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-08-01

    Methods were developed for detecting and concentrating enteric viruses in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. Poliovirus added to a leachate was not readily detectable, possibly because the virus was adsorbed to the leachate particulates. The masking effects associated with suspended solids in the leachate were overcome by adding a final 0.1 M sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate concentration to the leachate. A sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate could be clarified by filtration at pH 8.0 without a loss of virus. The clarified and sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate contained interfering materials of an anionic nature which prevented virus adsorption to epoxy-fiber glass filters. This interfering effect was overcome by treating the leachate with an anion-exchange resin. Viruses in the resin-treated leachate were concentrated by adjusting the leachate to pH 3.5, adding AlCl(3) to a final 0.005 M concentration, adsorbing the viruses to an epoxy-fiber glass virus adsorbent, and eluting the adsorbed viruses in a small volume. When this method was used to concentrate poliovirus 100-fold in a variety of leachates, the average virus recovery efficiency was 37%. With the methods described in this study, it should be possible to efficiently monitor solid waste disposal site leachates for enteric viruses.

  12. Choosing tree genotypes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate using phyto-recurrent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Information about the response of poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes to landfill leachate irrigation is needed, along with efficient methods for choosing genotypes based on leachate composition. Poplar clones were irrigated during three cycles of phyto-recurrent selection to test whether genotypes responded differently to leachate and water, and to test...

  13. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  14. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  15. The temperature and precipitation reconstructions on Swiss stalagmites with a special emphasis on altitude gradient using noble-gases, δO-18 and δD of fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Elaheh; Brennwald, Matthias; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of an application of 'Combined Vacuum Crushing and Sieving (CVCS)' system (e.g., allowing to crush samples to defined grain size in vacuum) for the first time to stalagmites grown in cold climates during the last glacial-interglacial transition, but at different altitudes. Recently, concentrations of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in fluid inclusions of stalagmites were used to reconstruct past ambient cave temperatures, the annual mean temperature and hydrological conditions when the water was trapped. To reconstruct temperatures from noble gases (noble gas temperature: NGT) in water-filled inclusions, we processed samples from Swiss stalagmites M6 from Milandre cave (400 m.a.s.l) and GEF1 from Grotte aux Fées cave (895 m.a.s.l) covering the climatic transitions Allerød-Younger Dryas-Holocene. Water content. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of calcite fabric (e.g., 'water yield': WT) was shown to be a measure of the total water content. The data shows that the WT systematically changes with δ18Ocalcite of the calcite. We therefore conclude that WT records can be linked on changes in drip rates and thus can be used to track changes of past precipitation even in cold regions. Noble gases. Noble gas analysis shows that the annual mean temperatures in Milandre cave were 2.2±2.0°C during the late Allerød and dropped to 0±2°C at the Younger Dryas. Such temperatures close 0°C indicate that drip water supply stopped in response to the formation of permafrost conditions around the cave preventing further stalagmite growth. However, one late Holocene sample gave a cave temperature of 8.7±1.4°C agreeing generally with present day annual mean temperature. The annual mean temperature of 5.7±1.3°C from GEF1 was determined for the early Holocene. The observed data show systematic variations with sample elevation, e.g., higher temperature from lower altitude and vice versa. Combining the isotopic composition of water in fluid

  16. A preliminary study of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions of different minerals%矿物流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东亮; 郑德顺; 彭建堂; 袁顺达

    2011-01-01

    查明流体包裹体中稀有气体的保存能力,对于判断其初始组分特征是否因后生作用而发生改变具有重要意义.文章以Ar为例,从扩散动力学角度对稀有气体地球化学研究中常用的矿物中流体包裹体稀有气体的保存能力进行了定量分析和系统比较,计算了Ar在这些矿物中的封闭温度以及不同温度条件下的保存时间,得出相同条件下各矿物对Ar、He等保存能力的大小顺序为:重晶石(天青石)>黄铜矿>黄铁矿>方铅矿>钾盐>闪锌矿>萤石>黑钨矿>白钨矿>绿柱石>方解石>石英,其中石英中Ar的封闭温度对矿物颗粒大小变化十分敏感,它会随着晶体颗粒半径的增大而迅速提高,但其扩散速率受温度变化的影响相对较小.这为准确评估不同矿物的流体包裹体中稀有气体信息受后生地质作用的影响程度提供了理论依据,有望促进稀有气体同位素地球化学的发展.%Studies of the retention of noble gases in fluid inclusions from various hydrothermal minerals are necessary for tracing the source of ore-forming fluid by using noble gas isotopic geochemistry. Mainly with Ar as an example, the retention of noble gases in several minerals commonly used to study fluid inclusion geochemistry was quantitatively evaluated and systematically compared with each other in this paper in terms of diffusion dynamics. In addition, closure temperature and preservation time of noble gases in these minerals were also calculated. The result reveals that, under the same conditions, the component characteristics of Ar, He and other noble gases can be preserved in these minerals in order of barite ( = celestite) > chalcopyrite> pyrite> galena> sylvite> sphalerite> fluorite> wolframite > scheelite> beryl > calcite> quartz. It is also indicated that the closuretemperature of Ar in quartz is more sensitive to the change of grain size than that of other minerals and will increase rapidly

  17. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic......, ferrogenic, nitrate-reducing and aerobic environments overa distance of 370 m. This redox zone sequence is consistent with thermodynamical principles and is closely matched by the leachate plume determined by the chloride plume distribution. The redox zone sequence is believed to be key in controlling...

  18. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to −0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE).For the toxic...... through emissions of treated wastewater to surface waters.The largest environmental improvement with regard to the direct cost of the landfill was the capping and leachate treatment system. The capping, though very cheap to establish, gave a huge benefit in lowered impacts, the leachate collection system...

  19. 澳大利亚造山型金矿和侵入岩有关金矿系统流体包裹体资料和矿化过程的比较%Comparison of fluid inclusion data and mineralization processes for Australian orogenic gold and intrusion-related gold systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.P.Memagh; E.N.Bastrakov; Khin Zaw; A.S.Wygralak; L.A.I.Wybom

    2007-01-01

    We have examined the fluid inclusion data and fluid chemistry of Australian orogenic and intrusion-related gold deposits to determine if similar mineralization processes apply to both styles of deposits. The fluid inclusion data from the Yilgarn craton, the western subprovince of the Lachlan orogen, the Tanami, Tennant Creek and Pine Creek regions, and the Telfer gold mine show that mineralization involved fluids with broadly similar major chemical components ( i. e. H2O + NsCl + CO2 ± CH4 ± N2 ). These deposits formed over a wide range of temperature-pressure conditions ( < 200 to > 500℃, < 100 ~ 400MPa ). Low salinity, CO2-bearing inclusions and low salinity aqueous inclusions occur in both systems but the main difference between these two types of deposits is that most intrusion-related gold deposits also contain at least one population of high-salinity aqueous brine. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data for both styles of deposit usually cannot distinguish between a magmatic or metamorphic source for the ore-bearing fluids. However, sulfur and lead isotope data for the intrusion-related gold deposits generally indicate either a magmatic source or mixing between magmatic and sedimentary sources of fluid. The metamorphic geothermal gradients associated with intrusion-related gold deposits are characterized by low pressure, high temperature metamorphism and high crustal geothermal gradients of > 30/km. Where amphibole breakdown occurs in a granite source region, the spatially related deposits are more commonly associated with Cu-Au deposits rather than Au-only deposits that are associated with lower temperature granites. The dominant processes thought to cause gold precipitation in both types of deposits are fluid-rock interaction ( e. g. desulfidation) or phase separation. Consideration of the physical and chemical properties of the H2O-NaCl-CO2 system on the nature of gold precipitation mechanisms at different crustal levels infers different roles of

  20. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  1. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.;

    1992-01-01

    content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  2. Mineralogy,fluid inclusion and C,O,Sr isotope study of the Ko(s)ice-Medvedia magnesite deposit,Western Carpathians,Slovakia%斯洛伐克西喀尔巴阡山Ko(s)ice-Medvedia菱镁矿床的矿物学、流体包裹体和碳-氧-锶同位素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin RADVANEC; Peter KOD(E)RA; Walter PROCHASKA

    2004-01-01

    with Fe-carbonates contained only two-phase aqueous brine FIs (17 to 24 wt% NaCl eq. or 34 to 36 wt% MgCl2 eq. , Th 152 to 195℃) with variable amount of dissolved CO2. Combined with carbonate geothermometry, FI data imply pressure ranges for Mgreplacement ~ 180 to 320 MPa (7 ~ 12 kn) and for Fe-replacement ~280 to 420 MPa (10 ~ 16 kn), suggesting a thermal gradient of about 25 to 35℃/kn.Leachate analyses of fluid inclusions showed variable Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios, but the fractionated evaporitic origin of Mg-rich brines (Upper Permian and Lower Triassic) is still suggested. High Br and I content in Fe-carbonate fluids indicates appreciable influence of surrounding black schists on the Fe-replacement process.Carbon (δ13CPDB= - 1 to + 3.7‰) and oxygen (δ18OSMOW = 12.5 to 17.5 ‰) isotopes from magnesite and from carbonates in Fe-replacement suggest predominantly marine sedimentary origin of carbon and CO2 in the replacement fluids. 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of magnesites (0.71124 to 0.71140) indicates variable sources of Sr, where the original Carboniferous and Permian seawater Sr ratio was modified by other local crustal sources of Sr.

  3. Using vein fabric and fluid inclusion characteristics as an integrated proxy to constrain the relative timing of non cross-cutting, syn- to late-orogenic quartz vein generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dominique; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    gradual exhumation of the slate belt from ca. 7.5 to 6 km depth along a retrograde deformation path. A comparison of these results with a former study of syn- to late-orogenic calcite veins at the Variscan front zone (Kenis et al., 2000), indicates that exhumation processes throughout the Rhenohercynian fold-and-thrust belt were diachronous. While exhumation and related quartz veining in the High-Ardenne slate belt occurred during the Sudetic stage of the Variscan orogeny (ca. 325-310 Ma), the exhumation and related calcite veining at the Variscan front zone occurred during the Asturian stage of the Variscan orogeny (ca. 300 Ma). With this study we demonstrate that a relative timing for different vein generations, lacking any cross-cutting relationship, can still be attained through an integration of petrographic and microthermometric arguments. Moreover, this particular approach, enables to further delineate the P-T history of an orogenic system from its pre-, to its syn-, late- and finally postkinematic stages. References Jacques, D., Derez, T., Muchez, P., Sintubin, M., 2014. Syn- to late-orogenic quartz veins marking a retrograde deformation path in a slate belt: Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium). Journal of Structural Geology, 58, 43-58. Kenis, I., Muchez, P., Sintubin, M., Mansy, J.-L., Lacquement, F., 2000. The use of a combined structural, stable isotope and fluid inclusion study to constrain the kinematic history at the northern Variscan front zone (Bettrechies, northern France). Journal of Structural Geology, 22, 589-602.

  4. Use of Combined Coagulation-Adsorption Process as Pretreatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  5. Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, Rajan; Durai, Nalladurai Jegan; Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Ramesh, Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga; Kanmani, Subramaniam

    2013-03-21

    Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption) for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  6. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  7. A feruloyl esterase derived from a leachate metagenome library

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A feruloyl esterase encoding gene (designated fae6), derived from a leachate metagenomic library, was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the insert DNA determined. Translational analysis revealed that fae6 consists of a 515 amino acid polypeptide...

  8. Ammonia removal from leachate solution using natural Chinese clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqiu; Liu, Shijun; Xu, Ze; Han, Tianwei; Chuan, Sun; Zhu, Tan

    2006-08-25

    This paper assesses the potential of natural Chinese clinoptilolite for ammonia removal from the leachate solution of sewage sludge. In batch study the effects of relevant parameters, such as contact time, initial ammonia concentration and particle size of clinoptilolite, were examined respectively. The results show that the data obtained from batch studies were fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the Langmuir isotherms reflect more reasonable for ammonium ion uptake onto clinoptilolite; the clinoptilolite adsorption process has been proved effective, at laboratory scale, the maximum adsorption capacity of the clinoptilolite, for ammonium concentration ranging from 11.12 to 115.16 mg NH(4)-N L(-1) in leachate solution, was about 1.74 mg NH(4)-Ng(-1); the time to adsorption equilibrium was 2.5 h in leachate solution and 1.5 h more than for in NH(4)Cl synthetic solution; ammonium adsorption increased with decreasing clinoptilolite particle size; the ammonia removal capacity of clinoptilolite increased with increasing initial ammonia concentration. It is believed that as adsorption agent for NH(4)-N removal from sludge leachate, natural Chinese clinoptilolite can be feasible.