A new scenario of the universe dynamics with interacting fluids
Aydiner, Ekrem
2016-01-01
In this study, I discuss universe dynamics by considering mutual and self-interactions between fluid components such as dark energy, dark, matter etc, in the the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time. I show that dynamics of the interacting two-fluid with linear EoS can be given by Lotka-Volterra equations. On the other hand, I show that interacting two-fluid model with quadratic EoS can be transformed to the self-interacting Lotka-Volterra equations. Finally I show that these equations can be generalized to $N$ interacting Lotka-Volterra equations for more interacting fluids. Also I find fixed points of these equations and discuss the dynamics of universe. Even though present model needs to be confirmed experimentally, obtained results clearly show that dynamics of universe at large scale and within the time may have stable, unstable or chaotic behaviour in the presence of the interaction and self-interaction in between dark energy, dark matter, matter and others components of the universe unl...
Fluid-Solid Interaction and Multiscale Dynamic Processes: Experimental Approach
Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Mendo-Pérez, Gerardo M.; Guzmán-Vázquez, Enrique; Scheu, Bettina; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Dingwell, Donald B.
2017-04-01
The speed and the style of a pressure drop in fluid-filled conduits determines the dynamics of multiscale processes and the elastic interaction between the fluid and the confining solid. To observe this dynamics we performed experiments using fluid-filled transparent tubes (15-50 cm long, 2-4 cm diameter and 0.3-1 cm thickness) instrumented with high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors and filmed the evolution of these processes with a high speed camera. We analyzed the response of Newtonian fluids to slow and sudden pressure drops from 3 bar-10 MPa to ambient pressure. We used fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts of 1 to 1000 Pa s and water. The processes observed are fluid mass expansion, fluid flow, jets, bubbles nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, degassing, foam building at the surface and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are triggered by the pressure drop and are sequentially coupled in time while interacting with the solid. During slow decompression, the multiscale processes are recognized occurring within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. In this, degassing predominates near the surface and may present piston-like oscillations. In contrast, during sudden decompression the fluid-flow reaches higher velocities, the dynamics is dominated by a sequence of gas-packet pulses driving jets of the gas-fluid mixture. The evolution of this multiscale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals recorded along the conduit. We discuss distinctive characteristics of these signals depending on the decompression style and compare them with synthetics. These synthetics are obtained numerically under an averaging modeling scheme, that accounted for the stress-strain of the cyclic dynamic interaction between the fluid and the solid wall, assuming an incompressible and viscous fluid that flows while the elastic solid responds oscillating
Fluid-dynamical aspects of laser-metal interaction
Cantello, M.; Menin, R.; Donati, V.; Garifo, L.; La Rocca, A. V.; Onorato, M.
During the interaction of a high-power laser beam with a material surface many fluid-dynamical phenomena arise. The produced flow field interacts with the beam and affects the thermal coupling between the laser energy and the target metal. In this paper the fluid-dynamical aspects of these phenomena are discussed and new experimental results are illustrated. The experiments have been performed in conditions of interest for industrial laser processes with a 15-kW CW CO2 laser. The development and the motion of bright clouds ignited from metal targets at incident laser power up to 11.6 kW, using an f/18 focusing system, have been studied by high speed photographic records. The properties of the cloud have been examined by spectroscopic analysis and absorption measurements.
Lily Pad: Towards Real-time Interactive Computational Fluid Dynamics
Weymouth, Gabriel D
2015-01-01
Despite the fact that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is now (relatively) fast and freely available, it is still amazingly difficult to use. Inaccessible software imposes a significant entry barrier on students and junior engineers, and even senior researchers spend less time developing insights and more time on software issues. Lily Pad was developed as an initial attempt to address some of these problems. The goal of Lily Pad is to lower the barrier to CFD by adopting simple high-speed methods, utilising modern programming features and environments, and giving immediate visual feed-back to the user. The resulting software focuses on the fluid dynamics instead of the computation, making it useful for both education and research. LilyPad is open source and available online at https://github.com/weymouth/lily-pad for all use under the MIT license.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorsen, Michael
These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....
Interacting Dark Fluid in Anisotropic Universe with Dynamical Deceleration Parameter
Adhav, K. S.; Bokey, V. D.; Bansod, A. S.; Munde, S. L.
2016-10-01
In this paper we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi Type-I and V universe filled with Interacting Dark Matter and Holographic Dark Energy. The solutions of field equations are obtained for both models under the assumption of linearly varying deceleration parameter which yields dynamical deceleration parameter. It has been observed that the anisotropy of expansion dies out very quickly (soon after inflation) in both models (B-I, B-V). The physical and geometrical parameters for the both models have been obtained and discussed in details.
Bernard, Peter S
2015-01-01
This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentman, L.H.; Nayfeh, M.H.
1983-12-01
This research is an integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear interactions which may occur between the chemical kinetics, the fluid dynamics and the unstable resonator of a continuous wave fluid flow laser. The objectives of this grant were to measure the frequency and amplitude of the time dependent pulsations in the power spectral output which have been predicted to occur in cw chemical lasers employing unstable resonators to extract power.
Ruban, Anatoly I
This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...
Developing a cyber-physical fluid dynamics facility for fluid-structure interaction studies
Mackowski, Andrew W.; Williamson, Charles H. K.
2011-07-01
In fluid-structure interaction studies, such as vortex-induced vibration, one needs to select essential parameters for the system, such as mass, spring stiffness, and damping. Normally, these parameters are set physically by the mechanical arrangement. However, our approach utilizes a combination of a physical system, comprises a fluid and a mechanical actuator, and a cyber system, taking the form of a computer-based force-feedback controller. This arrangement allows us to impose mass-spring-damping parameters in virtual space and in up to six degrees of freedom. [A similar concept, in one degree of freedom, was pioneered by a group at MIT (see Hover et al., 1998), in studies of vortex-induced vibration of cables.] Although the use of a cyber-physical system has clear advantages over using a purely physical experiment, there are serious challenges to overcome in the design of the governing control system. Our controller, based on a discretization of Newton's laws, makes it straightforward to add and modify any kind of nonlinear, time-varying, or directional force: it is virtually specified but imposed on a physical object. We implement this idea in both a first-generation and a second-generation facility. In this paper, we present preliminary applications of this approach in flow-structure interactions.
Dynamic Stresses in a Francis Turbine Runner Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Ruofu; WANG Zhengwei; LUO Yongyao
2008-01-01
Fatigue and cracks have occurred in many large hydraulic turbines after they were put into production.The cracks are thought to be due to dynamic stresses in the runner caused by hydraulic forces.Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)simulations that included the spiral case,stay vane,guide vane,runner vane.and draft tube were run at various operating points to analyze the pressure distribution on the runner surface and the stress characteristics in the runner due to the fluid-structure interactions(FSl).The dynamic stresses in the Francis turbine runner at the most dangerous operating point were then analyzed.The results show that the dynamic stresses caused by the hydraulic forces during off-design operating points are one of the main reasons for the fatigue and cracks in the runner blade.The results can be used to optimize the runner and to analyze other critical components in the hydraulic turbine.
DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS INVOLVING LARGE-AMPLITUDE SLOSHING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jianping; Zhou Rurong; Wu Wenlong
2004-01-01
An effective computational method is developed for dynamic analysis of fluid-structure interaction problems involving large-amplitude sloshing of the fluid and large-displacement motion of the structure.The structure is modeled as a rigid container supported by a system consisting of springs and dashpots.The motion of the fluid is decomposed into two parts: the large-displacement motion with the container and the large-amplitude sloshing relative to the container.The former is conveniently dealt with by defining a container-fixed noninertial local frame, while the latter is easily handled by adopting an ALE kinematical description.This leads to an easy and accurate treatment of both the fluid-structure interface and the fluid free surface without producing excessive distortion of the computational mesh.The coupling between the fluid and the structure is accomplished through the coupling matrices that can be easily established.Two numerical examples, including a TLD-structure system and a simplified liquid-loaded vehicle system, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method.The present work can also be applied to simulate fluid-structure problems incorporating multibody systems and several fluid domains.
Ho, Yen-Ching; Wang, Yi-Siang; Chao, Sheng D
2017-08-14
Modeling fluid cycloalkanes with molecular dynamics simulations has proven to be a very challenging task partly because of lacking a reliable force field based on quantum chemistry calculations. In this paper, we construct an ab initio force field for fluid cyclopropane using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. We consider 15 conformers of the cyclopropane dimer for the orientation sampling. Single-point energies at important geometries are calibrated by the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation method. Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (up to aug-cc-pVTZ) are used in extrapolating the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit. The force field parameters in a 9-site Lennard-Jones model are regressed by the calculated interaction energies without using empirical data. With this ab initio force field, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of fluid cyclopropane and calculate both the structural and dynamical properties. We compare the simulation results with those using an empirical force field and obtain a quantitative agreement for the detailed atom-wise radial distribution functions. The experimentally observed gross radial distribution function (extracted from the neutron scattering measurements) is well reproduced in our simulation. Moreover, the calculated self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ab initio force field which is capable of competing with empirical force fields for simulating fluid cyclopropane.
Ho, Yen-Ching; Wang, Yi-Siang; Chao, Sheng D.
2017-08-01
Modeling fluid cycloalkanes with molecular dynamics simulations has proven to be a very challenging task partly because of lacking a reliable force field based on quantum chemistry calculations. In this paper, we construct an ab initio force field for fluid cyclopropane using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. We consider 15 conformers of the cyclopropane dimer for the orientation sampling. Single-point energies at important geometries are calibrated by the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation method. Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (up to aug-cc-pVTZ) are used in extrapolating the interaction energies at the complete basis set limit. The force field parameters in a 9-site Lennard-Jones model are regressed by the calculated interaction energies without using empirical data. With this ab initio force field, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of fluid cyclopropane and calculate both the structural and dynamical properties. We compare the simulation results with those using an empirical force field and obtain a quantitative agreement for the detailed atom-wise radial distribution functions. The experimentally observed gross radial distribution function (extracted from the neutron scattering measurements) is well reproduced in our simulation. Moreover, the calculated self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ab initio force field which is capable of competing with empirical force fields for simulating fluid cyclopropane.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Jiande
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.
Molecular dynamics simulation of nanochannel flows with effects of wall lattice-fluid interactions.
Soong, C Y; Yen, T H; Tzeng, P Y
2007-09-01
In the present paper, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to explore the effects of wall lattice-fluid interactions on the hydrodynamic characteristics in nanochannels. Couette and Poiseuille flows of liquid argon with channel walls of face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice structure are employed as the model configurations. Truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones (LJ) 12-6 potentials for evaluations of fluid-fluid and wall-fluid interactions, and a nonlinear spring potential for wall-wall interaction, are used as interatomistic or molecular models. The hydrodynamics at various flow orientation angles with respect to channel walls of lattice planes (111), (100), and (110) are explored. The present work discloses that the effects of key parameters, such as wall density, lattice plane, flow orientation, and LJ interaction energy, have a very significant impact on the nanochannel flow characteristics. The related interfacial phenomena and the underlying physical mechanisms are explored and interpreted. These results are significant in the understanding of nanoscale hydrodynamics, as well as in various applications where an accurate nanoscale flow rate control is necessary.
Dynamic behavior of valve system in linear compressor based on fluid-structure interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Yong Sik; Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusal National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Geun [Locus Company Limited, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2010-07-15
In refrigerator designs, the linear compressor is preferable to the recipro-type compressor, due to its higher energy efficiency. The linear compressor's valve system, however, causes significant noise, not only in the steady state but also in the transient state. To accurately predict the behavior of the suction and discharge valve system in both states, the interaction between the fluid flowing through the valves and the structural deformation of the valves needs to be understood. In the present study, the steady-state behaviors of the valve system were numerically analyzed using ADINA software, which takes fluid-structure interaction (FSI) into account. This computational analysis thereafter was experimentally validated. The effects of a pre-load of the conical compression spring on the dynamic characteristics of the valve system also were analyzed
Kratzke, Jonas; Rengier, Fabian; Weis, Christian; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent
2016-04-01
Initiation and development of cardiovascular diseases can be highly correlated to specific biomechanical parameters. To examine and assess biomechanical parameters, numerical simulation of cardiovascular dynamics has the potential to complement and enhance medical measurement and imaging techniques. As such, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have shown to be suitable to evaluate blood velocity and pressure in scenarios, where vessel wall deformation plays a minor role. However, there is a need for further validation studies and the inclusion of vessel wall elasticity for morphologies being subject to large displacement. In this work, we consider a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model including the full elasticity equation to take the deformability of aortic wall soft tissue into account. We present a numerical framework, in which either a CFD study can be performed for less deformable aortic segments or an FSI simulation for regions of large displacement such as the aortic root and arch. Both of the methods are validated by means of an aortic phantom experiment. The computational results are in good agreement with 2D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity measurements as well as catheter-based pressure measurements. The FSI simulation shows a characteristic vessel compliance effect on the flow field induced by the elasticity of the vessel wall, which the CFD model is not capable of. The in vitro validated FSI simulation framework can enable the computation of complementary biomechanical parameters such as the stress distribution within the vessel wall.
Mao, Wenbin; Li, Kewei; Sun, Wei
2016-12-01
Computational modeling of heart valve dynamics incorporating both fluid dynamics and valve structural responses has been challenging. In this study, we developed a novel fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). A previously developed nonlinear finite element (FE) model of transcatheter aortic valves (TAV) was utilized to couple with SPH to simulate valve leaflet dynamics throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Comparative simulations were performed to investigate the impact of using FE-only models vs. FSI models, as well as an isotropic vs. an anisotropic leaflet material model in TAV simulations. From the results, substantial differences in leaflet kinematics between FE-only and FSI models were observed, and the FSI model could capture the realistic leaflet dynamic deformation due to its more accurate spatial and temporal loading conditions imposed on the leaflets. The stress and the strain distributions were similar between the FE and FSI simulations. However, the peak stresses were different due to the water hammer effect induced by the fluid inertia in the FSI model during the closing phase, which led to 13-28% lower peak stresses in the FE-only model compared to that of the FSI model. The simulation results also indicated that tissue anisotropy had a minor impact on hemodynamics of the valve. However, a lower tissue stiffness in the radial direction of the leaflets could reduce the leaflet peak stress caused by the water hammer effect. It is hoped that the developed FSI models can serve as an effective tool to better assess valve dynamics and optimize next generation TAV designs.
Basic developments in fluid dynamics
Holt, Maurice
2012-01-01
Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds
Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko
2012-01-01
A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...
Capuzzi, P.; Hernández, E. S.; Szybisz, L.
2008-10-01
We present a generalization of the fluid-dynamical scheme developed for nuclear physics to the case of two trapped fermion species with pairing interactions. To establish a macroscopic description of the mass and momentum conservation laws, we adopt a generalization of the usual Thomas-Fermi approach that includes the pairing energy. We analyze the equilibrium density and gap profiles for an equal population mixture of harmonically trapped Li6 atoms for different choices of the local equation of state. We examine slight departures from equilibrium within our formulation, finding that density oscillations can propagate as first sound coupled to pairing vibrations, that in a homogeneous fermion system exhibit a Bogoliubov-like quasiparticle spectrum. In this case, the dispersion relation for the coupled modes displays a rich scenario of stable, unstable, and damped regimes.
Scalar-fluid interacting dark energy: Cosmological dynamics beyond the exponential potential
Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Tamanini, Nicola
2017-01-01
We extend the dynamical systems analysis of scalar-fluid interacting dark energy models performed in C. G. Boehmer et al., Phys. Rev. D 91, 123002 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.123002 by considering scalar field potentials beyond the exponential type. The properties and stability of critical points are examined using a combination of linear analysis, computational methods and advanced mathematical techniques, such as center manifold theory. We show that the interesting results obtained with an exponential potential can generally be recovered also for more complicated scalar field potentials. In particular, employing power law and hyperbolic potentials as examples, we find late time accelerated attractors, transitions from dark matter to dark energy domination with specific distinguishing features, and accelerated scaling solutions capable of solving the cosmic coincidence problem.
Assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models for Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction
DeBonis, James R.; Oberkampf, William L.; Wolf, Richard T.; Orkwis, Paul D.; Turner, Mark G.; Babinsky, Holger
2011-01-01
A workshop on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction of shock boundary-layer interactions (SBLIs) was held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. As part of the workshop numerous CFD analysts submitted solutions to four experimentally measured SBLIs. This paper describes the assessment of the CFD predictions. The assessment includes an uncertainty analysis of the experimental data, the definition of an error metric and the application of that metric to the CFD solutions. The CFD solutions provided very similar levels of error and in general it was difficult to discern clear trends in the data. For the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods the choice of turbulence model appeared to be the largest factor in solution accuracy. Large-eddy simulation methods produced error levels similar to RANS methods but provided superior predictions of normal stresses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigrist, Jean-Francois [DCNS Propulsion-DI/STS, 44620 La Montagne (France)], E-mail: jean-francois.sigrist@dcn.fr; Broc, Daniel [CEA Saclay-DEMT/EMSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2008-09-15
The present paper deals with the dynamic analysis of a steam generator tube bundle with fluid-structure interaction modelling. As the coupled fluid-structure problem involves a huge number of degrees of freedom to account for the tube displacements and the fluid pressure evolutions, classical coupled method cannot be applied for industrial studies. In the present case, the three-dimensional fluid-structure problem is solved with an homogenisation method, which has been previously exposed and successfully validated for FSI modelling in a nuclear reactor [Sigrist, J.F., Broc, D., 2007a. Homogenisation method for the modal analysis of a nuclear reactor with internal structures modelling and fluid-structure interaction coupling. Nuclear Engineering and Design 237, 431-440]. Formulation of the homogenisation method for general two- and three-dimensional cases is exposed in the paper. Application to a simplified, however representative, model of an actual industrial nuclear component (steam generator) is proposed. The problem modelling, which includes tube bundle, primary and secondary fluids and pressure vessel, is performed with an engineering finite element code in which the homogenisation technique has been implemented. From the practical point of view, the analysis highlights the major fluid-structure interaction effects on the dynamic behaviour of the steam generator; from the theoretical point of view, the study demonstrates the efficiency of the homogenisation method for periodic fluid-structure problems modelling in industrial configurations.
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF A 3-D SEMI-SUBMERGED BODY AS A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐刚; 任文敏
2004-01-01
An Arnoldi's method with new iteration pattern, which was designed for solving a large unsymmetric eigenvalue problem introduced by displacement-pressure FE (Finite Element) pattern of a fluid-structure interaction system, was adopted here to get the dynamic characteristics of the semi-submerged body. The new iteration pattern could be used efficiently to obtain the Arnoldi's vectors in the shift-frequency technique, which was used for the zero-frequency problem. Numerical example showed that the fluid-structure interaction is one of the important factors to the dynamic characteristics of large semi-submerged thin-walled structures.
Tian Jiande; Jiang Xue; Liu Guozheng; Shi Wenku; Liu Baoquan; Ma Meiqin
2015-01-01
A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried ou...
Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Goddard, Ben; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2015-11-01
Over the last few decades the classical density-functional theory (DFT) and its dynamic extensions (DDFTs) have become a remarkably powerful tool in the study of colloidal fluids. Recently there has been extensive research to generalise all previous DDFTs finally yielding a general DDFT equation (for spherical particles) which takes into account both inertia and hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which strongly influence non-equilibrium properties. The present work will be devoted to a further generalisation of such a framework to systems of anisotropic particles. To this end, the kinetic equation for the Brownian particle distribution function is derived starting from the Liouville equation and making use of Zwanzig's projection-operator techniques. By averaging over all but one particle, a DDFT equation is finally obtained with some similarities to that for spherical colloids. However, there is now an inevitable translational-rotational coupling which affects the diffusivity of asymmetric particles. Lastly, in the overdamped (high friction) limit the theory is notably simplified leading to a DDFT equation which agrees with previous derivations. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich structures with highly porous 2D cores or 3D (three-dimensional periodic cores can effectively withstand underwater explosion load. In most of the previous studies of sandwich structure antiblast dynamics, the underwater explosion (UNDEX bubble phase was neglected. As the UNDEX bubble load is one of the severest damage sources that may lead to structure large plastic deformation and crevasses failure, the failure mechanisms of sandwich structures might not be accurate if only shock wave is considered. In this paper, detailed 3D finite element (FE numerical models of UNDEX bubble-LCSP (lightweight corrugated sandwich plates interaction are developed by using MSC.Dytran. Upon the validated FE model, the bubble shape, impact pressure, and fluid field velocities for different stand-off distances are studied. Based on numerical results, the failure modes of LCSP and the whole damage process are obtained. It is demonstrated that the UNDEX bubble collapse jet local load plays a more significant role than the UNDEX shock wave load especially in near-field underwater explosion.
1983-05-01
layer is being irves - tigated in a ser.es of two-dimensional experiments utilizing LDV measurements. The objectives of these experiments are to obtain a...1974, pp. 105-112. 16 8. Mazumder, M. K., Hoyle, B. D., and Kirsch , K. J., "Generation and Fluid Dynamics of Scattering Aerosols in Laser Doppler
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K
1998-01-01
"Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses
Fiszdon, W
1965-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co
Modeling of fluid dynamics interacting with ductile fraction propagation in high pressure pipeline
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mihaela Popescu
2009-01-01
This paper presents a computational model for the fluid dynamics in a fractured ductile pipe under high pressure. The pressure profile in front of the crack tip, which is the driving source of crack propagation, is computed using a nonlinear wave equation. The solution is coupled with a one dimensional choked flow analysis behind the crack. The simulation utilizes a high order optimized prefactored com-pact-finite volume method in space, and low dispersion and dissipation Runge-Kutta in time. As the pipe fractures the rapid depressurization take place inside the pipe and the prop-agation of the crack-induced waves strongly influences the outflow dynamics. Consistent with the experimental observa-tion, the model predicts the expansion wave inside the pipe, and the reflection and outflow of the wave. The model also helps characterize the propagation of the crack dynamics and fluid flows around the tip of the crack.
Applications of fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Round, G.R.; Garg, V.K.
1986-01-01
This book describes flexible and practical approach to learning the basics of fluid dynamics. Each chapter is a self-contained work session and includes a fluid dynamics concept, an explanation of the principles involved, an illustration of their application and references on where more detailed discussions can be found.
Hamiltonian analysis of interacting fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Rabin; Mitra, Arpan Krishna [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India)
2015-05-15
Ideal fluid dynamics is studied as a relativistic field theory with particular stress on its hamiltonian structure. The Schwinger condition, whose integrated version yields the stress tensor conservation, is explicitly verified both in equal-time and light-cone coordinate systems. We also consider the hamiltonian formulation of fluids interacting with an external gauge field. The complementary roles of the canonical (Noether) stress tensor and the symmetric one obtained by metric variation are discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kan, Kan; Liu, Huiwen; Yang, Chunxia [Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zheng, Yuan [National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Nanjing (China); Fu, Shifeng; Zhang, Xin [Power China Huadong Engineering Corporation, Hangzhou (China)
2017-04-15
Current research on the stability of tubular pumps is mainly concerned with the transient hydrodynamic characteristics. However, the structural response under the influence of fluid-structure interaction hasn't been taken fully into consideration. The instability of the structure can cause vibration and cracks, which may threaten the safety of the unit. We used bidirectional fluid-structure interaction to comprehensively analyze the dynamic stress characteristics of the impeller blades of the shaft extension tubular pump device. Furthermore, dynamic stress of impeller blade of shaft extension tubular pump device was solved under different lift conditions of 0° blade angle. Based on Reynolds-average N-S equation and SST k-ω turbulence model, numerical simulation was carried out for three-dimensional unsteady incompressible turbulent flow field of the pump device whole flow passage. Meanwhile, the finite element method was used to calculate dynamic characteristics of the blade structure. The blade dynamic stress distribution was obtained on the basis of fourth strength theory. The research results indicate that the maximum blade dynamic stress appears at the joint between root of inlet side of the blade suction surface and the axis. Considering the influence of gravity, the fluctuation of the blade dynamic stress increases initially and decreases afterwards within a rotation period. In the meantime, the dynamic stress in the middle part of inlet edge presents larger relative fluctuation amplitude. Finally, a prediction method for dynamic stress distribution of tubular pump considering fluid-structure interaction and gravity effect was proposed. This method can be used in the design stage of tubular pump to predict dynamic stress distribution of the structure under different operating conditions, improve the reliability of pump impeller and analyze the impeller fatigue life.
Helical waves and non-linear dynamics of fluid/structure interactions in a tube row
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, F.C.; Thothadri, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1997-12-31
The goal of this study has been to investigate low-dimensional models for fluid-structure dynamics of flow across a row of cylindrical tubes. Four principle results of this experimental-theoretical study are discussed. (i) Experimental evidence has shown that the dynamic instability of the tube row is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. (ii) The critical flow velocity decreases as the number of flexible cylinders increases. (iii) The linear model exhibits coupled helical wave solutions in the tube dynamics. (iv) A nonlinear model of the tube motions shows a complex subcritical Hopf bifurcation with a secondary bifurcation to a torus or quasi-periodic oscillation. In this analysis the tools of center manifolds, normal forms and numerical simulation are used.
Bird, R. Byron
1980-01-01
Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)
Hernández, E. S.; Capuzzi, P.; Szybisz, L.
2011-02-01
We extend our earlier fluid-dynamical description of fermion superfluids incorporating the particle energy flow together with the equation of motion for the internal kinetic energy of the pairs. The formal scheme combines a set of equations similar to those of classical hydrodynamics with the equations of motion for the anomalous density and for its related momentum density and kinetic energy density. This dynamical frame represents a second order truncation of an infinite hierarchy of equations of motion isomorphic to the full time dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations in coordinate representation. We analyze the equilibrium solutions and fluctuations for a homogeneous, unpolarized fermion system of two species, and show that the collective spectrum presents the well-known Anderson-Bogoliubov low energy mode of homogeneous superfluids and a pairing vibration near the gap energy.
Mesoscale dynamic coupling of finite- and discrete-element methods for fluid-particle interactions.
Srivastava, S; Yazdchi, K; Luding, S
2014-08-06
A new method for two-way fluid-particle coupling on an unstructured mesoscopically coarse mesh is presented. In this approach, we combine a (higher order) finite-element method (FEM) on the moving mesh for the fluid with a soft sphere discrete-element method for the particles. The novel feature of the proposed scheme is that the FEM mesh is a dynamic Delaunay triangulation based on the positions of the moving particles. Thus, the mesh can be multi-purpose: it provides (i) a framework for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, (ii) a simple tool for detecting contacts between moving particles, (iii) a basis for coarse-graining or upscaling, and (iv) coupling with other physical fields (temperature, electromagnetic, etc.). This approach is suitable for a wide range of dilute and dense particulate flows, because the mesh resolution adapts with particle density in a given region. Two-way momentum exchange is implemented using semi-empirical drag laws akin to other popular approaches; for example, the discrete particle method, where a finite-volume solver on a coarser, fixed grid is used. We validate the methodology with several basic test cases, including single- and double-particle settling with analytical and empirical expectations, and flow through ordered and random porous media, when compared against finely resolved FEM simulations of flow through fixed arrays of particles.
Blazek, Jiri
2015-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new
Videotapes and Movies on Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines
Carr, Bobbie; Young, Virginia E.
1996-01-01
Chapter 17 of Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery: Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume 11. A list of videorecordings and 16mm motion pictures about Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machines.
Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
> These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.
Oliva-Avilés, A. I.; Zozulya, V. V.; Gamboa, F.; Avilés, F.
2016-09-01
A theoretical investigation of the dynamic response of interacting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in a liquid medium under alternating current electric fields is presented. The proposed modeling strategy is based on the dielectrophoretic theory and classical electrodynamics of rigid bodies, and considers the coupled rotation-translation motion of interacting CNTs represented as electrical dipoles. Based on experimental evidence, the parameters which are expected to cause a major contribution to the CNTs' motion are investigated for different initial configurations of CNTs. It is predicted that high electric field frequencies, long CNTs, high values of electrical permittivity and conductivity of the CNTs immersed in solvents of high polarity promote faster equilibrium conditions, achieved by CNT tip-to-tip contact and alignment along the electric field direction. For the majority of the scenarios, CNT alignment along the field direction is predicted as the first event, followed by the translation of aligned CNTs until the tip-to-tip contact condition is reached. For systems with interacting CNTs with different lengths, equilibrium of the shorter CNT is achieved faster. Predictions also show that the initial rotation angles and initial location of CNTs have a paramount influence on the evolution of the system towards the equilibrium configuration.
Magoules, Frederic
2011-01-01
Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap
Interaction of fluid dynamic factors in the migration and accumulation of natural gas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The migration of fluid petroleum gas, described as fluid potential, depends only on gravity, fluid pressure controlled by depression and capillary force during tectonically stable period; but on tectonic stress during the tectonically active period with severe compression. This method is applied in the Junggar Basin, showing that the migration of Jurassic gas during Cretaceous and Eocene and the migration of Permian gas from Jurassic till the present are determined by capillary force and fluid pressure (including overpressure) which is controlled by depression; the migration of Jurassic gas from Eocene till the present and the migration of Permian gas during Triassic are controlled by tectonic stress.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Hu; ZHANG She-rong
2011-01-01
Tension leg platform(TLP)for offshore wind turbine support is a new type structure in wind energy utilization.The strong-interaction method is used in analyzing the coupled model,and the dynamic characteristics of the TLP for offshore wind turbine support are recognized.As shown by the calculated results:for the lower modes,the shapes are water's vibration,and the vibration of water induces the structure's swing;the mode shapes of the structure are complex,and can largely change among different members;the mode shapes of the platform are related to the tower's.The frequencies of the structure do not change much after adjusting the length of the tension cables and the depth of the platform;the TLP has good adaptability for the water depths and the environment loads.The change of the size and parameters of TLP can improve the dynamic characteristics,which can reduce the vibration of the TLP caused by the loads.Through the vibration analysis,the natural vibration frequencies of TLP can be distinguished from the frequencies of condition loads,and thus the resonance vibration can be avoided,therefore the offshore wind turbine can work normally in the complex conditions.
Pedlosky, Joseph
1979-01-01
The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...
Pedlosky, Joseph
1982-01-01
The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...
Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki
2016-11-01
Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.
Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics
Zikanov, Oleg
2011-01-01
This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and
Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhan-sheng; ZHANG Yun-feng; TIAN Xin
2008-01-01
Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage is studied with subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme.The passage is formed with two parallel panels,one is risid and the other is flexible.The interaction between fluid flows and flexible panel is numerically studied,mainly focused on the effect of dynamic pressure and distance between two parallel panels.Subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme is utihzed to combine the vibration and fluid analysis and to stabilize long-term calculations to get accurate resuhs.It's demonstrated that the flutter characteristic of flexible panel is more complex with the increase of dynamic pressure and the decrease of distance between two parallel panels.Via analyzing the propagation and reflection of disturbance in passage,it's determined as a main cause of the variations.
Fluid dynamics of heart development.
Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A
2011-09-01
The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics.
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Combustion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. Paul
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics has reached a stage where flow field in practical situation can be predicted to aid the design and to probe into the fundamental flow physics to understand and resolve the issues in fundamental fluid mechanics. The study examines the computation of reacting flows. After exploring the conservation equations for species and energy, the methods of closing the reaction rate terms in turbulent flow have been examined briefly. Two cases of computation, where combustion-flow interaction plays important role, have been discussed to illustrate the computational aspects and the physical insight that can be gained by the reacting flow computation.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.577-582, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.600
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Cai-qin; HUA Cheng; YANG Lin; DAI Pei-dong; ZHANG Tian-yu; WANG Ke-qiang
2011-01-01
The semicircular canals,composed of lateral,anterior and posterior canals in the inner ear,are the sensors of equilibrium during head rotation movements in the three-dimensional space.Semicircular canals are filled with endolymph confined by the cupula.The study of the relationship between endolymph flow and cupular deformation is important in revealing the semicircular canals biomechanical behavior.To date,there are few studies focusing on the transient endolymph flow and cupular deformation in response to a head rotation motion.The lateral semicircular canal is mainly responsible for the sense of the horizontal rotation movement.In order to figure out the intricate dynamics in the lateral semicircular canal during the head rotation motion,the time evolutions of both endolymph flow and cupular deformation are analyzed in this article by using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model.It is shown that the cupular deformation provides cues for understanding the physiology of sensing the head rotation.
Bertram, C D; Heil, M
2017-01-01
An existing axisymmetric fluid/structure-interaction (FSI) model of the spinal cord, pia mater, subarachnoid space, and dura mater in the presence of syringomyelia and subarachnoid-space stenosis was modified to include porous solids. This allowed investigation of a hypothesis for syrinx fluid ingress from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Gross model deformation was unchanged by the addition of porosity, but pressure oscillated more in the syrinx and the subarachnoid space below the stenosis. The poroelastic model still exhibited elevated mean pressure in the subarachnoid space below the stenosis and in the syrinx. With realistic cord permeability, there was slight oscillatory shunt flow bypassing the stenosis via the porous tissue over the syrinx. Weak steady streaming flow occurred in a circuit involving craniocaudal flow through the stenosis and back via the syrinx. Mean syrinx volume was scarcely altered when the adjacent stenosis bisected the syrinx, but increased slightly when the syrinx was predominantly located caudal to the stenosis. The fluid content of the tissues over the syrinx oscillated, absorbing most of the radial flow seeping from the subarachnoid space so that it did not reach the syrinx. To a lesser extent, this cyclic swelling in a boundary layer of cord tissue just below the pia occurred all along the cord, representing a mechanism for exchange of interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid which could explain recent tracer findings without invoking perivascular conduits. The model demonstrates that syrinx volume increase is possible when there is subarachnoid-space stenosis and the cord and pia are permeable.
Computational fluid dynamic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.
2000-04-03
The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.
Electromagnetics and Fluid Dynamics
Gaitonde, Datta
1998-01-01
Previous efforts focused on developing tools for design of low observables were sustained. The final product was the maturation of a high-order accurate finite-volume based code to solve Maxwell's equations. One of the primary achievements was the development and implementation of efficient filtering techniques which enhance the robustness of high-order and optimized schemes without significant adverse impact on accuracy. This has eliminated the stability barrier which restrains the common use of high-order schemes for conservative wave propagation phenomena on curvilinear meshes. A study was performed of crossing shock interactions under conditions of increasing interaction strength and asymmetry. In the first category, the observed computed topological bifurcations were correlated with the formation of various lines of coalescence and divergence evident in experimental and computed surf-ace oil maps. ne flow structure arising from asymmetric interactions was investigated with particular emphasis on: 1) vorticity dynamics, 2) shock-structure and 3) sidewall vortex loading. Several efforts of the prior year were successfully published in archival journals. The high-order algorithms developed for CEM have been implemented into the FDL3DI CFD code are presently undergoing extensive testing. Preliminary results are highly encouraging.
Offshore Structural Control Considering Fluid Structure Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ju Myung KIM; Dong Hyawn KIM; Gyu Won LEE
2006-01-01
Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) was applied to an offshore structure to control ocean wave-induced vibration. In the analysis of the dynamic response of the offshore structure, fluid-structure interaction is considered and the errors, which occur in the linearization of the interaction, are investigated. For the investigation of the performance of TMD in controlling the vibration, both regular waves with different periods and irregular waves with different significant wave heights are used. Based on the numerical analysis it is concluded that the fluid-structure interaction should be considered in the evaluation of the capability of TMD in vibration control of offshore structures.
1985-06-01
HYDRAULIC TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITIES % SYSTEMS INSTRON 0 TO 600 Hz s COMERCIALLY * EXPENSIVE (M0121) AVAILABLE SYSTEM 0 CARE NEEDED TO *[31 AVOID POOR DYNAMIC...The induced ground motions were modeled after the El Centro (1941) earthquake. Results include absolute horizontal and vertical displacement-time
2000-12-01
for the ALE problem, but for the so-called hypoelastic models of elastoplasticity in rate form. The interest in this work, however, lies in the...34 Algorithms in Nonlinear Dynamics . 103 III.1. Introduction ................. ........................... ... 104 111.2. Model Problem I: a Nonlinear Elastic...Representative numerical simulations ...... ............. .. 123 111.3. Model Problem II: a Simplified Model of Thin Beams ... ......... ... 127 III
Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus
2016-01-01
This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.
OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹文楠
2003-01-01
A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.
Amniotic fluid water dynamics.
Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G
2007-01-01
Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.
Fetal fluid and protein dynamics
Pasman, Suzanne
2010-01-01
In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.
An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics
Batchelor, G. K.
2000-02-01
First published in 1967, Professor Batchelor's classic work is still one of the foremost texts on fluid dynamics. His careful presentation of the underlying theories of fluids is still timely and applicable, even in these days of almost limitless computer power. This reissue ensures that a new generation of graduate students experiences the elegance of Professor Batchelor's writing.
Lecture notes: Astrophysical fluid dynamics
Ogilvie, Gordon I
2016-01-01
These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes, and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is 'frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, includin...
Hsu, Ming-Chen; Kamensky, David; Xu, Fei; Kiendl, Josef; Wang, Chenglong; Wu, Michael C. H.; Mineroff, Joshua; Reali, Alessandro; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sacks, Michael S.
2015-06-01
This paper builds on a recently developed immersogeometric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methodology for bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) modeling and simulation. It enhances the proposed framework in the areas of geometry design and constitutive modeling. With these enhancements, BHV FSI simulations may be performed with greater levels of automation, robustness and physical realism. In addition, the paper presents a comparison between FSI analysis and standalone structural dynamics simulation driven by prescribed transvalvular pressure, the latter being a more common modeling choice for this class of problems. The FSI computation achieved better physiological realism in predicting the valve leaflet deformation than its standalone structural dynamics counterpart.
Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)
2016-11-15
In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)
Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.
Saye, Robert
2016-06-01
Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena.
Jarvis, P D
2006-01-01
We present a conformal theory of a dissipationless relativistic fluid in 2 space-time dimensions. The theory carries with it a representation of the algebra of 2-$D$ area-preserving diffeomorphisms in the target space of the complex scalar potentials. A complete canonical description is given, and the central charge of the current algebra is calculated. The passage to the quantum theory is discussed in some detail; as a result of operator ordering problems, full quantization at the level of the fields is as yet an open problem.
Interacting Gauge-Fluid system
Banerjee, Rabin; Mitra, Arpan Krishna
2016-01-01
A gauge-fluid relativistic model where a non-isentropic fluid is coupled to a dynamical Maxwell ($U(1)$) gauge field, has been studied. We have examined in detail the structures of energy momentum tensor, derived from two definitions, {\\it{ie.}} the canonical (Noether) one and the symmetric one. In the conventional equal-time formalism, we have shown that the generators of the spacetime transformations obtained from these two definitions agree, modulo the Gauss constraint. This equivalence in the physical sector has been achieved only because of the dynamical nature of the gauge fields. Subsequently we have explicitly demonstrated the validity of the Schwinger condition. A detailed analysis of the model in lightcone formalism has also been done where several interesting features are revealed.
Fluid dynamics [and gas compressors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurz, Rainer [Solar Turbines Inc. (United States)
2002-02-01
The author examines the use of computational fluid dynamics in the development of gas compressors. The background to CFD is explained including modelling the geometry and the effects of turbulence. A typical design process is briefly explained and its limitations discussed. (UK)
Fluid Dynamics and Entropic Gravity
Nagle, Ian
2016-01-01
A new entropic gravity inspired derivation of general relativity from thermodynamics is presented. This generalizes, within Einstein gravity, the "Thermodynamics of Spacetime" approach by T. Jacobson, which relies on the Raychaudhuri evolution equation. Here the rest of the first law of thermodynamics is incorporated by using the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, known from the membrane paradigm for describing fluid dynamics on the horizon.
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.;
2008-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD...
Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.
Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh
Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.
The Fluid Dynamics of Competitive Swimming
Wei, Timothy; Mark, Russell; Hutchison, Sean
2014-01-01
Nowhere in sport is performance so dependent on the interaction of the athlete with the surrounding medium than in competitive swimming. As a result, understanding (at least implicitly) and controlling (explicitly) the fluid dynamics of swimming are essential to earning a spot on the medal stand. This is an extremely complex, highly multidisciplinary problem with a broad spectrum of research approaches. This review attempts to provide a historical framework for the fluid dynamics-related aspects of human swimming research, principally conducted roughly over the past five decades, with an emphasis on the past 25 years. The literature is organized below to show a continuous integration of computational and experimental technologies into the sport. Illustrations from the authors' collaborations over a 10-year period, coupling the knowledge and experience of an elite-level coach, a lead biomechanician at USA Swimming, and an experimental fluid dynamicist, are intended to bring relevance and immediacy to the review.
Collective dynamics of sperm in viscoelastic fluid
Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming
Collective dynamics in biology is an interesting subject for physicists, in part because of its close relations to emergent behaviors in condensed matter, such as phase separation and criticality. However, the emergence of order is often less drastic in systems composed of the living cells, sometimes due to the natural variability among individual organisms. Here, using bull sperm as a model system, we demonstrate that the cells migrate collectively in viscoelastic fluids, exhibiting behavior similar to ``flocking''. This collectiveness is greatly reduced in similarly viscous Newtonian fluids, suggesting that the cell-cell interaction is primarily a result of the elastic property or the memory effect of the fluids, instead of pure hydrodynamic interactions. Unlike bacterial swarming, this collectiveness does not require a change in phenotype of the cells; therefore, it is a better model system for physicists. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.
Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
McWilliams, James C.
2006-07-01
Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org
Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems
Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff
2009-01-01
This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…
Golubev, Vladimir S.; Banishev, Alexander F.; Azharonok, V. V.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.
1994-09-01
A qualitative analysis of the role of some hydrodynamic flows and instabilities by the process of laser beam-metal sample deep penetration interaction is presented. The forces of vapor pressure, melt surface tension and thermocapillary forces can determined a number of oscillatory and nonstationary phenomena in keyhole and weld pool. Dynamics of keyhole formation in metal plates has been studied under laser beam pulse effect ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ). Velocities of the keyhole bottom motion have been determined at 0.5 X 105 - 106 W/cm2 laser power densities. Oscillatory regime of plate break- down has been found out. Small-dimensional structures with d-(lambda) period was found on the frozen cavity walls, which, in our opinion, can contribute significantly to laser beam absorption. A new form of periodic structure on the frozen pattern being a helix-shaped modulation of the keyhole walls and bottom relief has been revealed. Temperature oscillations related to capillary oscillations in the melt layer were discovered in the cavity. Interaction of the CW CO2 laser beam and the matter by beam penetration into a moving metal sample has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamic parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopic methods. The frequencies of plasma jets pulsations (in 10 - 105 Hz range) are related to possible melt surface instabilities of the keyhole.
Interactive molecular dynamics
Schroeder, Daniel V
2015-01-01
Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in HTML5 and JavaScript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.
Interactive molecular dynamics
Schroeder, Daniel V.
2015-03-01
Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.
Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Samelson, Roger M.
The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.
Effective interactions between fluid membranes
Lu, Bing-Sui
2016-01-01
A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation, and through the use of a saddle-point approximation transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero mode fluctuations of the membranes, and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area $S$, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the inter-membrane separation $d$ as $d^{-2}$ for $d \\ll \\sqrt{S}$, but crosses over to $d^{-4}$ scaling for $d \\gg \\sqrt{S}$, whereas the zero mode part of the steric potential always scales as $d^{-2}$. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude $\\sigma$, which becomes sma...
Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soendergaard Jensen, J.
1996-08-01
This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.
Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces
Sagis, L.M.C.
2016-01-01
This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kangji Li
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of a high-resolution and control-friendly optimization framework in enclosed environments that helps improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ, and energy costs of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system simultaneously. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based optimization method which couples algorithms implemented in Matlab with CFD simulation is proposed. The key part of this method is a data interactive mechanism which efficiently passes parameters between CFD simulations and optimization functions. A two-person office room is modeled for the numerical optimization. The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm—non-dominated-and-crowding Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II—is realized to explore the environment/energy Pareto front of the enclosed space. Performance analysis will demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented optimization method.
Mobile Spatial Tools for Fluid Interaction
Isenberg, Tobias; Nix, Simon; Schwarz, Martin; Miede, André; Scott, Stacey D.; Carpendale, Sheelagh
2007-01-01
Fluid interaction techniques are increasingly important for effective work on interactive displays such as tabletops. We introduce mobile spatial tools to support such fluid interaction by affecting the properties of objects in the interface spatially rather than temporally. Our tools allow us to co
Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
1997-01-01
This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...
Fluid Dynamics and Viscosity in Strongly Correlated Fluids
Schaefer, Thomas
2014-01-01
We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low energy, long wavelength theory of many body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the notion of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio $\\eta/s$ of shear viscosity to entropy density of order $\\hbar/k_B$ or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and review the current experimental situation with regard to measurements of $\\eta/s$ in strongly coupled quantum fluids.
Geophysical fluid dynamics: whence, whither and why?
Vallis, Geoffrey K.
2016-08-01
This article discusses the role of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) in understanding the natural environment, and in particular the dynamics of atmospheres and oceans on Earth and elsewhere. GFD, as usually understood, is a branch of the geosciences that deals with fluid dynamics and that, by tradition, seeks to extract the bare essence of a phenomenon, omitting detail where possible. The geosciences in general deal with complex interacting systems and in some ways resemble condensed matter physics or aspects of biology, where we seek explanations of phenomena at a higher level than simply directly calculating the interactions of all the constituent parts. That is, we try to develop theories or make simple models of the behaviour of the system as a whole. However, these days in many geophysical systems of interest, we can also obtain information for how the system behaves by almost direct numerical simulation from the governing equations. The numerical model itself then explicitly predicts the emergent phenomena-the Gulf Stream, for example-something that is still usually impossible in biology or condensed matter physics. Such simulations, as manifested, for example, in complicated general circulation models, have in some ways been extremely successful and one may reasonably now ask whether understanding a complex geophysical system is necessary for predicting it. In what follows we discuss such issues and the roles that GFD has played in the past and will play in the future.
Computational fluid dynamics using CATIA created geometry
Gengler, Jeanne E.
1989-07-01
A method has been developed to link the geometry definition residing on a CAD/CAM system with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool needed to evaluate aerodynamic designs and requiring the memory capacity of a supercomputer. Requirements for surfaces suitable for CFD analysis are discussed. Techniques for developing surfaces and verifying their smoothness are compared, showing the capability of the CAD/CAM system. The utilization of a CAD/CAM system to create a computational mesh is explained, and the mesh interaction with the geometry and input file preparation for the CFD analysis is discussed.
Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures
Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.
2014-03-01
The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures.
Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction
Galdi, Giovanni P
2010-01-01
The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr
Computational methods for fluid dynamics
Ferziger, Joel H
2002-01-01
In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...
Principles of computational fluid dynamics
Wesseling, Pieter
2001-01-01
The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...
Introducing fluid dynamics using dimensional analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jens Højgaard
2013-01-01
Many aspects of fluid dynamics can be introduced using dimensional analysis, combined with some basic physical principles. This approach is concise and allows exploration of both the laminar and turbulent limits—including important phenomena that are not normally dealt with when fluid dynamics...
Dynamics of the Gay-Berne fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Miguel, E.; Rull, L.F. (Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, Sevilla 41080 (Spain)); Gubbins, K.E. (School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States))
1992-03-15
Using molecular-dynamics computer simulation, we study the dynamical behavior of the isotropic and nematic phases of highly anisotropic molecular fluids. The interactions are modeled by means of the Gay-Berne potential with anisotropy parameters {kappa}=3 and {kappa}{prime}=5. The linear-velocity autocorrelation function shows no evidence of a negative region in the isotropic phase, even at the higher densities considered. The self-diffusion coefficient parallel to the molecular axis shows an anomalous increase with density as the system enters the nematic region. This enhancement in parallel diffusion is also observed in the isotropic side of the transition as a precursor effect. The molecular reorientation is discussed in the light of different theoretical models. The Debye diffusion model appears to explain the reorientational mechanism in the nematic phase. None of the models gives a satisfactory account of the reorientation process in the isotropic phase.
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2001-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...
Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation
Pozrikidis, Constantine
2009-01-01
Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...
Fluid dynamics of planetary ices
Greve, Ralf
2009-01-01
The role of water ice in the solar system is reviewed from a fluid-dynamical point of view. On Earth and Mars, water ice forms ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers at the surface, which show glacial flow under their own weight. By contrast, water ice is a major constituent of the bulk volume of the icy satellites in the outer solar system, and ice flow can occur as thermal convection. The rheology of polycrystalline aggregates of ordinary, hexagonal ice Ih is described by a power law, different forms of which are discussed. The temperature dependence of the ice viscosity follows an Arrhenius law. Therefore, the flow of ice in a planetary environment constitutes a thermo-mechanically coupled problem; its model equations are obtained by inserting the flow law and the thermodynamic material equations in the balance laws of mass, momentum and energy. As an example of gravity-driven flow, the polar caps of Mars are discussed. For the north-polar cap, large-scale flow velocities of the order of 0.1...1 mm/a are likely...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S., E-mail: jasgon@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica
2009-07-01
In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)
Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage
Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.
2013-12-01
The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling
Cosmic acceleration from interaction of ordinary fluids
Pinto-Neto, Nelson
2007-01-01
Cosmological models with two interacting fluids, each satisfying the strong energy condition, are studied in the framework of classical General Relativity. If the interactions are phenomenologically described by a power law in the scale factor, the two initial interacting fluids can be equivalently substituted by two non interacting effective fluids, where one of them may violate the strong energy condition and/or have negative energy density. Analytical solutions of the Friedmann equations of this general setting are obtained and studied. One may have, depending on the scale where the interaction becomes important, non singular universes with early accelerated phase, or singular models with transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion at large scales. Among the first, there are bouncing models where contraction is stopped by the interaction. In the second case, one obtains dark energy expansion rates without dark energy, like $\\Lambda$CDM or phantomic accelerated expansions without cosmological const...
An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt
1999-01-01
CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....
Experimental and theoretical advances in fluid dynamics
Klapp, Jaime; Fuentes, Oscar Velasco
2011-01-01
The book is comprised of lectures and selected contributions presented at the Enzo Levi and XVI Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamic Division of the Mexican Physical Society in 2010. It is aimed at fourth year undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in fluid dynamics from the experimental and theoretical point of view. The lectures are introductory and avoid the use of complicated mathematics. The other selected contributions are also geared to fourth year undergraduate and graduate students. The fluid dynam
Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics
Meyer, Richard E
2010-01-01
An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.
Fluid Dynamics in an Ecological Context
Denny, Mark
2007-11-01
Fluid dynamics has long been an invaluable tool in the study of biological mechanics, helping to explain how animals swim and fly, how blood is pumped, gases are exchanged, and propagules are dispersed. The goal of understanding how the physics of fluids has affected the evolution of individual organisms provides strong impetus for teaching and learning fluid mechanics; a viable alternative to the more traditional goals of engineering. In recent years, a third alternative has arisen. The principles of fluid dynamics can be used to specify when and where individual organisms will exceed their physical capabilities, information that can in turn be used to predict species-specific survivorship in a given environment. In other words, biological fluid dynamics can be extended beyond the study of individual organisms to play an important role in our understanding of ecological dynamics. In a world where environmental change is of increasing concern, fluid dynamic aspect of ``ecomechanics'' may be of considerable practical importance. Teaching fluid mechanics in ecology will be discussed in the context of wave-swept rocky shores. Various wave theories can be used to predict the maximum water velocities and accelerations impinging on specific surf-zone plants and animals. Theories of lift, drag, and accelerational forces can then be used to predict the maximum loads imposed on these organisms, loads that can be compared to the organisms' structural limits to predict the fraction of the species that will be dislodged or damaged. Taken across relevant species, this information goes far towards explaining shoreline community dynamics. .
Saye, Robert
2017-09-01
In this two-part paper, a high-order accurate implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin (dG) framework is developed for fluid interface dynamics, facilitating precise computation of interfacial fluid flow in evolving geometries. The framework uses implicitly defined meshes-wherein a reference quadtree or octree grid is combined with an implicit representation of evolving interfaces and moving domain boundaries-and allows physically prescribed interfacial jump conditions to be imposed or captured with high-order accuracy. Part one discusses the design of the framework, including: (i) high-order quadrature for implicitly defined elements and faces; (ii) high-order accurate discretisation of scalar and vector-valued elliptic partial differential equations with interfacial jumps in ellipticity coefficient, leading to optimal-order accuracy in the maximum norm and discrete linear systems that are symmetric positive (semi)definite; (iii) the design of incompressible fluid flow projection operators, which except for the influence of small penalty parameters, are discretely idempotent; and (iv) the design of geometric multigrid methods for elliptic interface problems on implicitly defined meshes and their use as preconditioners for the conjugate gradient method. Also discussed is a variety of aspects relating to moving interfaces, including: (v) dG discretisations of the level set method on implicitly defined meshes; (vi) transferring state between evolving implicit meshes; (vii) preserving mesh topology to accurately compute temporal derivatives; (viii) high-order accurate reinitialisation of level set functions; and (ix) the integration of adaptive mesh refinement. In part two, several applications of the implicit mesh dG framework in two and three dimensions are presented, including examples of single phase flow in nontrivial geometry, surface tension-driven two phase flow with phase-dependent fluid density and viscosity, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free
Saye, Robert
2017-09-01
In this two-part paper, a high-order accurate implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin (dG) framework is developed for fluid interface dynamics, facilitating precise computation of interfacial fluid flow in evolving geometries. The framework uses implicitly defined meshes-wherein a reference quadtree or octree grid is combined with an implicit representation of evolving interfaces and moving domain boundaries-and allows physically prescribed interfacial jump conditions to be imposed or captured with high-order accuracy. Part one discusses the design of the framework, including: (i) high-order quadrature for implicitly defined elements and faces; (ii) high-order accurate discretisation of scalar and vector-valued elliptic partial differential equations with interfacial jumps in ellipticity coefficient, leading to optimal-order accuracy in the maximum norm and discrete linear systems that are symmetric positive (semi)definite; (iii) the design of incompressible fluid flow projection operators, which except for the influence of small penalty parameters, are discretely idempotent; and (iv) the design of geometric multigrid methods for elliptic interface problems on implicitly defined meshes and their use as preconditioners for the conjugate gradient method. Also discussed is a variety of aspects relating to moving interfaces, including: (v) dG discretisations of the level set method on implicitly defined meshes; (vi) transferring state between evolving implicit meshes; (vii) preserving mesh topology to accurately compute temporal derivatives; (viii) high-order accurate reinitialisation of level set functions; and (ix) the integration of adaptive mesh refinement. In part two, several applications of the implicit mesh dG framework in two and three dimensions are presented, including examples of single phase flow in nontrivial geometry, surface tension-driven two phase flow with phase-dependent fluid density and viscosity, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free
Hidden Symmetry of a Fluid Dynamical Model
Neves, C
2001-01-01
A connection between solutions of the relativistic d-brane system in (d+1) dimensions with the solutions of a Galileo invariant fluid in d-dimensions is by now well established. However, the physical nature of the light-cone gauge description of a relativistic membrane changes after the reduction to the fluid dynamical model since the gauge symmetry is lost. In this work we argue that the original gauge symmetry present in a relativistic d-brane system can be recovered after the reduction process to a d-dimensional fluid model. To this end we propose, without introducing Wess-Zumino fields, a gauge invariant theory of isentropic fluid dynamics and show that this symmetry corresponds to the invariance under local translation of the velocity potential in the fluid dynamics picture. We show that different but equivalent choices of the sympletic sector lead to distinct representations of the embedded gauge algebra.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Patanaik, A
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This chapter deals with the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in reducing yarn hairiness during the ring spinning process and thereby “engineering” yarn with desired properties. Hairiness significantly affects the appearance...
Gay-Balmaz, François
2010-01-01
This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.
Goldgruber, Markus; Shahriari, Shervin; Zenz, Gerald
2015-11-01
To reduce the natural hazard risks—due to, e.g., earthquake excitation—seismic safety assessments are carried out. Especially under severe loading, due to maximum credible or the so-called safety evaluation earthquake, critical infrastructure, as these are high dams, must not fail. However, under high loading local failure might be allowed as long as the entire structure does not collapse. Hence, for a dam, the loss of sliding stability during a short time period might be acceptable if the cumulative displacements after an event are below an acceptable value. This performance is not only valid for gravity dams but also for rock blocks as sliding is even more imminent in zones with higher seismic activity. Sliding modes cannot only occur in the dam-foundation contact, but also in sliding planes formed due to geological conditions. This work compares the qualitative possible and critical displacements for two methods, the well-known Newmark's sliding block analysis and a Fluid-Foundation-Structure Interaction simulation with the finite elements method. The results comparison of the maximum displacements at the end of the seismic event of the two methods depicts that for high friction angles, they are fairly close. For low friction angles, the results are differing more. The conclusion is that the commonly used Newmark's sliding block analysis and the finite elements simulation are only comparable for high friction angles, where this factor dominates the behaviour of the structure. Worth to mention is that the proposed simulation methods are also applicable to dynamic rock wedge problems and not only to dams.
ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction
Bottaro, Alessandro; Thompson, Mark
2016-01-01
This book addresses flow separation within the context of fluid-structure interaction phenomena. Here, new findings from two research communities focusing on fluids and structures are brought together, emphasizing the importance of a unified multidisciplinary approach. The book covers the theory, experimental findings, numerical simulations, and modeling in fluid dynamics and structural mechanics for both incompressible and compressible separated unsteady flows. There is a focus on the morphing of lifting structures in order to increase their aerodynamic and/or hydrodynamic performances, to control separation and to reduce noise, as well as to inspire the design of novel structures. The different chapters are based on contributions presented at the ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction held in Mykonos, Greece, 17-21 June, 2013 and include extended discussions and new highlights. The book is intended for students, researchers and practitioners in the broad field of computatio...
International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics
Suzuki, Yukihito
2016-01-01
This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.
Body fluid dynamics: back to the future.
Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G
2011-12-01
Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing particular attention to the interstitium operating as a dynamic interface for water and solute distribution rather than as a static reservoir. Newer work now supports an evolving model of body fluid dynamics that integrates exchangeable Na(+) stores and transcapillary dynamics with advances in interstitial matrix biology.
Modern fluid dynamics for physics and astrophysics
Regev, Oded; Yecko, Philip A
2016-01-01
This book grew out of the need to provide students with a solid introduction to modern fluid dynamics. It offers a broad grounding in the underlying principles and techniques used, with some emphasis on applications in astrophysics and planetary science. The book comprehensively covers recent developments, methods and techniques, including, for example, new ideas on transitions to turbulence (via transiently growing stable linear modes), new approaches to turbulence (which remains the enigma of fluid dynamics), and the use of asymptotic approximation methods, which can give analytical or semi-analytical results and complement fully numerical treatments. The authors also briefly discuss some important considerations to be taken into account when developing a numerical code for computer simulation of fluid flows. Although the text is populated throughout with examples and problems from the field of astrophysics and planetary science, the text is eminently suitable as a general introduction to fluid dynamics. It...
Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources
Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann
2016-11-01
Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.
Vortex dynamics in plasmas and fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Hesthaven, J.S.;
1994-01-01
The existence and dynamics of vortical structures in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems will be discussed. In particular the dynamics of monopolar and dipolar vortices in a plasma with nonuniform density and in a rotating fluid with varying Coriolis force is described. The role of vortical...
Fluid Dynamics of Human Phonation and Speech
Mittal, Rajat; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2013-01-01
This article presents a review of the fluid dynamics, flow-structure interactions, and acoustics associated with human phonation and speech. Our voice is produced through the process of phonation in the larynx, and an improved understanding of the underlying physics of this process is essential to advancing the treatment of voice disorders. Insights into the physics of phonation and speech can also contribute to improved vocal training and the development of new speech compression and synthesis schemes. This article introduces the key biomechanical features of the laryngeal physiology, reviews the basic principles of voice production, and summarizes the progress made over the past half-century in understanding the flow physics of phonation and speech. Laryngeal pathologies, which significantly enhance the complexity of phonatory dynamics, are discussed. After a thorough examination of the state of the art in computational modeling and experimental investigations of phonatory biomechanics, we present a synopsis of the pacing issues in this arena and an outlook for research in this fascinating subject.
Stochastic hard-sphere dynamics for hydrodynamics of nonideal fluids.
Donev, Aleksandar; Alder, Berni J; Garcia, Alejandro L
2008-08-15
A novel stochastic fluid model is proposed with a nonideal structure factor consistent with compressibility, and adjustable transport coefficients. This stochastic hard-sphere dynamics (SHSD) algorithm is a modification of the direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm and has several computational advantages over event-driven hard-sphere molecular dynamics. Surprisingly, SHSD results in an equation of state and a pair correlation function identical to that of a deterministic Hamiltonian system of penetrable spheres interacting with linear core pair potentials. The fluctuating hydrodynamic behavior of the SHSD fluid is verified for the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle suspended in a compressible solvent.
Nonlinear waves in strongly interacting relativistic fluids
Fogaça, D A; Filho, L G Ferreira
2013-01-01
During the past decades the study of strongly interacting fluids experienced a tremendous progress. In the relativistic heavy ion accelerators, specially the RHIC and LHC colliders, it became possible to study not only fluids made of hadronic matter but also fluids of quarks and gluons. Part of the physics program of these machines is the observation of waves in this strongly interacting medium. From the theoretical point of view, these waves are often treated with li-nearized hydrodynamics. In this text we review the attempts to go beyond linearization. We show how to use the Reductive Perturbation Method to expand the equations of (ideal and viscous) relativistic hydrodynamics to obtain nonlinear wave equations. These nonlinear wave equations govern the evolution of energy density perturbations (in hot quark gluon plasma) or baryon density perturbations (in cold quark gluon plasma and nuclear matter). Different nonlinear wave equations, such as the breaking wave, Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers equations, are...
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Cardiovascular Disease
Lee, Byoung-kwon
2011-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. Howev...
Colour in visualisation for computational fluid dynamics
2006-01-01
Colour is used in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in two key ways. First it is used to visualise the geometry and allow the engineers to be confident that the model constructed is a good representation of the engineering situation. Once an analysis has been completed, colour is used in post-processing the data from the simulations to illustrate the complex fluid mechanic phenomena under investigation. This paper describes these two uses of colour and provides some examples to il...
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2017-01-01
This book provides an accessible introduction to the basic theory of fluid mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical computation. Methods of scientific computing are introduced alongside with theoretical analysis and MATLAB® codes are presented and discussed for a broad range of topics: from interfacial shapes in hydrostatics, to vortex dynamics, to viscous flow, to turbulent flow, to panel methods for flow past airfoils. The third edition includes new topics, additional examples, solved and unsolved problems, and revised images. It adds more computational algorithms and MATLAB programs. It also incorporates discussion of the latest version of the fluid dynamics software library FDLIB, which is freely available online. FDLIB offers an extensive range of computer codes that demonstrate the implementation of elementary and advanced algorithms and provide an invaluable resource for research, teaching, classroom instruction, and self-study. This ...
Variational principles for stochastic fluid dynamics.
Holm, Darryl D
2015-04-08
This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). The paper proceeds by taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their Itô representation; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with each other, and with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. As with deterministic ideal flows, motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows. However, these Stratonovich properties are not apparent in the equivalent Itô representation, because they are disguised by the quadratic covariation drift term arising in the Stratonovich to Itô transformation. This term is a geometric generalization of the quadratic covariation drift term already found for scalar densities in Stratonovich's famous 1966 paper. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics; namely, the Euler-Boussinesq and quasi-geostropic approximations.
Relativistic fluid dynamics in heavy ion collisions
Pu, Shi
2011-01-01
This dissertation is about the study of three important issues in the theory of relativistic fluid dynamics: the stability of dissipative fluid dynamics, the shear viscosity, and fluid dynamics with triangle anomaly.(1)The second order theory of fluid dynamics is necessary for causality. However the causality cannot be guaranteed for all parameters. The constraints for parameters are then given. We also point out that the causality and the stability are inter-correlated. It is found that a causal system must be stable, but an acausal system in the boost frame at high speed must be unstable. (2)The transport coefficients can be determined in kinetic theory. We will firstly discuss about derivation of the shear viscosity via variational method in the Boltzmann equation. Secondly, we will compute the shear viscosity via AdS/CFT duality in a Bjorken boost invariant fluid with radial flow. It is found that the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is consistent with the work of Policastro, Son and Starin...
Reduced MHD and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics
Arter, Wayne
2011-08-01
Recent work has shown a relationship between between the equations of Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), used to model magnetic fusion laboratory experiments, and incompressible magnetoconvection (IMC), employed in the simulation of astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD), which means that the two systems are mathematically equivalent in certain geometries. Limitations on the modelling of RMHD, which were found over twenty years ago, are reviewed for an AFD audience, together with hitherto unpublished material on the role of finite-time singularities in the discrete equations used to model fluid dynamical systems. Possible implications for turbulence modelling are mentioned.
Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics
Date, Anil W.
2005-08-01
This is a textbook for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in mechanical, aerospace, and chemical engineering. The book emphasizes understanding CFD through physical principles and examples. The author follows a consistent philosophy of control volume formulation of the fundamental laws of fluid motion and energy transfer, and introduces a novel notion of 'smoothing pressure correction' for solution of flow equations on collocated grids within the framework of the well-known SIMPLE algorithm. The subject matter is developed by considering pure conduction/diffusion, convective transport in 2-dimensional boundary layers and in fully elliptic flow situations and phase-change problems in succession. The book includes chapters on discretization of equations for transport of mass, momentum and energy on Cartesian, structured curvilinear and unstructured meshes, solution of discretised equations, numerical grid generation and convergence enhancement. Practicing engineers will find this particularly useful for reference and for continuing education.
Fluid Dynamic Verification Experiments on STS-70
Kleis, Stanley J.
1996-01-01
Fluid dynamic experiments were flown on STS-70 as phase two of the engineering evaluation of the first bioreactor Engineering Development Unit (EDU#1). The phase one experiments were comparative cell cultures in identical units on earth and onboard STS-70. In phase two, two types of fluid dynamic experiments were performed. Qualitative comparisons of the basic flow patterns were evaluated with the use of 'dye' streaklines formed from alternate injections of either a mild acid or base solution into the external flow loop that was then perfused into the vessel. The presence of Bromothymol Blue in the fluid then caused color changes from yellow to blue or vice versa, indicating the basic fluid motions. This reversible change could be repeated as desired. In the absence of significant density differences in the fluid, the flow patterns in space should be the same as on earth. Video tape records of the flow patterns for a wide range of operating conditions were obtained. The second type of fluid dynamic experiment was the quantitative evaluation of the trajectories of solid beads of various densities and sizes. The beads were introduced into the vessel and the paths recorded on video tape, with the vessel operated at various rotation rates and flow perfusion rates. Because of space limitations, the video camera was placed as close as possible to the vessel, resulting in significant optical distortion. This report describes the analysis methods to obtain comparisons between the in-flight fluid dynamics and numerical models of the flow field. The methods include optical corrections to the video images and calculation of the bead trajectories for given operating conditions and initial bead locations.
A dynamic neutral fluid model for the PIC scheme
Wu, Alan; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John
2010-11-01
Fluid diffusion is an important aspect of plasma simulation. A new dynamic model is implemented using the continuity and boundary equations in OOPD1, an object oriented one-dimensional particle-in-cell code developed at UC Berkeley. The model is described and compared with analytical methods given in [1]. A boundary absorption parameter can be adjusted from ideal absorption to ideal reflection. Simulations exhibit good agreement with analytic time dependent solutions for the two ideal cases, as well as steady state solutions for mixed cases. For the next step, fluid sources and sinks due to particle-particle or particle-fluid collisions within the simulation volume and to surface reactions resulting in emission or absorption of fluid species will be implemented. The resulting dynamic interaction between particle and fluid species will be an improvement to the static fluid in the existing code. As the final step in the development, diffusion for multiple fluid species will be implemented. [4pt] [1] M.A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 2005.
Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish
Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Neumann, Rodrigo F.
2016-09-01
In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability-porosity relation, to our artificial samples.
Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish
Coelho, Rodrigo C V
2016-01-01
In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through in order to calculate permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualize these concepts, we test the Kozeny--Carman equation, discuss its validity and calculate the Kozeny's constant for our artificial samples.
Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)
1997-09-01
In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.
Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics
C. Boutsioukis; L.W.M. van der Sluis
2015-01-01
Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system
Engineering applications of computational fluid dynamics
Awang, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
This volume presents the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis that can be used for conceptual studies of product design, detail product development, process troubleshooting. It demonstrates the benefit of CFD modeling as a cost saving, timely, safe and easy to scale-up methodology.
Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics
Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.
2015-01-01
Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system
Modern Fluid Dynamics Intermediate Theory and Applications
Kleinstreuer, Clement
2010-01-01
Features pedagogical elements that include consistent 50/50 physics-mathematics approach when introducing material, illustrating concepts, showing flow visualizations, and solving problems. This title intends to help serious undergraduate student solve basic fluid dynamics problems independently, and suggest system design improvements
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.
2008-01-01
This paper is based on the new REHVA Guidebook Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design (Nielsen et al. 2007) written by Peter V. Nielsen, Francis(Nielsen 2007) written by Peter V. Nielsen, Francis Allard, Hazim B. Awbi, Lars Davidson and Alois Schälin. The guidebook is made for people...
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Ventilation Airflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was first introduced in the ventilation industry in the 1970s. CFD has been increasingly used since then, as testified by the number of peer-reviewed articles, which was less than 10 per year in the 1990s, and which is now 60 to 70 per year. This article discusses...
Droplet breakup dynamics of weakly viscoelastic fluids
Marshall, Kristin; Walker, Travis
2016-11-01
The addition of macromolecules to solvent, even in dilute quantities, can alter a fluid's response in an extensional flow. For low-viscosity fluids, the presence of elasticity may not be apparent when measured using a standard rotational rheometer, yet it may still alter the response of a fluid when undergoing an extensional deformation, especially at small length scales where elastic effects are enhanced. Applications such as microfluidics necessitate investigating the dynamics of fluids with elastic properties that are not pronounced at large length scales. In the present work, a microfluidic cross-slot configuration is used to study the effects of elasticity on droplet breakup. Droplet breakup and the subsequent iterated-stretching - where beads form along a filament connecting two primary droplets - were observed for a variety of material and flow conditions. We present a relationship on the modes of bead formation and how and when these modes will form based on key parameters such as the properties of the outer continuous-phase fluid. The results are vital not only for simulating the droplet breakup of weakly viscoelastic fluids but also for understanding how the droplet breakup event can be used for characterizing the extensional properties of weakly-viscoelastic fluids.
Fluid structure interaction in piping systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svingen, Bjoernar
1996-12-31
The Dr. ing. thesis relates to an analysis of fluid structure interaction in piping systems in the frequency domain. The governing equations are the water hammer equations for the liquid, and the beam-equations for the structure. The fluid and structural equations are coupled through axial stresses and fluid continuity relations controlled by the contraction factor (Poisson coupling), and continuity and force relations at the boundaries (junction coupling). A computer program has been developed using the finite element method as a discretization technique both for the fluid and for the structure. This is made for permitting analyses of large systems including branches and loops, as well as including hydraulic piping components, and experiments are executed. Excitations are made in a frequency range from zero Hz and up to at least one thousand Hz. Frequency dependent friction is modelled as stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping both for the fluid and for the structure. With respect to the water hammer equations, stiffness proportional damping is seen as an artificial (bulk) viscosity term. A physical interpretation of this term in relation to transient/oscillating hydraulic pipe-friction is given. 77 refs., 72 figs., 4 tabs.
Multiscale Behavior of Viscous Fluids Dynamics: Experimental Observations
Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.
2016-04-01
The dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts (10-1000 Pa s) during slow decompression present multi-time scale processes. To observe these processes we have performed several experiments on silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours, in a Plexiglas autoclave. The slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acting as the excitation mechanism, triggered several processes with their own distinct timescales. These processes generate complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit flanked by high-speed video recordings. The analysis in time and frequency of these time series and their correlation with the associated high-speed imaging enables the characterization of distinct phases and the extraction of the individual processes during the evolution of decompression of these viscous fluids. We have observed fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the conduit system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and volcanic seismicity.
Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.
Goldstein, Raymond E
2015-01-01
In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.
Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steefel, C.; Maher, K.
2009-04-01
Fluid-rock interaction (or water-rock interaction, as it was more commonly known) is a subject that has evolved considerably in its scope over the years. Initially its focus was primarily on interactions between subsurface fluids of various temperatures and mostly crystalline rocks, but the scope has broadened now to include fluid interaction with all forms of subsurface materials, whether they are unconsolidated or crystalline ('fluid-solid interaction' is perhaps less euphonious). Disciplines that previously carried their own distinct names, for example, basin diagenesis, early diagenesis, metamorphic petrology, reactive contaminant transport, chemical weathering, are now considered to fall under the broader rubric of fluid-rock interaction, although certainly some of the key research questions differ depending on the environment considered. Beyond the broadening of the environments considered in the study of fluid-rock interaction, the discipline has evolved in perhaps an even more important way. The study of water-rock interaction began by focusing on geochemical interactions in the absence of transport processes, although a few notable exceptions exist (Thompson 1959; Weare et al. 1976). Moreover, these analyses began by adopting a primarily thermodynamic approach, with the implicit or explicit assumption of equilibrium between the fluid and rock. As a result, these early models were fundamentally static rather than dynamic in nature. This all changed with the seminal papers by Helgeson and his co-workers (Helgeson 1968; Helgeson et al. 1969) wherein the concept of an irreversible reaction path was formally introduced into the geochemical literature. In addition to treating the reaction network as a dynamically evolving system, the Helgeson studies introduced an approach that allowed for the consideration of a multicomponent geochemical system, with multiple minerals and species appearing as both reactants and products, at least one of which could be
Dynamics of interacting diseases
Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir
2014-01-01
Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...
Intermolecular interactions and the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids.
Yigzawe, Tesfaye M; Sadus, Richard J
2013-05-21
The role of different contributions to intermolecular interactions on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulation results are reported for the energy, pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of fluids interacting via both the Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials. These properties were obtained for a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and densities. For each thermodynamic property, an excess value is determined to distinguish between attraction and repulsion. It is found that the contributions of intermolecular interactions have varying effects depending on the thermodynamic property. The maxima exhibited by the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, isothermal compressibilities, and thermal expansion coefficient are attributed to interactions in the Lennard-Jones well. Repulsion is required to obtain physically realistic speeds of sound and both repulsion and attraction are necessary to observe a Joule-Thomson inversion curve. Significantly, both maxima and minima are observed for the isobaric and isochoric heat capacities of the supercritical Lennard-Jones fluid. It is postulated that the loci of these maxima and minima converge to a common point via the same power law relationship as the phase coexistence curve with an exponent of β = 0.32. This provides an explanation for the terminal isobaric heat capacity maximum in supercritical fluids.
Colour in visualisation for computational fluid dynamics
Kinnear, David; Atherton, Mark; Collins, Michael; Dokhan, Jason; Karayiannis, Tassos
2006-06-01
Colour is used in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in two key ways. First it is used to visualise the geometry and allow the engineer to be confident that the model constructed is a good representation of the engineering situation. Once an analysis has been completed, colour is used in post-processing the data from the simulations to illustrate the complex fluid mechanic phenomena under investigation. This paper describes these two uses of colour and provides some examples to illustrate the key visualisation approaches used in CFD.
Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics
2010-01-01
"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."
Unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in flying and swimming
Liu, Hao; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Li, Gen
2017-08-01
Flying and swimming in nature present sophisticated and exciting ventures in biomimetics, which seeks sustainable solutions and solves practical problems by emulating nature's time-tested patterns, functions, and strategies. Bio-fluids in insect and bird flight, as well as in fish swimming are highly dynamic and unsteady; however, they have been studied mostly with a focus on the phenomena associated with a body or wings moving in a steady flow. Characterized by unsteady wing flapping and body undulation, fluid-structure interactions, flexible wings and bodies, turbulent environments, and complex maneuver, bio-fluid dynamics normally have challenges associated with low Reynolds number regime and high unsteadiness in modeling and analysis of flow physics. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in terms of leading-edge vortices, passive mechanisms in flexible wings and hinges, flapping flight in unsteady environments, and micro-structured aerodynamics in flapping flight, as well as undulatory swimming, flapping-fin hydrodynamics, body-fin interaction, C-start and maneuvering, swimming in turbulence, collective swimming, and micro-structured hydrodynamics in swimming. We further give a perspective outlook on future challenges and tasks of several key issues of the field.
Shock-driven fluid-structure interaction for civil design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, Stephen L [ORNL; Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL
2011-11-01
The multiphysics fluid-structure interaction simulation of shock-loaded structures requires the dynamic coupling of a shock-capturing flow solver to a solid mechanics solver for large deformations. The Virtual Test Facility combines a Cartesian embedded boundary approach with dynamic mesh adaptation in a generic software framework of flow solvers using hydrodynamic finite volume upwind schemes that are coupled to various explicit finite element solid dynamics solvers (Deiterding et al., 2006). This paper gives a brief overview of the computational approach and presents first simulations that utilize the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D for complex 3D structures of interest in civil engineering. Results from simulations of a reinforced column, highway bridge, multistory building, and nuclear reactor building are presented.
System dynamics with interaction discontinuity
Luo, Albert C J
2015-01-01
This book describes system dynamics with discontinuity caused by system interactions and presents the theory of flow singularity and switchability at the boundary in discontinuous dynamical systems. Based on such a theory, the authors address dynamics and motion mechanism of engineering discontinuous systems due to interaction. Stability and bifurcations of fixed points in nonlinear discrete dynamical systems are presented, and mapping dynamics are developed for analytical predictions of periodic motions in engineering discontinuous dynamical systems. Ultimately, the book provides an alternative way to discuss the periodic and chaotic behaviors in discontinuous dynamical systems.
Meshfree methods for computational fluid dynamics
Jícha M.; Čermák L.; Niedoba P.
2013-01-01
The paper deals with the convergence problem of the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) meshfree method for the solution of fluid dynamics tasks. In the introductory part, fundamental aspects of mesh- free methods, their definition, computational approaches and classification are discussed. In the following part, the methods of local integral representation, where SPH belongs are analyzed and specifically the method RKPM (Reproducing Kernel Particle Method) is described. In the contribution...
Delaunay triangulation and computational fluid dynamics meshes
Posenau, Mary-Anne K.; Mount, David M.
1992-01-01
In aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the Delaunay triangulation of suitable quadrilateral meshes can lead to unsuitable triangulated meshes. Here, we present case studies which illustrate the limitations of using structured grid generation methods which produce points in a curvilinear coordinate system for subsequent triangulations for CFD applications. We discuss conditions under which meshes of quadrilateral elements may not produce a Delaunay triangulation suitable for CFD calculations, particularly with regard to high aspect ratio, skewed quadrilateral elements.
Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation design
Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B; Davidson, Lars; Schälin, Alois
2007-01-01
CFD-calculations have been rapidly developed to a powerful tool for the analysis of air pollution distribution in various spaces. However, the user of CFD-calculation should be aware of the basic principles of calculations and specifically the boundary conditions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) – in Ventilation Design models is written by a working group of highly qualified international experts representing research, consulting and design.
Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics
Saye, Robert
2016-01-01
Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the...
Statics and dynamics of fluids in nanotubes
Gouin, Henri
2013-01-01
The purpose of this article is to study the statics and dynamics of nanotubes by using the methods of continuum mechanics. The nanotube can be filled with only a liquid or a vapour phase according to the physicochemical characteristics of the wall and to the disjoining pressure associated with the liquid and vapour mother bulks of the fluid, regardless of the nature of the external mother bulk. In dynamics, flows through nanotubes can be much more important than classical Poiseuille flows. When the external mother bulk is of vapour, the flow can be a million times larger than the classical flows when slippage on wall does not exist.
Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation
Korn, Granino A
2010-01-01
Showing you how to use personal computers for modeling and simulation, Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation, Second Edition provides a practical tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation. It discusses how to effectively simulate dynamical systems, such as aerospace vehicles, power plants, chemical processes, control systems, and physiological systems. Written by a pioneer in simulation, the book introduces dynamic-system models and explains how software for solving differential equations works. After demonstrating real simulation programs with simple examples, the author
Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert
2009-11-01
This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Wetting dynamics of a collapsing fluid hole
Bostwick, J. B.; Dijksman, J. A.; Shearer, M.
2017-01-01
The collapse dynamics of an axisymmetric fluid cavity that wets the bottom of a rotating bucket bound by vertical sidewalls are studied. Lubrication theory is applied to the governing field equations for the thin film to yield an evolution equation that captures the effect of capillary, gravitational, and centrifugal forces on this converging flow. The focus is on the quasistatic spreading regime, whereby contact-line motion is governed by a constitutive law relating the contact-angle to the contact-line speed. Surface tension forces dominate the collapse dynamics for small holes with the collapse time appearing as a power law whose exponent compares favorably to experiments in the literature. Gravity accelerates the collapse process. Volume dependence is predicted and compared with experiment. Centrifugal forces slow the collapse process and lead to complex dynamics characterized by stalled spreading behavior that separates the large and small hole asymptotic regimes.
Computational Fluid Dynamics - Applications in Manufacturing Processes
Beninati, Maria Laura; Kathol, Austin; Ziemian, Constance
2012-11-01
A new Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) exercise has been developed for the undergraduate introductory fluid mechanics course at Bucknell University. The goal is to develop a computational exercise that students complete which links the manufacturing processes course and the concurrent fluid mechanics course in a way that reinforces the concepts in both. In general, CFD is used as a tool to increase student understanding of the fundamentals in a virtual world. A ``learning factory,'' which is currently in development at Bucknell seeks to use the laboratory as a means to link courses that previously seemed to have little correlation at first glance. A large part of the manufacturing processes course is a project using an injection molding machine. The flow of pressurized molten polyurethane into the mold cavity can also be an example of fluid motion (a jet of liquid hitting a plate) that is applied in manufacturing. The students will run a CFD process that captures this flow using their virtual mold created with a graphics package, such as SolidWorks. The laboratory structure is currently being implemented and analyzed as a part of the ``learning factory''. Lastly, a survey taken before and after the CFD exercise demonstrate a better understanding of both the CFD and manufacturing process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azrar A.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The dynamic instabilities of Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs conveying fluid are modeled and numerically simulated based on the nonlocal elasticity theory. The small scale parameter and the fluid-tube interaction effects on the dynamic behaviors of the CNT-fluid system as well as the instabilities induced by the fluid-velocity are investigated. The critical fluid-velocity and frequency-amplitude relationships as well as the flutter and divergence instability types and the associated time responses can be obtained based on the presented methodological approach.
Manufacturing in space: Fluid dynamics numerical analysis
Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.; Spradley, L. W.
1981-01-01
Natural convection in a spherical container with cooling at the center was numerically simulated using the Lockheed-developed General Interpolants Method (GIM) numerical fluid dynamic computer program. The numerical analysis was simplified by assuming axisymmetric flow in the spherical container, with the symmetry axis being a sphere diagonal parallel to the gravity vector. This axisymmetric spherical geometry was intended as an idealization of the proposed Lal/Kroes growing experiments to be performed on board Spacelab. Results were obtained for a range of Rayleigh numbers from 25 to 10,000. For a temperature difference of 10 C from the cooling sting at the center to the container surface, and a gravitional loading of 0.000001 g a computed maximum fluid velocity of about 2.4 x 0.00001 cm/sec was reached after about 250 sec. The computed velocities were found to be approximately proportional to the Rayleigh number over the range of Rayleigh numbers investigated.
Wetting dynamics of a collapsing fluid hole
Bostwick, Joshua; Dijksman, Joshua; Shearer, Michael
2016-11-01
An axisymmetric fluid cavity at the bottom of a rotating bucket bound by vertical sidewalls is studied, as it is filled in by the wetting fluid. Lubrication theory is applied to reduce the governing equations to a single evolution equation for the film thickness. In the quasi-static regime the contact-line motion is governed by a constitutive law relating the effective contact angle to the contact-line speed. The dependence of the collapse time on the initial hole size is calculated. For small holes, surface tension dominates the dynamics, leading to a universal power law that compares favorably to experiments in the literature. Further verification of the model is obtained through comparison of volume dependence with experimental results.
Topological fluid dynamics of interfacial flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1994-01-01
The topological description of flows in the vicinity of a solid boundary, that is familiar from the aerodynamics literature, has recently been extended to the case of flow at a liquid–gas interface or a free surface by Lugt [Phys. Fluids 30, 3647 (1987)]. Lugt's work is revisited in a more general...... setting, including nonconstant curvature of the interface and gradients of surface tension, using tools of modern nonlinear dynamics. Bifurcations of the flow pattern occur at degenerate configurations. Using the theory of unfolding, this paper gives a complete description of the bifurcations that depend...... on terms up to the second order. The general theory of this paper is applied to the topology of streamlines during the breaking of a wave and to the flow below a stagnant surface film. Physics of Fluids is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Generalized dark energy interactions with multiple fluids
van de Bruck, Carsten; Mimoso, José P; Nunes, Nelson J
2016-01-01
In the search for an explanation for the current acceleration of the Universe, scalar fields are the most simple and useful tools to build models of dark energy. This field, however, must in principle couple with the rest of the world and not necessarily in the same way to different particles or fluids. We provide the most complete dynamical system analysis to date, consisting of a canonical scalar field conformally and disformally coupled to both dust and radiation. We perform a detailed study of the existence and stability conditions of the systems and comment on constraints imposed on the disformal coupling from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and given current limits on the variation of the fine-structure constant.
Generalized dark energy interactions with multiple fluids
van de Bruck, Carsten; Mifsud, Jurgen; Mimoso, José P.; Nunes, Nelson J.
2016-11-01
In the search for an explanation for the current acceleration of the Universe, scalar fields are the most simple and useful tools to build models of dark energy. This field, however, must in principle couple with the rest of the world and not necessarily in the same way to different particles or fluids. We provide the most complete dynamical system analysis to date, consisting of a canonical scalar field conformally and disformally coupled to both dust and radiation. We perform a detailed study of the existence and stability conditions of the systems and comment on constraints imposed on the disformal coupling from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and given current limits on the variation of the fine-structure constant.
Assembling Ellipsoidal Particles at Fluid Interfaces Using Switchable Dipolar Capillary Interactions
Davies, G.B.; Krüger, T.; Coveney, P.V.; Harting, J.D.R.
2014-01-01
How to dynamically tune an assembly of anisotropic colloidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces using dipolar capillary interactions is demonstrated. A previously discovered first-order phase transition is exploited and it is shown how to spontaneously turn off these dipolar capillary inte
Multibody interactions of actuated magnetic particles used as fluid drivers in microchannels
Derks, R.J.S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Prins, M.W.J.; Dietzel, A.H.
2010-01-01
The forced motion of superparamagnetic particles and their multibody interactions are studied in view of the application as integrated fluid drivers in microchannel systems. Previous studies on particle manipulation in open fluid volumes serve as our starting point for the analysis of particle dynam
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haworth, D.C.; O' Rourke, P.J.; Ranganathan, R.
1998-09-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one discipline falling under the broad heading of computer-aided engineering (CAE). CAE, together with computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), comprise a mathematical-based approach to engineering product and process design, analysis and fabrication. In this overview of CFD for the design engineer, our purposes are three-fold: (1) to define the scope of CFD and motivate its utility for engineering, (2) to provide a basic technical foundation for CFD, and (3) to convey how CFD is incorporated into engineering product and process design.
Kinematics and Fluid Dynamics of Jellyfish Maneuvering
Miller, Laura; Hoover, Alex
2014-11-01
Jellyfish propel themselves through the water through periodic contractions of their elastic bells. Some jellyfish, such as the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, can perform turns via asymmetric contractions of the bell. The fluid dynamics of jellyfish forward propulsion and turning is explored here by analyzing the contraction kinematics of several species and using flow visualization to quantify the resulting flow fields. The asymmetric contraction and structure of the jellyfish generates asymmetries in the starting and stopping vortices. This creates a diagonal jet and a net torque acting on the jellyfish. Results are compared to immersed boundary simulations
DYNAMICS OF RELATIVISTIC FLUID FOR COMPRESSIBLE GAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
In this paper the relativistic fluid dynamics for compressible gas is studied.We show that the strict convexity of the negative thermodynamical entropy preserves invariant under the Lorentz transformation if and only if the local speed of sound in this gas is strictly less than that of light in the vacuum.A symmetric form for the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics is presented,and thus the local classical solutions to these equations can be deduced.At last,the non-relativistic limits of these local cla...
Domain decomposition algorithms and computational fluid dynamics
Chan, Tony F.
1988-01-01
Some of the new domain decomposition algorithms are applied to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics: the two-dimensional convection-diffusion problem and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. First, a brief introduction to the various approaches of domain decomposition is given, and a survey of domain decomposition preconditioners for the operator on the interface separating the subdomains is then presented. For the convection-diffusion problem, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is examined.
Fluid-structure interaction and biomedical applications
Galdi, Giovanni; Nečasová, Šárka
2014-01-01
This book presents, in a methodical way, updated and comprehensive descriptions and analyses of some of the most relevant problems in the context of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Generally speaking, FSI is among the most popular and intriguing problems in applied sciences and includes industrial as well as biological applications. Various fundamental aspects of FSI are addressed from different perspectives, with a focus on biomedical applications. More specifically, the book presents a mathematical analysis of basic questions like the well-posedness of the relevant initial and boundary value problems, as well as the modeling and the numerical simulation of a number of fundamental phenomena related to human biology. These latter research topics include blood flow in arteries and veins, blood coagulation and speech modeling. We believe that the variety of the topics discussed, along with the different approaches used to address and solve the corresponding problems, will help readers to develop a more holis...
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1995
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, S.G.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.
1996-01-01
Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following two programme areas: (1) optical diagnostics and information processing and (2) plasma and fluid dynamics. The optical activities are concentrated on optical materials, diagnostics and sensors. The plasma and fluid dynamics activities are concentrated on nonlinear dynamics in fluids, plasmas and optics as well as on plasma and fluid diagnostics. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1995 is presented. (au) 36 ills., 166 refs.
Computational fluid dynamics: Transition to design applications
Bradley, R. G.; Bhateley, I. C.; Howell, G. A.
1987-01-01
The development of aerospace vehicles, over the years, was an evolutionary process in which engineering progress in the aerospace community was based, generally, on prior experience and data bases obtained through wind tunnel and flight testing. Advances in the fundamental understanding of flow physics, wind tunnel and flight test capability, and mathematical insights into the governing flow equations were translated into improved air vehicle design. The modern day field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a continuation of the growth in analytical capability and the digital mathematics needed to solve the more rigorous form of the flow equations. Some of the technical and managerial challenges that result from rapidly developing CFD capabilites, some of the steps being taken by the Fort Worth Division of General Dynamics to meet these challenges, and some of the specific areas of application for high performance air vehicles are presented.
Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics
Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.
The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.
Dynamic reservoir well interaction
Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.
2004-01-01
In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s
Fundamental algorithms in computational fluid dynamics
Pulliam, Thomas H
2014-01-01
Intended as a textbook for courses in computational fluid dynamics at the senior undergraduate or graduate level, this book is a follow-up to the book Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics by the same authors, which was published in the series Scientific Computation in 2001. Whereas the earlier book concentrated on the analysis of numerical methods applied to model equations, this new book concentrates on algorithms for the numerical solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. It focuses on some classical algorithms as well as the underlying ideas based on the latest methods. A key feature of the book is the inclusion of programming exercises at the end of each chapter based on the numerical solution of the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations and the shock-tube problem. These exercises can be included in the context of a typical course, and sample solutions are provided in each chapter, so readers can confirm that they have coded the algorithms correctly.
Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steefel, C.; Maher, K.
2009-04-01
Fluid-rock interaction (or water-rock interaction, as it was more commonly known) is a subject that has evolved considerably in its scope over the years. Initially its focus was primarily on interactions between subsurface fluids of various temperatures and mostly crystalline rocks, but the scope has broadened now to include fluid interaction with all forms of subsurface materials, whether they are unconsolidated or crystalline ('fluid-solid interaction' is perhaps less euphonious). Disciplines that previously carried their own distinct names, for example, basin diagenesis, early diagenesis, metamorphic petrology, reactive contaminant transport, chemical weathering, are now considered to fall under the broader rubric of fluid-rock interaction, although certainly some of the key research questions differ depending on the environment considered. Beyond the broadening of the environments considered in the study of fluid-rock interaction, the discipline has evolved in perhaps an even more important way. The study of water-rock interaction began by focusing on geochemical interactions in the absence of transport processes, although a few notable exceptions exist (Thompson 1959; Weare et al. 1976). Moreover, these analyses began by adopting a primarily thermodynamic approach, with the implicit or explicit assumption of equilibrium between the fluid and rock. As a result, these early models were fundamentally static rather than dynamic in nature. This all changed with the seminal papers by Helgeson and his co-workers (Helgeson 1968; Helgeson et al. 1969) wherein the concept of an irreversible reaction path was formally introduced into the geochemical literature. In addition to treating the reaction network as a dynamically evolving system, the Helgeson studies introduced an approach that allowed for the consideration of a multicomponent geochemical system, with multiple minerals and species appearing as both reactants and products, at least one of which could be
Transient cosmic acceleration from interacting fluids
Fabris, Julio C; Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Zimdahl, Winfried
2009-01-01
Recent investigations seem to favor a cosmological dynamics according to which the accelerated expansion of the Universe may have already peaked and is now slowing down again \\cite{sastaro}. As a consequence, the cosmic acceleration may be a transient phenomenon. We investigate a toy model that reproduces such a background behavior as the result of a time-dependent coupling in the dark sector which implies a cancelation of the "bare" cosmological constant. With the help of a statistical analysis of Supernova Type Ia (SNIa) data we demonstrate that for a certain parameter combination a transient accelerating phase emerges as a pure interaction effect.
Automated Computational Fluid Dynamics Design With Shape Optimization Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as an analysis tool to help the designer gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in the...
Automated Computational Fluid Dynamics Design With Shape Optimization Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as an analysis tool to help the designer gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in the components...
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
1997-01-01
of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...
Cardiac fluid dynamics anticipates heart adaptation.
Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Martiniello, Alfonso R; Bianchi, Valter; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Caso, Pio; Tonti, Giovanni
2015-01-21
Hemodynamic forces represent an epigenetic factor during heart development and are supposed to influence the pathology of the grown heart. Cardiac blood motion is characterized by a vortical dynamics, and it is common belief that the cardiac vortex has a role in disease progressions or regression. Here we provide a preliminary demonstration about the relevance of maladaptive intra-cardiac vortex dynamics in the geometrical adaptation of the dysfunctional heart. We employed an in vivo model of patients who present a stable normal heart function in virtue of the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, bi-ventricular pace-maker) and who are expected to develop left ventricle remodeling if pace-maker was switched off. Intra-ventricular fluid dynamics is analyzed by echocardiography (Echo-PIV). Under normal conditions, the flow presents a longitudinal alignment of the intraventricular hemodynamic forces. When pacing is temporarily switched off, flow forces develop a misalignment hammering onto lateral walls, despite no other electro-mechanical change is noticed. Hemodynamic forces result to be the first event that evokes a physiological activity anticipating cardiac changes and could help in the prediction of longer term heart adaptations.
Computational fluid dynamics in cardiovascular disease.
Lee, Byoung-Kwon
2011-08-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mechanical engineering field for analyzing fluid flow, heat transfer, and associated phenomena, using computer-based simulation. CFD is a widely adopted methodology for solving complex problems in many modern engineering fields. The merit of CFD is developing new and improved devices and system designs, and optimization is conducted on existing equipment through computational simulations, resulting in enhanced efficiency and lower operating costs. However, in the biomedical field, CFD is still emerging. The main reason why CFD in the biomedical field has lagged behind is the tremendous complexity of human body fluid behavior. Recently, CFD biomedical research is more accessible, because high performance hardware and software are easily available with advances in computer science. All CFD processes contain three main components to provide useful information, such as pre-processing, solving mathematical equations, and post-processing. Initial accurate geometric modeling and boundary conditions are essential to achieve adequate results. Medical imaging, such as ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for modeling, and Doppler ultrasound, pressure wire, and non-invasive pressure measurements are used for flow velocity and pressure as a boundary condition. Many simulations and clinical results have been used to study congenital heart disease, heart failure, ventricle function, aortic disease, and carotid and intra-cranial cerebrovascular diseases. With decreasing hardware costs and rapid computing times, researchers and medical scientists may increasingly use this reliable CFD tool to deliver accurate results. A realistic, multidisciplinary approach is essential to accomplish these tasks. Indefinite collaborations between mechanical engineers and clinical and medical scientists are essential. CFD may be an important methodology to understand the pathophysiology of the development and
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Emergent geometries and nonlinear-wave dynamics in photon fluids.
Marino, F; Maitland, C; Vocke, D; Ortolan, A; Faccio, D
2016-03-22
Nonlinear waves in defocusing media are investigated in the framework of the hydrodynamic description of light as a photon fluid. The observations are interpreted in terms of an emergent curved spacetime generated by the waves themselves, which fully determines their dynamics. The spacetime geometry emerges naturally as a result of the nonlinear interaction between the waves and the self-induced background flow. In particular, as observed in real fluids, different points of the wave profile propagate at different velocities leading to the self-steepening of the wave front and to the formation of a shock. This phenomenon can be associated to a curvature singularity of the emergent metric. Our analysis offers an alternative insight into the problem of shock formation and provides a demonstration of an analogue gravity model that goes beyond the kinematic level.
Domain decomposition algorithms and computation fluid dynamics
Chan, Tony F.
1988-01-01
In the past several years, domain decomposition was a very popular topic, partly motivated by the potential of parallelization. While a large body of theory and algorithms were developed for model elliptic problems, they are only recently starting to be tested on realistic applications. The application of some of these methods to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics are investigated. Some examples are two dimensional convection-diffusion problems and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. The construction and analysis of efficient preconditioners for the interface operator to be used in the iterative solution of the interface solution is described. For the convection-diffusion problems, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is discussed.
Artificial Intelligence In Computational Fluid Dynamics
Vogel, Alison Andrews
1991-01-01
Paper compares four first-generation artificial-intelligence (Al) software systems for computational fluid dynamics. Includes: Expert Cooling Fan Design System (EXFAN), PAN AIR Knowledge System (PAKS), grid-adaptation program MITOSIS, and Expert Zonal Grid Generation (EZGrid). Focuses on knowledge-based ("expert") software systems. Analyzes intended tasks, kinds of knowledge possessed, magnitude of effort required to codify knowledge, how quickly constructed, performances, and return on investment. On basis of comparison, concludes Al most successful when applied to well-formulated problems solved by classifying or selecting preenumerated solutions. In contrast, application of Al to poorly understood or poorly formulated problems generally results in long development time and large investment of effort, with no guarantee of success.
A modular system for computational fluid dynamics
McCarthy, D. R.; Foutch, D. W.; Shurtleff, G. E.
This paper describes the Modular System for Compuational Fluid Dynamics (MOSYS), a software facility for the construction and execution of arbitrary solution procedures on multizone, structured body-fitted grids. It focuses on the structure and capabilities of MOSYS and the philosophy underlying its design. The system offers different levels of capability depending on the objectives of the user. It enables the applications engineer to quickly apply a variety of methods to geometrically complex problems. The methods developer can implement new algorithms in a simple form, and immediately apply them to problems of both theoretical and practical interest. And for the code builder it consitutes a toolkit for fast construction of CFD codes tailored to various purposes. These capabilities are illustrated through applications to a particularly complex problem encountered in aircraft propulsion systems, namely, the analysis of a landing aircraft in reverse thrust.
Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics via Direct Statistical Simulation
Tobias, S M; Marston, J B
2010-01-01
In this paper we introduce the concept of Direct Statistical Simulation (DSS) for astrophysical flows. This technique may be appropriate for problems in astrophysical fluids where the instantaneous dynamics of the flows are of secondary importance to their statistical properties. We give examples of such problems including mixing and transport in planets, stars and disks. The method is described for a general set of evolution equations, before we consider the specific case of a spectral method optimised for problems on a spherical surface. The method is illustrated for the simplest non-trivial example of hydrodynamics and MHD on a rotating spherical surface. We then discuss possible extensions of the method both in terms of computational methods and the range of astrophysical problems that are of interest.
Lectures series in computational fluid dynamics
Thompson, Kevin W.
1987-01-01
The lecture notes cover the basic principles of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). They are oriented more toward practical applications than theory, and are intended to serve as a unified source for basic material in the CFD field as well as an introduction to more specialized topics in artificial viscosity and boundary conditions. Each chapter in the test is associated with a videotaped lecture. The basic properties of conservation laws, wave equations, and shock waves are described. The duality of the conservation law and wave representations is investigated, and shock waves are examined in some detail. Finite difference techniques are introduced for the solution of wave equations and conservation laws. Stability analysis for finite difference approximations are presented. A consistent description of artificial viscosity methods are provided. Finally, the problem of nonreflecting boundary conditions are treated.
Computational Fluid Dynamics In GARUDA Grid Environment
Roy, Chandra Bhushan
2011-01-01
GARUDA Grid developed on NKN (National Knowledge Network) network by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) hubs High Performance Computing (HPC) Clusters which are geographically separated all over India. C-DAC has been associated with development of HPC infrastructure since its establishment in year 1988. The Grid infrastructure provides a secure and efficient way of accessing heterogeneous resource . Enabling scientific applications on Grid has been researched for some time now. In this regard we have successfully enabled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application which can help CFD community as a whole in effective manner to carry out computational research which requires huge compuational resource beyond once in house capability. This work is part of current on-going project Grid GARUDA funded by Department of Information Technology.
Artificial Intelligence In Computational Fluid Dynamics
Vogel, Alison Andrews
1991-01-01
Paper compares four first-generation artificial-intelligence (Al) software systems for computational fluid dynamics. Includes: Expert Cooling Fan Design System (EXFAN), PAN AIR Knowledge System (PAKS), grid-adaptation program MITOSIS, and Expert Zonal Grid Generation (EZGrid). Focuses on knowledge-based ("expert") software systems. Analyzes intended tasks, kinds of knowledge possessed, magnitude of effort required to codify knowledge, how quickly constructed, performances, and return on investment. On basis of comparison, concludes Al most successful when applied to well-formulated problems solved by classifying or selecting preenumerated solutions. In contrast, application of Al to poorly understood or poorly formulated problems generally results in long development time and large investment of effort, with no guarantee of success.
Dynamical Properties of Interaction Data
Bramson, Aaron
2015-01-01
Network dynamics are typically presented as a time series of network properties captured at each period. The current approach examines the dynamical properties of transmission via novel measures on an integrated, temporally extended network representation of interaction data across time. Because it encodes time and interactions as network connections, static network measures can be applied to this "temporal web" to reveal features of the dynamics themselves. Here we provide the technical details and apply it to agent-based implementations of the well-known SEIR and SEIS epidemiological models.
Scale interactions in compressible rotating fluids
Feireisl, Eduard; Novotny, Antonin
2013-01-01
We study a triple singular limit for the scaled barotropic Navier-Stokes system modeling the motion of a rotating, compressible, and viscous fluid, where the Mach and Rossby numbers are proportional to a small parameter, while the Reynolds number becomes infinite. If the fluid is confined to an infinite slab bounded above and below by two parallel planes, the limit behavior is identified as a purely horizontal motion of an incompressible inviscid fluid, the evolution of which is described by ...
Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...
SDI: Statistical dynamic interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blann, M.; Mustafa, M.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Peilert, G.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1991-04-01
We focus on the combined statistical and dynamical aspects of heavy ion induced reactions. The overall picture is illustrated by considering the reaction {sup 36}Ar + {sup 238}U at a projectile energy of 35 MeV/nucleon. We illustrate the time dependent bound excitation energy due to the fusion/relaxation dynamics as calculated with the Boltzmann master equation. An estimate of the mass, charge and excitation of an equilibrated nucleus surviving the fast (dynamic) fusion-relaxation process is used as input into an evaporation calculation which includes 20 heavy fragment exit channels. The distribution of excitations between residue and clusters is explicitly calculated, as is the further deexcitation of clusters to bound nuclei. These results are compared with the exclusive cluster multiplicity measurements of Kim et al., and are found to give excellent agreement. We consider also an equilibrated residue system at 25% lower initial excitation, which gives an unsatisfactory exclusive multiplicity distribution. This illustrates that exclusive fragment multiplicity may provide a thermometer for system excitation. This analysis of data involves successive binary decay with no compressional effects nor phase transitions. Several examples of primary versus final (stable) cluster decay probabilities for an A = 100 nucleus at excitations of 100 to 800 MeV are presented. From these results a large change in multifragmentation patterns may be understood as a simple phase space consequence, invoking neither phase transitions, nor equation of state information. These results are used to illustrate physical quantities which are ambiguous to deduce from experimental fragment measurements. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Computational fluid dynamics applications to improve crop production systems
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical analysis and simulation tools of fluid flow processes have emerged from the development stage and become nowadays a robust design tool. It is widely used to study various transport phenomena which involve fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, providing det...
Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu
2013-11-01
There is an increasing interest to use innovative passive/active flexible lifting surfaces to take advantage of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) response to improve performance or harvest energy. However, design and testing of flexible lifting surfaces are quite complicated, particularly for lightweight structures in a dense, viscous fluid. The objectives of this work are to (1) investigate the influence of varying fluid, material, and geometric parameters on the FSI response and stability boundaries, and (2) to develop generic parametric maps to facilitate the design of flexible lifting surfaces In particular, the focus is on the influence of solid-to-fluid density ratio, Reynolds number, relative stiffness ratio, and relative excitation frequency ratio on the FSI response and static/dynamic divergence and flutter stability boundaries. The results show that the governing failure mode transitions from flutter to dynamic divergence to static divergence when the solid-to-fluid added mass ratio decreases. In addition, classic linear potential theory is severely under-conservative in predicting the flutter boundary, and cannot predict the transition to dynamic divergence for cases in the low mass ratio regimes due to the strong nonlinear, viscous FSI response that develops when the fluid forces are comparable or greater than the solid forces. The Office of Naval Research (Grant no. N00014-11-1-0833); the National Research Foundation of Korea (GCRC-SOP Grant no. 2012-0004783).
Computational Fluid Dynamics of rising droplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, Matthew [Lake Superior State University; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-09-05
The main goal of this study is to perform simulations of droplet dynamics using Truchas, a LANL-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and compare them to a computational study of Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259]. Understanding droplet dynamics is of fundamental importance in liquid-liquid extraction, a process used in the nuclear fuel cycle to separate various components. Simulations of a single droplet rising by buoyancy are conducted in two-dimensions. Multiple parametric studies are carried out to ensure the problem set-up is optimized. An Interface Smoothing Length (ISL) study and mesh resolution study are performed to verify convergence of the calculations. ISL is a parameter for the interface curvature calculation. Further, wall effects are investigated and checked against existing correlations. The ISL study found that the optimal ISL value is 2.5{Delta}x, with {Delta}x being the mesh cell spacing. The mesh resolution study found that the optimal mesh resolution is d/h=40, for d=drop diameter and h={Delta}x. In order for wall effects on terminal velocity to be insignificant, a conservative wall width of 9d or a nonconservative wall width of 7d can be used. The percentage difference between Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259] and Truchas for the velocity profiles vary from 7.9% to 9.9%. The computed droplet velocity and interface profiles are found in agreement with the study. The CFD calculations are performed on multiple cores, using LANL's Institutional High Performance Computing.
Viscous fluid dynamics in Au+Au collisions at RHIC
Chaudhuri, A K
2008-01-01
We have studied the space-time evolution of minimally viscous ($\\frac{\\eta}{s}$=0.08) QGP fluid, undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal motion and arbitrary transverse expansion. Relaxation equations for the shear stress tensor components, derived from the phenomenological Israel-Stewart's theory of dissipative relativistic fluid, are solved simultaneously with the energy-momentum conservation equations. Comparison of evolution of ideal and viscous fluid, both initialized under the similar conditions, e.g. same equilibration time, energy density and velocity profile, indicate that in viscous fluid, energy density or temperature of the fluid evolve slowly than in an ideal fluid. Transverse expansion is also more in viscous evolution. We have also studied particle production in viscous dynamics. Compared to ideal dynamics, in viscous dynamics, particle yield at high $p_T$ is increased. Elliptic flow on the other hand decreases. Minimally viscous QGP fluid, initialized at entropy density $s_{ini}$=110 $fm^{-3}$...
A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SIMULATING NONLINEAR FLUID-RIGID STRUCTURE INTERACTION PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XingJ.T; PriceW.G; ChenY.G
2005-01-01
A numerical method for simulating nonlinear fluid-rigid structure interaction problems is developed. The structure is assumed to undergo large rigid body motions and the fluid flow is governed by nonlinear, viscous or non-viscous, field equations with nonlinear boundary conditions applied to the free surface and fluid-solid interaction interfaces. An Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh system is used to construct the numerical model. A multi-block numerical scheme of study is adopted allowing for the relative motion between moving overset grids, which are independent of one another. This provides a convenient method to overcome the difficulties in matching fluid meshes with large solid motions. Nonlinear numerical equations describing nonlinear fluid-solid interaction dynamics are derived through a numerical discretization scheme of study. A coupling iteration process is used to solve these numerical equations. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the model developed.
Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sreejith, B.; Jayaraj, K.; Ganesan, N.; Padmanabhan, C. E-mail: ouli@iitm.ac.in; Chellapandi, P.; Selvaraj, P
2004-02-01
Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system.
Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements
Richter, Thomas
2017-01-01
This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.
Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.
Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges.
2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...
Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods and Their Applications in Medical Science
Kowalewski Wojciech; Roszak Magdalena; Kołodziejczak Barbara; Ren-Kurc Anna; Bręborowicz Andrzej
2016-01-01
As defined by the National Institutes of Health: “Biomedical engineering integrates physical, chemical, mathematical, and computational sciences and engineering principles to study biology, medicine, behavior, and health”. Many issues in this area are closely related to fluid dynamics. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts concerning Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications in medicine.
Spinodal decomposition in multicomponent fluid mixtures: A molecular dynamics study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Toxvaerd, Søren
1996-01-01
We have investigated the effect of the number p of components on the dynamics of phase separation in two-dimensional symmetric multicomponent fluids. In contrast to concentrated two-dimensional binary fluids, where the growth dynamics is controlled by the coupling of the velocity held to the orde...
Lu, Gui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan
2016-10-01
Dynamic wetting is an important interfacial phenomenon in many industrial applications. There have been many excellent reviews of dynamic wetting, especially on super-hydrophobic surfaces with physical or chemical coatings, porous layers, hybrid micro/nano structures and biomimetic structures. This review summarizes recent research on dynamic wetting from the viewpoint of the fluids rather than the solid surfaces. The reviewed fluids range from simple Newtonian fluids to non-Newtonian fluids and complex nanofluids. The fundamental physical concepts and principles involved in dynamic wetting phenomena are also reviewed. This review focus on recent investigations of dynamic wetting by non-Newtonian fluids, including the latest experimental studies with a thorough review of the best dynamic wetting models for non-Newtonian fluids, to illustrate their successes and limitations. This paper also reports on new results on the still fledgling field of nanofluid wetting kinetics. The challenges of research on nanofluid dynamic wetting is not only due to the lack of nanoscale experimental techniques to probe the complex nanoparticle random motion, but also the lack of multiscale experimental techniques or theories to describe the effects of nanoparticle motion at the nanometer scale (10(-9) m) on the dynamic wetting taking place at the macroscopic scale (10(-3) m). This paper describes the various types of nanofluid dynamic wetting behaviors. Two nanoparticle dissipation modes, the bulk dissipation mode and the local dissipation mode, are proposed to resolve the uncertainties related to the various types of dynamic wetting mechanisms reported in the literature.
Non-metric fluid dynamics and cosmology on Finsler spacetimes
Hohmann, Manuel
2016-01-01
We generalize the kinetic theory of fluids, in which the description of fluids is based on the geodesic motion of particles, to spacetimes modeled by Finsler geometry. Our results show that Finsler spacetimes are a suitable background for fluid dynamics and that the equation of motion for a collisionless fluid is given by the Liouville equation, as it is also the case for a metric background geometry. We finally apply this model to collisionless dust and a general fluid with cosmological symmetry and derive the corresponding equations of motion. It turns out that the equation of motion for a dust fluid is a simple generalization of the well-known Euler equations.
Dynamics of fluid-conveying pipes: effects of velocity profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel
Varying velocity profiles and internal fluid loads on fluid-conveying pipes are investigated. Different geometric layouts of the fluid domain and inflow velocity profiles are considered. It is found that the variation of the velocity profiles along the bended pipe is considerable. A determination...... of the resulting fluid loads on the pipe walls is of interest e.g, for evaluating the dynamical behaviour of lightly damped structures like Coriolis flow meters....
elVis: An Interactive System For Visualization of Unsteady Fluid Flow
Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
ElVis is a prototype system with allows for the interactive visualization of unsteady fluid flow. The increasing computational power applied to fluid dynamics simulations presents the enormous challenge to the visualization system designer to apply a wide range of technologies to the analysis process with ever increasing demands on performance. Visualization of the results of unsteady fluid flow simulations presents the challenge of exploring very large and complex data sets. Since exploration is a trial and error process, it is of utmost importance that the time required to execute a trial (i.e., create a visualization) be at a minimum in order to provide real time interaction.
Numerical simulation of multi-fluid shock-turbulence interaction
Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui
2017-01-01
Accurate numerical simulation of multi-fluid Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) is conducted by a hybrid monotonicity preserving-compact finite difference scheme for a detailed study of STI in variable density flows. Theoretical and numerical assessments of data confirm that all turbulence scales as well as the STI are well captured by the computational method. Comparison of multi-fluid and single-fluid data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy is amplified more and the scalar mixing is enhanced more by the shock in flows involving two different fluids/densities when compared with those observed in single-fluid flows.
Dynamic wetting with viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Wei, Y; Rame, E; Walker, L M; Garoff, S
2009-11-18
We examine various aspects of dynamic wetting with viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Rather than concentrating on the mechanisms that relieve the classic contact line stress singularity, we focus on the behavior in the wedge flow near the contact line which has the dominant influence on wetting with these fluids. Our experiments show that a Newtonian polymer melt composed of highly flexible molecules exhibits dynamic wetting behavior described very well by hydrodynamic models that capture the critical properties of the Newtonian wedge flow near the contact line. We find that shear thinning has a strong impact on dynamic wetting, by reducing the drag of the solid on the fluid near the contact line, while the elasticity of a Boger fluid has a weaker impact on dynamic wetting. Finally, we find that other polymeric fluids, nominally Newtonian in rheometric measurements, exhibit deviations from Newtonian dynamic wetting behavior.
Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kellezi, Lindita
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop alternative methods of analyzing problems in dynamic soil-structure-interaction. The main focus is the major difficulty posed by such an analysis - the phenomenon of waves which radiate outward from the excited structures towards infinity...... transmitting boundary at the edges of the computational mesh. To start with, an investigation of the main effects of the interaction phenomena is carried out employing a widely used model, considering dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil as frequency independent. Then a complete description...... represents an attempt to construct a local stiffness for the unbounded soil domain....
Microstructures in Strongly Interacting Dipolar Fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Chen; MA Yu-Qiang; HUI Pak-Ming; TONG Fu-Qiang
2005-01-01
@@ The formation of ring- and chain-like microstructures in ferrofluids consisting of interacting magnetic particles coated by a surfactant layer is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. For thin coating layers, it is found that ring- and chain-like structures coexist. The ring-like structures are suppressed by thicker coating layers. These observations are in agreement with recent experiments. Also, the ring-like structures are formed by dynamical aggregation of particles, instead of bending of linear chains. The latter process is forbidden by a substantial energy barrier. More generally, it is found that the ring structures exist when the parameter α = μ2/[kBT(d + 2δ)3] is higher than a critical value αc, where μ is the magnitude of magnetic moment, d is the diameter, and δ is the coating thickness of a particle. We find that when α＜αc, the ring structures cannot be formed spontaneously,while the chain-like structures still exist. Furthermore, the critical value αc is almost independent of magnetic particle volume density in the low density range.
Water Channel Facility for Fluid Dynamics Experiments
Eslam-Panah, Azar; Sabatino, Daniel
2016-11-01
This study presents the design, assembly, and verification process of the circulating water channel constructed by undergraduate students at the Penn State University at Berks. This work was significantly inspired from the closed-loop free-surface water channel at Lafayette College (Sabatino and Maharjan, 2015) and employed for experiments in fluid dynamics. The channel has a 11 ft length, 2.5 ft width, and 2 ft height glass test section with a maximum velocity of 3.3 ft/s. First, the investigation justifies the needs of a water channel in an undergraduate institute and its potential applications in the whole field of engineering. Then, the design procedures applied to find the geometry and material of some elements of the channel, especially the contraction, the test section, the inlet and end tanks, and the pump system are described. The optimization of the contraction design, including the maintenance of uniform exit flow and avoidance of flow separation, is also included. Finally, the discussion concludes by identifying the problems with the undergraduate education through this capstone project and suggesting some new investigations to improve flow quality.
Meshfree methods for computational fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jícha M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the convergence problem of the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics meshfree method for the solution of fluid dynamics tasks. In the introductory part, fundamental aspects of mesh- free methods, their definition, computational approaches and classification are discussed. In the following part, the methods of local integral representation, where SPH belongs are analyzed and specifically the method RKPM (Reproducing Kernel Particle Method is described. In the contribution, also the influence of boundary conditions on the SPH approximation consistence is analyzed, which has a direct impact on the convergence of the method. A classical boundary condition in the form of virtual particles does not ensure a sufficient order of consistence near the boundary of the definition domain of the task. This problem is solved by using ghost particles as a boundary condition, which was implemented into the SPH code as part of this work. Further, several numerical aspects linked with the SPH method are described. In the concluding part, results are presented of the application of the SPH method with ghost particles to the 2D shock tube example. Also results of tests of several parameters and modifications of the SPH code are shown.
Transcapillary fluid dynamics during the menstrual cycle.
Oian, P; Tollan, A; Fadnes, H O; Noddeland, H; Maltau, J M
1987-04-01
Transcapillary fluid dynamics in the follicular and luteal phase in women without symptoms of premenstrual syndrome were studied. Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the "wick" method and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method in subcutaneous tissue on the thorax and ankle. From follicular to luteal phase, the following changes were observed: Colloid osmotic pressures were significantly reduced, both in plasma (mean 2.5 mm Hg) and in the interstitium (thorax mean 1.9 mm Hg and ankle mean 2.0 mm Hg). The interstitial hydrostatic pressures did not change. There were no significant changes in serum albumin, hemoglobin, or hematocrit. A slight, but significant, weight gain was observed (mean 0.7 kg). The reduced plasma and interstitial colloid osmotic pressures in the luteal phase may be due to water retention, but the observed reductions in colloid osmotic pressures are probably not fully explained by simple dilution. A reduction in total protein mass in the luteal phase is suggested.
Fluid dynamic effects on staphylococci bacteria biofilms
Sherman, Erica; Bayles, Kenneth; Endres, Jennifer; Wei, Timothy
2016-11-01
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. It is known that flow conditions play a role in the development, dispersion and propagation of biofilms in general. The influence of flow on tower formation, however, is not at all understood. This work is focused on the effect of applied shear on tower development. The hypothesis being examined is that tower structures form within a specific range of shear stresses and that there is an as yet ill defined fluid dynamic phenomenon that occurs hours before a tower forms. In this study, a range of shear stresses is examined that brackets 0.6 dynes/cm2, the nominal shear stress where towers seem most likely to form. This talk will include µPTV measurements and cell density data indicating variations in flow and biofilm evolution as a function of the applied shear. Causal relations between flow and biofilm development will be discussed.
Particle Dynamics of Polydisperse Magnetorheological Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiranjit Sarkar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the present research work, three dimensional simulations of magnetorheological fluids, containing soft magnetic polydisperse particles in silicone oil, has been presented. The computer simulation helps to visualize and analyze the formed transient microstructures. The initial positions of particle-centres were decided based on random distribution. The particle positions were updated considering magnetic, hydrodynamic and repulsions forces on each particle along with explicit time marching scheme. Finally the particle’s positions at 10 ms have been plotted. The yield behaviors of MRFXXS (small sized: 2 to 33 µm and MRFXXL (large sized: 45 to 212 µm have been estimated using particle dynamic simulations and the predicted results have been compared with the results obtained from experiments. Due to large number of particles and limitations of computer hardware, the yield behavior of MRFXXM1 i.e. mixed (2 to 212 µm sized magnetic particles could not be simulated. However, experiments were performed to investigate the yield behavior of MRFXXM1. The results show that MRFXXM1 is better than MRFXXS and MRFXXL.
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendu Sinha
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Hypersonic flows are characterised by high Mach number and high total enthalpy. An elevated temperature often results in thermo-chemical reactions in the gas, which p lay a major role in aerothermodynamic characterisation of high-speed aerospace vehicles. Hypersonic flows in propulsion components are usually turbulent, resulting in additional effects. Computational simulation of such flows, therefore, need to account for a range of physical phenomena. Further, the numerical challenges involved in resolving strong gradients and discontinuities add to the complexity of computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. In this article, physical modelling and numerical methodology-related issues involved in hypersonic flow simulation are highlighted. State-of-the-art CFD challenges are discussed in the context of two prominent applications-the flow in a scramjet inlet and the flow field around a re-entry capsule.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.663-671, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.604
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broc, D. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/EMSI, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Sigrist, J.F. [DCNS Propulsion, Service Technique et Scientifique, 44 - La Montagne (France)
2009-03-15
It is well known that the movements of a structure may be strongly influenced by fluid. This topic, called 'Fluid Structure Interaction' is important in many industrial applications. Tube bundles immersed in fluid are found in many cases, especially in nuclear industry: (core reactors, steam generators,...). The fluid leads to 'inertial effects' (with a decrease of the vibration frequencies) and 'dissipative effects' (with higher damping). The paper first presents the methods used for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of tube bundles immersed in a fluid, with industrial examples. The methods used are based on the Euler equations for the fluid (perfect fluid), which allow to take into account the inertial effects. It is possible to take into account dissipative effects also, by using a Rayleigh damping. The conclusion focuses on improvements of the methods, in order to take into account with more accuracy the influence of the fluid, mainly the dissipative effects, which may be very important, especially in the case of a global fluid flow. (authors)
Solving Fluid Structure Interaction Problems with an Immersed Boundary Method
Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.
2016-01-01
An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be used for moving boundary problems as well as fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is presented. The underlying Cartesian immersed boundary method of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework, based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method previously presented by the authors, is extended to account for unsteady boundary motion and coupled to linear and geometrically nonlinear structural finite element solvers. The approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method, Higher-Order Finite Difference Method, Fluid Structure Interaction.
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2000
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hanson, Steen Grüner; Johansen, Per Michael; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
2001-01-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has corecompetences in: optical sensors, optical materials......, optical storage, biooptics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danishresearch councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2000 is presented....
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2002
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindslev, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
2003-01-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The departmenthas core competences in: optical sensors......, optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, includingEURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2002...
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1999
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hanson, Steen Grüner; Johansen, Per Michael; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
2000-01-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within the three programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in:optical sensors, optical materials, biooptics......, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. Asummary of the activities in 1999 is presented....
Rotordynamic Analysis for a Turbo-Machine with Fluid-Solid Interaction and Rotation Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The rotordynamics and fluid dynamics of a turbo-machine considering the effect of fluid-solid interaction (FSI are numerically investigated using finite element software ADINA. The iterative method is adopted in computation of coupled fields of displacement and fluid. What distinguishes the present study from previous ones is the use of ADINA's rotational meshes and the FSI interface that separates the rotor surface from its surrounding fluid. The rotor's center orbit and frequency response as well as the transient fluid dynamics are obtained with various axial flow speeds. By including real rotating motion of the rotor, this paper presents a better way to solve complicated rotordynamic problems of turbo-machines that are operated in FSI circumstances.
Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.
2003-02-10
The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.
Fluid Dynamics in Rotary Piston Blood Pumps.
Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Sonntag, Simon J; Buesen, Martin; Gross-Hardt, Sascha; Kaufmann, Tim; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas
2017-03-01
Mechanical circulatory support can maintain a sufficient blood circulation if the native heart is failing. The first implantable devices were displacement pumps with membranes. They were able to provide a sufficient blood flow, yet, were limited because of size and low durability. Rotary pumps have resolved these technical drawbacks, enabled a growing number of mechanical circulatory support therapy and a safer application. However, clinical complications like gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, thromboembolic complications, and impaired renal function are observed with their application. This is traced back to their working principle with attenuated or non-pulsatile flow and high shear stress. Rotary piston pumps potentially merge the benefits of available pump types and seem to avoid their complications. However, a profound assessment and their development requires the knowledge of the flow characteristics. This study aimed at their investigation. A functional model was manufactured and investigated with particle image velocimetry. Furthermore, a fluid-structure interaction computational simulation was established to extend the laboratory capabilities. The numerical results precisely converged with the laboratory measurements. Thus, the in silico model enabled the investigation of relevant areas like gap flows that were hardly feasible with laboratory means. Moreover, an economic method for the investigation of design variations was established.
Ringin' the water bell: dynamic modes of curved fluid sheets
Kolinski, John; Aharoni, Hillel; Fineberg, Jay; Sharon, Eran
2015-11-01
A water bell is formed by fluid flowing in a thin, coherent sheet in the shape of a bell. Experimentally, a water bell is created via the impact of a cylindrical jet on a flat surface. Its shape is set by the splash angle (the separation angle) of the resulting cylindrically symmetric water sheet. The separation angle is altered by adjusting the height of a lip surrounding the impact point, as in a water sprinkler. We drive the lip's height sinusoidally, altering the separation angle, and ringin' the water bell. This forcing generates disturbances on the steady-state water bell that propagate forward and backward in the fluid's reference frame at well-defined velocities, and interact, resulting in the emergence of an interference pattern unique to each steady-state geometry. We analytically model these dynamics by linearizing the amplitude of the bell's response about the underlying curved geometry. This simple model predicts the nodal structure over a wide range of steady-state water bell configurations and driving frequencies. Due to the curved water bell geometry, the nodal structure is quite complex; nevertheless, the predicted nodal structure agrees extremely well with the experimental data. When we drive the bell beyond perturbative separation angles, the nodal locations surprisingly persist, despite the strikingly altered underlying water bell shape. At extreme driving amplitudes the water sheet assumes a rich variety of tortuous, non-convex shapes; nevertheless, the fluid sheet remains intact.
Body Fluid Dynamics: Back to the Future
Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G.
2011-01-01
Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing p...
Sensitivity analysis of fluid-structure interaction problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: stephane.etienne@polymtl.ca
2004-07-01
Interactions between solids and fluids (FSI) have been a topic of interest for engineers for many years. The behavior of vessels subject to wave loads, of planes in flight condition as well as submarine or transmission lines are but a few examples. In an attempt to address these problems, the present paper presents a formulation which allows to treat interactions between an incompressible flow and a structure undergoing large displacements. We assume existence and unicity of the solution. The interested reader is referred, for a mathematical discussion of existence and unicity. The approach to coupling can be addressed in two ways: weakly-coupled methods for which algorithms for structure and fluid are segregated, as is commonly done for simplicity and often because engineers have access to existing structural and fluid codes; and tightly-coupled or monolithic methods, for which the formulation guarantees satisfaction of equilibrium of the interface between the fluid and the solid. The latter has been chosen as it allows for quadratic convergence of Newton's method. The paper begins with the description of the steady state governing equations for laminar incompressible fluids, hyperelastic solid behaviour, pseudo-solid mapping and fluid-structure interfaces. The weak forms of the equations are then presented. We proceed with the description of the continuous sensitivity equations for fluid-structure interactions problems. The following sections detail the adaptive finite element procedure for the fluid-structure interaction and sensitivity problems. Results are presented and the paper ends with conclusions and discussions. (author)
Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps
Van Rijswick, R.; Van Rhee, C.
2013-01-01
Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide for the transport of aggressive and/or abrasive fluids in the chemical, mining and mineral processing industries. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a piston diaphragm pump as is used in the mining and mineral processing industries for the transport of
Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps
Van Rijswick, R.; Van Rhee, C.
2013-01-01
Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide for the transport of aggressive and/or abrasive fluids in the chemical, mining and mineral processing industries. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a piston diaphragm pump as is used in the mining and mineral processing industries for the transport of miner
Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics: a fluid-structure interaction study
Chandra, Santanu; Seaman, Clara; Sucosky, Philippe
2011-11-01
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve forms with two leaflets instead of three. While calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), its progression in the BAV is more rapid. Although studies have suggested a mechano-potential root for the disease, the native BAV hemodynamics remains largely unknown. This study aimed at characterizing BAV hemodynamics and quantifying the degree of wall-shear stress (WSS) abnormality on BAV leaflets. Fluid-structure interaction models validated with particle-image velocimetry were designed to predict the flow and leaflet dynamics in idealized TAV and BAV anatomies. Valvular function was quantified in terms of the effective orifice area. The regional leaflet WSS was characterized in terms of oscillatory shear index, temporal shear magnitude and temporal shear gradient. The predictions indicate the intrinsic degree of stenosis of the BAV anatomy, reveal drastic differences in shear stress magnitude and pulsatility on BAV and TAV leaflets and confirm the side- and site-specificity of the leaflet WSS. Given the ability of abnormal fluid shear stress to trigger valvular inflammation, these results support the existence of a mechano-etiology of CAVD in the BAV.
Dynamic self-consistent field theory for unentangled homopolymer fluids
Mihajlovic, Maja; Lo, Tak Shing; Shnidman, Yitzhak
2005-10-01
We present a lattice formulation of a dynamic self-consistent field (DSCF) theory that is capable of resolving interfacial structure, dynamics, and rheology in inhomogeneous, compressible melts and blends of unentangled homopolymer chains. The joint probability distribution of all the Kuhn segments in the fluid, interacting with adjacent segments and walls, is approximated by a product of one-body probabilities for free segments interacting solely with an external potential field that is determined self-consistently. The effect of flow on ideal chain conformations is modeled with finitely extensible, nonlinearly elastic dumbbells in the Peterlin approximation, and related to stepping probabilities in a random walk. Free segment and stepping probabilities generate statistical weights for chain conformations in a self-consistent field, and determine local volume fractions of chain segments. Flux balance across unit lattice cells yields mean field transport equations for the evolution of free segment probabilities and of momentum densities on the Kuhn length scale. Diffusive and viscous contributions to the fluxes arise from segmental hops modeled as a Markov process, with transition rates reflecting changes in segmental interaction, kinetic energy, and entropic contributions to the free energy under flow. We apply the DSCF equations to study both transient and steady-state interfacial structure, flow, and rheology in a sheared planar channel containing either a one-component melt or a phase-separated, two-component blend.
Study on Fluid-Lining-Rock Coupling Interaction of Diversion Tunnel under Seismic Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Deng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Fluid-lining-rock coupling interaction of diversion tunnel under seismic load is a critical problem in seismic research which should be solved urgently. Based on the explicit finite element method for dynamic analysis of single-phase fluid and solid medium and combining with the boundary conditions of coupling interface, a dynamic explicit finite element solving format of diversion tunnel considering fluid-lining coupling interaction is established. In light of the basic theory of dynamic contact force method and applying the nonlinear hyperbolic constitutive model of contact surface, a dynamic explicit finite element time-domain integral equation of combined bearing of lining and surrounding rocks, which takes the bond-slip behavior of the contact surface into account, is put forward. Meanwhile, considering the dynamic interaction process of inner water and lining, lining and surrounding rocks, an explicit finite element numerical simulation analysis method of fluid-lining-rock coupling interaction of diversion tunnel under seismic load is presented. The calculation results of case study reasonably reflect the seismic response characteristics of diversion tunnel, and an effective analysis method is provided for the aseismic design of hydraulic tunnel.
Effect of enclosed fluid on the dynamic response of inflated torus
Srivastava, Ashish; Mishra, B. K.; Jain, S. C.
2008-01-01
Large inflatable structures have been the subject of renewed interest for scientists/engineers in recent years due to their potential space applications such as communication antennas, solar thermal propulsion and space solar power. The major advantages of using inflatable structures in space are their extremely low-weight, on-orbit deployability and inherent low launch volume. An inflated torus is a key component of many inflated space structures such as a thin membrane reflector. In view of their importance, structural static and dynamic behavior of inflated torus need to be investigated. In order to develop a more realistic model, dynamic interaction between the enclosed fluid and the torus has been included in the present work. An appreciable decrease in the modal frequencies is observed when fluid-structure interaction is taken into account. Some additional modes are also obtained. It is concluded that fluid-structure interaction significantly affects the dynamic behavior of inflatable space structures.
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3 Thermal Interactions
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present third volume methods for describing of the thermal interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. In addition a large number of valuable experiments is collected and predicted using the methods introduced in this monograph. In this way the accuracy of the methods is reve...
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2 Mechanical Interactions
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present second volume the methods for describing the mechanical interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. This fourth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections. "The literature in the field of multiphase flows is numerous. Therefore, it i...
Mohammadi-Ghaleni, Mahdi; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Smith, Jeffrey D.; O'Malley, Ronald
2016-10-01
Melt flow patterns and turbulence inside a slide-gate throttled submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied using Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) model, which is a combination of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models. The DES switching criterion between RANS and LES was investigated to closely reproduce the flow structures of low and high turbulence regions similar to RANS and LES simulations, respectively. The melt flow patterns inside the nozzle were determined by k- ɛ (a RANS model), LES, and DES turbulent models, and convergence studies were performed to ensure reliability of the results. Results showed that the DES model has significant advantages over the standard k- ɛ model in transient simulations and in regions containing flow separation from the nozzle surface. Moreover, due to applying a hybrid approach, DES uses a RANS model at wall boundaries which resolves the extremely fine mesh requirement of LES simulations, and therefore it is computationally more efficient. Investigation of particle distribution inside the nozzle and particle adhesion to the nozzle wall also reveals that the DES model simulations predict more particle-wall interactions compared to LES model.
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.
2017-07-01
In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.
Coslovich, Daniele; Kahl, Gerhard; Krakoviack, Vincent
2011-06-01
discussions it became evident that the close scientific contact between theory, simulation and experiment brought along a fruitful and mutually inspiring atmosphere. On the theoretical side, these discussions have allowed clarification of several connections between the dynamics of models of fluids in porous media (quenched-annealed, pinned particles models), those of well-known limiting cases (Lorentz gas), of realistic models of liquids with strong dynamic asymmetry (asymmetric size and mass mixtures, sodium silicates, polymers blends) and even of bulk glass-formers. On the experimental side, it appeared that soft matter systems may provide an excellent test-bed to verify the theoretical predictions. From the concluding discussion it was also clear that addressing related issues relevant to biology still remains an open challenge for the future. In view of all this, it was concluded that within a short time period a workshop with analogous scope should be organized to address the progress made on both fundamental and interdisciplinary aspects. The realization of this workshop was made possible by generous financial support from CECAM, Centre Blaise Pascal-ENS de Lyon, and the ESF network 'Molecular Simulations in Biosystems and Material Science' (SimBioMa). Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments contents Phonon dispersions of cluster crystals Tim Neuhaus and Christos N Likos Challenges in determining anomalous diffusion in crowded fluids Marcel Hellmann, Joseph Klafter, Dieter W Heermann and Matthias Weiss Diffusion of active tracers in fluctuating fields David S Dean and Vincent Démery Self-diffusion of non-interacting hard spheres in particle gels Jean-Christophe Gimel and Taco Nicolai Probing glassy states in binary mixtures of soft interpenetrable colloids E Stiakakis, B M Erwin, D Vlassopoulos, M Cloitre, A Munam, M Gauthier, H Iatrou and N Hadjichristidis Fluids with quenched disorder: scaling of the free energy barrier near critical points
Dynamic Characteristics of Magneto-Fluid Supports
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Chernobai
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a vibro-protective magneto-fluid support that uses elastic properties of magnetic fluid with a free surface in magnetic field.The paper has experimentally revealed that the analyzed structure is characterized by better noise absorbing characteristics.The conducted experiments have made it possible to conclude that there is a possibility to use vibro-protective magneto-fluid supports within the frequency range from 0 to 300 Hz, amplitudes up to 2 mm and unit load up to 2,5 · 10 4 Н/м².
Mutual Dynamics of Swimming Microorganisms and Their Fluid Habitat
Kessler, John O.; Burnett, G. David; Remick, Katherine E.
"Organisms alter their material environment, and their environment constrains and naturally selects organisms." Lenton's [17] statement applies especially well to populations of swimming micro-organisms. The mutual dynamic of themselves and their fluid habitat orders and constrains them, generates concentration-convection patterns [12], [15], enhances transport of metabolites and, at all scales, guides many of their interactions. Our objective is to describe mathematical models sufficient for reaching insights that can further guide theory and experiment. These models necessarily include nonlinear and stochastic features. To illustrate self-organization and the type of experimental statistical inputs available, we present some rather astonishing data concerning the motile bacteria Bacillus subtilis and hydrodynamics associated with their activity. The inescapable interdependence of physics and biology emerges from the analysis.
Introduction to Magneto-Fluid-Dynamics for Aerospace Applications
2004-07-08
incisive understanding is strongly dependent on how knowledge is accumulated and transferred in times. The growth of magneto- fluid-dynamics is not...S. Goldstein, Lectures on Fluid Mechanics (Interscience Publishers Ltd, London, 1960). [15] B. Finzi, Principio d’Azione Stazionaria
Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...
The stability and dynamic behaviour of fluid-loaded structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available ECCOMAS Young Investigators Conference 6th GACM Colloquium, July 20–23, 2015, Aachen, Germany The stability and dynamic behaviour of fluid-loaded structures R. Suliman, N. Peake Abstract. The deformation of slender elastic structures due...
Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen;
2015-01-01
Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... based on shearing areas and venting channels. For fast acting valves the opposing fluid force may retard the valve performance significantly, if appropriate measures are not taken during the valve design. Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are available to simulate the total fluid...
Variational discretizations for the dynamics of fluid-conveying flexible tubes
Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang
2016-11-01
We derive a variational approach for discretizing fluid-structure interactions, with a particular focus on the dynamics of fluid-conveying elastic tubes. Our method is based on a discretization of the fluid's back-to-labels map and a Lie group discretization of the tube's variables, coupled with an appropriately formulated discrete version of the fluid conservation law. This approach allows the development of geometric numerical schemes for the dynamics of fluid-conveying collapsible tubes, which preserve several intrinsic geometric properties of the continuous system, such as symmetries and symplecticity. In addition, our approach can also be used to derive simplified, but geometrically consistent, low-component models for further analytical and numerical analysis of the system. xml:lang="fr"
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, Søren
2009-01-01
Background: To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservat......Background: To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume...
Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion
Zeytounian, Radyadour K
1991-01-01
The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.
Mathematical Fluid Dynamics of Store and Stage Separation
2005-05-01
34Theoretical Aerodynamics in Today’s Real World," Opportunities and Challenges," Julian D. Cole Lecture , 4 th AIAA Theoretical Fluid Dynamics Meeting, June...Reports A 4th AIAA Theoretical Fluid Dynamics Meeting Julian D. Cole Lecture June 6-9, 2005 Toronto, Canada AIAA 2005-5059 Theoretical Aerodynamics in...technique was developed to treat the problem of shock manipulation by MHD Lorentz forces in Ref. 68 that has been validated by large scale CFD and
2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces......B vorticity as well as the ion diamagnetic vorticity. The 2D domain includes both open and closed field lines and is located on the out-board midplane of a tokamak. On open field field lines the parallel dynamics are parametrized as sink terms depending on the dynamic quantities; density, electron and ion...
Molecular dynamics of a dense fluid of polydisperse hard spheres
Sear, Richard P.
2000-01-01
Slow dynamics in a fluid are studied in one of the most basic systems possible: polydisperse hard spheres. Monodisperse hard spheres cannot be studied as the slow down in dynamics as the density is increased is preempted by crystallisation. As the dynamics slow they become more heterogeneous, the spread in the distances traveled by different particles in the same time increases. However, the dynamics appears to be less heterogeneous than in hard-sphere-like colloids at the same volume fractio...
FLUID FLOW INTERACTIONS IN OGUN RIVER, NIGERIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya and G.Akin Bolaji
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Surface and groundwater interaction is an important aspect of the hydrologic cycle that borders on the watershed assessment, protection and restoration. In groundwater/surface water interactions, the groundwater component is much greater than the surface water but is much less visible and attracts less public interest. The mixing between surface and groundwater enables them to import their characteristics upon one another thereby counting a change in their parameters. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams to major river valleys. Many scientists have studied the physical aspects of groundwater/surface water interactions, but it is in recent times that these interactions have been looked upon in relation to their ecological implications. With the coming of a more holistic approach to environmental flows and environmental protection, surface water/groundwater (SW/GW interactions should receive heightened attention at multidisciplinary scale and more so, by policy makers and watershed managers. It is generally understood in conceptual form that surface water therefore has the ability to enhance or detract from groundwater quality and vice versa, yet little is known about the processes by which these two entities interact (Gardener, 1988. In the past, emphasis has been placed on studying the physical and chemical effects that groundwater has on surface water but it is also important to look at the ecological role surface water and groundwater interactions can play in maintenance of environmental flows in a river basin. In area where surface water and groundwater directly interacts, the important issue commonly raised in recent times are not only concern with water quality but related with ecology and biodiversity. Therefore, there is a need for thorough understanding of the surface water and groundwater interactions within catchments so as to enhance the sustainable development and management of
Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial cell-cell and cell-surface scattering
Drescher, Knut; Cisneros, Luis H; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond E; 10.1073/pnas.1019079108
2011-01-01
Bacterial processes ranging from gene expression to motility and biofilm formation are constantly challenged by internal and external noise. While the importance of stochastic fluctuations has been appreciated for chemotaxis, it is currently believed that deterministic long-range fluid dynamical effects govern cell-cell and cell-surface scattering - the elementary events that lead to swarming and collective swimming in active suspensions and to the formation of biofilms. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the bacterial flow field generated by individual swimming Escherichia coli both far from and near to a solid surface. These experiments allowed us to examine the relative importance of fluid dynamics and rotational diffusion for bacteria. For cell-cell interactions it is shown that thermal and intrinsic stochasticity drown the effects of long-range fluid dynamics, implying that physical interactions between bacteria are determined by steric collisions and near-field lubrication forces. This dom...
Fluid Dynamic - Structural Interactions of Labyrinth Seals.
1986-08-01
Linear rotor speeds comparable with the axial gap flow velocity, i.e., of the order of 100 m/sec. (d) Provision for controllable inlet flow swirl with...34Experimental Determination of Gap Flow -Conditioned Forces at Turbine Stages and Their Effect on the Running Stability of Simple Rotors". NASA TM
Review of Rare Earths and Fluid-Rock Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
凌其聪; 刘丛强
2002-01-01
As demonstrated by a great amount of geologic and experimental evidences, RE of rock systems may be mobilized during fluid-rock interaction when solutions are rich in F-, Cl-, CO32-, HCO3-, CO2, HPO42-, HS-, S2-, SO42-, though little has been known about the mobilizing mechanism of these anions or ligands. The fractionation of RE resulted from hydrothermal alterations, i. e., fluid-rock interactions, are distinctive. One set of field data implies the preferential mobility of the LRE, while another set of field observations demonstrates the dominant mobilization of the HRE, and some theoretical prediction is not consistent with the field evidence. The Eu anomalies caused by fluid-rock interaction are complex and compelling explanation is not available due to inadequate experimental approaches. To know the exact behavior of RE during fluid-rock interaction and to solve the contradiction between some theoretical predictions and field observations, the following works remain to be done: (1) experimental investigations of RE mobility and fractionation as a function of fluid chemistry, e.g., the activity of F-, Cl-, CO32-, HCO3-, CO2, HPO42-, HS-, S2-, SO42-, etc.; (2) experimental determination of RE mobility and fractionation as a function of T, P, pH, Eh and water/rock ratios; (3) investigation of the mechanism and the controlling factors of RE partitioning between hydrothermal minerals and fluids. It was demonstrated that RE mobility is a potentially useful method for exploration.
Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Steam Generator Tube Bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigrist, J.F. [DCNS Prop, Serv Tech et Sci, F-44620 La Montagne, (France); Broc, D. [CEA Saclay, Serv Etud Mecan et Sism, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)
2009-07-01
Seismic analysis of steam generator is of paramount importance in the safety assessment of nuclear installations. These analyses require, in particular, the calculation of frequency, mode shape, and effective modal mass of the system Eigenmodes. As fluid-structure interaction effects can significantly affect the dynamic behavior of immersed structures, the numerical modeling of the steam generator has to take into account FSI. A complete modeling of heat exchangers (including pressure vessel, tubes, and fluid) is not accessible to the engineer for industrial design studies. In the past decades, homogenization methods have been studied and developed in order to model tubes and fluid through an equivalent continuous media, thus avoiding the tedious task to mesh all structure and fluid sub-domains within the tube bundle. Few of these methods have nonetheless been implemented in industrial finite element codes. In a previous paper (Sigrist, 2007, 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Modeling for the Modal Analysis of a Nuclear Pressure Vessel', J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, p. 1-6), a homogenization method has been applied to an industrial case for the modal analysis of a nuclear rector with internal structures and coupling effects modeling. The present paper aims at investigating the extension of the proposed method for the dynamic analysis of tube bundles with fluid-structure interaction modeling. The homogenization method is compared with the classical coupled method in terms of eigenfrequencies, Eigenmodes, and effective modal masses. (authors)
The Tibetan singing bowl : an acoustics and fluid dynamics investigation
Terwagne, Denis
2011-01-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behavior is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.
Improvement of Basic Fluid Dynamics Models for the COMPASS Code
Zhang, Shuai; Morita, Koji; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuichi
The COMPASS code is a new next generation safety analysis code to provide local information for various key phenomena in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, which is based on the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. In this study, improvement of basic fluid dynamics models for the COMPASS code was carried out and verified with fundamental verification calculations. A fully implicit pressure solution algorithm was introduced to improve the numerical stability of MPS simulations. With a newly developed free surface model, numerical difficulty caused by poor pressure solutions is overcome by involving free surface particles in the pressure Poisson equation. In addition, applicability of the MPS method to interactions between fluid and multi-solid bodies was investigated in comparison with dam-break experiments with solid balls. It was found that the PISO algorithm and free surface model makes simulation with the passively moving solid model stable numerically. The characteristic behavior of solid balls was successfully reproduced by the present numerical simulations.
Adaptive thermo-fluid moving boundary computations for interfacial dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chih-Kuang Kuan; Jaeheon Sim; Wei Shyy
2012-01-01
In this study,we present adaptive moving boundary computation technique with parallel implementation on a distributed memory multi-processor system for large scale thermo-fluid and interfacial flow computations.The solver utilizes Eulerian-Lagrangian method to track moving (Lagrangian) interfaces explicitly on the stationary (Eulerian)Cartesian grid where the flow fields are computed. We address the domain decomposition strategies of EulerianLagrangian method by illustrating its intricate complexity of the computation involved on two different spaces interactively and consequently,and then propose a trade-off approach aiming for parallel scalability.Spatial domain decomposition is adopted for both Eulerian and Lagrangian domain due to easy load balancing and data locality for minimum communication between processors.In addition,parallel cell-based unstructured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)technique is implemented for the flexible local refinement and even-distributed computational workload among processors.Selected cases are presented to highlight the computational capabilities,including Faraday type interfacial waves with capillary and gravitational forcing,flows around varied geometric configurations and induced by boundary conditions and/or body forces,and thermo-fluid dynamics with phase change.With the aid of the present techniques,large scale challenging moving boundary problems can be effectively addressed.
Molecular dynamics of fluid flow at solid surfaces
Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Willemsen, Jorge F.
1989-05-01
Molecular dynamics techniques are used to study the microscopic aspects of several slow viscous flows past a solid wall, where both fluid and wall have a molecular structure. Systems of several thousand molecules are found to exhibit reasonable continuum behavior, albeit with significant thermal fluctuations. In Couette and Poiseuille flow of liquids it is found that the no-slip boundary condition arises naturally as a consequence of molecular roughness, and that the velocity and stress fields agree with the solutions of the Stokes equations. At lower densities slip appears, which can be incorporated into a flow-independent slip-length boundary condition. The trajectories of individual molecules in Poiseuille flow are examined, and it is also found that their average behavior is given by Taylor-Aris hydrodynamic dispersion. An immiscible two-fluid system is simulated by a species-dependent intermolecular interaction. A static meniscus is observed whose contact angle agrees with simple estimates and, when motion occurs, velocity-dependent advancing and receding angles are observed. The local velocity field near a moving contact line shows a breakdown of the no-slip condition and, up to substantial statistical fluctuations, is consistent with earlier predictions of Dussan [AIChE J. 23, 131 (1977)].
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
Dark energy interacting with two fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de La Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D Temuco (Chile)], E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl
2008-05-29
A cosmological model of dark energy interacting with dark matter and another general component of the universe is investigated. We found general constraints on these models imposing an accelerated expansion. The same is also studied in the case for holographic dark energy.
Moving shape analysis and control applications to fluid structure interactions
Moubachir, Marwan
2006-01-01
Problems involving the evolution of two- and three-dimensional domains arise in many areas of science and engineering. Emphasizing an Eulerian approach, Moving Shape Analysis and Control: Applications to Fluid Structure Interactions presents valuable tools for the mathematical analysis of evolving domains. The book illustrates the efficiency of the tools presented through different examples connected to the analysis of noncylindrical partial differential equations (PDEs), such as Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids in moving domains. The authors first provide all of the details of existence and uniqueness of the flow in both strong and weak cases. After establishing several important principles and methods, they devote several chapters to demonstrating Eulerian evolution and derivation tools for the control of systems involving fluids and solids. The book concludes with the boundary control of fluid-structure interaction systems, followed by helpful appendices that review some of the advanced m...
Hard sphere dynamics for normal and granular fluids.
Dufty, James W; Baskaran, Aparna
2005-06-01
A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collision) and granular (inelastic collision) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so that the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics system is identified in a special stationary representation. This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.
Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.
2003-02-10
The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.
Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clive B. Beggs
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.
A Warm Fluid Model of Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions
Tarkenton, G. M.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E. H.; Leemans, W. P.
2001-10-01
Following up on our previous work on modeling intense laser-plasma interactions with cold fluids,(B.A.Shadwick, G. M. Tarkenton, E.H. Esarey, and W.P. Leemans, ``Fluid Modeling of Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions'', in Advanced Accelerator Concepts), P. Colestock and S. Kelley editors, AIP Conf. Proc. 569 (AIP, NY 2001), pg. 154. we are exploring warm fluid models. These models represent the next level in a hierarchy of complexity beyond the cold fluid approximation. With only a modest increase in computation effort, warm fluids incorporate effects that are relevant to a variety of technologically interesting cases. We present a derivation of the warm fluid from a kinetic (i.e. Vlasov) perspective and make a connection with the usual relativistic thermodynamic approach.(S. R. de Groot, W. A. van Leeuwen and Ch. G. van Weert, Relativistic Kinetic Theory: Principles and Applications), North-Holland (1980). We will provide examples where the warm fluids yield physics results not contained in the cold model and discuss experimental parameters where these effects are believed to be important.
Nonlinear dynamics of interacting populations
Bazykin, Alexander D
1998-01-01
This book contains a systematic study of ecological communities of two or three interacting populations. Starting from the Lotka-Volterra system, various regulating factors are considered, such as rates of birth and death, predation and competition. The different factors can have a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on the community, and their interplay leads to increasingly complicated behavior. Studying and understanding this path to greater dynamical complexity of ecological systems constitutes the backbone of this book. On the mathematical side, the tool of choice is the qualitative the
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual progress report for 2001
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)
2002-03-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: 1) laser systems and optical materials, 2) optical diagnostics and information processing and 3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competence in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, bio-optics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2001 is presented. (au)
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2000
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)
2001-05-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competence in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, bio-optics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2000 is presented. (au)
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 2001
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindslev, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Lynov, Jens-Peter;
2002-01-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The departmenthas core competences in: optical sensors......, optical materials, optical storage, biooptics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM,by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2001 is presented....
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual Progress Report for 2002
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B
2003-05-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) Laser systems and optical materials (2) Optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) Plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics and fusion plasma physics. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2002 is presented. (au)
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department. Annual progress report for 2003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bindslev, H.; Hanson, S.G.; Lynov, J.P.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B. (eds.)
2004-05-01
The Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1 laser systems and optical materials, (2 optical diagnostics and information processing and (3 plasma and fluid dynamics. The department has core competences in: optical sensors, optical materials, optical storage, biophotonics, numerical modelling and information processing, non-linear dynamics, fusion plasma physics and plasma technology. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2003 is presented. (au)
The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of ε for fluid-dynamics model equation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been obtained.It not only includes all of the results of Buskirk et al.but also covers three possible kinds of dynamical response modes in practice.The theoretical results are in better agreement with those of experimental observations.This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal,especially fluid dynamical response.The distribution of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given.A nonstandard method of the inverse Laplace transform is presented.
The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐明瑜; 谭文长
2000-01-01
An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of E for fluid-dynamics model eguation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been ob-tained. it not only includes ali of the results of Buskirk et al. but also covers three possible kinds of dy-namical response modes in practice. The theoretical results are in betler agreement with those of ex-perimental observations. This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal, especially fluid dynamical response. The distribu-tion of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given. A nonstandard method of the in-verse Laplace transform is presented.
Prandtl, Ludwig
1953-01-01
Equilibrium of liquids and gases ; kinematics : dynamics of frictionless fluids ; motion of viscous fluids : turbulence : fluid resistance : practical applications ; flow with appreciable volume changes (dynamics of gases) ; miscellaneous topics.
Adaptive finite difference methods in fluid dynamics
Berger, Marsha J.
1987-01-01
An adaptive method to solve partial differential equations in fluid mechanics is presented. The approach requires internal boundary conditions that must be conservative, data structures for keeping track of several layers of fine grid patches, error estimation, and heuristics for automatic grid generation. In practical calculations gains in computer efficiency up to 10 over nonadaptive methods are observed. The whole procedure takes 3000 lines of FORTRAN code.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics and the Pathophysiology of Hydrocephalus: New Concepts.
Yamada, Shinya; Kelly, Erin
2016-04-01
Many controversies remain regarding basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology and the mechanism behind the development of hydrocephalus. Recent information obtained from CSF time spatial spin labeling inversion pulse method discovers different aspect of CSF dynamics. In this article, we would discuss how recent CSF imaging advances are leading to new concepts of CSF flow dynamics and the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, with an emphasis on time spatial spin labeling inversion pulse imaging of CSF dynamics.
Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics: Volume 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Chapter 1: CFD Modeling of Methane Reforming in Compact Reformers. Meng Ni Chapter 2: FEM Based Solution of Thermo Fluid Dynamic Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCS. F. Arpino, A. Carotenuto, N. Massarotti, A. Mauro Chapter 3: Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Development of a 3D Simulator for Testing Pollution Monitoring Robotic Fishes. John Oyekan, Bowen Lu, Huosheng Hu Chapter 4: CFD Applications in Electronic Packaging. C.Y. Khor, Chun-Sean Lau, M.Z. Abdullah Chapter 5: CFD Simulation of Savonius Wind Turbine Operation. Jo?o Vicente Akwa, Adriane Prisco Petry Chapter 6: Intermittency Modelling of Transitional Boundary Layer Flows on Steam and Gas Turbine Blades. Erik Dick, Slawomir Kubacki, Koen Lodefier, Witold Elsner Chapter 7: Numerical Analysis of the Flow through Fitting in Air Conditioning Systems. N.C. Uz?rraga-Rodriguez, A. Gallegos-Mu?oz, J.M. Belman-Flores, J.C. Rubio-Arana Chapter 8: Design and Optimization of Food Processing Equipments using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling. N. Chhanwal and C. Anandharamakrishnan Chapter 9: Fuel and Intake Systems Optimization of a Converted LPG Engine: Steady and Unsteady in-Cylinder Flow CFD Investigations and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni, G. Kantchev, Z. Driss, M. S. Abid Chapter 10: Computational Fluid Dynamics Application for Thermal Management in Underground Mines. Agus P. Sasmito, Jundika C. Kurnia, Guan Mengzhao, Erik Birgersson, Arun S. Mujumdar Chapter 11: Computational Fluid Dynamics and its Applications. R.Parthiban, C.Muthuraj, A.Rajakumar
Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder
Gat, Amir; Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran
2016-11-01
We study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics of non-Newtonian flow through a slender linearly elastic cylinder at the creeping flow regime. Specifically, considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a non-homogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We obtain exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions, for both shear thinning and shear thickening fluids. In particular, impulse or a step in inlet pressure yield self-similar solutions, which exhibit a compactly supported propagation front solely for shear thinning fluids. Applying asymptotic expansions, we provide approximations for weakly non-Newtonian behavior showing good agreement with the exact solutions sufficiently far from the front.
Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids
Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong
2013-12-01
The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.
Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.
2015-12-01
We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.
Resolving Neighbourhood Relations in a Parallel Fluid Dynamic Solver
Frisch, Jerome
2012-06-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations require an enormous computational effort if a physically reasonable accuracy should be reached. Therefore, a parallel implementation is inevitable. This paper describes the basics of our implemented fluid solver with a special aspect on the hierarchical data structure, unique cell and grid identification, and the neighbourhood relations in-between grids on different processes. A special server concept keeps track of every grid over all processes while minimising data transfer between the nodes. © 2012 IEEE.
Improved Pyrolysis Micro reactor Design via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations
2017-05-23
NUMBER (Include area code) 23 May 2017 Briefing Charts 25 April 2017 - 23 May 2017 Improved Pyrolysis Micro-reactor Design via Computational Fluid... PYROLYSIS MICRO-REACTOR DESIGN VIA COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS Ghanshyam L. Vaghjiani* DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release...Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17247 Chen-Source (>240 references from SciFinder as of 5/1/17): Flash pyrolysis
Statistic fluid dynamic of multiphase flow
Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James; Zhou, Yijie; Jiao, Xiangmin
2012-11-01
We study a turbulent two-phase fluid mixing problem from a statistical point of view. The test problem is high speed turbulent two-phase Taylor-Couette flow. We find extensive mixing in a transient state between an initial unstable and a final stable configuration. With chemical processing as a motivation, we estimate statistically surface area, droplet size distribution and transient droplet duration. This work is supported in part by the Nuclear Energy University Program of the Department of Energy, Battelle Energy Alliance LLC 00088495.
Fluid Dynamical Consequences of Current and Stress-Energy Conservation
Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo
The dynamical consequences of fluid current conservation combined with the conservation of fluid stress-energy are used to develop the geometrodynamical theory of fluid flow (GTF). In the derivation of the GTF, we highlight the fact the continuity equation, equivalently the conservation of current density, implies the existence of the fluid dynamical vortex field. The vortex field transports part of the stress-energy; the other part of the stress-energy is transported by the fluid inertia field. Two channels of energy dissipation are determined by the GTF. One is an analog of the Joule heating found in electrodynamics. This follows from the conservation of stress-energy. The other dissipation channel arises from mechanisms leading to complex-valued constitutive parameters described in the electrodynamical analogy as due to a lossy medium. The dynamical consequences of the continuity equation, combined with the conservation of total stress-energy, then lead to a causal, covariant, theory of fluid flow, consistent with thermodynamics for all physically possible flow rates.
Using an Interactive Lattice Boltzmann Solver in Fluid Mechanics Instruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirjam S. Glessmer
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the diverse range of teaching applications that can be realized using an interactive lattice Boltzmann simulation tool in fluid mechanics instruction and outreach. In an inquiry-based learning framework, examples are given of learning scenarios that address instruction on scientific results, scientific methods or the scientific process at varying levels of student activity, from consuming to applying to researching. Interactive live demonstrations on portable hardware enable new and innovative teaching concepts for fluid mechanics, also for large audiences and in the early stages of the university education. Moreover, selected examples successfully demonstrate that the integration of high-fidelity CFD methods into fluid mechanics teaching facilitates high-quality student research work within reach of the current state of the art in the respective field of research.
Sedimentary basin geochemistry and fluid/rock interactions workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1991-12-31
Fundamental research related to organic geochemistry, fluid-rock interactions, and the processes by which fluids migrate through basins has long been a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Geosciences program. Objectives of this program were to emphasize those principles and processes which would be applicable to a wide range of problems associated with petroleum discovery, occurrence and extraction, waste disposal of all kinds, and environmental management. To gain a better understanding of the progress being made in understanding basinal fluids, their geochemistry and movement, and related research, and to enhance communication and interaction between principal investigators and DOE and other Federal program managers interested in this topic, this workshop was organized by the School of Geology and Geophysics and held in Norman, Oklahoma in November, 1991.
Nonlocal dynamics of dissipative phononic fluids
Nemati, Navid; Lee, Yoonkyung E.; Lafarge, Denis; Duclos, Aroune; Fang, Nicholas
2017-06-01
We describe the nonlocal effective properties of a two-dimensional dissipative phononic crystal made by periodic arrays of rigid and motionless cylinders embedded in a viscothermal fluid such as air. The description is based on a nonlocal theory of sound propagation in stationary random fluid/rigid media that was proposed by Lafarge and Nemati [Wave Motion 50, 1016 (2013), 10.1016/j.wavemoti.2013.04.007]. This scheme arises from a deep analogy with electromagnetism and a set of physics-based postulates including, particularly, the action-response procedures, whereby the effective density and bulk modulus are determined. Here, we revisit this approach, and clarify further its founding physical principles through presenting it in a unified formulation together with the two-scale asymptotic homogenization theory that is interpreted as the local limit. Strong evidence is provided to show that the validity of the principles and postulates within the nonlocal theory extends to high-frequency bands, well beyond the long-wavelength regime. In particular, we demonstrate that up to the third Brillouin zone including the Bragg scattering, the complex and dispersive phase velocity of the least-attenuated wave in the phononic crystal which is generated by our nonlocal scheme agrees exactly with that reproduced by a direct approach based on the Bloch theorem and multiple scattering method. In high frequencies, the effective wave and its associated parameters are analyzed by treating the phononic crystal as a random medium.
Zang, Thomas A.; Green, Lawrence L.
1999-01-01
A challenge for the fluid dynamics community is to adapt to and exploit the trend towards greater multidisciplinary focus in research and technology. The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in the research field of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). MDO is a methodology for the design of complex engineering systems and subsystems that coherently exploits the synergism of mutually interacting phenomena. As evidenced by the papers, which appear in the biannual AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposia on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, the MDO technical community focuses on vehicle and system design issues. This paper provides an overview of the MDO technology field from a fluid dynamics perspective, giving emphasis to suggestions of specific applications of recent MDO technologies that can enhance fluid dynamics research itself across the spectrum, from basic flow physics to full configuration aerodynamics.
Fluid Structure Interaction Effect on Sandwich Composite Structures
2011-09-01
14. SUBJECT TERMS Fluid Structure Interaction, FSI, composite, balsa, low velocity impact, sandwich composites, VARTM , Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer...11 1. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) ...................11 2. Procedure...required equipment for VARTM composite production. ..............10 Figure 4. VARTM Lay-up (From [8
Topology optimization of fluid-structure-interaction problems in poroelasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole
2013-01-01
with the deformation of the elastic skeleton through a macroscopic Darcy-type flow law. The method allows to impose pressure loads for static problems through a one way coupling, while transient problems are fully coupled modeling the interaction between fluid and solid. The material distribution is determined...
A Textbook for a First Course in Computational Fluid Dynamics
Zingg, D. W.; Pulliam, T. H.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
This paper describes and discusses the textbook, Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics by Lomax, Pulliam, and Zingg, which is intended for a graduate level first course in computational fluid dynamics. This textbook emphasizes fundamental concepts in developing, analyzing, and understanding numerical methods for the partial differential equations governing the physics of fluid flow. Its underlying philosophy is that the theory of linear algebra and the attendant eigenanalysis of linear systems provides a mathematical framework to describe and unify most numerical methods in common use in the field of fluid dynamics. Two linear model equations, the linear convection and diffusion equations, are used to illustrate concepts throughout. Emphasis is on the semi-discrete approach, in which the governing partial differential equations (PDE's) are reduced to systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) through a discretization of the spatial derivatives. The ordinary differential equations are then reduced to ordinary difference equations (O(Delta)E's) using a time-marching method. This methodology, using the progression from PDE through ODE's to O(Delta)E's, together with the use of the eigensystems of tridiagonal matrices and the theory of O(Delta)E's, gives the book its distinctiveness and provides a sound basis for a deep understanding of fundamental concepts in computational fluid dynamics.
Sturla, Francesco; Votta, Emiliano; Stevanella, Marco; Conti, Carlo A; Redaelli, Alberto
2013-12-01
Numerical modeling can provide detailed and quantitative information on aortic root (AR) biomechanics, improving the understanding of AR complex pathophysiology and supporting the development of more effective clinical treatments. From this standpoint, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models are currently the most exhaustive and potentially realistic computational tools. However, AR FSI modeling is extremely challenging and computationally expensive, due to the explicit simulation of coupled AR fluid dynamics and structural response, while accounting for complex morphological and mechanical features. We developed a novel FSI model of the physiological AR simulating its function throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The model includes an asymmetric MRI-based geometry, the description of aortic valve (AV) non-linear and anisotropic mechanical properties, and time-dependent blood pressures. By comparison to an equivalent finite element structural model, we quantified the balance between the extra information and the extra computational cost associated with the FSI approach. Tissue strains and stresses computed through the two approaches did not differ significantly. The FSI approach better captured the fast AV opening and closure, and its interplay with blood fluid dynamics within the Valsalva sinuses. It also reproduced the main features of in vivo AR fluid dynamics. However, the FSI simulation was ten times more computationally demanding than its structural counterpart. Hence, the FSI approach may be worth the extra computational cost when the tackled scenarios are strongly dependent on AV transient dynamics, Valsalva sinuses fluid dynamics in relation to coronary perfusion (e.g. sparing techniques), or AR fluid dynamic alterations (e.g. bicuspid AV).
Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
1994-01-01
The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show ...... integration of the Schrodinger equation....
Compatible finite element spaces for geophysical fluid dynamics
Natale, Andrea
2016-01-01
Compatible finite elements provide a framework for preserving important structures in equations of geophysical fluid dynamics, and are becoming important in their use for building atmosphere and ocean models. We survey the application of compatible finite element spaces to geophysical fluid dynamics, including the application to the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations, and the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations. We summarise analytic results about dispersion relations and conservation properties, and present new results on approximation properties in three dimensions on the sphere, and on hydrostatic balance properties.
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
Fluid-Structure Interaction During Large Amplitude Sloshing and TLD Vibration Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑兆昌; 陈夫尧; 侯之超
2003-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method (FEM) was successfully used to analyze fluid-structure interaction with a free surface. The fluid was regarded as a convection dominated incompressible viscous with the viscous and the slip boundary conditions. Generalized variational principles were established for the problem with large amplitude sloshing due to the free fluid surface. The Newmark-β integration method with a predictor-corrector scheme was used to solve the nonlinear dynamic response of the coupled ALE-FEM equations. Numerical examples were given to analyze the effects of a tuned liquid damper (TLD) setting on the structure. The horizontal nonlinear displacement responses in time domain at the top of the structure and the fluid elevation histories along the wall were computed and compared with predictions of a simplified mass-spring system.
Baroclinic Channel Model in Fluid Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kharatti Lal
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A complex flow structure is studied using a 2-dimentional baroclinic channel model Unsteady Navier - stokes equation coupled with equation of thermal energy ,salinity and the equation of state are implemented .System closure is achieved through a modified Prandtl, s mixing length formulation of turbulence dissipation The model is applied in a region where the fluid flow is effected by various forcing equation .In this case ,flow is estuarine region affected by diurnal tide and the fresh water inflow in to the estuary and a submerged structure is considered giving possible insight in to stress effects on submerged structure .the result show that in the time evolution of the vertical velocity along downstream edge changes sign from negative to positive .as the dike length increases the primary cell splits and flow becomes turbulent du e to the non-linear effect caused by the dike .these are found to agree favourably with result published in the open literature.
Archer, A J
2009-01-07
In recent years, a number of dynamical density functional theories (DDFTs) have been developed for describing the dynamics of the one-body density of both colloidal and atomic fluids. In the colloidal case, the particles are assumed to have stochastic equations of motion and theories exist for both the case when the particle motion is overdamped and also in the regime where inertial effects are relevant. In this paper, we extend the theory and explore the connections between the microscopic DDFT and the equations of motion from continuum fluid mechanics. In particular, starting from the Kramers equation, which governs the dynamics of the phase space probability distribution function for the system, we show that one may obtain an approximate DDFT that is a generalization of the Euler equation. This DDFT is capable of describing the dynamics of the fluid density profile down to the scale of the individual particles. As with previous DDFTs, the dynamical equations require as input the Helmholtz free energy functional from equilibrium density functional theory (DFT). For an equilibrium system, the theory predicts the same fluid one-body density profile as one would obtain from DFT. Making further approximations, we show that the theory may be used to obtain the mode coupling theory that is widely used for describing the transition from a liquid to a glassy state.
Electrostatic interactions between particles through heterogeneous fluid phases.
Kang, Dong Woo; Lee, Mina; Kim, Kyung Hak; Xia, Ming; Im, Sang Hyuk; Park, Bum Jun
2017-09-27
We investigated the electrostatic interactions between particles acting through heterogeneous fluid phases. An oil lens system floating on the surface of water was used to trap particles at different fluid-fluid interfaces. The inner particles are located at the centrosymmetrically curved oil-water interface inside the oil lens while satellite particles are located at the curved air-water interface, separated by a particular distance from the triple phase boundary. The satellite particles are likely to be captured in an energy minimum state due to electrostatic repulsions by the inner particles balanced with the gravity-induced potential energy. As the size of the oil lens decreases upon evaporation, the satellite particles escape from the gravitational confinement at a critical moment. The self-potential values of the inner particles and the satellite particles were calculated by employing an energy balance and the experimentally obtained geometric parameter values. It was found that the self-potential values of the inner particles decrease as oil evaporates over time and that the magnitude of the self-potential of the satellite particles is a hundred times larger than that of the inner particles. These results demonstrate significant effects of the thickness and shape of the nonpolar superphase on the electrostatic interactions between the particles trapped at different fluid-fluid interfaces.
Computational modeling of glow discharge-induced fluid dynamics
Jayaraman, Balaji
Glow discharge at atmospheric pressure using a dielectric barrier discharge can induce fluid flow and operate as an actuator for flow control. The largely isothermal surface plasma generation realized above can modify the near-wall flow structure by means of Lorentzian collisions between the ionized fluid and the neutral fluid. Such an actuator has advantages of no moving parts, performance at atmospheric conditions and devising complex control strategies through the applied voltage. However, the mechanism of the momentum coupling between the plasma and the fluid flow is not yet adequately understood. In the present work, a modeling framework is presented to simulate athermal, non-equilibrium plasma discharges in conjunction with low Mach number fluid dynamics at atmospheric pressure. The plasma and fluid species are treated as a two-fluid system exhibiting a few decades of length and time scales. The effect of the plasma dynamics on the fluid dynamics is devised via a body force treatment in the Navier-Stokes equations. Two different approaches of different degrees of fidelity are presented for modeling the plasma dynamics. The first approach, a phenomenological model, is based on a linearized force distribution approximating the discharge structure, and utilizing experimental guidance to deduce the empirical constants. A high fidelity approach is to model the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner using a first principle-based hydrodynamic plasma model. The atmospheric pressure regime of interest here enables us to employ local equilibrium assumptions, signifying efficient collisional energy exchange as against thermal heating from inelastic collision processes. The time scale ratios between convection, diffusion, and reaction/ionization mechanisms are O(107), making the system computationally stiff. To handle the stiffness, a sequential finite-volume operator-splitting algorithm capable of conserving space charge is developed; the approach can handle time
Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation Conference
Takizawa, Kenji
2016-01-01
This contributed volume celebrates the work of Tayfun E. Tezduyar on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the Advances in Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction and Flow Simulation (AFSI 2014) conference, also dedicated to Prof. Tezduyar and held at Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan on March 19-21, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field who discuss recent trends and new directions in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Organized into seven distinct parts arranged by thematic topics, the papers included cover basic methods and applications of CFD, flows with moving boundaries and interfaces, phase-field modeling, computer science and high-performance computing (HPC) aspects of flow simulation, mathematical methods, biomedical applications, and FSI. Researchers, practitioners, and advanced graduate students working on CFD, FSI, and related topics will find this collection to be a defi...
A tunable cancer cell filter using magnetic beads: cellular and fluid dynamic simulations
Gusenbauer, Markus; Bance, Simon; Exl, Lukas; Reichel, Franz; Oezelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas
2011-01-01
In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We develop a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics, discrete particle dynamics and fluid dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. For the simulation of blood flow we use the Lattice-Boltzmann method with immersed elastic blood cell models. Parallelization distributes large fluid and particle dynamic simulations over available resources to reduce overall calculation time.
Eisner, M. (Editor)
1974-01-01
The possible utilization of the zero gravity resource for studies in a variety of fluid dynamics and fluid-dynamic related problems was investigated. A group of experiments are discussed and described in detail; these include experiments in the areas of geophysical fluid models, fluid dynamics, mass transfer processes, electrokinetic separation of large particles, and biophysical and physiological areas.
Prediction of Dynamic Wellbore Pressure in Gasified Fluid Drilling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhiming; Ping Liqiu; Zou Ke
2007-01-01
The basis of designing gasified drilling is to understand the behavior of gas/liquid two-phase flow in the wellbore. The equations of mass and momentum conservation and equation of fluid flow in porous media were used to establish a dynamic model to predict weIlbore pressure according to the study results of Ansari and Beggs-Brill on gas-liquid two-phase flow. The dynamic model was solved by the finite difference approach combined with the mechanistic steady state model. The mechanistic dynamic model was numerically implemented into a FORTRAN 90 computer program and could simulate the coupled flow of fluid in wellbore and reservoir. The dynamic model revealed the effects of wellhead back pressure and injection rate of gas/liquid on bottomhole pressure. The model was validated against full-scale experimental data, and its 5.0% of average relative error could satisfy the accuracy requirements in engineering design.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Mechanics and Its Coupling to Cerebrovascular Dynamics
Linninger, Andreas A.; Tangen, Kevin; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Frim, David
2016-01-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not stagnant but displays fascinating oscillatory flow patterns inside the ventricular system and reversing fluid exchange between the cranial vault and spinal compartment. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of pulsatile CSF motion. Observations contradicting classical views about its bulk production and clearance are highlighted. A clinical account of diseases of abnormal CSF flow dynamics, including hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, Chiari malformation type 1, and pseudotumor cerebri, is also given. We survey medical imaging modalities used to observe intracranial dynamics in vivo. Additionally, we assess the state of the art in predictive models of CSF dynamics. The discussion addresses open questions regarding CSF dynamics as they relate to the understanding and management of diseases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moradi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a uniform classical fluid mixture comprising ellipsoidal molecules is studied. This mixture is composed of two types of ellipsoidal molecules interacting through the Gay-Berne potential with different sizes at temperature T. For this system, the Ornstein-Zernike equation using the Percus-Yevick closure relation is solved. Then the direct correlation function, pair correlation function and the pressure of the fluid at temperature T are calculated. The obtained results are in agreement with the previous theories and the results of molecular dynamic computer simulation.
COMBINATION OF CFD AND CSD PACKAGES FOR FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In this article the UDF script file in the Fluent software was rewritten as the "connecting file" for the Fluent and the ANSYS/ABAQUS in order that the joined file can be used to do aero-elastic computations. In this way the fluid field is computed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the structure movement is integrated by the dynamics directly. An analysis of the computed results shows that this coupled method designed for simulating aero-elastic systems is workable and can be used for the other fluid-structure interaction problems.
Recent Developments in the Fluid Dynamics of Tropical Cyclones
Montgomery, Michael T.; Smith, Roger K.
2017-01-01
This article reviews progress in understanding the fluid dynamics and moist thermodynamics of tropical cyclone vortices. The focus is on the dynamics and moist thermodynamics of vortex intensification and structure. We discuss previous ideas on many facets of the subject and articulate also some open questions. The advances reviewed herein provide new insight and tools for interpreting complex vortex-convective phenomenology in simulated and observed tropical cyclones.
Bao, Luyao; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Hu, Haibao; Luo, Kai
2017-09-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the rate and temperature dependence of the slip length in thin liquid films confined by smooth, thermal substrates. In our setup, the heat generated in a force-driven flow is removed by the thermostat applied on several wall layers away from liquid-solid interfaces. We found that for both high and low wall-fluid interaction (WFI) energies, the temperature of the fluid phase rises significantly as the shear rate increases. Surprisingly, with increasing shear rate, the slip length approaches a constant value from above for high WFI energies and from below for low WFI energies. The two distinct trends of the rate-dependent slip length are rationalized by examining S ( G1) , the height of the main peak of the in-plane structure factor of the first fluid layer (FFL) together with DWF, which is the average distance between the wall and FFL. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that reduced values of the structure factor, S ( G1) , correlate with the enhanced slip, while smaller distances DWF indicate that fluid atoms penetrate deeper into the surface potential leading to larger friction and smaller slip. Interestingly, at the lowest WFI energy, the combined effect of the increase of S ( G1) and decrease of DWF with increasing shear rate results in a dramatic reduction of the slip length.
Using compressibility factor as a predictor of confined hard-sphere fluid dynamics.
Mittal, Jeetain
2009-10-22
We study the correlations between the diffusivity (or viscosity) and the compressibility factor of bulk hard-sphere fluid as predicted by the ultralocal limit of the barrier hopping theory. Our specific aim is to determine if these correlations observed in the bulk equilibrium hard-sphere fluid can be used to predict the self-diffusivity of fluid confined between a slit-pore or a rectangular channel. In this work, we consider a single-component and a binary mixture of hard spheres. To represent confining walls, we use purely reflecting hard walls and interacting square-well walls. Our results clearly show that the correspondence between the diffusivity and the compressibility factor can be used along with the knowledge of the confined fluid's compressibility factor to predict its diffusivity with quantitative accuracy. Our analysis also suggests that a simple measure, the average fluid density, can be an accurate predictor of confined fluid diffusivity for very tight confinements ( approximately 2-3 particle diameters wide) at low to intermediate density conditions. Together, these results provide further support for the idea that one can use robust connections between thermodynamic and dynamic quantities to predict dynamics of confined fluids from their thermodynamics.
Optimization of Fluid Front Dynamics in Porous Media Using Rate Control: I. Equal Mobility Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundaryanto, Bagus; Yortsos, Yanis C.
1999-10-18
In applications involving this injection of a fluid in a porous medium to displace another fluid, a main objective is the maximization of the displacement efficiency. For a fixed arrangement of injection and production points (sources and sinks), such optimization is possible by controlling the injection rate policy. Despite its practical relevance, however, this aspect has received scant attention in the literature. In this paper, a fundamental approach based on optimal control theory, for the case when the fluids are miscible, of equal viscosity and in the absence of dispersion and gravity effects. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are considered. From a fluid dynamics viewpoint, this is a problem in the deformation of material lines in porous media, as a function of time-varying injection rates.
Development of new flux splitting schemes. [computational fluid dynamics algorithms
Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is especially important for solutions of complex three dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for their capability in resolving discontinuities. With this in mind, presented are two new flux splitting techniques for upwind differencing. The first method is based on High-Order Polynomial Expansions (HOPE) of the mass flux vector. The second new flux splitting is based on the Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM). The calculation of the hypersonic conical flow demonstrates the accuracy of the splitting in resolving the flow in the presence of strong gradients. A second series of tests involving the two dimensional inviscid flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrates the ability of the AUSM to resolve the shock discontinuity at transonic speed. A third case calculates a series of supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. Finally, the fourth case deals with tests of a two dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interaction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
This paper, with a finite element method, studies the interaction of a coupled incompressible fluid-rigid structure system with a free surface subjected to external wave excitations. With this fully coupled model, the rigid structure is taken as "fictitious" fluid with zero strain rate. Both fluid and structure are described by velocity and pressure. The whole domain, including fluid region and structure region, is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are discretized with fixed Eulerian mesh. However, to keep the structure's rigid body shape and behavior, a rigid body constraint is enforced on the "fictitious" fluid domain by use of the Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) method which is originally introduced to solve particulate flow problems by Glowinski et al. For the verification of the model presented herein, a 2D numerical wave tank is established to simulate small amplitude wave propagations, and then numerical results are compared with analytical solutions. Finally, a 2D example of fluid-structure interaction under wave dynamic forces provides convincing evidences for the method excellent solution quality and fidelity.
Dynamic Behavior of Axially Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen An
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of axially functionally graded (FG pipes conveying fluid was investigated numerically by using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT. The transverse vibration equation was integral transformed into a coupled system of second-order differential equations in the temporal variable. The Mathematica’s built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. Excellent convergence of the proposed eigenfunction expansions was demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of axially FG pipes conveying fluid. The proposed approach was verified by comparing the obtained results with the available solutions reported in the literature. Moreover, parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of Young’s modulus variation, material distribution, and flow velocity on the dynamic behavior of axially FG pipes conveying fluid.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Algorithm on a Massively Parallel Computer
Jespersen, Dennis C.; Levit, Creon
1989-01-01
The discipline of computational fluid dynamics is demanding ever-increasing computational power to deal with complex fluid flow problems. We investigate the performance of a finite-difference computational fluid dynamics algorithm on a massively parallel computer, the Connection Machine. Of special interest is an implicit time-stepping algorithm; to obtain maximum performance from the Connection Machine, it is necessary to use a nonstandard algorithm to solve the linear systems that arise in the implicit algorithm. We find that the Connection Machine ran achieve very high computation rates on both explicit and implicit algorithms. The performance of the Connection Machine puts it in the same class as today's most powerful conventional supercomputers.
Surface accumulation of spermatozoa: a fluid dynamic phenomenon
Smith, David J
2010-01-01
Recent mathematical fluid dynamics models have shed light into an outstanding problem in reproductive biology: why do spermatozoa cells show a 'preference' for swimming near to surfaces? In this paper we review quantitative approaches to the problem, originating with the classic paper of Lord Rothschild in 1963. A recent 'boundary integral/slender body theory' mathematical model for the fluid dynamics is described, and we discuss how it gives insight into the mechanisms that may be responsible for the surface accumulation behaviour. We use the simulation model to explore these mechanisms in more detail, and discuss whether simplified models can capture the behaviour of sperm cells. The far-field decay of the fluid flow around the cell is calculated, and compared with a stresslet model. Finally we present some new findings showing how, despite having a relatively small hydrodynamic drag, the sperm cell 'head' has very significant effects on surface accumulation and trajectory.
Thermal fatigue. Fluid-structure interaction at thermal mixing events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Moogk, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Laurien, E.; Kloeren, D.; Kulenovic, R.; Kuschewski, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems
2012-07-01
In the framework of the network research project ''Thermal Fatigue - Basics of the system-, outflow- and material-characteristics of piping under thermal fatigue'' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) fundamental numerical and experimental investigations on the material behaviour under transient thermal-mechanical stress conditions (high cycle fatigue - HCF) are carried out. The project's background and its network of scientific working groups with their individual working tasks are briefly introduced. The main focus is especially on the joint research tasks within the sub-projects of MPA and IKE which are dealing with thermal mixing of flows in a T-junction configuration and the fluidstructure- interactions (FSI). Therefore, experiments were performed with the newly established FSI test facility at MPA which enables single-phase flow experiments of water in typical power plant piping diameters (DN40 and DN80) at high pressure (maximum 75 bar) and temperatures (maximum 280 C). The experimental results serve as validation data base for numerical modelling of thermal flow mixing by means of thermo-fluid dynamics simulations applying CFD techniques and carried out by IKE as well as for modelling of thermal and mechanical loads of the piping structure by structural mechanics simulations with FEM methods which are executed by MPA. The FSI test facility will be described inclusively the applied measurement techniques, e. g. in particular the novel near-wall LED-induced Fluorescence method for non-intrusive flow temperature measurements. First experimental data and numerical results from CFD and FEM simulations of the thermal mixing of flows in the T-junction are presented.
Fluids as Dynamic Templates for Cytoskeletal Proteins in Plant Cells
Lofthouse, J T
2008-01-01
The Dynamic Template model of biological cell membranes and the cytoplasm as spatially organised fluid layers is extended to plant cells, and is shown to offer a feasible shear driven mechanism for the co-alignment of internal and external fibres observed during growth and tropic responses
Microchannel Emulsification: From Computational Fluid Dynamics to Predictive Analytical Model
Dijke, van K.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.
2008-01-01
Emulsion droplet formation was investigated in terrace-based microchannel systems that generate droplets through spontaneous Laplace pressure driven snap-off. The droplet formation mechanism was investigated through high-speed imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, and we found g
An Assessment of Productive Computational Fluid Dynamics for Aerodynamic Design
2008-01-01
PANAIR [7]) to marching techniques (like ZEUS [8] and parabolized Navier-S tokes codes) and full-field, elliptical, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD...undeflected case), but individual representations were required to create each deflection angle for the bent nose configuration. Figure 1. Three
Critical velocity and dynamic respondency of pipe conveying fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Presents the calculation of critical velocity, natural frequencyand dynamic respondency of fluid-conveying pipe are calculated under different boundary conditions using finite element method, and the use of calculation results to design and research rocket pipes feeding fuel and watery turbine pipes conveying water etc.
Direct visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm nanochannels.
Li, Huawei; Zhong, Junjie; Pang, Yuanjie; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Persad, Aaron Harrinarine; Xu, Yi; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David
2017-07-13
Optical microscopy is the most direct method to probe fluid dynamics at small scales. However, contrast between fluid phases vanishes at ∼10 nm lengthscales, limiting direct optical interrogation to larger systems. Here, we present a method for direct, high-contrast and label-free visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm channels, and apply this method to study capillary filling dynamics at this scale. The direct visualization of confined fluid dynamics in 8-nm high channels is achieved with a conventional bright-field optical microscope by inserting a layer of a high-refractive-index material, silicon nitride (Si3N4), between the substrate and the nanochannel, and the height of which is accurately controlled down to a few nanometers by a SiO2 spacer layer. The Si3N4 layer exhibits a strong Fabry-Perot resonance in reflection, providing a sharp contrast between ultrathin liquid and gas phases. In addition, the Si3N4 layer enables robust anodic bonding without nanochannel collapse. With this method, we demonstrate the validity of the classical Lucas-Washburn equation for capillary filling in the sub-10 nm regime, in contrast to the previous studies, for both polar and nonpolar liquids, and for aqueous salt solutions.
Modelling Emission from Building Materials with Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per
This paper presents a numerical model that by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is capable of dealing with both pollutant transport across the boundary layer and internal diffusion in the source without prior knowledge of which is the limiting process. The model provides the concentration...
Prospects for Computational Fluid Dynamics in Room Air Contaminant Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter V.
The fluid dynamics research is strongly influenced by the increasing computer power which has been available for the last decades. This development is obvious from the curve in figure 1 which shows the computation cost as a function of years. It is obvious that the cost for a given job...
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.
1998-01-01
An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...
Leveraging fluid-structure interaction for passive control of flapping locomotion
Ohh, Chan-Ye; Huang, Yangyang; Wen, Ziteng; Kanso, Eva; Luhar, Mitul
2016-11-01
While many living organisms employ active feedback control during flapping locomotion, there is increasing evidence to suggest that passive fluid-structure interactions also play a central role in dictating stability and efficiency. The current project seeks to experimentally evaluate and numerically verify the rotational stability and dynamics of a rigid Λ-flyer oscillating up-and-down in a rest fluid. We explore the dynamic behavior of the flyer in terms of three dimensionless parameters: opening angle, oscillation amplitude, and acceleration of the flyer. Within the parameter ranges tested, we identify four types of behavior: periodic rotation, chaotic dynamics, stable behavior (concave down position), and bistability (concave up and down position). The emergence of periodic and chaotic rotation depends primarily on the oscillation amplitude of the flyer, whereas transition from stability to bistability is dependent on both the amplitude and acceleration. The transition to bistability occurs at a constant ratio of drag to gravity, indicating that the stabilizing effect is hydrodynamic.
Numerical Modelling of Ore-forming Dynamics of Fractal Dispersive Fluid Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓军; 方云; 杨立强; 杨军臣; 孙忠实; 王建平; 丁式江; 王庆飞
2001-01-01
Based on an analysis of the fractal structures and mass transport mechanism of typical shear-fluid-ore formation system, the fractal dispersion theory of the fluid system was used in the dynamic study of the ore formation system. The model of point-source diffusive illuviation of the shear-fluid-ore formation system was constructed, and the numerical simulation of dynamics of the ore formation system was finished. The result shows that: (1) The metallogenic system have nested fractal structure. Different fractal dimension values in different systems show unbalance and inhomogeneity of ore-forming processes in the geohistory. It is an important parameter to symbolize the process of remobilization and accumulation of ore-forming materials. Also it can indicate the dynamics of the metallogenic system quantitatively to some extent. (2) In essence, the fractal dispersive ore-forming dynamics is a combination of multi-processes dominated by fluid dynamics and supplemented by molecule dispersion in fluids and fluid-rock interaction. It changes components and physico-chemical properties of primary rocks and fluids, favouring deposition and mineralization of ore-forming materials. (3) Gold ore-forming processes in different types of shear zones are quite different. (1) In a metallogenic system with inhomogeneous volumetric change and inhomogeneous shear, mineralization occurs in structural barriers in the centre of a shear zone and in geochemical barriers in the shear zone near its boundaries. But there is little possibility of mineralization out of the shear zone. (2) As to a metallogenic system with inhomogeneous volumetric change and simple shear, mineralization may occur only in structural barriers near the centre of the shear zone. (3) In a metallogenic system with homogeneous volumetric change and inhomogeneous shear, mineralization may occur in geochemical barriers both within and out of the shear zone.
Fluid-dynamical description of the gap fluctuations of two trapped fermion species
Capuzzi, P.; Hernández, E. S.; Szybisz, L.
2010-11-01
We apply a recent generalisation of the fluid-dynamical scheme developed for two trapped fermion species with pairing interactions to examine the fluctuations of the gap density coupled to the particle transition density at low energy. The dynamical scheme satisfies Kohn's theorem for both the particle density and the pairing gap. We analyse the form of the gap fluctuations in a spherical trap in terms of their multipolarity and the interaction strength, and find that coupling to the particle density produces considerable stiffness of the gap transition density together with compression towards the centre of the trap.
Acoustic interaction forces between small particles in an ideal fluid
Silva, Glauber T
2014-01-01
We present a theoretical expression for the acoustic interaction force between small spherical particles suspended in an ideal fluid exposed to an external acoustic wave. The acoustic interaction force is the part of the acoustic radiation force on one given particle involving the scattered waves from the other particles. The particles, either compressible liquid droplets or elastic microspheres, are considered to be much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. In this so-called Rayleigh limit, the acoustic interaction forces between the particles are well approximated by gradients of pair-interaction potentials with no restriction on the inter-particle distance. The theory is applied to studies of the acoustic interaction force on a particle suspension in either standing or traveling plane waves. The results show aggregation regions along the wave propagation direction, while particles may attract or repel each other in the transverse direction. In addition, a mean-field approximation is developed to describe ...
Viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction between a non-Newtonian fluid flow and flexible cylinder
Dey, Anita; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Rothstein, Jonathan
2016-11-01
It is well known that when a flexible or flexibly-mounted structure is placed perpendicular to the flow of a Newtonian fluid, it can oscillate due to the shedding of separated vortices at high Reynolds numbers. If the same flexible object is placed in non-Newtonian flows, however, the structure's response is still unknown. Unlike Newtonian fluids, the flow of viscoelastic fluids can become unstable at infinitesimal Reynolds numbers due to a purely elastic flow instability. In this talk, we will present a series of experiments investigating the response of a flexible cylinder placed in the cross flow of a viscoelastic fluid. The elastic flow instabilities occurring at high Weissenberg numbers can exert fluctuating forces on the flexible cylinder thus leading to nonlinear periodic oscillations of the flexible structure. These oscillations are found to be coupled to the time-dependent state of viscoelastic stresses in the wake of the flexible cylinder. The static and dynamic responses of the flexible cylinder will be presented over a range of flow velocities, along with measurements of velocity profiles and flow-induced birefringence, in order to quantify the time variation of the flow field and the state of stress in the fluid.
Hyperdiffusive Dynamics in Newtonian Nanoparticle Fluids
Srivastava, Samanvaya
2015-10-20
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Hyperdiffusive relaxations in soft glassy materials are typically associated with out-of-equilibrium states, and nonequilibrium physics and aging are often invoked in explaining their origins. Here, we report on hyperdiffusive motion in model soft materials comprised of single-component polymer-tethered nanoparticles, which exhibit a readily accessible Newtonian flow regime. In these materials, polymer-mediated interactions lead to strong nanoparticle correlations, hyperdiffusive relaxations, and unusual variations of properties with temperature. We propose that hyperdiffusive relaxations in such materials can arise naturally from nonequilibrium or non-Brownian volume fluctuations forced by equilibrium thermal rearrangements of the particle pair orientations corresponding to equilibrated shear modes.
Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.
2001-07-13
The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.
Dynamics of complex fluids in rotary atomization
Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth; MIT, Mechanical Engineering Department Team
2016-11-01
We study the dynamics of fragmentation for different Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids in rotary atomization. In this process, at the rim of a spinning cup, the centripetal acceleration destabilizes the formed liquid torus due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The resulting ligaments leave the liquid torus with a remarkably repeatable spacing that scales linearly with the inverse of the rotation rate. Filaments then follow a well-defined geometrical path-line that is described by the involute of the circle. Knowing the geometry of this phenomenon we derive the detailed kinematics of this process and compare it with the experimental observations. We show that the ligaments elongate tangentially to the involute of the circle and thin radially as they separate from the cup. A theoretical form is derived for the spatial variation of the filament deformation rate. Once the ligaments are far from the cup they breakup into droplets since they are not stretched fast enough (compared to the critical rate of capillary thinning). We couple these derivations with the known properties of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids to provide a physical analysis for this fragmentation process that is compared in detail with our experiments.
Modeling dark energy through an Ising fluid with network interactions
Luongo, Orlando
2013-01-01
We show that the dark energy effects can be modeled by using an \\emph{Ising perfect fluid} with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state, i.e. $\\omega_0$, becomes $\\omega_0=-1$ as in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. In our picture, dark energy is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding equation of state mimics the effects of a variable dark energy term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as dark energy source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia, baryonic acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background measurements. Finally, we perform the AIC and BIC selection criteria, showing t...
A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole
2013-01-01
The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...
An investigation of the fluid-structure interaction of piston/cylinder interface
Pelosi, Matteo
The piston/cylinder lubricating interface represents one of the most critical design elements of axial piston machines. Being a pure hydrodynamic bearing, the piston/cylinder interface fulfills simultaneously a bearing and sealing function under oscillating load conditions. Operating in an elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime, it also represents one of the main sources of power loss due to viscous friction and leakage flow. An accurate prediction of the time changing tribological interface characteristics in terms of fluid film thickness, dynamic pressure field, load carrying ability and energy dissipation is necessary to create more efficient interface designs. The aim of this work is to deepen the understanding of the main physical phenomena defining the piston/cylinder fluid film and to discover the impact of surface elastic deformations and heat transfer on the interface behavior. For this purpose, a unique fully coupled multi-body dynamics model has been developed to capture the complex fluid-structure interaction phenomena affecting the non-isothermal fluid film conditions. The model considers the squeeze film effect due to the piston micro-motion and the change in fluid film thickness due to the solid boundaries elastic deformations caused by the fluid film pressure and by the thermal strain. The model has been verified comparing the numerical results with measurements taken on special designed test pumps. The fluid film calculated dynamic pressure and temperature fields have been compared. Further validation has been accomplished comparing piston/cylinder axial viscous friction forces with measured data. The model has been used to study the piston/cylinder interface behavior of an existing axial piston unit operating at high load conditions. Numerical results are presented in this thesis.
Gyroid phase of fluids with spherically symmetric competing interactions.
Edelmann, Markus; Roth, Roland
2016-06-01
We study the phase diagram of a fluid with spherically symmetric competing pair interactions that consist of a short-ranged attraction and a longer-ranged repulsion in addition to a hard core. To this end we perform free minimizations of three-dimensional triple periodic structures within the framework of classical density functional theory. We compare our results to those from Landau theory. Our main finding is that the double gyroid phase can exist as a thermodynamically stable phase.
SIMULATION OF FLUID-SOLID INTERACTION ON WATER DITCHING OF AN AIRPLANE BY ALE METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUA Cheng; FANG Chao; CHENG Jin
2011-01-01
Ditching is considered as one of the important aspects of safety performances of airplanes.It is related primarily with the fluid-solid interaction,whose studies mainly depend on experiments at the present time.Numerical and analytical methods for fluid-solid interaction by using 3-D full scale airplane's model will reduce the dependence on the expensive model tests.Numerical studies can be used to estimate the safety of ditching and provide a reference for the crashworthiness design.This article proposes a 3-D dynamical structural model after the real shape of an airplane and an Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) fluid-field model,to simulate the fluid-solid interactions caused by low speed ditching.The simulation is based on interaction computational methods,within LS-DYNA nonlinear finite-element code.The results of pressure distributions and accelerating time histories of the airplane's subfloor are discussed in the context of the safety of ditching,and the simulation results and the analytical methods are verified.
Numerical simulation of particle dynamics at a fluid interface
Yue, Pengtao
2016-11-01
Particles straddling a fluid interface exhibit rich dynamics due to the coexistence of moving boundaries, fluid interfaces, and moving contact lines. For instance, as a particle falls onto a liquid surface, it may sink, float, or even bounce off depending on a wide range of parameters. To better understand the dynamics of such a multiphase system, we develop a finite-element based arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian-phase-field method. The governing equations for particles and fluids are solved in a unified variational framework that satisfies an energy law. We first validate our code by computing three problems found in literature: sinking of a horizontal cylinder through an air-water interface, sinking of a sphere through an air-oil interface at small Reynolds numbers, and bouncing of a sphere after its normal impact onto an air-water interface. Our numerical results show good agreements with experimental data. We then investigate the effect of wetting properties, including static contact angle, slip length, and wall energy relaxation, on particle dynamics at the fluid interface. This work is supported by NSF DMS-1522604.
Experimental study on interaction between simulated sandstone and acidic fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yongwang; Zeng Jianhu; Yu Bingsong
2009-01-01
In order to investigate the controlling mechanism of temperature, fluid and other factors on water-rock interaction in the diagenetic process, we performed a series of simulated experiments on the interaction between two kinds of fluids with different salinity and a composite mineral system (simulated sandstone), which contains albite, K-feldspar and other minerals. The experimental results showed that acidity was the most important factor that affected the dissolution of minerals in the composite mineral system. The lower the pH value, the more easily the minerals dissolved. At the same pH value, the dissolution abilities of different acids for various mineral components were also different. Compared to hydrochloric acid (inorganic acid), oxalic acid (organic acid) was more able to dissolve aluminosilicate minerals. However, the dissolution ability of oxalic acid for carbonate minerals was lower than that of hydrochloric acid. In the process of fluid-rock interaction,dissolution of feldspar was relatively complicated. Increase of temperature would accelerate the dissolution of feldspar. Under acidic conditions, albite had a higher dissolution rate than K-feldspar. K-feldspar could dissolve and convert into montmorillonite and kaolinite, while albite could dissolve and convert into kaolinite both at 40℃ and 80℃. Presence of organic acid, and decrease of pH value and water salinity were all favorable for the dissolution of feldspar, but weakened the ability to form clay minerals.
Coupling fluid-structure interaction with phase-field fracture
Wick, Thomas
2016-12-01
In this work, a concept for coupling fluid-structure interaction with brittle fracture in elasticity is proposed. The fluid-structure interaction problem is modeled in terms of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian technique and couples the isothermal, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear elastodynamics using the Saint-Venant Kirchhoff solid model. The brittle fracture model is based on a phase-field approach for cracks in elasticity and pressurized elastic solids. In order to derive a common framework, the phase-field approach is re-formulated in Lagrangian coordinates to combine it with fluid-structure interaction. A crack irreversibility condition, that is mathematically characterized as an inequality constraint in time, is enforced with the help of an augmented Lagrangian iteration. The resulting problem is highly nonlinear and solved with a modified Newton method (e.g., error-oriented) that specifically allows for a temporary increase of the residuals. The proposed framework is substantiated with several numerical tests. In these examples, computational stability in space and time is shown for several goal functionals, which demonstrates reliability of numerical modeling and algorithmic techniques. But also current limitations such as the necessity of using solid damping are addressed.
Pattern Formation Around Interacting Bodies in Rotating Fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Karl B(U)HLER
2006-01-01
The interaction of bodies like spheres and disks in rotating fluids leads to novel flow structures. The primary swirling flow in circumferential direction is superimposed by a secondary motion in the meridional plane. The flow is visualized by introducing ink through a hole in the center of the axes and distributed radially in the central plane between the interacting bodies. The flow structure depends on the shape of the bodies, their geometrical arrangement and the Reynolds number given by the rotational speed. The observed flow structures gave rise to further investigations with PIV-measurements and numerical simulations.
Fluid dynamics of the shock wave reactor
Masse, Robert Kenneth
2000-10-01
High commercial incentives have driven conventional olefin production technologies to near their material limits, leaving the possibility of further efficiency improvements only in the development of entirely new techniques. One strategy known as the Shock Wave Reactor, which employs gas dynamic processes to circumvent limitations of conventional reactors, has been demonstrated effective at the University of Washington. Preheated hydrocarbon feedstock and a high enthalpy carrier gas (steam) are supersonically mixed at a temperature below that required for thermal cracking. Temperature recovery is then effected via shock recompression to initiate pyrolysis. The evolution to proof-of-concept and analysis of experiments employing ethane and propane feedstocks are presented. The Shock Wave Reactor's high enthalpy steam and ethane flows severely limit diagnostic capability in the proof-of-concept experiment. Thus, a preliminary blow down supersonic air tunnel of similar geometry has been constructed to investigate recompression stability and (especially) rapid supersonic mixing necessary for successful operation of the Shock Wave Reactor. The mixing capabilities of blade nozzle arrays are therefore studied in the air experiment and compared with analytical models. Mixing is visualized through Schlieren imaging and direct photography of condensation in carbon dioxide injection, and interpretation of visual data is supported by pressure measurement and flow sampling. The influence of convective Mach number is addressed. Additionally, thermal behavior of a blade nozzle array is analyzed for comparison to data obtained in the course of succeeding proof-of-concept experiments. Proof-of-concept is naturally succeeded by interest in industrial adaptation of the Shock Wave Reactor, particularly with regard to issues involving the scaling and refinement of the shock recompression. Hence, an additional, variable geometry air tunnel has been constructed to study the parameter
A Dynamical System Analysis of Three Fluid cosmological Model
Mahata, Nilanjana
2015-01-01
In Friedman-Robertson-Walker flat spacetime, we consider a three fluid cosmological model which contains dark matter, dark energy and baryonic matter in the form of perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state. Dark matter is taken in form of dust and dark energy is described by a scalar field with a potential $V(\\phi)$. Einstein's field equations are reduced to an autonomous dynamical system by suitable redefinition of basic variables. Considering exponential potential for the scalar field, critical points are obtained for the autonomous system. Finally stability of the critical points and cosmological implications are analyzed.
Trincal, Vincent; Buatier, Martine; Charpentier, Delphine; Lacroix, Brice; Lanari, Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Vennemann, Torsten
2017-09-01
In orogens, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrusts, which constitute preferential zones for fluid-rock interactions. Fluid flow, mass transfer, and mineralogical reactions taking place along thrusts have been intensely investigated, especially in sedimentary basins for petroleum and uranium research. This study combines petrological investigations, mineralogical quantifications, and geochemical characterizations with a wide range of analytical tools with the aim of defining the fluid properties (nature, origin, temperature, and redox) and fluid-host rock interactions (mass transfers, recrystallization mechanisms, and newly formed synkinematic mineralization) in the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust fault zone (Pyrenees, Spain). We demonstrate that two geochemically contrasted rocks have been transformed by fluid flow under low-grade metamorphism conditions during thrusting. The hanging-wall Triassic red pelite was locally bleached, while the footwall Cretaceous dolomitic limestone was mylonitized. The results suggest that thrusting was accompanied by a dynamic calcite recrystallization in the dolomitic limestone as well as by leaching of iron via destabilization of iron oxides and phyllosilicate crystallization in the pelite. Geochemical and physical changes highlighted in this study have strong implications on the understanding of the thrust behavior (tectonic and hydraulic), and improve our knowledge of fluid-rock interactions in open fluid systems in the crust.
Fluid-Structure Interaction Mechanisms for Close-In Explosions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew B. Wardlaw Jr.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines fluid-structure interaction for close-in internal and external underwater explosions. The resulting flow field is impacted by the interaction between the reflected explosion shock and the explosion bubble. This shock reflects off the bubble as an expansion that reduces the pressure level between the bubble and the target, inducing cavitation and its subsequent collapse that reloads the target. Computational examples of several close-in interaction cases are presented to document the occurrence of these mechanisms. By comparing deformable and rigid body simulations, it is shown that cavitation collapse can occur solely from the shock-bubble interaction without the benefit of target deformation. Addition of a deforming target lowers the flow field pressure, facilitates cavitation and cavitation collapse, as well as reducing the impulse of the initial shock loading.
Self-gravitating fluid solutions of Shape Dynamics
Guariento, Daniel C
2016-01-01
Shape Dynamics is a 3D conformally invariant theory of gravity which possesses a large set of solutions in common with General Relativity. When looked closely, these solutions are found to behave in surprising ways, so in order to probe the fitness of Shape Dynamics as a viable alternative to General Relativity one must find and understand increasingly more complex, less symmetrical exact solutions, on which to base perturbative studies and numerical analyses in order to compare them with data. Spherically symmetric exact solutions have been studied, but only in a static vacuum setup. In this work we construct a class of time-dependent exact solutions of Shape Dynamics from first principles, representing a central inhomogeneity in an evolving cosmological environment. By assuming only a perfect fluid source in a spherically symmetric geometry we show that this fully dynamic non-vacuum solution satisfies in all generality the Hamiltonian structure of Shape Dynamics. The simplest choice of solutions is shown to...
Tytell, Eric D; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L; Cohen, Avis H; Fauci, Lisa J
2010-11-16
Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed.
Dynamics of nanoparticles in complex fluids
Omari, Rami A.
Soft matter is a subfield of condensed matter including polymers, colloidal dispersions, surfactants, and liquid crystals. These materials are familiar from our everyday life- glues, paints, soaps, and plastics are examples of soft materials. Many phenomena in these systems have the same underlying physical mechanics. Moreover, it has been recognized that combinations of these systems, like for example polymers and colloids, exhibit new properties which are not found in each system separately. These mixed systems have a higher degree of complexity than the separate systems. In order to understand their behavior, knowledge from each subfields of soft matter has to be put together. One of these complex systems is the mixture of nanoparticles with macromolecules such as polymers, proteins, etc. Understanding the interactions in these systems is essential for solving various problems in technological and medical fields, such as developing high performance polymeric materials, chromatography, and drug delivery vehicles. The author of this dissertation investigates fundemental soft matter systems, including colloid dispersions in polymer solutions and binary mixture. The diffusion of gold nanoparticles in semidilute and entangled solutions of polystyrene (PS) in toluene were studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In our experiments, the particle radius (R ≈ 2.5 nm) was much smaller compared to the radius of gyration of the chain but comparable to the average mesh size of the fluctuating polymer network. The diffusion coefficient (D) of the particles decreased monotonically with polymer concentration and it can be fitted with a stretched exponential function. At high concentration of the polymer, a clear subdiffusive motion of the particles was observed. The results were compared with the diffusion of free dyes, which showed normal diffusive behavior for all concentrations. In another polymer solution, poly ethylene glycol (PEG) in water, the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Pingjian; Zhang Wenping
2009-01-01
This article introduces a numerical scheme on the basis of semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations (SIMPLE) algorithm to simulate incompressible unsteady flows with fluid-structure interaction. The Navier-Stokes equation is discretized spatially with collocated finite volume method and Eulerian implicit method in time domain. The hybrid method that combines immersed boundary method (IBM) and volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to deal with rigid body motion in fluid domain. The details of movement of immersed boundary (IB) and calculation of VOF are also described. This method can be easily applied to any existing finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver without complex operation, with which fluid flow interaction of arbitrarily complex geometry can be realized on a fixed mesh. The method is verified by low Reynolds number flows passing both stationary and oscillating cylinders. The drag and lift coefficients acquired by the study well accord with other published results, which indicate the reasonability of the proposed method.
Naseri, A.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Gonzalez, I.; Oliva, A.
2016-09-01
This paper represents numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system involving an incompressible viscous fluid and a lightweight elastic structure. We follow a semi-implicit approach in which we implicitly couple the added-mass term (pressure stress) of the fluid to the structure, while other terms are coupled explicitly. This significantly reduces the computational cost of the simulations while showing adequate stability. Several coupling schemes are tested including fixed-point method with different static and dynamic relaxation, as well as Newton-Krylov method with approximated Jacobian. Numerical tests are conducted in the context of a biomechanical problem. Results indicate that the Newton-Krylov solver outperforms fixed point ones while introducing more complexity to the problem due to the evaluation of the Jacobian. Fixed-point solver with Aitken's relaxation method also proved to be a simple, yet efficient method for FSI simulations.
Use of computational fluid dynamics in respiratory medicine.
Fernández Tena, Ana; Casan Clarà, Pere
2015-06-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a computer-based tool for simulating fluid movement. The main advantages of CFD over other fluid mechanics studies include: substantial savings in time and cost, the analysis of systems or conditions that are very difficult to simulate experimentally (as is the case of the airways), and a practically unlimited level of detail. We used the Ansys-Fluent CFD program to develop a conducting airway model to simulate different inspiratory flow rates and the deposition of inhaled particles of varying diameters, obtaining results consistent with those reported in the literature using other procedures. We hope this approach will enable clinicians to further individualize the treatment of different respiratory diseases.
Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty
2005-09-05
The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.
Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation
Long, Chris; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri
2011-11-01
Pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) are used for mechanical circulatory support in children with failing hearts. They can be used to allow the heart to heal naturally or to extend the life of the patient until transplant. A PVAD has two chambers, blood and air, separated by a flexible membrane. The air chamber is pressurized, which drives the membrane and pumps the blood. The primary risk associated with these devices is stroke or embolism from thrombogenesis. Simulation of these devices is difficult due to a complex coupling of two fluid domains and a thin membrane, requiring fluid-structure interaction modeling. The goal of this work is to accurately simulate the hemodynamics of a PVAD. We perform FSI simulations using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element framework to account for large motions of the membrane and the fluid domains. The air, blood, and membrane are meshed as distinct subdomains, and a method for non-matched discretizations at the fluid-structure interface is presented. The use of isogeometric analysis to model the membrane mechanics is also discussed, and the results of simulations are presented.
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Solid Earth Sciences-a HPC challenge
Vlad Constantin Manea; Marina Manea; Mihai Pomeran; Lucian Besutiu; Luminita Zlagnean
2012-01-01
Presently, the Solid Earth Sciences started to move towards implementing High Performance Computational (HPC) research facilities. One of the key tenants of HPC is performance, which strongly depends on the interaction between software and hardware. In this paper, they are presented benchmark results from two HPC systems. Testing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code specific for Solid Earth Sciences, the HPC system Horus, based on Gigabit Ethernet, performed reasonably well compared with...
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect of Modeling Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengmao Lin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD or computational solid stress (CSS model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI. On the contrary, the minimal differences in wall stresses and deformation were observed between FSI and CSS models. Furthermore, it was found that the accuracy of CSS prediction depends on the applied pressure profile for the aneurysm sac. A large pressure drop across AAA usually led to the underestimation of wall stresses and thus the AAA rupture. Moreover, the assumed isotropic AAA wall properties, compared to the anisotropic one, will aggravate the difference between the simplified models with the FSI approach. The present work demonstrated the importance of modeling techniques on predicting the blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics of the AAA, which could guide the selection of appropriate modeling technique for significant clinical implications.
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect of Modeling Techniques.
Lin, Shengmao; Han, Xinwei; Bi, Yonghua; Ju, Siyeong; Gu, Linxia
2017-01-01
In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI. On the contrary, the minimal differences in wall stresses and deformation were observed between FSI and CSS models. Furthermore, it was found that the accuracy of CSS prediction depends on the applied pressure profile for the aneurysm sac. A large pressure drop across AAA usually led to the underestimation of wall stresses and thus the AAA rupture. Moreover, the assumed isotropic AAA wall properties, compared to the anisotropic one, will aggravate the difference between the simplified models with the FSI approach. The present work demonstrated the importance of modeling techniques on predicting the blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics of the AAA, which could guide the selection of appropriate modeling technique for significant clinical implications.
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effect of Modeling Techniques
Lin, Shengmao; Han, Xinwei; Bi, Yonghua; Ju, Siyeong
2017-01-01
In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI. On the contrary, the minimal differences in wall stresses and deformation were observed between FSI and CSS models. Furthermore, it was found that the accuracy of CSS prediction depends on the applied pressure profile for the aneurysm sac. A large pressure drop across AAA usually led to the underestimation of wall stresses and thus the AAA rupture. Moreover, the assumed isotropic AAA wall properties, compared to the anisotropic one, will aggravate the difference between the simplified models with the FSI approach. The present work demonstrated the importance of modeling techniques on predicting the blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics of the AAA, which could guide the selection of appropriate modeling technique for significant clinical implications. PMID:28321413
Computational modeling of fluid structural interaction in arterial stenosis
Bali, Leila; Boukedjane, Mouloud; Bahi, Lakhdar
2013-12-01
Atherosclerosis affects the arterial blood vessels causing stenosis because of which the artery hardens resulting in loss of elasticity in the affected region. In this paper, we present: an approach to model the fluid-structure interaction through such an atherosclerosis affected region of the artery, The blood is assumed as an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid, and the vessel wall was treated as a thick-walled, incompressible and isotropic material with uniform mechanical properties. The numerical simulation has been studied in the context of The Navier-Stokes equations for an interaction with an elastic solid. The study of fluid flow and wall motion was initially carried out separately, Discretized forms of the transformed wall and flow equations, which are coupled through the boundary conditions at their interface, are obtained by control volume method and simultaneously to study the effects of wall deformability, solutions are obtained for both rigid and elastic walls. The results indicate that deformability of the wall causes an increase in the time average of pressure drop, but a decrease in the maximum wall shear stress. Displacement and stress distributions in the wall are presented.
Calderer, Antoni; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2016-01-01
We develop a numerical method for simulating coupled interactions of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence. We employ an efficient large-scale model to develop offshore wind and wave environmental conditions, which are then incorporated into a high resolution two-phase flow solver with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The large-scale wind-wave interaction model is based on the two-fluid dynamically-coupled approach of Yang and Shen (2011), which employs a high-order spectral method for simulating the water motion and a viscous solver with undulatory boundaries for the air motion. The two-phase flow FSI solver, developed by Calderer, Kang, and Sotiropoulos (2014), is based on the level set method and is capable of simulating the coupled dynamic interaction of arbitrarily complex bodies with airflow and waves. The large-scale wave field solver is coupled with the near-field FSI solver by feeding into the latter waves via the pressure-forcing method of Guo and Shen...
Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions in confined geometries
Goddard, B. D.; Nold, A.; Kalliadasis, S.
2016-12-01
We study the dynamics of colloidal fluids in both unconfined geometries and when confined by a hard wall. Under minimal assumptions, we derive a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) which includes hydrodynamic interactions (HI; bath-mediated forces). By using an efficient numerical scheme based on pseudospectral methods for integro-differential equations, we demonstrate its excellent agreement with the full underlying Langevin equations for systems of hard disks in partial confinement. We further use the derived DDFT formalism to elucidate the crucial effects of HI in confined systems.
Dynamical symmetry and higher-order interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1999-07-01
It is shown that the concept of dynamical symmetry is enriched by increasing the order the interactions between the constituent particles of a given many-body-system. The idea is illustrated with an analysis of higher-order interactions in the interacting boson model. (author)
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1996
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.
1997-01-01
Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following three programme areas: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The work is concentrated on combinations of systems, structures and materials. The systems work is focused on sensors, information processing an storage; the structures work is concentrated on pattern formation and diffractive elements; the materials work is centred on the understanding and utilisation of nonlinear phenomena. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1996 is presented. (au) 53 ills., 232 refs.
Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System
Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz
2013-01-01
Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...
Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department annual progress report for 1997
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, S.G.; Johansen, P.M.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Skaarup, B. [eds.
1998-04-01
Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department has been performed within the following three programme areas: (1) optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma and fluid dynamics. The work is concentrated on combinations of systems, structures and materials. The systems work is focused on sensors, information processing and storage; the structures work is concentrated on pattern formation and diffractive elements; the materials work is centred on the understanding and utilisation of nonlinear phenomena for optical components and systems. Scientific computing is an integral part of the work. Biomedical optics is a new activity and the work on polymer optics is enhanced considerably. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 1997 is presented. (au) 1 tab., 63 ills., 249 refs.
Quantifying Chiral Magnetic Effect from Anomalous-Viscous Fluid Dynamics
Jiang, Yin; Yin, Yi; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is the macroscopic manifestation of the fundamental chiral anomaly in a many-body system of chiral fermions, and emerges as anomalous transport current in the fluid dynamics framework. Experimental observation of CME is of great interest and has been reported in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Significant efforts have also been made to search for CME in heavy ion collisions. Encouraging evidence of CME-induced charge separation in those collisions has been reported, albeit with ambiguity due to background contamination. Crucial for addressing such issue, is the need of quantitative predictions for CME signal with sophisticated modelings. In this paper we develop such a tool, the Anomalous Viscous Fluid Dynamics (AVFD) framework, which simulates the evolution of fermion currents in QGP on top of the data-validated VISHNU bulk hydrodynamic flow. With realistic initial conditions and magnetic field lifetime, the AVFD-predicted CME signal could be quantitatively consistent with measured ch...
Streaming potential-modulated capillary filling dynamics of immiscible fluids.
Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman
2016-02-21
The pressure driven transport of two immiscible electrolytes in a narrow channel with prescribed surface potential (zeta potential) is considered under the influence of a flow-induced electric field. The latter consideration is non-trivially and fundamentally different from the problem of electric field-driven motion (electroosmosis) of two immiscible electrolytes in a channel in a sense that in the former case, the genesis of the induced electric field, termed as streaming potential, is the advection of ions in the absence of any external electric field. As the flow occurs, one fluid displaces the other. Consequently, in cases where the conductivities of the two fluids differ, imbibition dynamically alters the net conductivity of the channel. We emphasize, through numerical simulations, that the alteration in the net conductivity has a significant impact on the contact line dynamics and the concomitant induced streaming potential. The results presented herein are expected to shed light on multiphase electrokinetics devices.
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric, E-mail: eve2@courant.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2014-06-21
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, “Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, “A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law,” J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.
Modeling the Fluid Dynamics in a Human Stomach to Gain Insight of Food Digestion
Ferrua, MJ; Singh, RP
2010-01-01
During gastric digestion, food is disintegrated by a complex interaction of chemical and mechanical effects. Although the mechanisms of chemical digestion are usually characterized by using in vitro analysis, the difficulty in reproducing the stomach geometry and motility has prevented a good understanding of the local fluid dynamics of gastric contents. The goal of this study was to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to develop a 3-D model of the shape and motility pattern of the stomach wall during digestion, and use it to characterize the fluid dynamics of gastric contents of different viscosities. A geometrical model of an averaged-sized human stomach was created, and its motility was characterized by a series of antral-contraction waves of up to 80% relative occlusion. The flow field within the model (predicted using the software Fluent™) strongly depended on the viscosity of gastric contents. By increasing the viscosity, the formation of the 2 flow patterns commonly regarded as the main mechanisms driving digestion (i.e., the retropulsive jet-like motion and eddy structures) was significantly diminished, while a significant increase of the pressure field was predicted. These results were in good agreement with experimental data previously reported in the literature, and suggest that, contrary to the traditional idea of a rapid and complete homogenization of the meal, gastric contents associated with high viscous meals are poorly mixed. This study illustrates the capability of CFD to provide a unique insight into the fluid dynamics of the gastric contents, and points out its potential to develop a fundamental understanding and modeling of the mechanisms involved in the digestion process. Practical Application This study illustrates the capability of computational fluid dynamic techniques to provide a unique insight into the dynamics of the gastric contents, pointing out its potential to develop a fundamental understanding and modeling of the human
Methods for simulation-based analysis of fluid-structure interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Payne, Jeffrey L.
2005-10-01
Methods for analysis of fluid-structure interaction using high fidelity simulations are critically reviewed. First, a literature review of modern numerical techniques for simulation of aeroelastic phenomena is presented. The review focuses on methods contained within the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework for coupling computational fluid dynamics codes to computational structural mechanics codes. The review treats mesh movement algorithms, the role of the geometric conservation law, time advancement schemes, wetted surface interface strategies, and some representative applications. The complexity and computational expense of coupled Navier-Stokes/structural dynamics simulations points to the need for reduced order modeling to facilitate parametric analysis. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection approach for building a reduced order model (ROM) is presented, along with ideas for extension of the methodology to allow construction of ROMs based on data generated from ALE simulations.
Mantle hydrous-fluid interaction with Archaean granite.
Słaby, E.; Martin, H.; Hamada, M.; Śmigielski, M.; Domonik, A.; Götze, J.; Hoefs, J.; Hałas, S.; Simon, K.; Devidal, J.-L.; Moyen, J.-F.; Jayananda, M.
2012-04-01
Water content/species in alkali feldspars from late Archaean Closepet igneous bodies as well as growth and re-growth textures, trace element and oxygen isotope composition have been studied (Słaby et al., 2011). Both processes growth and re-growth are deterministic, however they differ showing increasing persistency in element behaviour during interaction with fluids. The re-growth process fertilized domains and didn't change their oxygen-isotope signature. Water speciation showed persistent behaviour during heating at least up to 600oC. Carbonate crystals with mantle isotope signature are associated with the recrystallized feldspar domains. Fluid-affected domains in apatite provide evidence of halide exchange. The data testify that the observed recrystallization was a high-temperature reaction with fertilized, halide-rich H2O-CO2 mantle-derived fluids of high water activity. A wet mantle being able to generate hydrous plumes, which appear to be hotter during the Archean in comparison to the present time is supposed by Shimizu et al. (2001). Usually hot fluids, which can be strongly carbonic, precede asthenospheric mantle upwelling. They are supposed to be parental to most recognized compositions, which can be derived by their immiscible separation into saline aqueous-silicic and carbonatitic members (Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007). The aqueous fractions are halogen-rich with a significant proportion of CO2. Both admixed fractions are supposed to be fertile. The Closepet granite emplaced in a major shear zone that delimitates two different terrains. Generally such shear zones, at many places, are supposed to be rooted deep into the mantle. The drain, that favoured and controlled magma ascent and emplacement, seemed to remain efficient after granite crystallization. In the southern part of the Closepet batholiths an evidence of intensive interaction of a lower crust fluid (of high CO2 activity) is provided by the extensive charnockitization of amphibolite facies (St
Research on the Application of Fluid-Structure Interaction in Soil Rock Mixture Slope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yongcun
2015-06-01
Full Text Available traditional seepage theory has defects, and the fluid-structure interaction research has developed. Through the analysis of the fluid-structure interaction problems in engineering, this paper expounds the characteristics of fluid-structure interaction, research methods and research status quo, mathematical model of the slope is put forward.
Fluid Dynamic Field in Bozhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The data from regional geology, boreholes, geophysics and tests are integrated to analyze the fluid dynamic field in the Bozhong depression, Bohai Bay basin. The current geothermal gradient is determined to be about 2.95 ℃/100 m by integrating 266 drill-stem test (DST) measurements and comparing with the global average value. The paleogeothermal gradients are calculated from the homogenization temperatures of saline inclusions, which vary both laterally and vertically. The data from sonic logs, well tests and seismic velocities are used to investigate the pressure variations in the study area. The mudstone compaction is classified as three major types: normal compaction and normal pressure, under-compaction and overpressure, and past-compaction and under-overpressure. The current pressure profile is characterized by normal pressure, slight pressure and intense overpressure from top to bottom. The faults, unconformity surfaces and interconnecting pores constitute a complex network of vertical and horizontal fluid flows within the depression. The fluid potential energy profiles present a “double-deck” structure. The depocenters are the area of fluids supply, whereas the slopes and uplifts are the main areas of fluids charge.
Stochastic Euler Equations of Fluid Dynamics with Lvy Noise
2016-08-10
Asymptotic Analysis 99 (2016) 67–103 67 DOI 10.3233/ASY-161376 IOS Press Stochastic Euler equations of fluid dynamics with Lévy noise Manil T. Mohan...References [1] D. Applebaum, Lévy Processes and Stochastic Calculus , Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, Vol. 93, Cam- bridge University Press...2004. [2] H. Bessaih and F. Flandoli, 2-D Euler equation perturbed by noise, Nonlinear Differential Equations and Applications 6 (1998), 35–54. doi
Computational Fluid Dynamics. [numerical methods and algorithm development
1992-01-01
This collection of papers was presented at the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Conference held at Ames Research Center in California on March 12 through 14, 1991. It is an overview of CFD activities at NASA Lewis Research Center. The main thrust of computational work at Lewis is aimed at propulsion systems. Specific issues related to propulsion CFD and associated modeling will also be presented. Examples of results obtained with the most recent algorithm development will also be presented.
Quality control of computational fluid dynamics in indoor environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Nielsen, P. V.
2003-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used routinely to predict air movement and distributions of temperature and concentrations in indoor environments. Modelling and numerical errors are inherent in such studies and must be considered when the results are presented. Here, we discuss modelling as...... the quality of CFD calculations, as well as guidelines for the minimum information that should accompany all CFD-related publications to enable a scientific judgment of the quality of the study....
Modeling supercritical fluid extraction process involving solute-solid interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, M.; Roy, B. Kodama, A.; Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)
1998-04-01
Extraction or leaching of solute from natural solid material is a mass transfer process involving dissolution or release of solutes from a solid matrix. Interaction between the solute and solid matrix often influences the supercritical fluid extraction process. A model accounting for the solute-solid interaction as well as mass transfer is developed. The BET equation is used to incorporate the interaction and the solubility of solutes into the local equilibrium in the model. Experimental data for the supercritical extraction of essential oil and cuticular wax from peppermint leaves are successfully analyzed by the model. The effects of parameters on the extraction behavior are demonstrated to illustrate the concept of the model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Optics and fluid dynamics department annual progress report for 1994
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, S.G.; Lading, L.; Lynov, J.P.; Michelsen, P.
1995-01-01
Research in the Optics and Fluid Dynamics Department is performed within the following two programme areas: optics and continuum physics. In optics the activities are within (a) optical materials and electromagnetic propagation, (b) diagnostics and sensors, and (c) information processing. In continuum physics the activities are (a) nonlinear dynamics and (b) computer physics. The activities are supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by research councils, and by industry. A special activity is the implementation of pellet injectors for fusion research. A summary of activities in 1994 is presented. (au) (27 ills., 44 refs.).
Western blot analysis of adhesive interactions under fluid shear conditions: the blot rolling assay.
Sackstein, Robert; Fuhlbrigge, Robert
2015-01-01
Western blotting has proven to be an important technique in the analysis of receptor-ligand interactions (i.e., by ligand blotting) and for identifying molecules mediating cell attachment (i.e., by cell blotting). Conventional ligand blotting and cell blotting methods employ non-dynamic (static) incubation conditions, whereby molecules or cells of interest are placed in suspension and overlaid on membranes. However, many cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive interactions occur under fluid shear conditions, and shear stress itself mediates and/or facilitates the engagement of these physiologically appropriate receptors and ligands. Notably, shear forces critically influence the adhesion of circulating cells and platelets to vessel walls in physiologic cell migration and hemostasis, as well as in inflammatory and thrombotic disorders, cancer metastasis, and atherosclerosis. Use of non-dynamic blotting conditions to analyze such interactions can introduce bias, overtly missing relevant effectors and/or exaggerating the relative role(s) of non-physiologic adhesion molecules. To address this shortfall, we have developed a new technique for identifying binding interactions under fluid shear conditions, the "blot rolling assay." Using this method, molecules in a complex mixture are resolved by gel electrophoresis, transferred to a membrane that is rendered semitransparent, and the membrane is then incorporated into a parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus. Under controlled flow conditions, cells or particles bearing adhesion proteins of interest are then introduced into the chamber and interactions with individual immobilized molecules (bands) can be visualized in real time. The substrate molecule(s) supporting adhesion under fluid shear can then be identified by staining with specific antibodies or by excising the relevant band(s) and performing mass spectrometry or microsequencing of the isolated material. This method thus allows for the identification, within a complex
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Review of Recent Results in Heavy Ion Fluid Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Csernai Laszlo P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Fluid dynamical phenomena in high energy heavy ion reactions were predicted in the 1970s and still today these are the most dominant and basic observables. With increasing energy and the reach of QGP the low viscosity of the plasma became apparent and this brought a new revolution in the fluid dynamical studies. The high energy and low viscosity made it possible to observe fluctuations up to high multipolarity flow harmonics. This is an obvious, direct proof of the low viscosity of QGP. Many aspects of these fluctuations are under intensive study today. The low viscosity opened ways to observe special fluid dynamical turbulent phenomena. These may arise from random fluctuations, as well as from the global symmetries of peripheral collisions. At LHC energies the angular momentum of the participant matter can reach 106ħ, which leads to rotation and turbulent instabilities, like the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Low viscosity ensures that these remain observable at the final freeze-out stages of the collision. Thus new investigations in addition to the standard flow analysis methods became possible. Femtoscopy may also detect rotation and turbulence. Due to the high local thermal vorticity, particle polarization and orbital rotation may reach thermal and mechanical equilibrium. This leads to baryon polarization which, in given directions may be detectable.
Two-way coupled fluid structure interaction simulation of a propeller turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmucker, H [Voith Hydro GmbH and Co. KG, Germany Alexanderstrasse 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany); Flemming, F; Coulson, S, E-mail: Hannes.Schmucker@voith.co [Voith Hydro Inc. York, PA, 760 East Berlin Road, York, PA, 17408 (United States)
2010-08-15
During the operation of a hydro turbine the fluid mechanical pressure loading on the turbine blades provides the driving torque on the turbine shaft. This fluid loading results in a structural load on the component which in turn causes the turbine blade to deflect. Classically, these mechanical stresses and deflections are calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA) which applies the pressure distribution on the blade surface calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a major boundary condition. Such an approach can be seen as a oneway coupled simulation of the fluid structure interaction (FSI) problem. In this analysis the reverse influence of the deformation on the fluid is generally neglected. Especially in axial machines the blade deformation can result in a significant impact on the turbine performance. The present paper analyzes this influence by means of fully two-way coupled FSI simulations of a propeller turbine utilizing two different approaches. The configuration has been simulated by coupling the two commercial solvers ANSYS CFX for the fluid mechanical simulation with ANSYS Classic for the structure mechanical simulation. A detailed comparison of the results for various blade stiffness by means of changing Young's Modulus are presented. The influence of the blade deformation on the runner discharge and performance will be discussed and shows for the configuration investigated no significant influence under normal structural conditions. This study also highlights that a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction simulation of a real engineering configuration is still a challenging task for today's commercially available simulation tools.
Magnetic interaction of Janus magnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid.
Seong, Yujin; Kang, Tae Gon; Hulsen, Martien A; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Anderson, Patrick D
2016-02-01
We studied the magnetic interaction between circular Janus magnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid under the influence of an externally applied uniform magnetic field. The particles are equally compartmentalized into paramagnetic and nonmagnetic sides. A direct numerical scheme is employed to solve the magnetic particulate flow in the Stokes flow regime. Upon applying the magnetic field, contrary to isotropic paramagnetic particles, a single Janus particle can rotate due to the magnetic torque created by the magnetic anisotropy of the particle. In a two-particle problem, the orientation of each particle is found to be an additional factor that affects the critical angle separating the nature of magnetic interaction. Using multiparticle problems, we show that the orientation of the particles has a significant influence on the dynamics of the particles, the fluid flow induced by the actuated particles, and the final conformation of the particles. Straight and staggered chain structures observed experimentally can be reproduced numerically in a multiple particle problem.
Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Yu, K N
2015-12-14
A promising application of plasma medicine is to treat living cells and tissues with cold plasma. In cold plasmas, the fraction of neutrals dominates, so the carrier gas could be considered the main component. In many realistic situations, the treated cells are covered by a fluid. The present paper developed models to determine the temperature of the fluid at the positions of the treated cells. Specifically, the authors developed a three-phase-interaction model which was coupled with heat transfer to examine the injection of the helium carrier gas into water and to investigate both the fluid dynamics and heat transfer output variables, such as temperature, in three phases, i.e., air, helium gas, and water. Our objective was to develop a model to perform complete fluid dynamics and heat transfer computations to determine the temperature at the surface of living cells. Different velocities and plasma temperatures were also investigated using finite element method, and the model was built using the comsol multiphysics software. Using the current model to simulate plasma injection into such systems, the authors were able to investigate the temperature distributions in the domain, as well as the surface and bottom boundary of the medium in which cells were cultured. The temperature variations were computed at small time intervals to analyze the temperature increase in cell targets that could be highly temperature sensisitve. Furthermore, the authors were able to investigate the volume of the plasma plume and its effects on the average temperature of the medium layer/domain. Variables such as temperature and velocity at the cell layer could be computed, and the variations due to different plume sizes could be determined. The current models would be very useful for future design of plasma medicine devices and procedures involving cold plasmas.
Fluid Dynamics in Heart Development: Effects of Hematocrit and Trabeculation
Battista, Nicholas A; Liu, Jiandong; Miller, Laura A
2016-01-01
Recent \\emph{in vivo} experiments have illustrated the importance of understanding the hemodynamics of heart morphogenesis. In particular, ventricular trabeculation is governed by a delicate interaction between hemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, and morphogen gradients, all of which are coupled to genetic regulatory networks. The underlying hemodynamics at the stage of development in which the trabeculae form is particularly complex, given the balance between inertial and viscous forces. Small perturbations in the geometry, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to changes in the overall flow structures and chemical morphogen gradients, including the local direction of flow, the transport of morphogens, and the formation of vortices. The immersed boundary method was used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem of fluid flow moving through a two chambered heart of a zebrafish (\\emph{Danio rerio}), with a trabeculated ventricle, at $96\\ hpf$ (hours post fertilization). Trabeculae heights and ...
CISM Summer School on Fluid-Structure Interactions in Acoustics
1999-01-01
The subject of the book is directly related to environmental noise and vibration phenomena (sound emission by vibrating structures, prediction and reduction, ...). Transportation noise is one of the main applications. The book presents an overview of the most recent knowledge on interaction phenomena between a structure and a fluid, including nonlinear aspects. It covers all aspects of the phenomena, from the mathematical modeling up to the applications to automotive industrial problems. The aim is to provide readers with a good understanding of the physical phenomena as well as the most recent knowledge of predictive methods.
[Fluid solid interaction analysis of bioprosthetic heart valve].
Ma, Xuejie; Du, Yawei; Zhang, Linan; Hou, Zengtao; Ye, Xin
2014-09-01
This paper constructs numerical models of bioprosthetic heart valve and blood. The fluid solid interaction is carried out using penalty function method. The mechanical property of the bioprosthetic heart valve during cardiac cycle is simulated with ANSYS software. Results show that the Von Mises stress concentrates at the junction of attachment edge and coaptation edge. The open time of bioprosthetic heart valve is consistent with that of actural measurement. The peak velocity of blood is in the range of physiology. This model provides more realistic mechanical property of bioprosthetic heart valve during cardiac cycle compared to pure solid model, and facilitates design and optimization of bioprosthetic heart valve.
A review of interaction mechanisms in fluid-solid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, G.; Rajagopal, K.R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Massoudi, M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))
1990-09-01
Multiphase flows have become the subject of considerable attention because of their importance in many industrial applications, such as fluidized beds, pneumatic transport of solids, coal combustion, etc. Fundamental research into the nature of pneumatic transport has made significant progress in identifying key parameters controlling the characteristics of these processes. The emphasis of this study is on a mixture composed of spherical particles of uniform size and a linearly viscous fluid. Section 1 introduces our approach and the importance of this study. In Section 2, the dynamics of a single particle as studied in classical hydrodynamics and fluid dynamics is presented. This has been a subject of study for more than 200 years. In Section 3, we review the literature for the constitutive relations as given in multiphase studies, i.e., generalization of single particle and as given in literature concerning the continuum theories of mixtures or multicomponent systems. In Section 4, a comparison between these representations and the earlier approach, i.e., forces acting on a single particle will be made. The importance of flow regimes, particle concentration, particle size and shape, rotation of the particle, effect of solid walls, etc. are discussed. 141 refs.
The Stability and Dynamics of Elastic Structures and Fluid Flows.
1985-03-01
Pol- Duffing oscillators . For special values of the detuning parameters the secondary states are periodic. Then periodic multiplication of solutions...incident wave is near a resonant frequency, the target oscillates and its interaction with the surrounding fluid produces peaks in the scattered field...slightly damped, and oscillating outgoing spherical waves that represent the "decayed ringing" of the membrane. Application is given to the baffled circular
A symmetric positive definite formulation for monolithic fluid structure interaction
Robinson-Mosher, Avi
2011-02-01
In this paper we consider a strongly coupled (monolithic) fluid structure interaction framework for incompressible flow, as opposed to a loosely coupled (partitioned) method. This requires solving a single linear system that combines the unknown velocities of the structure with the unknown pressures of the fluid. In our previous work, we were able to obtain a symmetric formulation of this coupled system; however, it was also indefinite, making it more difficult to solve. In fact in practice there have been cases where we have been unable to invert the system. In this paper we take a novel approach that consists of factoring the damping matrix of deformable structures and show that this can be used to obtain a symmetric positive definite system, at least to the extent that the uncoupled systems were symmetric positive definite. We use a traditional MAC grid discretization of the fluid and a fully Lagrangian discretization of the structures for the sake of exposition, noting that our procedure can be generalized to other scenarios. For the special case of rigid bodies, where there are no internal damping forces, we exactly recover the system of Batty et al. (2007) [4]. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.
1999-08-01
The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.
An Interacting Two-Fluid Scenario for Quintom Dark Energy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xin
2005-01-01
The Quintom dark energy is a proposal that explains the recent observations that mildly favor the equation of state of dark energy w crossing -1 near the past. The Quintom model is often constructed by two scalar fields, where one is the quintessence field and another is the phantom field. The cosmological implication of the coupling of the two fields of the dark energy is out of question worth investigating. However, the consideration of the coupling in the field scenario is somewhat complex thus we propose an interacting two-fluid Quintom scenario for simplicity. The interaction between the two components is parametrized by a constant η in this scenario. The cosmological implications of this parametrization are investigated in detail in this paper. Also, a diagnostic for this model is performed by using the statefinder pairs {s, r} and {q, r}.
Fluid-plasma interaction in compressible unstable flows
Massa, Luca
2014-11-01
The receptivity of the boundary layer discrete modes to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuation is studied to improve the understanding of the interaction between non-equilibrium plasma and fluid in convectively amplified vortical layers. The momentum transfer induced by a DBD patch at various Reynolds numbers is evaluated using an adaptive mesh refinement computational solver in the Mach number regime 0.8-2.0. The energy of the induced modal perturbation is determined by weighting such a source term with the corresponding adjoint eigenfunctions. Conditions of maximum overlapping between the adjoint and the source term define the regimes of maximum receptivity and the locations of optimal placement of the DBD patch at different Mach and Reynolds numbers. The interaction between non-equilibrium plasma and the jet in cross flow is also being studied to determine the ability of DBD patches to influence mixing in the compressible regime, thus improving flame-holding in plasma assisted ignition and combustion.
Issues in computational fluid dynamics code verification and validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberkampf, W.L.; Blottner, F.G.
1997-09-01
A broad range of mathematical modeling errors of fluid flow physics and numerical approximation errors are addressed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is strongly believed that if CFD is to have a major impact on the design of engineering hardware and flight systems, the level of confidence in complex simulations must substantially improve. To better understand the present limitations of CFD simulations, a wide variety of physical modeling, discretization, and solution errors are identified and discussed. Here, discretization and solution errors refer to all errors caused by conversion of the original partial differential, or integral, conservation equations representing the physical process, to algebraic equations and their solution on a computer. The impact of boundary conditions on the solution of the partial differential equations and their discrete representation will also be discussed. Throughout the article, clear distinctions are made between the analytical mathematical models of fluid dynamics and the numerical models. Lax`s Equivalence Theorem and its frailties in practical CFD solutions are pointed out. Distinctions are also made between the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the partial differential equations as opposed to the discrete equations. Two techniques are briefly discussed for the detection and quantification of certain types of discretization and grid resolution errors.
Rajabzadeh Oghaz, Hamidreza; Damiano, Robert; Meng, Hui
2015-11-01
Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are pathological outpouchings of cerebral vessels, the progression of which are mediated by complex interactions between the blood flow and vasculature. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for decades to investigate IA hemodynamics. However, the commonly adopted simplifying assumptions in CFD (e.g. rigid wall) compromise the simulation accuracy and mask the complex physics involved in IA progression and eventual rupture. Several groups have considered the wall compliance by using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling. However, FSI simulation is highly sensitive to numerical assumptions (e.g. linear-elastic wall material, Newtonian fluid, initial vessel configuration, and constant pressure outlet), the effects of which are poorly understood. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the sensitivity of FSI simulations in patient-specific IAs is investigated using a multi-stage approach with a varying level of complexity. We start with simulations incorporating several common simplifications: rigid wall, Newtonian fluid, and constant pressure at the outlets, and then we stepwise remove these simplifications until the most comprehensive FSI simulations. Hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are assessed and compared at each stage to better understand the sensitivity of in FSI simulations for IA to model assumptions. Supported by the National Institutes of Health (1R01 NS 091075-01).
Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Eckmann, David M; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S
2017-03-01
Traditionally, the numerical computation of particle motion in a fluid is resolved through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, resolving the motion of nanoparticles poses additional challenges due to the coupling between the Brownian and hydrodynamic forces. Here, we focus on the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle coupled to adhesive interactions and confining-wall-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. We discuss several techniques that are founded on the basis of combining CFD methods with the theory of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in order to simultaneously conserve thermal equipartition and to show correct hydrodynamic correlations. These include the fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method, the generalized Langevin method, the hybrid method, and the deterministic method. Through the examples discussed, we also show a top-down multiscale progression of temporal dynamics from the colloidal scales to the molecular scales, and the associated fluctuations, hydrodynamic correlations. While the motivation and the examples discussed here pertain to nanoscale fluid dynamics and mass transport, the methodologies presented are rather general and can be easily adopted to applications in convective heat transfer.
Modeling fluid-structure interactions in shallow microchannels
Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.
2016-11-01
Rectangular microfluidic conduits with deformable walls are some of the simplest and most extensively studied microfluidic devices, primarily due to their practical design applications in a variety of fields like biology, medical diagnostics (e.g., lab-on-a-chip), nanotechnology, etc. Experimentally, these devices are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions occurring at the channel walls. These deformations significantly affect the flow profile, which results in a non-linear relationship between the flow rate and the pressure drop, which cannot be explained by a 'generalised Poiseuille flow solution'. To this end, we perform a numerical study of these fluid-structure interactions and their effect on the flow rate and the pressure drop occurring in microfluidic conduits with a single deformable wall. The behavior of several shallow conduit systems (l >> w >> h) with rigid base and side walls and a soft top wall (e.g., PDMS) is simulated under laminar flow conditions using the commercial software suite ANSYS. Simulation results are compared against experimental pressure drop-flow rate data from the literature and also newly developed analytical expressions for the wall deformation, the pressure and the normalized flow rate.
A new interacting two-fluid model and its consequences
Sharov, G. S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pan, S.; Nunes, R. C.; Chakraborty, S.
2017-04-01
In the background of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time with zero spatial curvature, we consider interacting scenarios between two barotropic fluids, one is the pressureless dark matter and the other one is dark energy (DE), in which the equation of state (EoS) in DE is either constant or time-dependent. In particular, for constant EoS in DE, we show that the evolution equations for both fluids can be analytically solved. For all these scenarios, the model parameters have been constrained using the current astronomical observations from Type Ia supernovae, Hubble parameter measurements and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements. Our analysis shows that both for constant and variable EoS in DE, a very small but non-zero interaction in the dark sector is favoured while the EoS in DE can predict a slight phantom nature, i.e. the EoS in DE can cross the phantom divide line '-1'. On the other hand, although the models with variable EoS describe the observations better, the Akaike Information Criterion supports models with minimal number of parameters. However, it is found that all the models are very close to the Λ cold dark matter cosmology.
Modeling Dark Energy Through AN Ising Fluid with Network Interactions
Luongo, Orlando; Tommasini, Damiano
2014-12-01
We show that the dark energy (DE) effects can be modeled by using an Ising perfect fluid with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state (EoS), i.e. ω0, becomes ω0 = -1 as in the ΛCDM model. In our picture, DE is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding EoS mimics the effects of a variable DE term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant Λ. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as DE source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia (SNeIa), baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. Finally, we perform the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) selection criteria, showing that our model is statistically favored with respect to the Chevallier-Polarsky-Linder (CPL) parametrization.
Moon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Joon Sang
2014-02-01
Despite recent development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research, analysis of computational fluid dynamics of cerebral vessels has several limitations. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, velocity and pressure fields were computed under the assumptions of incompressible, laminar, steady-state flows and Newtonian fluid dynamics. The pulsatile nature of blood flow is not properly applied in inlet and outlet boundaries. Therefore, we present these technical limitations and discuss the possible solution by comparing the theoretical and computational studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radiom, Milad, E-mail: milad.radiom@unige.ch; Ducker, William, E-mail: wducker@vt.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 (United States); Robbins, Brian; Paul, Mark [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 (United States)
2015-02-15
The hydrodynamic interaction of two closely spaced micron-scale spheres undergoing Brownian motion was measured as a function of their separation. Each sphere was attached to the distal end of a different atomic force microscopy cantilever, placing each sphere in a stiff one-dimensional potential (0.08 Nm{sup −1}) with a high frequency of thermal oscillations (resonance at 4 kHz). As a result, the sphere’s inertial and restoring forces were significant when compared to the force due to viscous drag. We explored interparticle gap regions where there was overlap between the two Stokes layers surrounding each sphere. Our experimental measurements are the first of their kind in this parameter regime. The high frequency of oscillation of the spheres means that an analysis of the fluid dynamics would include the effects of fluid inertia, as described by the unsteady Stokes equation. However, we find that, for interparticle separations less than twice the thickness of the wake of the unsteady viscous boundary layer (the Stokes layer), the hydrodynamic interaction between the Brownian particles is well-approximated by analytical expressions that neglect the inertia of the fluid. This is because elevated frictional forces at narrow gaps dominate fluid inertial effects. The significance is that interparticle collisions and concentrated suspensions at this condition can be modeled without the need to incorporate fluid inertia. We suggest a way to predict when fluid inertial effects can be ignored by including the gap-width dependence into the frequency number. We also show that low frequency number analysis can be used to determine the microrheology of mixtures at interfaces.
Dynamical fluid-type Universe scenario with dust and radiation
Mihu, Denisa-Andreea
2016-01-01
Within the context of a cosmic space whose energy source is modeled with a perfect fluid, a uniform model of Universe based on a standard FRW cosmology containing decoupled mixed matter sources namely stiff matter and cosmic dust together with a positive cosmological constant, has been studied. Within the scenario of a $k=0-$ spatially-flat geometry, we analysed the geometrodynamics of the theoretical cosmology. For the model with an added cosmological constant, the main scope was to point out the effects of it on the universe' dynamics. In this last case, the thermodynamics of the model was also considered together with the relation between the cosmological energy density and fluid pressure in terms of the inverse function of the equation of state.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Structured Packings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Shojaee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A volume of fluid multiphase flow model was used to investigate the effective area and the created liquid film in the structured packings. The computational results revealed that the gas and liquid flow rates play significant roles in the effective interfacial area of the packing. In particular, the effective area increases as the flow rates of both phases increase. Numerical results were compared with the Brunazzi and SRP models, and a good agreement between them was found. Attention was given to the process of liquid film formation in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D models. The current study revealed that computational fluid dynamics (CFD can be used as an effective tool to provide information on the details of gas and liquid flows in complex packing geometries.
Two-fluid Dynamics in Clusters of Galaxies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu-Qing Lou
2005-01-01
We develop a theoretical formulation for the large-scale dynamics of galaxy clusters involving two spherical ‘isothermal fluids’ coupled by their mutual gravity and derive asymptotic similarity solutions analytically. One of the fluids roughly approximates the massive dark matter halo, while the other describes the hot gas, the relatively small mass contribution from the galaxies being subsumed in the gas. By properly choosing the self-similar variables, it is possible to consistently transform the set of time-dependent two-fluid equations of spherical symmetry with self-gravity into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We focus on the analytical analysis and discuss applications of the solutions to galaxy clusters.
Data Point Averaging for Computational Fluid Dynamics Data
Norman, Jr., David (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A system and method for generating fluid flow parameter data for use in aerodynamic heating analysis. Computational fluid dynamics data is generated for a number of points in an area on a surface to be analyzed. Sub-areas corresponding to areas of the surface for which an aerodynamic heating analysis is to be performed are identified. A computer system automatically determines a sub-set of the number of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas and determines a value for each of the number of sub-areas using the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The value is determined as an average of the data for the sub-set of points corresponding to each of the number of sub-areas. The resulting parameter values then may be used to perform an aerodynamic heating analysis.
Fluid and structure coupling analysis of the interaction between aqueous humor and iris.
Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng
2016-12-28
Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results
Wiputra, Hadi; Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Heng, Joel Jia Wei; Guo, Lan; Soomar, Sanah Merchant; Leo, Hwa Liang; Biwas, Arijit; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Yap, Choon Hwai
2016-12-01
There are 0.6-1.9% of US children who were born with congenital heart malformations. Clinical and animal studies suggest that abnormal blood flow forces might play a role in causing these malformation, highlighting the importance of understanding the fetal cardiovascular fluid mechanics. We performed computational fluid dynamics simulations of the right ventricles, based on four-dimensional ultrasound scans of three 20-wk-old normal human fetuses, to characterize their flow and energy dynamics. Peak intraventricular pressure gradients were found to be 0.2-0.9 mmHg during systole, and 0.1-0.2 mmHg during diastole. Diastolic wall shear stresses were found to be around 1 Pa, which could elevate to 2-4 Pa during systole in the outflow tract. Fetal right ventricles have complex flow patterns featuring two interacting diastolic vortex rings, formed during diastolic E wave and A wave. These rings persisted through the end of systole and elevated wall shear stresses in their proximity. They were observed to conserve ∼25.0% of peak diastolic kinetic energy to be carried over into the subsequent systole. However, this carried-over kinetic energy did not significantly alter the work done by the heart for ejection. Thus, while diastolic vortexes played a significant role in determining spatial patterns and magnitudes of diastolic wall shear stresses, they did not have significant influence on systolic ejection. Our results can serve as a baseline for future comparison with diseased hearts.
Spreading dynamics and dynamic contact angle of non-Newtonian fluids.
Wang, X D; Lee, D J; Peng, X F; Lai, J Y
2007-07-17
The spreading dynamics of power-law fluids, both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids, that completely or partially wet solid substrate was investigated theoretically and experimentally. An evolution equation for liquid-film thickness was derived using a lubrication approximation, from which the dynamic contact angle versus the contact line moving velocity relationship was evaluated. In the capillary spreading regime, film thickness h is proportional to xi3/(n+2) (xi is the distance from the contact line), whereas in the gravitational regime, h is proportional to xi1/(n+2), relating to the rheological power exponent n. The derived model fit the experimental data well for a shear-thinning fluid (0.2% w/w xanthan solution) or a shear-thickening fluid (7.5% w/w 10 nm silica in polypropylene glycol) on a completely wetted substrate. The derived model was extended using Hoffmann's proposal for partially wetting fluids. Good agreement was also attained between model predictions and the shear-thinning fluid (1% w/w cmc solution) and shear-thickening fluid (10% w/w 15 nm silica) on partially wetted surfaces.
Sensing dynamic interaction with the environment
Veltink, P.H.; Kortier, H.G.; Schepers, H.M.
2007-01-01
Study of the dynamic interaction with the environment and loading of the human body is important in ergonomics, sports and rehabilititation. This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements
Sensing dynamic interaction with the environment
Veltink, P.H.; Kortier, H.G.; Schepers, H.M.; Bussmann, J.B.J; Horemans, H.L.D.; Hurkmans, H.L.P.
2008-01-01
Study of the dynamic interaction with the environment and loading of the human body is important in ergonomics, sports and rehabilitation. This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements u
Fluid dynamics of ventricular filling in the embryonic heart.
Miller, Laura A
2011-09-01
The vertebrate embryonic heart first forms as a valveless tube that pumps blood using waves of contraction. As the heart develops, the atrium and ventricle bulge out from the heart tube, and valves begin to form through the expansion of the endocardial cushions. As a result of changes in geometry, conduction velocities, and material properties of the heart wall, the fluid dynamics and resulting spatial patterns of shear stress and transmural pressure change dramatically. Recent work suggests that these transitions are significant because fluid forces acting on the cardiac walls, as well as the activity of myocardial cells that drive the flow, are necessary for correct chamber and valve morphogenesis. In this article, computational fluid dynamics was used to explore how spatial distributions of the normal forces acting on the heart wall change as the endocardial cushions grow and as the cardiac wall increases in stiffness. The immersed boundary method was used to simulate the fluid-moving boundary problem of the cardiac wall driving the motion of the blood in a simplified model of a two-dimensional heart. The normal forces acting on the heart walls increased during the period of one atrial contraction because inertial forces are negligible and the ventricular walls must be stretched during filling. Furthermore, the force required to fill the ventricle increased as the stiffness of the ventricular wall was increased. Increased endocardial cushion height also drastically increased the force necessary to contract the ventricle. Finally, flow in the moving boundary model was compared to flow through immobile rigid chambers, and the forces acting normal to the walls were substantially different.
Optimization of fluid front dynamics in porous media using rate control. I. Equal mobility fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudaryanto, Bagus [Petroleum Engineering Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1211 (United States); Yortsos, Yannis C. [Petroleum Engineering Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1211 (United States)
2000-07-01
In applications involving the injection of a fluid in a porous medium to displace another fluid, a main objective is the maximization of the displacement efficiency. For a fixed arrangement of injection and production points (sources and sinks), such optimization is possible by controling the injection rate policy. Despite its practical relevance, however, this aspect has received scant attention in the literature. In this paper, we provide a fundamental approach based on optimal control theory, for the simplified case when the fluids are miscible, of equal viscosity, and in the absence of dispersion and gravity effects. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are considered. From a fluid dynamics viewpoint, this is a problem in the deformation of material lines in porous media, as a function of time-varying injection rates. It is shown that the optimal injection policy that maximizes the displacement efficiency, at the time of arrival of the injected fluid, is of the ''bang-bang'' type, in which the rates take their extreme values in the range allowed. This result applies to both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. Examples in simple geometries and for various constraints are shown, illustrating the efficiency improvement over the conventional approach of constant rate injection. In the heterogeneous case, the effect of the permeability heterogeneity, particularly its spatial correlation structure, on diverting the flow paths, is analyzed. It is shown that bang-bang injection remains the optimal approach, compared to constant rate, particularly if they were both designed under the assumption that the medium was homogeneous. Experiments in a homogeneous Hele-Shaw cell are found to be in good agreement with the theory. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
The stochastic dynamics of tethered microcantilevers in a viscous fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robbins, Brian A.; Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Radiom, Milad; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Walz, John Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)
2014-10-28
We explore and quantify the coupled dynamics of a pair of micron scale cantilevers immersed in a viscous fluid that are also directly tethered to one another at their tips by a spring force. The spring force, for example, could represent the molecular stiffness or elasticity of a biomolecule or material tethered between the cantilevers. We use deterministic numerical simulations with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to compute the stochastic dynamics of the cantilever pair for the conditions of experiment when driven only by Brownian motion. We validate our approach by comparing directly with experimental measurements in the absence of the tether which shows excellent agreement. Using numerical simulations, we quantify the correlated dynamics of the cantilever pair over a range of tether stiffness. Our results quantify the sensitivity of the auto- and cross-correlations of equilibrium fluctuations in cantilever displacement to the stiffness of the tether. We show that the tether affects the magnitude of the correlations which can be used in a measurement to probe the properties of an attached tethering substance. For the configurations of current interest using micron scale cantilevers in water, we show that the magnitude of the fluid coupling between the cantilevers is sufficiently small such that the influence of the tether can be significant. Our results show that the cross-correlation is more sensitive to tether stiffness than the auto-correlation indicating that a two-cantilever measurement has improved sensitivity when compared with a measurement using a single cantilever.
DeepPIV: Measuring in situ Biological-Fluid Interactions from the Surface to Benthos
Katija, K.; Sherman, A.; Graves, D.; Kecy, C. D.; Klimov, D.; Robison, B. H.
2015-12-01
The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet it remains one of the least explored. Little known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed strategies for swimming and feeding that ultimately contributes to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. Fluid mechanics governs the interactions that midwater organisms have with their physical environment, but limited access to midwater depths and lack of non-invasive methods to measure in situ small-scale fluid motions prevent these interactions from being better understood. Significant advances in underwater vehicle technologies have only recently improved access to midwater. Unfortunately, in situ small-scale fluid mechanics measurement methods are still lacking in the oceanographic community. Here we present DeepPIV, an instrumentation package that can be affixed to remotely operated underwater vehicles that quantifies small-scale fluid motions from the surface of the ocean down to 4000 m depths. Utilizing ambient, suspended particulate in the coastal regions of Monterey Bay, fluid-structure interactions are evaluated on a range of marine organisms in midwater. Initial science targets include larvaceans, biological equivalents of flapping flexible foils, that create mucus houses to filter food. Little is known about the structure of these mucus houses and the function they play in selectively filtering particles, and these dynamics can serve as particle-mucus models for human health. Using DeepPIV, we reveal the complex structures and flows generated within larvacean mucus houses, and elucidate how these structures function.
Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines
Stern, Philip; Casartelli, Ernesto; Egli, Marcel
2017-01-01
Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth’s gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the “bulk volume,” however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid
Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines.
Wuest, Simon L; Stern, Philip; Casartelli, Ernesto; Egli, Marcel
2017-01-01
Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth's gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the "bulk volume," however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid
Inertial forces affect fluid front displacement dynamics in a pore-throat network model.
Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani
2014-08-01
The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights
Rahmatipour, Hamed; Azimian, Ahmad-Reza; Atlaschian, Omid
2017-01-01
The method of molecular dynamics simulation is applied in order to study the behavior of liquid Argon flow within oscillatory Couette flows, in both smooth and rough nanochannels. To accomplish this study, the fluid velocity and the fluid slip in oscillatory Couette flows were used to assess the effects of: oscillatory velocity amplitude, speed frequency rate, channel height, wall density, and the amount of interaction between fluid and wall particles. Both smooth and rough walls were modelled in order to investigate the effect on the fluid patterns as well. Rectangular and triangular wall roughnesses in different dimensions were used to study this effect. The results indicate that an increase in the velocity amplitude increases the fluid slip, and decreases the fluid velocity fluctuations near the walls. Similar to the steady-state Couette flow, in oscillatory flow we observe a decrease in fluid slip by reducing the wall density. Moreover, by reducing the energy parameter between the fluid and wall, the fluid slip increases, and by reducing the length parameter the fluid slip decreases. Implementing the rectangular and triangular roughness to the bottom wall in the oscillatory flow results in a decrease in fluid slip, which is also similar to the usual non-oscillating flows.
Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.
2015-11-01
In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.
Dynamic Multiscaling in Two-dimensional Fluid Turbulence
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Perlekar, Prasad; Pandit, Rahul
2011-01-01
We obtain, by extensive direct numerical simulations, time-dependent and equal-time structure functions for the vorticity, in both quasi-Lagrangian and Eulerian frames, for the direct-cascade regime in two-dimensional fluid turbulence with air-drag-induced friction. We show that different ways of extracting time scales from these time-dependent structure functions lead to different dynamic-multiscaling exponents, which are related to equal-time multiscaling exponents by different classes of bridge relations; for a representative value of the friction we verify that, given our error bars, these bridge relations hold.
Coupling lattice Boltzmann and molecular dynamics models for dense fluids
Dupuis, A.; Kotsalis, E. M.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2007-04-01
We propose a hybrid model, coupling lattice Boltzmann (LB) and molecular dynamics (MD) models, for the simulation of dense fluids. Time and length scales are decoupled by using an iterative Schwarz domain decomposition algorithm. The MD and LB formulations communicate via the exchange of velocities and velocity gradients at the interface. We validate the present LB-MD model in simulations of two- and three-dimensional flows of liquid argon past and through a carbon nanotube. Comparisons with existing hybrid algorithms and with reference MD solutions demonstrate the validity of the present approach.
Computational fluid dynamics in fire engineering theory, modelling and practice
Yuen, Kwok Kit
2009-01-01
Fire and combustion presents a significant engineering challenge to mechanical, civil and dedicated fire engineers, as well as specialists in the process and chemical, safety, buildings and structural fields. We are reminded of the tragic outcomes of 'untenable' fire disasters such as at King's Cross underground station or Switzerland's St Gotthard tunnel. In these and many other cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at the forefront of active research into unravelling the probable causes of fires and helping to design structures and systems to ensure that they are less likely in the f
Continuing Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Supersonic Retropropulsion
Schauerhamer, Daniel Guy; Trumble, Kerry A.; Kleb, Bil; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Edquist, Karl T.
2011-01-01
A large step in the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) is shown through the comparison of three Navier-Stokes solvers (DPLR, FUN3D, and OVERFLOW) and wind tunnel test results. The test was designed specifically for CFD validation and was conducted in the Langley supersonic 4 x4 Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel and includes variations in the number of nozzles, Mach and Reynolds numbers, thrust coefficient, and angles of orientation. Code-to-code and code-to-test comparisons are encouraging and possible error sources are discussed.
Experimental investigations of fluid dynamic and thermal performance of nanofluids
Kulkarni, Devdatta Prakash
The goal of this research was to investigate the fluid dynamic and thermal performance of various nanofluids. Nanofluids are dispersions of metallic nanometer size particles (choice of base fluid is an ethylene or propylene glycol and water mixture in cold regions. Initially the rheological characterization of copper oxide (CuO) nanofluids in water and in propylene glycol was performed. Results revealed that higher concentrations of CuO nanoparticles (5 to 15%) in water exhibited time-independent pseudoplastic and shear-thinning behavior. Lower concentrations (1 to 6%) of CuO nanofluids in propylene glycol revealed that these nanofluids behaved as Newtonian fluids. Both nanofluids showed that viscosity decreased exponentially with increase in temperature. Subsequent correlations for viscosities as a function of volume concentration and temperature were developed. Effects of different thermophysical properties on the Prandtl number of CuO, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and aluminum oxide (A12O 3) nanofluids were investigated. Results showed that the Prandtl number increased with increasing volume concentrations, which in turn increased the heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids. Various nanofluids were compared for their heat transfer rates based on the Mouromtseff number, which is a Figure of Merit for heat transfer fluids. From this analysis, the optimal concentrations of nanoparticles in base fluids were found for CuO-water nanofluids. Experiments were performed to investigate the convective heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss of CuO, SiO2 and A12O 3 nanofluids in the turbulent regime. The increases in heat transfer coefficient by nanofluids for various volume concentrations compared to the base fluid were determined. Pressure loss was observed to increase with nanoparticle volume concentration. It was observed that an increase in particle diameter increased the heat transfer coefficient. Calculations showed that application of nanofluids in heat
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Rong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2006-01-01
Fluidized beds (FB) reactors are widely used in the polymerization industry due to their superior heat- and mass-transfer characteristics. Nevertheless, problems associated with local overheating of polymer particles and excessive agglomeration leading to FB reactors defluidization still persist and limit the range of operating temperatures that can be safely achieved in plant-scale reactors. Many people have been worked on the modeling of FB polymerization reactors, and quite a few models are available in the open literature, such as the well-mixed model developed by McAuley, Talbot, and Harris (1994), the constant bubble size model (Choi and Ray, 1985) and the heterogeneous three phase model (Fernandes and Lona, 2002). Most these research works focus on the kinetic aspects, but from industrial viewpoint, the behavior of FB reactors should be modeled by considering the particle and fluid dynamics in the reactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for understanding the effect of fluid dynamics on chemical reactor performance. For single-phase flows, CFD models for turbulent reacting flows are now well understood and routinely applied to investigate complex flows with detailed chemistry. For multiphase flows, the state-of-the-art in CFD models is changing rapidly and it is now possible to predict reasonably well the flow characteristics of gas-solid FB reactors with mono-dispersed, non-cohesive solids. This thesis is organized into seven chapters. In Chapter 2, an overview of fluidized bed polymerization reactors is given, and a simplified two-site kinetic mechanism are discussed. Some basic theories used in our work are given in detail in Chapter 3. First, the governing equations and other constitutive equations for the multi-fluid model are summarized, and the kinetic theory for describing the solid stress tensor is discussed. The detailed derivation of DQMOM for the population balance equation is given as the second section. In this section
Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body
Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn
2013-11-01
Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.
Fluid-structure interaction-based biomechanical perception model for tactile sensing.
Wang, Zheng
2013-01-01
The reproduced tactile sensation of haptic interfaces usually selectively reproduces a certain object attribute, such as the object's material reflected by vibration and its surface shape by a pneumatic nozzle array. Tactile biomechanics investigates the relation between responses to an external load stimulus and tactile perception and guides the design of haptic interface devices via a tactile mechanism. Focusing on the pneumatic haptic interface, we established a fluid-structure interaction-based biomechanical model of responses to static and dynamic loads and conducted numerical simulation and experiments. This model provides a theoretical basis for designing haptic interfaces and reproducing tactile textures.
Fluid-structure interaction-based biomechanical perception model for tactile sensing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Wang
Full Text Available The reproduced tactile sensation of haptic interfaces usually selectively reproduces a certain object attribute, such as the object's material reflected by vibration and its surface shape by a pneumatic nozzle array. Tactile biomechanics investigates the relation between responses to an external load stimulus and tactile perception and guides the design of haptic interface devices via a tactile mechanism. Focusing on the pneumatic haptic interface, we established a fluid-structure interaction-based biomechanical model of responses to static and dynamic loads and conducted numerical simulation and experiments. This model provides a theoretical basis for designing haptic interfaces and reproducing tactile textures.
Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhao Shen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.
A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Wei; Bing Sun
2011-01-01
The fluid-structure interaction may occur in space launch vehicles,which would lead to bad performance of vehicles,damage equipments on vehicles,or even affect astronauts' health.In this paper,analysis on dynamic behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) feeding pipe system in a large scale launch vehicle is performed,with the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) taken into consideration.The pipe system is simplified as a planar FSI model with Poisson coupling and junction coupling.Numerical tests on pipes between the tank and the pump are solved by the finite volume method.Results show that restrictions weaken the interaction between axial and lateral vibrations.The reasonable results regarding frequencies and modes indicate that the FSI affects substantially the dynamic analysis,and thus highlight the usefulness of the proposed model.This study would provide a reference to the pipe test,as well as facilitate further studies on oscillation suppression.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
York, A.R. II [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering and Process Dept.
1997-07-01
The material point method (MPM) is an evolution of the particle in cell method where Lagrangian particles or material points are used to discretize the volume of a material. The particles carry properties such as mass, velocity, stress, and strain and move through a Eulerian or spatial mesh. The momentum equation is solved on the Eulerian mesh. Modifications to the material point method are developed that allow the simulation of thin membranes, compressible fluids, and their dynamic interactions. A single layer of material points through the thickness is used to represent a membrane. The constitutive equation for the membrane is applied in the local coordinate system of each material point. Validation problems are presented and numerical convergence is demonstrated. Fluid simulation is achieved by implementing a constitutive equation for a compressible, viscous, Newtonian fluid and by solution of the energy equation. The fluid formulation is validated by simulating a traveling shock wave in a compressible fluid. Interactions of the fluid and membrane are handled naturally with the method. The fluid and membrane communicate through the Eulerian grid on which forces are calculated due to the fluid and membrane stress states. Validation problems include simulating a projectile impacting an inflated airbag. In some impact simulations with the MPM, bodies may tend to stick together when separating. Several algorithms are proposed and tested that allow bodies to separate from each other after impact. In addition, several methods are investigated to determine the local coordinate system of a membrane material point without relying upon connectivity data.
MagIC: Fluid dynamics in a spherical shell simulator
Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.; Barik, A.; Putigny, B.; Yadav, R.; Duarte, L.; Dintrans, B.
2017-09-01
MagIC simulates fluid dynamics in a spherical shell. It solves for the Navier-Stokes equation including Coriolis force, optionally coupled with an induction equation for Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD), a temperature (or entropy) equation and an equation for chemical composition under both the anelastic and the Boussinesq approximations. MagIC uses either Chebyshev polynomials or finite differences in the radial direction and spherical harmonic decomposition in the azimuthal and latitudinal directions. The time-stepping scheme relies on a semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson for the linear terms of the MHD equations and a Adams-Bashforth scheme for the non-linear terms and the Coriolis force.
Simulation of the fluid-structure-interaction of steam generator tubes and bluff bodies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuehlert, Karl [ANSYS, Inc. (United States)], E-mail: kue@fluent.com; Webb, Stephen [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Schowalter, David; Holmes, William; Chilka, Amarvir; Reuss, Steve [ANSYS, Inc. (United States)
2008-08-15
The accuracy of computational fluid dynamics in simulating the cross-flow around a steam generator and the feasibility of a full scale coupled CFD/FEA fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) analysis is examined through successive validations. The study begins with a comparison between experiment and computation of flow within a stationary tube bank. Results from the simulation of an individual tube experiencing two-degree-of-freedom flow-induced vibration (at a Reynolds number of 3800) are then shown to compare favorably to experimental results. Finally, free vibration of a single cantilevered hydrofoil is simulated with comparison of mean square acceleration at resonant and non-resonant velocities, respectively. The magnitudes and frequencies of vibration are shown to be accurately captured.
Partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction for Full Rotor Computations Using CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heinz, Joachim Christian
) based aerodynamic model which is computationally cheap but includes several limitations and corrections in order to account for three-dimensional and unsteady eects. The present work discusses the development of an aero-elastic simulation tool where high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD......In the design of modern wind turbines with long and slender rotor blades it becomes increasingly important to model and understand the evolving aero-elastic eects in more details. Standard stateof-the-art aero-elastic simulation tools for wind turbines usually employ a blade element momentum (BEM......) is used to model the aerodynamics of the flexible wind turbine rotor. Respective CFD computations are computationally expensive but do not show the limitations of the BEM-based models. It is one of the first times that high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are used to model the aero...
Static characteristics design of hydrostatic guide-ways based on fluid-structure interactions
Lin, Shuo; Yin, YueHong
2016-10-01
With the raising requirements in micro optical systems, the available machines become hard to achieve the process dynamic and accuracy in all aspects. This makes compact design based on fluid/structure interactions (FSI) important. However, there is a difficulty in studying FSI with oil film as fluid domain. This paper aims at static characteristic design of a hydrostatic guide-way with capillary restrictors based on FSI. The pressure distribution of the oil film land is calculated by solving the Reynolds-equation with Galerkin technique. The deformation of structure is calculated by commercial FEM software, MSC. Nastran. A matlab program is designed to realize the coupling progress by modifying the load boundary in the submitting file and reading the deformation result. It's obvious that the stiffness of the hydrostatic bearing decreases with the weakening of the bearing structure. This program is proposed to make more precise prediction of bearing stiffness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyazaki, T.; Shibayama, A.; Sato, T.; Fujita, T. E-mail: fujita@ipc.akita-u.ac.jp
2002-11-01
In this contribution, the interactive force measurement between 10 nm distance under magnetic field is carried out. Previous measurement of the interactive force is reported by Israelachivili et al. However, its measurement under magnetic field has not been performed. The methodology described in this paper is easier as the distance between two surfaces is not measured optically but dynamically. Therefore, it is different from the previous reported studies. Based on the results of the measurement of the interactive force, the diameter of the particle suspended in a solution under magnetic field is also estimated. Moreover, it may be predictable how the clusters have been formed. The method described will be very useful for new productions based on magnetic fluid.
Dynamical Models of Dyadic Interactions with Delay
Bielczyk, Natalia; Płatkowski, Tadeusz
2012-01-01
When interpersonal interactions between individuals are described by the (discrete or continuous) dynamical systems, the interactions are usually assumed to be instantaneous: the rates of change of the actual states of the actors at given instant of time are assumed to depend on their states at the same time. In reality the natural time delay should be included in the corresponding models. We investigate a general class of linear models of dyadic interactions with a constant discrete time delay. We prove that in such models the changes of stability of the stationary points from instability to stability or vice versa occur for various intervals of the parameters which determine the intensity of interactions. The conditions guaranteeing arbitrary number (zero, one ore more) of switches are formulated and the relevant theorems are proved. A systematic analysis of all generic cases is carried out. It is obvious that the dynamics of interactions depend both on the strength of reactions of partners on their own sta...
Ultrasonic wave's interaction at fluid-porous piezoelectric layered interface.
Vashishth, Anil K; Gupta, Vishakha
2013-02-01
The complete description of acoustic propagation in a multilayered system is of great interest in a variety of applications such as non-destructive evaluation and acoustic design and there is need for a flexible model that can describe the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves in these media. The reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves from a fluid loaded porous piezoelectric layered structure is studied analytically. The layered structure is considered to be consisting of n number of layers of porous piezoelectric materials. Transfer matrix technique is used to study the layered materials. The analytical expressions for the reflected, transmitted, interaction energy ratios and surface impedance are obtained. The effects of frequency, porosity, angle of incidence, layer thickness and number of layers on the energy ratios and surface impedance are studied for different configurations of the layered materials. The results obtained are deduced for the poro-elastic and fluid loaded porous piezoelectric half space case, which are in agreement with earlier established results. A comparison of the results, obtained by alternate numerical techniques, is made.
Interaction Effects between Openness and Fluid Intelligence Predicting Scholastic Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Figural reasoning as an indicator of fluid intelligence and the domains of the Five Factor Model were explored as predictors of scholastic performance. A total of 836 Chinese secondary school students (406 girls from grades 7 to 11 participated. Figural reasoning, as measured by Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, predicted performance in Math, Chinese, and English, and also for a composite score. Among the personality domains, Openness had a positive effect on performance for all subjects after controlling for all the other variables. For Conscientiousness, the effects were smaller and only significant for Math. Neuroticism had a negative effect on Math grades. The effects of Extraversion on all grades were very small and not significant. Most importantly, hierarchical latent regression analyses indicated that all interaction effects between Openness and figural reasoning were significant, revealing a compensatory interaction. Our results further suggest that scholastic performance basically relies on the same traits through the secondary school years. However, importance is given to interaction effects between ability and personality. Implications along with limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.
Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch
2015-01-01
We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.
Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronny P Bartsch
Full Text Available We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS, we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.
Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: Physics for Many Different Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Comer Gregory L.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as “small” as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with “intermediate” sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the “standard” text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an “integrability” condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.
Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization capability study with fluid path
Malinowski, Ronja M.; Lipsø, Kasper W.; Lerche, Mathilde H.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H.
2016-11-01
Signal enhancement by hyperpolarization is a way of overcoming the low sensitivity in magnetic resonance; MRI in particular. One of the most well-known methods, dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, has been used clinically in cancer patients. One way of ensuring a low bioburden of the hyperpolarized product is by use of a closed fluid path that constitutes a barrier to contamination. The fluid path can be filled with the pharmaceuticals, i.e. imaging agent and solvents, in a clean room, and then stored or immediately used at the polarizer. In this study, we present a method of filling the fluid path that allows it to be reused. The filling method has been investigated in terms of reproducibility at two extrema, high dose for patient use and low dose for rodent studies, using [1-13C]pyruvate as example. We demonstrate that the filling method allows high reproducibility of six quality control parameters with standard deviations 3-10 times smaller than the acceptance criteria intervals in clinical studies.
Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization capability study with fluid path.
Malinowski, Ronja M; Lipsø, Kasper W; Lerche, Mathilde H; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H
2016-11-01
Signal enhancement by hyperpolarization is a way of overcoming the low sensitivity in magnetic resonance; MRI in particular. One of the most well-known methods, dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, has been used clinically in cancer patients. One way of ensuring a low bioburden of the hyperpolarized product is by use of a closed fluid path that constitutes a barrier to contamination. The fluid path can be filled with the pharmaceuticals, i.e. imaging agent and solvents, in a clean room, and then stored or immediately used at the polarizer. In this study, we present a method of filling the fluid path that allows it to be reused. The filling method has been investigated in terms of reproducibility at two extrema, high dose for patient use and low dose for rodent studies, using [1-13C]pyruvate as example. We demonstrate that the filling method allows high reproducibility of six quality control parameters with standard deviations 3-10 times smaller than the acceptance criteria intervals in clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR)
Movassat, Mohammad; Bailey, Joanne; Yetisir, Metin
2015-11-01
A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed on the proposed design for the Canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR). The proposed Canadian SCWR is a 1200 MW(e) supercritical light-water cooled nuclear reactor with pressurized fuel channels. The reactor concept uses an inlet plenum that all fuel channels are attached to and an outlet header nested inside the inlet plenum. The coolant enters the inlet plenum at 350 C and exits the outlet header at 625 C. The operating pressure is approximately 26 MPa. The high pressure and high temperature outlet conditions result in a higher electric conversion efficiency as compared to existing light water reactors. In this work, CFD simulations were performed to model fluid flow and heat transfer in the inlet plenum, outlet header, and various parts of the fuel assembly. The ANSYS Fluent solver was used for simulations. Results showed that mass flow rate distribution in fuel channels varies radially and the inner channels achieve higher outlet temperatures. At the outlet header, zones with rotational flow were formed as the fluid from 336 fuel channels merged. Results also suggested that insulation of the outlet header should be considered to reduce the thermal stresses caused by the large temperature gradients.
Drilling fluid/formation interaction at simulated in situ geothermal conditions. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enniss, D.O.; Bergosh, J.L.; Butters, S.W.; Jones, A.H.
1980-07-01
Interaction of drilling fluids with a geothermal reservoir formation can result in significant permeability impairment and therefore reduced well productivity. This interaction is studied under simulated in situ geothermal conditions of overburden stress, pore fluid pressure, temperature, and pore fluid chemistry. Permeability impairment of an East Mesa KGRA reservoir material is evaluated as a function of stagnation time, drilling fluid, and temperature. Results indicate that all of these parameters contribute significantly to the magnitude and the reversibility of the impairment.
Flowfield-Dependent Mixed Explicit-Implicit (FDMEL) Algorithm for Computational Fluid Dynamics
Garcia, S. M.; Chung, T. J.
1997-01-01
Despite significant achievements in computational fluid dynamics, there still remain many fluid flow phenomena not well understood. For example, the prediction of temperature distributions is inaccurate when temperature gradients are high, particularly in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions close to the wall. Complexities of fluid flow phenomena include transition to turbulence, relaminarization separated flows, transition between viscous and inviscid incompressible and compressible flows, among others, in all speed regimes. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new approach, called the Flowfield-Dependent Mixed Explicit-Implicit (FDMEI) method, in an attempt to resolve these difficult issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this process, a total of six implicitness parameters characteristic of the current flowfield are introduced. They are calculated from the current flowfield or changes of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, Peclet numbers, and Damkoehler numbers (if reacting) at each nodal point and time step. This implies that every nodal point or element is provided with different or unique numerical scheme according to their current flowfield situations, whether compressible, incompressible, viscous, inviscid, laminar, turbulent, reacting, or nonreacting. In this procedure, discontinuities or fluctuations of an variables between adjacent nodal points are determined accurately. If these implicitness parameters are fixed to certain numbers instead of being calculated from the flowfield information, then practically all currently available schemes of finite differences or finite elements arise as special cases. Some benchmark problems to be presented in this paper will show the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed methodology.
INVESTIGATION OF AIRSHIP AEROELASTICITY USING FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jian-min; LU Chuan-jing; XUE Lei-ping
2008-01-01
Due to the flexibility of the envelope of large stratosphere airships, the aerodynamic solution of such airship is closely related to its shape and the external aerodynamic forces which lead to the structural deformation. It is essentially one of the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. This article aims at the numerical investigation of nonlinear airship aeroelasticity in consideration of aerodynamics and structure coupling, using an iteration method. The three-dimensional flow around the airship was numerically studied by means of the SIMPLE method based on the finite volume method. Nonlinear finite element analysis was employed for geometrically nonlinear deformation of the airship shape. Comparison of aerodynamic parameters and the pressure distribution between rigid and aeroelastic models was conducted when an airship is in a trimmed flight state in specified flight conditions. The effect of aeroelasticity on the airship aerodynamics was detailed.
Discrete Data Transfer Technique for Fluid-Structure Interaction
Samareh, Jamshid A.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a general three-dimensional algorithm for data transfer between dissimilar meshes. The algorithm is suitable for applications of fluid-structure interaction and other high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis and optimization. Because the algorithm is independent of the mesh topology, we can treat structured and unstructured meshes in the same manner. The algorithm is fast and accurate for transfer of scalar or vector fields between dissimilar surface meshes. The algorithm is also applicable for the integration of a scalar field (e.g., coefficients of pressure) on one mesh and injection of the resulting vectors (e.g., force vectors) onto another mesh. The author has implemented the algorithm in a C++ computer code. This paper contains a complete formulation of the algorithm with a few selected results.
Application of Lie group analysis in geophysical fluid dynamics
Ibragimov, Ranis
2011-01-01
This is the first monograph dealing with the applications of the Lie group analysis to the modeling equations governing internal wave propagation in the deep ocean. A new approach to describe the nonlinear interactions of internal waves in the ocean is presented. While the central idea of the book is to investigate oceanic internal waves through the prism of Lie group analysis, it is also shown for the first time that internal wave beams, representing exact solutions to the equation of motion of stratified fluid, can be found by solving the given model as invariant solutions of nonlinear equat
Dynamics of interacting dark energy
Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo
2008-01-01
Dark energy and dark matter are only indirectly measured via their gravitational effects. It is possible that there is an exchange of energy within the dark sector, and this offers an interesting alternative approach to the coincidence problem. We consider two broad classes of interacting models where the energy exchange is a linear combination of the dark sector densities. The first class has been previously investigated, but we define new variables and find a new exact solution, which allows for a more direct, transparent and comprehensive analysis. The second class has not been investigated in general form before. We give general conditions on the parameters in both classes to avoid unphysical behavior (such as negative energy densities).
Sharapov, V. N.; Mazurov, M. P.; Mysov, V. M.
2004-12-01
Using numerical and physical experiments dynamics of mass-change in the lithosphere under the zones joining rift valleys of MAR and transform faults was modeled. `Black smokers', methane gas flows, and bubbly carbon deposits, as products of hydrocarbon condensation, present in these zones. Numerical experiments were completed using flow-reactor scheme of PC Selector Win for gas flows of compositions: C (0.1-4), O (0-2), H (0.5-4), Cl (0.05-0.5), F (0.01-1), S (0.01-0.1), and N (0.02-0.1). Weight fraction of gas mixture in rocks was 1.5-0.01%, P from 45-10 kbar to 30-100 bar, T=1200-400° C. The fluid-rock interaction time was t=1-100 steps. Density change for new-formed rock in the lithosphere profile was estimated by virtual mineral composition recounting for each time step. Verification of physicochemical model was carried out by comparison of changed rocks and numerically obtained condensates, as well as minerals and solid, gas and liquid carbon phases, obtained experimentally using the equipment to study catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas flow (H2=65%, CO=34.8%, N2=0.2% vol.). It was shown that above the boiling boundary of basic liquids a field of convective mass transfer should form in the lithosphere. This field includes a number of zones of initial rock change with regions of solid phase depleting and condensing. The ranges of rock composition change due to `reduced' and oxidized' gas mixtures were studied. The density change for ultra-basic rock in the lithosphere is related to spatial and time change of oxygen potential, which current values at the beginning of the interaction process are buffering by rocks, and then - by the values at the system input. In the case when reduced gas mixtures exist, an oxidation roll is forming in the flow, for oxidized mixtures - a reduction roll. At the fluid output at the sea bottom their composition is the most oxidized. When fluids and initial rocks of the lithosphere interact, changed rock mixtures of anomalously
Fluid-dynamic design optimization of hydraulic proportional directional valves
Amirante, Riccardo; Catalano, Luciano Andrea; Poloni, Carlo; Tamburrano, Paolo
2014-10-01
This article proposes an effective methodology for the fluid-dynamic design optimization of the sliding spool of a hydraulic proportional directional valve: the goal is the minimization of the flow force at a prescribed flow rate, so as to reduce the required opening force while keeping the operation features unchanged. A full three-dimensional model of the flow field within the valve is employed to accurately predict the flow force acting on the spool. A theoretical analysis, based on both the axial momentum equation and flow simulations, is conducted to define the design parameters, which need to be properly selected in order to reduce the flow force without significantly affecting the flow rate. A genetic algorithm, coupled with a computational fluid dynamics flow solver, is employed to minimize the flow force acting on the valve spool at the maximum opening. A comparison with a typical single-objective optimization algorithm is performed to evaluate performance and effectiveness of the employed genetic algorithm. The optimized spool develops a maximum flow force which is smaller than that produced by the commercially available valve, mainly due to some major modifications occurring in the discharge section. Reducing the flow force and thus the electromagnetic force exerted by the solenoid actuators allows the operational range of direct (single-stage) driven valves to be enlarged.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of High Injection Pressure Blended Biodiesel
Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari
2017-08-01
Biodiesel have great potential for substitution with petrol fuel for the purpose of achieving clean energy production and emission reduction. Among the methods that can control the combustion properties, controlling of the fuel injection conditions is one of the successful methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high injection pressure of biodiesel blends on spray characteristics using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Injection pressure was observed at 220 MPa, 250 MPa and 280 MPa. The ambient temperature was kept held at 1050 K and ambient pressure 8 MPa in order to simulate the effect of boost pressure or turbo charger during combustion process. Computational Fluid Dynamics were used to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel blends such as spray penetration length, spray angle and mixture formation of fuel-air mixing. The results shows that increases of injection pressure, wider spray angle is produced by biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The injection pressure strongly affects the mixture formation, characteristics of fuel spray, longer spray penetration length thus promotes the fuel and air mixing.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Technology Programme 1995- 1999
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haekkinen, R.J.; Hirsch, C.; Krause, E.; Kytoemaa, H.K. [eds.
1997-12-31
The report is a mid-term evaluation of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Technology Programme started by Technology Development Centre Finland (TEKES) in 1995 as a five-year initiative to be concluded in 1999. The main goal of the programme is to increase the know-how and application of CFD in Finnish industry, to coordinate and thus provide a better basis for co-operation between national CFD activities and encouraging research laboratories and industry to establish co-operation with the international CFD community. The projects of the programme focus on the following areas: (1) studies of modeling the physics and dynamics of the behaviour of fluid material, (2) expressing the physical models in a numerical mode and developing a computer codes, (3) evaluating and testing current physical models and developing new ones, (4) developing new numerical algorithms, solvers, and pre- and post-processing software, and (5) applying the new computational tools to problems relevant to their ultimate industrial use. The report consists of two sections. The first considers issues concerning the whole programme and the second reviews each project
Dynamic hysteresis in the rheology of complex fluids.
Puisto, Antti; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Alava, Mikko J; Illa, Xavier
2015-04-01
Recently, rheological hysteresis has been studied systematically in a wide range of complex fluids combining global rheology and time-resolved velocimetry. In this paper we present an analysis of the roles of the three most fundamental mechanisms in simple-yield-stress fluids: structure dynamics, viscoelastic response, and spatial flow heterogeneities, i.e., time-dependent shear bands. Dynamical hysteresis simulations are done analogously to rheological ramp-up and -down experiments on a coupled model which incorporates viscoelasticity and time-dependent structure evolution. Based on experimental data, a coupling between hysteresis measured from the local velocity profiles and that measured from the global flow curve has been suggested. According to the present model, even if transient shear banding appears during the shear ramps, in typical narrow-gap devices, only a small part of the hysteretic response can be attributed to heterogeneous flow. This results in decoupling of the hysteresis measured from the local velocity profiles and the global flow curve, demonstrating that for an arbitrary time-dependent rheological response this proposed coupling can be very weak.
Meniscal Tear Film Fluid Dynamics Near Marx’s Line
Zubkov, V. S.
2013-07-03
Extensive studies have explored the dynamics of the ocular surface fluid, though theoretical investigations are typically limited to the use of the lubrication approximation, which is not guaranteed to be uniformly valid a-priori throughout the tear meniscus. However, resolving tear film behaviour within the meniscus and especially its apices is required to characterise the flow dynamics where the tear film is especially thin, and thus most susceptible to evaporatively induced hyperosmolarity and subsequent epithelial damage. Hence, we have explored the accuracy of the standard lubrication approximation for the tear film by explicit comparisons with the 2D Navier-Stokes model, considering both stationary and moving eyelids. Our results demonstrate that the lubrication model is qualitatively accurate except in the vicinity of the eyelids. In particular, and in contrast to lubrication theory, the solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations predict a distinct absence of fluid flow, and thus convective mixing in the region adjacent to the tear film contact line. These observations not only support emergent hypotheses concerning the formation of Marx\\'s line, a region of epithelial cell staining adjacent to the contact line on the eyelid, but also enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of the flow profile near the tear film contact line. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Fluid dynamics in airway bifurcations: I. Primary flows.
Martonen, T B; Guan, X; Schreck, R M
2001-04-01
The subject of fluid dynamics within human airways is of great importance for the risk assessment of air pollutants (inhalation toxicology) and the targeted delivery of inhaled pharmacologic drugs (aerosol therapy). As cited herein, experimental investigations of flow patterns have been performed on airway models and casts by a number of investigators. We have simulated flow patterns in human lung bifurcations and compared the results with the experimental data of Schreck (1972). The theoretical analyses were performed using a third-party software package, FIDAP, on the Cray T90 supercomputer. This effort is part of a systematic investigation where the effects of inlet conditions, Reynolds numbers, and dimensions and orientations of airways were addressed. This article focuses on primary flows using convective motion and isovelocity contour formats to describe fluid dynamics; subsequent articles in this issue consider secondary currents (Part II) and localized conditions (Part III). The agreement between calculated and measured results, for laminar flows with either parabolic or blunt inlet conditions to the bifurcations, was very good. To our knowledge, this work is the first to present such detailed comparisons of theoretical and experimental flow patterns in airway bifurcations. The agreement suggests that the methodologies can be employed to study factors affecting airflow patterns and particle behavior in human lungs.
Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.
Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria
2010-08-01
Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur.
Hamiltonian dynamics of several rigid bodies interacting with point vortices
Weissmann, Steffen
2013-01-01
We introduce a Hamiltonian description for the dynamics of several rigid bodies interacting with point vortices in an inviscid, incompressible fluid. We adopt the idea of Vankerschaver et al. (2009) to derive the Hamiltonian formulation via symplectic reduction of a canonical Hamiltonian system on a principle fibre bundle. On the reduced phase space we determine the magnetic symplectic form directly, without resorting to the machinery of mechanical connections on principle fibre bundles. We derive the equations of motion for the general case, and also for the special Lie-Poisson case of a single rigid body and zero total vorticity. Finally we give a partly degenerate Lagrangian formulation for the system.
Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.
Lagrangian averages, averaged Lagrangians, and the mean effects of fluctuations in fluid dynamics.
Holm, Darryl D.
2002-06-01
We begin by placing the generalized Lagrangian mean (GLM) equations for a compressible adiabatic fluid into the Euler-Poincare (EP) variational framework of fluid dynamics, for an averaged Lagrangian. This is the Lagrangian averaged Euler-Poincare (LAEP) theorem. Next, we derive a set of approximate small amplitude GLM equations (glm equations) at second order in the fluctuating displacement of a Lagrangian trajectory from its mean position. These equations express the linear and nonlinear back-reaction effects on the Eulerian mean fluid quantities by the fluctuating displacements of the Lagrangian trajectories in terms of their Eulerian second moments. The derivation of the glm equations uses the linearized relations between Eulerian and Lagrangian fluctuations, in the tradition of Lagrangian stability analysis for fluids. The glm derivation also uses the method of averaged Lagrangians, in the tradition of wave, mean flow interaction. Next, the new glm EP motion equations for incompressible ideal fluids are compared with the Euler-alpha turbulence closure equations. An alpha model is a GLM (or glm) fluid theory with a Taylor hypothesis closure. Such closures are based on the linearized fluctuation relations that determine the dynamics of the Lagrangian statistical quantities in the Euler-alpha equations. Thus, by using the LAEP theorem, we bridge between the GLM equations and the Euler-alpha closure equations, through the small-amplitude glm approximation in the EP variational framework. We conclude by highlighting a new application of the GLM, glm, and alpha-model results for Lagrangian averaged ideal magnetohydrodynamics. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Dynamics of fluid and light intensity in mechanically stirred photobioreactor.
Zhang, T
2013-10-10
Turbulent flows in a single-stage and a two-stage impeller-stirred photobioreactor with a simple geometric configuration were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The trajectories of the microorganisms entrained in the flow field were traced by the particle tracking method. By projecting these trajectories onto a radial-axial (r-z) plane with a given azimuth angle, we were able to observe four different dynamics zones: circulation, pure rotation, trap, and slow-motion. Within the pure rotation zone, turbulence can be observed near the edges of the impeller. The light intensity and the light/dark cycles subjected by the microorganisms differ significantly in these zones. These differences can be further changed by providing different incident light illuminations on the reactor surface. The dynamics zones can be altered by modifying the geometric configuration of the reactor and the impeller stirring mechanism. In combination with the utilization of different incident light illuminations, the light intensity dynamics and the light/dark cycles subjected by the microorganisms can be controlled such that an optimal photobioreactor design with a high efficiency of light utilization and a high formation rate of the biochemical products can be realized.
A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2014-01-01
A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.
Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests
Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri
2005-01-01
Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.
Bayandor, Javid
2010-11-01
Today, crashworthiness studies constitute a major part of modern aerospace design and certification processes. Of important consideration is the assessment of structural damage tolerance in terms of the extent of progressive damage and failure caused by aircraft emergency ditching on soft terrain or on water. Although a certification requirement, full scale crash landings are rarely tested using fully functional prototypes due to their high associated costs. This constraint makes it difficult for all crashworthy features of the design to be identified and fine-tuned before the commencement of the manufacturing phase. The current study presents aspects of a numerical methodology that can drastically subside the dependency of the certification assessments to full scale field trials. Interactive, fully nonlinear, solid-structure and fluid- structure analyses have been proposed using coupled Lagrangian- Eulerian and independent meshless Lagrangian approaches that run on a combined finite element-computational fluid dynamics platform. Detailed analysis of a key landing scenario pertaining to a large passenger jet will be provided to determine the relevance and accuracy of the proposed method. The work further identifies state-of-the-art computational approaches for modeling fluid-solid interactive systems that can help improve aircraft structural responses to soft impact and water ditching.
Magnetic nanoparticles in fluid environment: combining molecular dynamics and Lattice-Boltzmann
Melenev, Petr
2017-06-01
Hydrodynamic interactions between magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the Newtonian liquid are accounted for using a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics simulations. Nanoparticle is modelled by the system of molecular dynamics material points (which form structure resembles raspberry) coupled to the lattice Boltzmann fluid. The hydrodynamic coupling between the colloids is studied by simulations of the thermo-induced rotational diffusion of two raspberry objects. It was found that for the considered range of model parameters the approaching of the raspberries leads to slight retard of the relaxation process. The presence of the weak magnetic dipolar interaction between the objects leads to modest decrease of the relaxation time and the extent of the acceleration of the diffusion is intensified along with magnetic forces.
Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks
Barrio, Rafael A; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo
2015-01-01
In this paper we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion, and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and in this sense they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviou...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ying Zhao; Hong Liu; Zhong-yuan Lu; Chia-chung Sun
2008-01-01
It was investigated that the domain growth processes of spinodal decomposition with different quenching depth in two and three dimensional binary immiscible fluids by using parallel dissipative particle dynamics simulations. In two dimensions, the dynamic scaling exponent 1/2 for coalescence and 2/3 for inertial regimes in the shallow quench and strong finite size effects in the cases of deep quenching were obtained. In three dimensions, it was used that the diffusive regime with exponent n=1/3 in the shallow quench and the inertial hydrodynamic regime with n=2/3 for different quenches. The viscous effects are not clearly reflected, showing n=l/2 in both shallow and deep quenches in this time period, due to the soft nature of interaction potential adopted in dissipative particle dynamics.
Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Julio Enrique
2003-12-18
Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} will induce a variety of coupled physical and chemical processes, including multiphase fluid flow, fluid pressurization and changes in effective stress, solute transport, and chemical reactions between fluids and formation minerals. This work addresses some of these issues with special emphasis given to the physics of fluid flow in brine formations. An investigation of the thermophysical properties of pure carbon dioxide, water and aqueous solutions of CO{sub 2} and NaCl has been conducted. As a result, accurate representations and models for predicting the overall thermophysical behavior of the system CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-NaCl are proposed and incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH2/ECO{sub 2}. The basic problem of CO{sub 2} injection into a radially symmetric brine aquifer is used to validate the results of TOUGH2/ECO2. The numerical simulator has been applied to more complex flow problem including the CO{sub 2} injection project at the Sleipner Vest Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea and the evaluation of fluid flow dynamics effects of CO{sub 2} injection into aquifers. Numerical simulation results show that the transport at Sleipner is dominated by buoyancy effects and that shale layers control vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. These results are in good qualitative agreement with time lapse surveys performed at the site. High-resolution numerical simulation experiments have been conducted to study the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Baghalnezhad
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Stokes flow induced by the motion of an elastic massless filament immersed in a two-dimensional fluid is studied. Initially, the filament is deviated from its equilibrium state and the fluid is at rest. The filament will induce fluid motion while returning to its equilibrium state. Two different test cases are examined. In both cases, the motion of a fixed-end massless filament induces the fluid motion inside a square domain. However, in the second test case, a deformable circular string is placed in the square domain and its interaction with the Stokes flow induced by the filament motion is studied. The interaction between the fluid and deformable body/bodies can become very complicated from the computational point of view. An immersed boundary method is used in the present study. In order to substantiate the accuracy of the numerical method employed, the simulated results associated with the Stokes flow induced by the motion of an extending star string are compared well with those obtained by the immersed interface method. The results show the ability and accuracy of the IBM method in solving the complicated fluid-structure and fluid-mediated structure-structure interaction problems happening in a wide variety of engineering and biological systems.
Using Neutrons to Study Fluid-Rock Interactions in Shales
DiStefano, V. H.; McFarlane, J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Gordon, A.; Hale, R. E.; Hunt, R. D.; Lewis, S. A., Sr.; Littrell, K. C.; Stack, A. G.; Chipera, S.; Perfect, E.; Bilheux, H.; Kolbus, L. M.; Bingham, P. R.
2015-12-01
Recovery of hydrocarbons by hydraulic fracturing depends on complex fluid-rock interactions that we are beginning to understand using neutron imaging and scattering techniques. Organic matter is often thought to comprise the majority of porosity in a shale. In this study, correlations between the type of organic matter embedded in a shale and porosity were investigated experimentally. Selected shale cores from the Eagle Ford and Marcellus formations were subjected to pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric analysis, and organic solvent extraction with the resulting affluent analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pore size distribution of the microporosity (~1 nm to 2 µm) in the Eagle Ford shales was measured before and after solvent extraction using small angle neutron scattering. Organics representing mass fractions of between 0.1 to 1 wt.% were removed from the shales and porosity generally increased across the examined microporosity range, particularly at larger pore sizes, approximately 50 nm to 2 μm. This range reflects extraction of accessible organic material, including remaining gas molecules, bitumen, and kerogen derivatives, indicating where the larger amount of organic matter in shale is stored. An increase in porosity at smaller pore sizes, ~1-3 nm, was also present and could be indicative of extraction of organic material stored in the inter-particle spaces of clays. Additionally, a decrease in porosity after extraction for a sample was attributed to swelling of pores with solvent uptake. This occurred in a shale with high clay content and low thermal maturity. The extracted hydrocarbons were primarily paraffinic, although some breakdown of larger aromatic compounds was observed in toluene extractions. The amount of hydrocarbon extracted and an overall increase in porosity appeared to be primarily correlated with the clay percentage in the shale. This study complements fluid transport neutron
Computational fluid dynamics framework for aerodynamic model assessment
Vallespin, D.; Badcock, K. J.; Da Ronch, A.; White, M. D.; Perfect, P.; Ghoreyshi, M.
2012-07-01
This paper reviews the work carried out at the University of Liverpool to assess the use of CFD methods for aircraft flight dynamics applications. Three test cases are discussed in the paper, namely, the Standard Dynamic Model, the Ranger 2000 jet trainer and the Stability and Control Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle. For each of these, a tabular aerodynamic model based on CFD predictions is generated along with validation against wind tunnel experiments and flight test measurements. The main purpose of the paper is to assess the validity of the tables of aerodynamic data for the force and moment prediction of realistic aircraft manoeuvres. This is done by generating a manoeuvre based on the tables of aerodynamic data, and then replaying the motion through a time-accurate computational fluid dynamics calculation. The resulting forces and moments from these simulations were compared with predictions from the tables. As the latter are based on a set of steady-state predictions, the comparisons showed perfect agreement for slow manoeuvres. As manoeuvres became more aggressive some disagreement was seen, particularly during periods of large rates of change in attitudes. Finally, the Ranger 2000 model was used on a flight simulator.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion
Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.
2011-01-01
The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.
Emergent Structures in an Active Polar Fluid : dynamics of shape, scattering and merger
Husain, Kabir
2016-01-01
Spatially localised defect structures emerge spontaneously in a hydrodynamic description of an active polar fluid comprising polar 'actin' filaments and 'myosin' motor proteins that (un)bind to filaments and exert active contractile stresses. These emergent defect structures are characterized by distinct textures and can be either static or mobile - we derive effective equations of motion for these 'extended particles' and analyse their shape, kinetics, interactions and scattering. Depending on the impact parameter and propulsion speed, these active defects undergo elastic scattering or merger. Our results are relevant for the dynamics of actomyosin-dense structures at the cell cortex, reconstituted actomyosin complexes and 2D active colloidal gels.
An Automated High Aspect Ratio Mesher for Computational Fluid Dynamics Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used while designing, analyzing, and optimizing air- and spacecraft. An important component of CFD...
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester.
Dynamical and bursty interactions in social networks
Stehle, Juliette; Bianconi, Ginestra
2010-01-01
We present a modeling framework for dynamical and bursty contact networks made of agents in social interaction. We consider agents' behavior at short time scales, in which the contact network is formed by disconnected cliques of different sizes. At each time a random agent can make a transition from being isolated to being part of a group, or vice-versa. Different distributions of contact times and inter-contact times between individuals are obtained by considering transition probabilities with memory effects, i.e. the transition probabilities for each agent depend both on its state (isolated or interacting) and on the time elapsed since the last change of state. The model lends itself to analytical and numerical investigations. The modeling framework can be easily extended, and paves the way for systematic investigations of dynamical processes occurring on rapidly evolving dynamical networks, such as the propagation of an information, or spreading of diseases.
Transcapillary fluid dynamics during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.
Tollan, A; Holst, N; Forsdahl, F; Fadnes, H O; Oian, P; Maltau, J M
1990-02-01
Transcapillary fluid dynamics were studied in 10 women during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. The examinations were done on the first day of stimulation (day 3 of the menstrual cycle, mean serum estradiol concentration 0.2 nmol/L), and the day before oocyte aspiration (day 10 to 12, mean serum estradiol concentration 6.8 nmol/L). Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured on the thorax at heart level by the "wick" method, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean, 2.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.002) and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure increased (mean, 1.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.02) during hormonal stimulation. This implies a reduced transcapillary colloid osmotic gradient (plasma colloid osmotic pressure--interstitial colloid osmotic pressure), probably because of increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly reduced, and body weight and foot volume significantly increased. These results demonstrate that during ovarian stimulation there are both water retention and augmented filtration of fluid from the vascular to the interstitial compartment. This may be of significance for the pathophysiologic condition in the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Review of computational fluid dynamics applications in biotechnology processes.
Sharma, C; Malhotra, D; Rathore, A S
2011-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is well established as a tool of choice for solving problems that involve one or more of the following phenomena: flow of fluids, heat transfer,mass transfer, and chemical reaction. Unit operations that are commonly utilized in biotechnology processes are often complex and as such would greatly benefit from application of CFD. The thirst for deeper process and product understanding that has arisen out of initiatives such as quality by design provides further impetus toward usefulness of CFD for problems that may otherwise require extensive experimentation. Not surprisingly, there has been increasing interest in applying CFD toward a variety of applications in biotechnology processing in the last decade. In this article, we will review applications in the major unit operations involved with processing of biotechnology products. These include fermentation,centrifugation, chromatography, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and freeze drying. We feel that the future applications of CFD in biotechnology processing will focus on establishing CFD as a tool of choice for providing process understanding that can be then used to guide more efficient and effective experimentation. This article puts special emphasis on the work done in the last 10 years.
Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Yan
Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of a miniaturized dissolution system.
Frenning, G; Ahnfelt, E; Sjögren, E; Lennernäs, H
2017-02-08
Dissolution testing is an important tool that has applications ranging from fundamental studies of drug-release mechanisms to quality control of the final product. The rate of release of the drug from the delivery system is known to be affected by hydrodynamics. In this study we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate and investigate the hydrodynamics in a novel miniaturized dissolution method for parenteral formulations. The dissolution method is based on a rotating disc system and uses a rotating sample reservoir which is separated from the remaining dissolution medium by a nylon screen. Sample reservoirs of two sizes were investigated (SR6 and SR8) and the hydrodynamic studies were performed at rotation rates of 100, 200 and 400rpm. The overall fluid flow was similar for all investigated cases, with a lateral upward spiraling motion and central downward motion in the form of a vortex to and through the screen. The simulations indicated that the exchange of dissolution medium between the sample reservoir and the remaining release medium was rapid for typical screens, for which almost complete mixing would be expected to occur within less than one minute at 400rpm. The local hydrodynamic conditions in the sample reservoirs depended on their size; SR8 appeared to be relatively more affected than SR6 by the resistance to liquid flow resulting from the screen.
High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics
Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.
On in-situ visualization for strongly coupled partitioned fluid-structure interaction
Fernandes, O.; Blom, D.S.; Frey, S.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; Bijl, H.; Ertl, T.
2015-01-01
We present an integrated in-situ visualization approach for partitioned multi-physics simulation of fluid-structure interaction. The simulation itself is treated as a black box and only the information at the fluid-structure interface is considered, and communicated between the fluid and solid solve
Fluid-structure interaction of three-dimensional magnetic artificial cilia
Khaderi, S. N.; Onck, P. R.
2012-01-01
A numerical model is developed to analyse the interaction of artificial cilia with the surrounding fluid in a three-dimensional setting in the limit of vanishing fluid inertia forces. The cilia are modelled using finite shell elements and the fluid is modelled using a boundary element approach. The