Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in electrified jets.
Lauricella, Marco; Melchionna, Simone; Montessori, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Succi, Sauro
2018-03-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in the context of electrified jet simulations, which are of interest for a number of production technologies including electrospinning. The role of nonlinear rheology on the dynamics of electrified jets is considered by exploiting the Carreau model for pseudoplastic fluids. We report exploratory simulations of charged droplets at rest and under a constant electric field, and we provide results for charged jet formation under electrospinning conditions.
Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.
A hybrid, coupled approach for modeling charged fluids from the nano to the mesoscale
Cheung, James; Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Perego, Mauro; Bochev, Pavel
2017-11-01
We develop and demonstrate a new, hybrid simulation approach for charged fluids, which combines the accuracy of the nonlocal, classical density functional theory (cDFT) with the efficiency of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations. The approach is motivated by the fact that the more accurate description of the physics in the cDFT model is required only near the charged surfaces, while away from these regions the PNP equations provide an acceptable representation of the ionic system. We formulate the hybrid approach in two stages. The first stage defines a coupled hybrid model in which the PNP and cDFT equations act independently on two overlapping domains, subject to suitable interface coupling conditions. At the second stage we apply the principles of the alternating Schwarz method to the hybrid model by using the interface conditions to define the appropriate boundary conditions and volume constraints exchanged between the PNP and the cDFT subdomains. Numerical examples with two representative examples of ionic systems demonstrate the numerical properties of the method and its potential to reduce the computational cost of a full cDFT calculation, while retaining the accuracy of the latter near the charged surfaces.
Charged fluids with symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...
Relativistic charged fluids: hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debbasch, F.; Bonnaud, G.
1991-10-01
This report gives a rigorous and consistent hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a charged fluid and the basis equations, in a relativistic context. This study should lead to a reliable model, as much analytical as numerical, of relativistic plasmas which will appear in the interaction of a strong laser field with a plasma. For simplicity, we limited our study to a perfect fluid or, in other words, we disregarded the energy dissipation processes inside the fluid [fr
Coulomb interactions in charged fluids.
Vernizzi, Graziano; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera
2011-07-01
The use of Ewald summation schemes for calculating long-range Coulomb interactions, originally applied to ionic crystalline solids, is a very common practice in molecular simulations of charged fluids at present. Such a choice imposes an artificial periodicity which is generally absent in the liquid state. In this paper we propose a simple analytical O(N(2)) method which is based on Gauss's law for computing exactly the Coulomb interaction between charged particles in a simulation box, when it is averaged over all possible orientations of a surrounding infinite lattice. This method mitigates the periodicity typical of crystalline systems and it is suitable for numerical studies of ionic liquids, charged molecular fluids, and colloidal systems with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Roy, S; Segur, P; Teyssedre, G; Laurent, C
2004-01-01
We present a conduction model aimed at describing bipolar transport and space charge phenomena in low density polyethylene under dc stress. In the first part we recall the basic requirements for the description of charge transport and charge storage in disordered media with emphasis on the case of polyethylene. A quick review of available conduction models is presented and our approach is compared with these models. Then, the bases of the model are described and related assumptions are discussed. Finally, results on external current, trapped and free space charge distributions, field distribution and recombination rate are presented and discussed, considering a constant dc voltage, a step-increase of the voltage, and a polarization-depolarization protocol for the applied voltage. It is shown that the model is able to describe the general features reported for external current, electroluminescence and charge distribution in polyethylene
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com
2016-05-10
We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
Complex fluids with mobile charge-regulating macro-ions
Markovich, Tomer; Andelman, David; Podgornik, Rudi
2017-10-01
We generalize the concept of charge regulation of ionic solutions, and apply it to complex fluids with mobile macro-ions having internal non-electrostatic degrees of freedom. The suggested framework provides a convenient tool for investigating systems where mobile macro-ions can self-regulate their charge (e.g., proteins). We show that even within a simplified charge-regulation model, the charge dissociation equilibrium results in different and notable properties. Consequences of the charge regulation include a positional dependence of the effective charge of the macro-ions, a non-monotonic dependence of the effective Debye screening length on the concentration of the monovalent salt, a modification of the electric double-layer structure, and buffering by the macro-ions of the background electrolyte.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Gang; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Dennison, C.R.; Knehr, K.W.; Kumbur, E.C.; Sun Ying
2012-01-01
The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has emerged as a viable grid-scale energy storage technology that offers cost-effective energy storage solutions for renewable energy applications. In this paper, a novel methodology is introduced for modeling of the transport mechanisms of electrolyte flow, species and charge in the VRFB at the pore scale of the electrodes; that is, at the level where individual carbon fiber geometry and electrolyte flow are directly resolved. The detailed geometry of the electrode is obtained using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and calibrated against experimentally determined pore-scale characteristics (e.g., pore and fiber diameter, porosity, and surface area). The processed XCT data is then used as geometry input for modeling of the electrochemical processes in the VRFB. The flow of electrolyte through the pore space is modeled using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) while the finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the coupled species and charge transport and predict the performance of the VRFB under various conditions. An electrochemical model using the Butler–Volmer equations is used to provide species and charge coupling at the surfaces of the carbon fibers. Results are obtained for the cell potential distribution, as well as local concentration, overpotential and current density profiles under galvanostatic discharge conditions. The cell performance is investigated as a function of the electrolyte flow rate and external drawing current. The model developed here provides a useful tool for building the structure–property–performance relationship of VRFB electrodes.
Static delectric behavior of charged fluids near freezing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasolino, A.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P.
1978-01-01
The wavenumber-dependent, static dielectric function of classical charged fluids near freezing is obtained from structural data based on computer simulation or neutron diffraction, and its behavior is connected with the freezing process. (Auth.)
Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.
COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL
LORZ, ALEXANDER
2010-01-01
We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic
Charged spin fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Ritis, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Platania, G.; Stornaiolo, C.
1985-01-01
We propose a variational principle describing a charged spin fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory. We show that this fluid can be described by the current vector V/sub i/ which has a potential decomposition and generalizes the results given by Taub. We also derive Maxwell's equations in the presence of spin and torsion. The Eulerian description of the fluid is given by an action integral whose Lagrangian is the pressure plus the free Lagrangians of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Finally, we analyze the circulation and Bernoulli theorems using the current vector V/sub i/
Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn
2018-01-01
The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...
COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL
LORZ, ALEXANDER
2010-06-01
We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Noether and Lie symmetries for charged perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kweyama, M C; Govinder, K S; Maharaj, S D
2011-01-01
We study the underlying nonlinear partial differential equation that governs the behaviour of spherically symmetric charged fluids in general relativity. We investigate the conditions for the equation to admit a first integral or be reduced to quadratures using symmetry methods for differential equations. A general Noether first integral is found. We also undertake a comprehensive group analysis of the underlying equation using Lie point symmetries. The existence of a Lie symmetry is subject to solving an integro-differential equation in general; we investigate the conditions under which it can be reduced to quadratures. Earlier results for uncharged fluids and particular first integrals for charged matter are regained as special cases of our treatment.
Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)
2016-01-15
Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1/r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to ln r/r{sup 4}. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr-Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n + 1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes. (orig.)
Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, II: three-fluid two-charged sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha, E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr [Faculty of Engineering, Başkent University, Bağlıca Campus, 06810, Ankara (Turkey)
2016-01-05
Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than 1 / r, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to lnr/r{sup 4}. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr–Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling neutral objects may constitute a substitute for other known techniques used for testing the nature of the rotating black hole candidates that are harbored in the center of galaxies. We discuss the possibility of generating (n+1)-fluid-sourced, n-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes.
The density functional theory and the charged fluid molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.P.; Zerah, G.
1993-01-01
Car and Parrinello had the idea of combining the density functional theory (Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham) to the 'molecular dynamics' numerical modelling method, in order to simulate metallic or co-valent solids and liquids from the first principles. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified version of this method ab initio, applicable to classical and quantal charged systems. The method is illustrated with recent results on charged colloidal suspensions and highly correlated electron-proton plasmas. 1 fig., 21 refs
Variational multiscale models for charge transport.
Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin
2012-01-01
This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain from the microscopic domain, meanwhile, dynamically couple discrete and continuum descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct the total energy functional of a charge transport system to encompass the polar and nonpolar free energies of solvation, and chemical potential related energy. By using the Euler-Lagrange variation, coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (LB-PNP) equations are derived. The solution of the LB-PNP equations leads to the minimization of the total free energy, and explicit profiles of electrostatic potential and densities of charge species. To further reduce the computational complexity, the Boltzmann distribution obtained from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is utilized to represent the densities of certain charge species so as to avoid the computationally expensive solution of some Nernst-Planck (NP) equations. Consequently, the coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck (LB-PBNP) equations are proposed for charge transport in heterogeneous systems. A major emphasis of the present formulation is the consistency between equilibrium LB-PB theory and non-equilibrium LB-PNP theory at equilibrium. Another major emphasis is the capability of the reduced LB-PBNP model to fully recover the prediction of the LB-PNP model at non-equilibrium settings. To account for the fluid impact on the charge transport, we derive coupled Laplace-Beltrami, Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations from the variational principle
Variational multiscale models for charge transport
Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin
2012-01-01
This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain from the microscopic domain, meanwhile, dynamically couple discrete and continuum descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct the total energy functional of a charge transport system to encompass the polar and nonpolar free energies of solvation, and chemical potential related energy. By using the Euler-Lagrange variation, coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (LB-PNP) equations are derived. The solution of the LB-PNP equations leads to the minimization of the total free energy, and explicit profiles of electrostatic potential and densities of charge species. To further reduce the computational complexity, the Boltzmann distribution obtained from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is utilized to represent the densities of certain charge species so as to avoid the computationally expensive solution of some Nernst-Planck (NP) equations. Consequently, the coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck (LB-PBNP) equations are proposed for charge transport in heterogeneous systems. A major emphasis of the present formulation is the consistency between equilibrium LB-PB theory and non-equilibrium LB-PNP theory at equilibrium. Another major emphasis is the capability of the reduced LB-PBNP model to fully recover the prediction of the LB-PNP model at non-equilibrium settings. To account for the fluid impact on the charge transport, we derive coupled Laplace-Beltrami, Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations from the variational principle
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wald, H.B.
1990-01-01
The 'PATH' codes are used to design magnetic optics subsystems for neutral particle beam systems. They include a 2-1/2D and three 3-D space charge models, two of which have recently been added. This paper describes the 3-D models and reports on preliminary benchmark studies in which these models are checked for stability as the cloud size is varied and for consistency with each other. Differences between the models are investigated and the computer time requirements for running these models are established
Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S.K.; T, Smitha T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)
2017-06-15
A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e{sup λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model. (orig.)
Geometrical approach to fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Schep, T.J.
1997-01-01
Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical notion of invariance is introduced in terms of Lie derivatives and a general procedure for the construction of local and integral fluid invariants is presented. The solutions of the equations for invariant fields can be written in terms of Lagrange variables. A generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism for finite-dimensional systems to continuous media is proposed. Analogously to finite-dimensional systems, Hamiltonian fluids are introduced as systems that annihilate an exact two-form. It is shown that Euler and ideal, charged fluids satisfy this local definition of a Hamiltonian structure. A new class of scalar invariants of Hamiltonian fluids is constructed that generalizes the invariants that are related with gauge transformations and with symmetries (Noether). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models
Nasim, A.; Azam, M.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.
DETAILED MODELLING OF CHARGING BEHAVIOUR OF SMART SOLAR TANKS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon
2010-01-01
The charging behaviour of smart solar tanks for solar combisystems for one-family houses is investigated with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The smart solar tank can be charged with a variable auxiliary volume fitted...... or by an electric heating element in a side-arm mounted on the side of the tank. Detailed CFD models of the smart tanks are built with different mesh densities in the tank and in the side-arm. The thermal conditions of the tank during charging are calculated with the CFD models. The fluid flow and temperature...... by the mesh densities, the distribution of computational cells, the physical model and time steps used in the simulations. The findings of the investigations will be used as guidance for creation of CFD models for optimal design of smart solar tanks....
Model improvements to simulate charging in SEM
Arat, K. T.; Klimpel, T.; Hagen, C. W.
2018-03-01
Charging of insulators is a complex phenomenon to simulate since the accuracy of the simulations is very sensitive to the interaction of electrons with matter and electric fields. In this study, we report model improvements for a previously developed Monte-Carlo simulator to more accurately simulate samples that charge. The improvements include both modelling of low energy electron scattering and charging of insulators. The new first-principle scattering models provide a more realistic charge distribution cloud in the material, and a better match between non-charging simulations and experimental results. Improvements on charging models mainly focus on redistribution of the charge carriers in the material with an induced conductivity (EBIC) and a breakdown model, leading to a smoother distribution of the charges. Combined with a more accurate tracing of low energy electrons in the electric field, we managed to reproduce the dynamically changing charging contrast due to an induced positive surface potential.
Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingping Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krumenacker, Laurent
2015-01-01
During the life's cycle of a hydraulic installation, the occurrence of cavitation can cause significant damages on the material's surface. The quantification of the cavitation intensity in different geometry can be useful to get better designs for new installations, but also to improve the operating and to optimize maintenance of existing equipments. The development of universal laws of similarity from experiments is difficult due to the large number of parameters governing cavitating flows. With the increase of computational performance, numerical simulations offer the opportunity to study this phenomenon in various geometries. The main difficulty of this approach is the scale's difference existing between the numerical simulations U-RANS used to calculate the cavitating flow and mechanisms of bubble's collapse held responsible for damages on the solid. The proposed method in this thesis is based on a post-treatment of the U-RANS simulations to characterize a distribution of bubbles and to simulate their behavior at lower spatial and temporal scales. Our first objective is to make explicit a system of equations corresponding to phenomena occurring locally in the two-phase flow. This work leads to the development of mixture variables taking into account the presence of non-condensable gases in the fluid. Assumptions are taken to make the system, after using the Reynolds averaging procedure, equivalent to those, using a homogeneous approach, implemented in the unsteady cavitating flows solvers previously developed in the laboratory. The characterization of bubbles made by this post-treatment takes into account both the surface tension and the presence of non-condensable gases. The development of a solver for the simulation of the dynamic of a bubble cloud is started. It aims to take into account both the interactions between bubbles and non-spherical deformations with a potential method. First results of these simulations are presented and small
Computational modelling in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauguel, A.
1985-01-01
The modelling of the greatest part of environmental or industrial flow problems gives very similar types of equations. The considerable increase in computing capacity over the last ten years consequently allowed numerical models of growing complexity to be processed. The varied group of computer codes presented are now a complementary tool of experimental facilities to achieve studies in the field of fluid mechanics. Several codes applied in the nuclear field (reactors, cooling towers, exchangers, plumes...) are presented among others [fr
Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.
Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald
2010-03-02
Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.
Complex fluids modeling and algorithms
Saramito, Pierre
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.
Wormhole solutions sourced by fluids, I: Two-fluid charged sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)
2016-01-15
We briefly discuss some of the known and new properties of rotating geometries that are relevant to this work. We generalize the analytical method of superposition of fields, known for generating nonrotating solutions, and apply it to construct massless and massive rotating physical wormholes sourced by a source-free electromagnetic field and an exotic fluid both anisotropic. Their stress-energy tensors are presented in compact and general forms. For the massive rotating wormholes there exists a mass-charge constraint yielding almost no more dragging effects than ordinary stars. There are conical spirals through the throat along which no local negative energy densities are noticed for these rotating wormholes. This conclusion extends to nonrotating massive type I wormholes derived previously by the author, which seem to be the first kind of nonrotating wormholes with this property. Based on the classification made in Azreg-Ainou (J Cosmol Astropart Phys 07:037, arXiv:1412.828 [gr-qc], 2015): ''Type I wormholes have their radial pressure dying out faster, as one moves away from the throat, than any other component of the stress-energy and thus violate the least the local energy conditions. In type II (resp. III) the radial and transverse pressures are asymptotically proportional and die out faster (resp. slower) than the energy density''. (orig.)
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Electrostatic correlations in inhomogeneous charged fluids beyond loop expansion.
Buyukdagli, Sahin; Achim, C V; Ala-Nissila, T
2012-09-14
Electrostatic correlation effects in inhomogeneous symmetric electrolytes are investigated within a previously developed electrostatic self-consistent theory [R. R. Netz and H. Orland, Eur. Phys. J. E 11, 301 (2003)]. To this aim, we introduce two computational approaches that allow to solve the self-consistent equations beyond the loop expansion. The first method is based on a perturbative Green's function technique, and the second one is an extension of a previously introduced semiclassical approximation for single dielectric interfaces to the case of slit nanopores. Both approaches can handle the case of dielectrically discontinuous boundaries where the one-loop theory is known to fail. By comparing the theoretical results obtained from these schemes with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that we ran for ions at neutral single dielectric interfaces, we first show that the weak coupling Debye-Huckel theory remains quantitatively accurate up to the bulk ion density ρ(b) ≃ 0.01 M, whereas the self-consistent theory exhibits a good quantitative accuracy up to ρ(b) ≃ 0.2 M, thus improving the accuracy of the Debye-Huckel theory by one order of magnitude in ionic strength. Furthermore, we compare the predictions of the self-consistent theory with previous Monte Carlo simulation data for charged dielectric interfaces and show that the proposed approaches can also accurately handle the correlation effects induced by the surface charge in a parameter regime where the mean-field result significantly deviates from the Monte Carlo data. Then, we derive from the perturbative self-consistent scheme the one-loop theory of asymmetrically partitioned salt systems around a dielectrically homogeneous charged surface. It is shown that correlation effects originate in these systems from a competition between the salt screening loss at the interface driving the ions to the bulk region, and the interfacial counterion screening excess attracting them towards the surface
Electrostatic correlations in inhomogeneous charged fluids beyond loop expansion
Buyukdagli, Sahin; Achim, C. V.; Ala-Nissila, T.
2012-09-01
Electrostatic correlation effects in inhomogeneous symmetric electrolytes are investigated within a previously developed electrostatic self-consistent theory [R. R. Netz and H. Orland, Eur. Phys. J. E 11, 301 (2003)], 10.1140/epje/i2002-10159-0. To this aim, we introduce two computational approaches that allow to solve the self-consistent equations beyond the loop expansion. The first method is based on a perturbative Green's function technique, and the second one is an extension of a previously introduced semiclassical approximation for single dielectric interfaces to the case of slit nanopores. Both approaches can handle the case of dielectrically discontinuous boundaries where the one-loop theory is known to fail. By comparing the theoretical results obtained from these schemes with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations that we ran for ions at neutral single dielectric interfaces, we first show that the weak coupling Debye-Huckel theory remains quantitatively accurate up to the bulk ion density ρb ≃ 0.01 M, whereas the self-consistent theory exhibits a good quantitative accuracy up to ρb ≃ 0.2 M, thus improving the accuracy of the Debye-Huckel theory by one order of magnitude in ionic strength. Furthermore, we compare the predictions of the self-consistent theory with previous Monte Carlo simulation data for charged dielectric interfaces and show that the proposed approaches can also accurately handle the correlation effects induced by the surface charge in a parameter regime where the mean-field result significantly deviates from the Monte Carlo data. Then, we derive from the perturbative self-consistent scheme the one-loop theory of asymmetrically partitioned salt systems around a dielectrically homogeneous charged surface. It is shown that correlation effects originate in these systems from a competition between the salt screening loss at the interface driving the ions to the bulk region, and the interfacial counterion screening excess attracting
Mesoscale Models of Fluid Dynamics
Boghosian, Bruce M.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
During the last half century, enormous progress has been made in the field of computational materials modeling, to the extent that in many cases computational approaches are used in a predictive fashion. Despite this progress, modeling of general hydrodynamic behavior remains a challenging task. One of the main challenges stems from the fact that hydrodynamics manifests itself over a very wide range of length and time scales. On one end of the spectrum, one finds the fluid's "internal" scale characteristic of its molecular structure (in the absence of quantum effects, which we omit in this chapter). On the other end, the "outer" scale is set by the characteristic sizes of the problem's domain. The resulting scale separation or lack thereof as well as the existence of intermediate scales are key to determining the optimal approach. Successful treatments require a judicious choice of the level of description which is a delicate balancing act between the conflicting requirements of fidelity and manageable computational cost: a coarse description typically requires models for underlying processes occuring at smaller length and time scales; on the other hand, a fine-scale model will incur a significantly larger computational cost.
Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays
Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.
2003-01-01
A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).
Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, Karl D
2008-01-01
Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions
Advances in fluid modeling and turbulence measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Akira; Ninokata, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobukazu
2002-01-01
The context of this book consists of four fields: Environmental Fluid Mechanics; Industrial Fluid Mechanics; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics; and Turbulence Measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics includes free surface flows in channels, rivers, seas, and estuaries. It also discusses wind engineering issues, ocean circulation model and dispersion problems in atmospheric, water and ground water environments. In Industrial Fluid Mechanics, fluid phenomena in energy exchanges, modeling of turbulent two- or multi-phase flows, swirling flows, flows in combustors, variable density flows and reacting flows, flows in turbo-machines, pumps and piping systems, and fluid-structure interaction are discussed. In Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, progress in modeling turbulent flows and heat/mass transfers, computational fluid dynamics/numerical techniques, parallel computing algorithms, applications of chaos/fractal theory in turbulence are reported. In Turbulence Measurements, experimental studies of turbulent flows, experimental and post-processing techniques, quantitative and qualitative flow visualization techniques are discussed. Separate abstracts were presented for 15 of the papers in this issue. The remaining 89 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
Computational fluid dynamic modeling of fluidized-bed polymerization reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokkam, Ram [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
Polyethylene is one of the most widely used plastics, and over 60 million tons are produced worldwide every year. Polyethylene is obtained by the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in gas and liquid phase reactors. The gas phase processes are more advantageous, and use fluidized-bed reactors for production of polyethylene. Since they operate so close to the melting point of the polymer, agglomeration is an operational concern in all slurry and gas polymerization processes. Electrostatics and hot spot formation are the main factors that contribute to agglomeration in gas-phase processes. Electrostatic charges in gas phase polymerization fluidized bed reactors are known to influence the bed hydrodynamics, particle elutriation, bubble size, bubble shape etc. Accumulation of electrostatic charges in the fluidized-bed can lead to operational issues. In this work a first-principles electrostatic model is developed and coupled with a multi-fluid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to understand the effect of electrostatics on the dynamics of a fluidized-bed. The multi-fluid CFD model for gas-particle flow is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows closures. The electrostatic model is developed based on a fixed, size-dependent charge for each type of particle (catalyst, polymer, polymer fines) phase. The combined CFD model is first verified using simple test cases, validated with experiments and applied to a pilot-scale polymerization fluidized-bed reactor. The CFD model reproduced qualitative trends in particle segregation and entrainment due to electrostatic charges observed in experiments. For the scale up of fluidized bed reactor, filtered models are developed and implemented on pilot scale reactor.
Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas
Tassi, Emanuele
2017-11-01
This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and
Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Yan
Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.
Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.
Yan, Ying; Luo, Jing; Guo, Dan; Wen, Shizhu
2015-01-01
Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.
Modeling and Analyzing Electric Vehicle Charging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Thomsen, Christian
2016-01-01
, such as wind turbines. To both enable a smart grid and the use of renewable energy, it is essential to know when and where an EV is plugged into the power grid and what battery capacity is available. In this paper, we present a generic spatio-temporal data-warehouse model for storing detailed information...... on all aspects of charging EVs, including integration with the electricity prices from a spot market. The proposed data warehouse is fully implemented and currently contains 2.5 years of charging data from 176 EVs. We describe the date warehouse model and the implementation including complex operations...
Fluid Methods for Modeling Large, Heterogeneous Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Towsley, Don; Gong, Weibo; Hollot, Kris; Liu, Yong; Misra, Vishal
2005-01-01
.... The resulting fluid models were used to develop novel active queue management mechanisms resulting in more stable TCP performance and novel rate controllers for the purpose of providing minimum rate...
Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.
Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan
2012-08-10
For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Interstellar turbulence model : A self-consistent coupling of plasma and neutral fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, Gary P.; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2006-01-01
We present results of a preliminary investigation of interstellar turbulence based on a self-consistent two-dimensional fluid simulation model. Our model describes a partially ionized magnetofluid interstellar medium (ISM) that couples a neutral hydrogen fluid to a plasma through charge exchange interactions and assumes that the ISM turbulent correlation scales are much bigger than the shock characteristic length-scales, but smaller than the charge exchange mean free path length-scales. The shocks have no influence on the ISM turbulent fluctuations. We find that nonlinear interactions in coupled plasma-neutral ISM turbulence are influenced substantially by charge exchange processes
Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomczyk Krzysztof
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.
Quantum modeling of ultrafast photoinduced charge separation
Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Troiani, Filippo; Tavernelli, Ivano
2018-01-01
Phenomena involving electron transfer are ubiquitous in nature, photosynthesis and enzymes or protein activity being prominent examples. Their deep understanding thus represents a mandatory scientific goal. Moreover, controlling the separation of photogenerated charges is a crucial prerequisite in many applicative contexts, including quantum electronics, photo-electrochemical water splitting, photocatalytic dye degradation, and energy conversion. In particular, photoinduced charge separation is the pivotal step driving the storage of sun light into electrical or chemical energy. If properly mastered, these processes may also allow us to achieve a better command of information storage at the nanoscale, as required for the development of molecular electronics, optical switching, or quantum technologies, amongst others. In this Topical Review we survey recent progress in the understanding of ultrafast charge separation from photoexcited states. We report the state-of-the-art of the observation and theoretical description of charge separation phenomena in the ultrafast regime mainly focusing on molecular- and nano-sized solar energy conversion systems. In particular, we examine different proposed mechanisms driving ultrafast charge dynamics, with particular regard to the role of quantum coherence and electron-nuclear coupling, and link experimental observations to theoretical approaches based either on model Hamiltonians or on first principles simulations.
Modelling charge storage in Euclid CCD structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, A S; Holland, A; Hall, D J; Burt, D
2012-01-01
The primary aim of ESA's proposed Euclid mission is to observe the distribution of galaxies and galaxy clusters, enabling the mapping of the dark architecture of the universe [1]. This requires a high performance detector, designed to endure a harsh radiation environment. The e2v CCD204 image sensor was redesigned for use on the Euclid mission [2]. The resulting e2v CCD273 has a narrower serial register electrode and transfer channel compared to its predecessor, causing a reduction in the size of charge packets stored, thus reducing the number of traps encountered by the signal electrons during charge transfer and improving the serial Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) under irradiation [3]. The proposed Euclid CCD has been modelled using the Silvaco TCAD software [4], to test preliminary calculations for the Full Well Capacity (FWC) and the channel potential of the device and provide indications of the volume occupied by varying signals. These results are essential for the realisation of the mission objectives and for radiation damage studies, with the aim of producing empirically derived formulae to approximate signal-volume characteristics in the devices. These formulae will be used in the radiation damage (charge trapping) models. The Silvaco simulations have been tested against real devices to compare the experimental measurements to those predicted in the models. Using these results, the implications of this study on the Euclid mission can be investigated in more detail.
Motion of a suspended charged particle in a NON-Newtonian fluid. Vol. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel-Khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1996-03-01
The path lines of a solid spherical charged particle suspended in a non-newton electrical conducting viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane of particle motion were determined. The effect of some parameters such as particle volume, fluid density, fluid viscosity, and the use magnetic field strength on these path lines were determined. The present solution requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about width, maximum height and number of collisions with upper and lower plates were deduced. 4 figs.
A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Duan
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.
Komathiraj, K.; Sharma, Ranjan
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present a formalism to generate a family of interior solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for a spherically symmetric relativistic charged fluid sphere matched to the exterior Reissner-Nordström space-time. By reducing the Einstein-Maxwell system to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients, we show that it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for a specific range of model parameters. A large class of solutions obtained previously are shown to be contained in our general class of solutions. We also analyse the physical viability of our new class of solutions.
Kandelman, A.; Nelson, D. J.
1977-01-01
Simplified mathematical model simulates large hydraulic systems on either analog or digital computers. Models of pumps, servoactuators, reservoirs, accumulators, and valves are connected generating systems containing six hundred elements.
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach
Ajaev, Vladimir S
2012-01-01
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail. Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also: Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...
Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vial C.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.
Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, R.
1975-11-01
The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg
A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meier, E T; Shumlak, U
2012-04-06
A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.
Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in a Non-Newtonian Fluid between Two Long Parallel Plated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-El Khalek, M.M.
1998-01-01
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effects of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically
Motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1997-12-31
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effect of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.
Fluid and hybrid models for streamers
Bonaventura, Zdeněk
2016-09-01
Streamers are contracted ionizing waves with self-generated field enhancement that propagate into a low-ionized medium exposed to high electric field leaving filamentary trails of plasma behind. The widely used model to study streamer dynamics is based on drift-diffusion equations for electrons and ions, assuming local field approximation, coupled with Poisson's equation. For problems where presence of energetic electrons become important a fluid approach needs to be extended by a particle model, accompanied also with Monte Carlo Collision technique, that takes care of motion of these electrons. A combined fluid-particle approach is used to study an influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. It is found that fluid-only model predicts substantially faster reignition dynamics compared to coupled fluid-particle model. Furthermore, a hybrid model can be created in which the population of electrons is divided in the energy space into two distinct groups: (1) low energy `bulk' electrons that are treated with fluid model, and (2) high energy `beam' electrons, followed as particles. The hybrid model is then capable not only to deal with streamer discharges in laboratory conditions, but also allows us to study electron acceleration in streamer zone of lighting leaders. There, the production of fast electrons from streamers is investigated, since these (runaway) electrons act as seeds for the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) mechanism, important for high-energy atmospheric physics phenomena. Results suggest that high energy electrons effect the streamer propagation, namely the velocity, the peak electric field, and thus also the production rate of runaway electrons. This work has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation research project 15-04023S.
Landau fluid models of collisionless magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, P.B.; Hammett, G.W.; Dorland, W.
1997-01-01
A closed set of fluid moment equations including models of kinetic Landau damping is developed which describes the evolution of collisionless plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic parameter regime. The model is fully electromagnetic and describes the dynamics of both compressional and shear Alfven waves, as well as ion acoustic waves. The model allows for separate parallel and perpendicular pressures p parallel and p perpendicular , and, unlike previous models such as Chew-Goldberger-Low theory, correctly predicts the instability threshold for the mirror instability. Both a simple 3 + 1 moment model and a more accurate 4 + 2 moment model are developed, and both could be useful for numerical simulations of astrophysical and fusion plasmas
Integrable, oblique travelling waves in quasi-charge-neutral two-fluid plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Webb
2008-02-01
Full Text Available A Hamiltonian description of oblique travelling waves in a two-fluid, charge-neutral, electron-proton plasma reveals that the transverse momentum equations for the electron and proton fluids are exactly integrable in cases where the total transverse momentum flux integrals, P_{y}^{(d} and P_{z}^{(d}, are both zero in the de Hoffman Teller (dHT frame. In this frame, the transverse electric fields are zero, which simplifies the transverse momentum equations for the two fluids. The integrable travelling waves for the case P_{y}^{(d}=P_{z}^{(d}=0, are investigated based on the Hamiltonian trajectories in phase space, and also on the longitudinal structure equation for the common longitudinal fluid velocity component u_{x} of the electron and proton fluids. Numerical examples of a variety of travelling waves in a cold plasma, including oscillitons, are used to illustrate the physics. The transverse, electron and proton velocity components u_{jy} and u_{jz} (j=e, p of the waves exhibit complex, rosette type patterns over several periods for u_{x}. The role of separatrices in the phase space, the rotational integral and the longitudinal structure equation on the different wave forms are discussed.
AFDM: An Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelm, D.
1990-09-01
This volume describes the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) for topologies, flow regimes, and interfacial areas. The objective of these models is to provide values for the interfacial areas between all components existing in a computational cell. The interfacial areas are then used to evaluate the mass, energy, and momentum transfer between the components. A new approach has been undertaken in the development of a model to convect the interfacial areas of the discontinuous velocity fields in the three-velocity-field environment of AFDM. These interfacial areas are called convectible surface areas. The continuous and discontinuous components are chosen using volume fraction and levitation criteria. This establishes so-called topologies for which the convectible surface areas can be determined. These areas are functions of space and time. Solid particulates that are limited to being discontinuous within the bulk fluid are assumed to have a constant size. The convectible surface areas are subdivided to model contacts between two discontinuous components or discontinuous components and the structure. The models have been written for the flow inside of large pools. Therefore, the structure is tracked only as a boundary to the fluid volume without having a direct influence on velocity or volume fraction distribution by means of flow regimes or boundary layer models. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs
Thermodynamics and structure of liquid alkali metals from the charged-hard-sphere reference fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, S.K.; Akinlade, O.; Tosi, M.P.
1989-12-01
The evaluation of thermodynamic properties of liquid alkali metals is re-examined in the approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and using the fluid of charged hard spheres in the mean spherical approximation as reference system, with a view to achieving consistency with the liquid structure factor. The perturbative variational calculation of the Helmholtz free energy is based on an ab initio and highly reliable nonlocal pseudopotential. Only limited improvement is found in the calculated thermodynamic functions, even when full advantage is taken of the two variational parameters inherent in this approach. The role of thermodynamic self-consistency between the equations of state of the reference fluid derived from the routes of the internal energy and of the virial theorem is then discussed, using previous results by Hoye and Stell. An approximate evaluation of the corresponding contribution to the free energy of liquid alkali metals yields appreciable improvements in both the thermodynamic functions and the liquid structure factor. It thus appears that an accurate treatment of thermodynamic self-consistency in the charged-hard-sphere system may help to resolve some of the difficulties that are commonly met in the evaluation of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid metals. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj
2015-01-01
Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)
Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids
Levenspiel, Octave
2012-01-01
A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel. In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel. However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more. The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems. Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data. First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel. Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question. Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures. In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful and harmless—in the...
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Computational fluid dynamic modelling of cavitation
Deshpande, Manish; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.
1993-01-01
Models in sheet cavitation in cryogenic fluids are developed for use in Euler and Navier-Stokes codes. The models are based upon earlier potential-flow models but enable the cavity inception point, length, and shape to be determined as part of the computation. In the present paper, numerical solutions are compared with experimental measurements for both pressure distribution and cavity length. Comparisons between models are also presented. The CFD model provides a relatively simple modification to an existing code to enable cavitation performance predictions to be included. The analysis also has the added ability of incorporating thermodynamic effects of cryogenic fluids into the analysis. Extensions of the current two-dimensional steady state analysis to three-dimensions and/or time-dependent flows are, in principle, straightforward although geometrical issues become more complicated. Linearized models, however offer promise of providing effective cavitation modeling in three-dimensions. This analysis presents good potential for improved understanding of many phenomena associated with cavity flows.
Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800# Cao'an Road, ... was developed from a discretized fluid model known as the lattice gas automata ... of two immiscible fluids, several lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Hao; Adidharma, Hertanto
2014-01-01
The thermodynamic modeling of flexible charged hard-sphere chains representing polyampholyte or polyelectrolyte molecules in solution is considered. The excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyampholyte and the osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyelectrolytes are determined by performing canonical and isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations. A new equation of state based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory is also proposed for flexible charged hard-sphere chains. For the modeling of such chains, the use of solely the structure information of monomer fluid for calculating the chain contribution is found to be insufficient and more detailed structure information must therefore be considered. Two approaches, i.e., the dimer and dimer-monomer approaches, are explored to obtain the contribution of the chain formation to the Helmholtz energy. By comparing with the simulation results, the equation of state with either the dimer or dimer-monomer approach accurately predicts the excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions except at very low density. It also well captures the effect of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of these solutions
Computational fluid dynamics modelling in cardiovascular medicine.
Morris, Paul D; Narracott, Andrew; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Silva Soto, Daniel Alejandro; Hsiao, Sarah; Lungu, Angela; Evans, Paul; Bressloff, Neil W; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P
2016-01-01
This paper reviews the methods, benefits and challenges associated with the adoption and translation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling within cardiovascular medicine. CFD, a specialist area of mathematics and a branch of fluid mechanics, is used routinely in a diverse range of safety-critical engineering systems, which increasingly is being applied to the cardiovascular system. By facilitating rapid, economical, low-risk prototyping, CFD modelling has already revolutionised research and development of devices such as stents, valve prostheses, and ventricular assist devices. Combined with cardiovascular imaging, CFD simulation enables detailed characterisation of complex physiological pressure and flow fields and the computation of metrics which cannot be directly measured, for example, wall shear stress. CFD models are now being translated into clinical tools for physicians to use across the spectrum of coronary, valvular, congenital, myocardial and peripheral vascular diseases. CFD modelling is apposite for minimally-invasive patient assessment. Patient-specific (incorporating data unique to the individual) and multi-scale (combining models of different length- and time-scales) modelling enables individualised risk prediction and virtual treatment planning. This represents a significant departure from traditional dependence upon registry-based, population-averaged data. Model integration is progressively moving towards 'digital patient' or 'virtual physiological human' representations. When combined with population-scale numerical models, these models have the potential to reduce the cost, time and risk associated with clinical trials. The adoption of CFD modelling signals a new era in cardiovascular medicine. While potentially highly beneficial, a number of academic and commercial groups are addressing the associated methodological, regulatory, education- and service-related challenges. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
Slowly rotating charged fluid balls and their matching to an exterior domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Gyula; Perjes, Zoltan; Bradley, Michael
2002-01-01
The slow-rotation approximation of Hartle is developed to a setting where a charged rotating fluid is present. The linearized Einstein-Maxwell equations are solved on the background of the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in the exterior electrovacuum region. The theory is put to action for the charged generalization of the Wahlquist solution found by Garcia. The Garcia solution is transformed to coordinates suitable for the matching and expanded in powers of the angular velocity. The two domains are then matched along the zero pressure surface using the Darmois-Israel procedure. We prove a theorem to the effect that the exterior region is asymptotically flat if and only if the parameter C 2 , characterizing the magnitude of an external magnetic field, vanishes. We obtain the form of the constant C 2 for the Garcia solution. We conjecture that the Garcia metric cannot be matched to an asymptotically flat exterior electrovacuum region even to first order in the angular velocity. This conjecture is supported by a high precision numerical analysis
Numerical Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction with Rheologically Complex Fluids
Chen, Xingyuan
2014-01-01
In the present work the interaction between rheologically complex fluids and elastic solids is studied by means of numerical modeling. The investigated complex fluids are non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of this kind is frequently encountered in injection molding, food processing, pharmaceutical engineering and biomedicine. The investigation via experiments is costly, difficult or in some cases, even impossible. Therefore, research is increasingly aided...
In-transit charging lane model
Verkerk, A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Khajepour, A.
2012-01-01
The current electric vehicles still have a problem with a short range and long charging time compared to the internal combustion vehicles. A possible solution for this problem is to charge the batteries while driving on the highway. For this, a special traffic lane is needed with an in-transit
Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira
2005-01-01
on the way the parameters were obtained. The selection of appropriate association schemes is also investigated using spectroscopic data. For pure water a four-site scheme is shown to be the most appropriate scheme. In the case of pure alcohols, a three-site scheme is best for methanol; two- or three......Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions...
Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R^n gravity
Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana
2017-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R^n gravity. Using Müller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star.
Direct modeling for computational fluid dynamics
Xu, Kun
2015-06-01
All fluid dynamic equations are valid under their modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path and mean collision time scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) focuses on the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs), and its aim is to get the accurate solution of these governing equations. Under such a CFD practice, it is hard to develop a unified scheme that covers flow physics from kinetic to hydrodynamic scales continuously because there is no such governing equation which could make a smooth transition from the Boltzmann to the NS modeling. The study of fluid dynamics needs to go beyond the traditional numerical partial differential equations. The emerging engineering applications, such as air-vehicle design for near-space flight and flow and heat transfer in micro-devices, do require further expansion of the concept of gas dynamics to a larger domain of physical reality, rather than the traditional distinguishable governing equations. At the current stage, the non-equilibrium flow physics has not yet been well explored or clearly understood due to the lack of appropriate tools. Unfortunately, under the current numerical PDE approach, it is hard to develop such a meaningful tool due to the absence of valid PDEs. In order to construct multiscale and multiphysics simulation methods similar to the modeling process of constructing the Boltzmann or the NS governing equations, the development of a numerical algorithm should be based on the first principle of physical modeling. In this paper, instead of following the traditional numerical PDE path, we introduce direct modeling as a principle for CFD algorithm development. Since all computations are conducted in a discretized space with limited cell resolution, the flow physics to be modeled has to be done in the mesh size and time step scales. Here, the CFD is more or less a direct
Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.
2012-01-01
For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to
Electrorheological fluids modeling and mathematical theory
Růžička, Michael
2000-01-01
This is the first book to present a model, based on rational mechanics of electrorheological fluids, that takes into account the complex interactions between the electromagnetic fields and the moving liquid. Several constitutive relations for the Cauchy stress tensor are discussed. The main part of the book is devoted to a mathematical investigation of a model possessing shear-dependent viscosities, proving the existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions for the steady and the unsteady case. The PDS systems investigated possess so-called non-standard growth conditions. Existence results for elliptic systems with non-standard growth conditions and with a nontrivial nonlinear r.h.s. and the first ever results for parabolic systems with a non-standard growth conditions are given for the first time. Written for advanced graduate students, as well as for researchers in the field, the discussion of both the modeling and the mathematics is self-contained.
Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures
Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.
2014-01-01
The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874
AFDM: An Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohl, W.R.; Parker, F.R.; Wilhelm, D.; Goutagny, L.; Ninokata, H.
1990-09-01
AFDM, or the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model, is a computer code that investigates new approaches simulating the multiphase-flow fluid-dynamics aspects of severe accidents in fast reactors. The AFDM formalism starts with differential equations similar to those in the SIMMER-II code. These equations are modified to treat three velocity fields and supplemented with a variety of new models. The AFDM code has 12 topologies describing what material contacts are possible depending on the presence or absence of a given material in a computational cell, on the dominant liquid, and on the continuous phase. Single-phase, bubbly, churn-turbulent, cellular, and dispersed flow regimes are permitted for the pool situations modeled. Virtual mass terms are included for vapor in liquid-continuous flow. Interfacial areas between the continuous and discontinuous phases are convected to allow some tracking of phenomenological histories. Interfacial areas are also modified by models of nucleation, dynamic forces, turbulence, flashing, coalescence, and mass transfer. Heat transfer is generally treated using engineering correlations. Liquid-vapor phase transitions are handled with the nonequilibrium, heat-transfer-limited model, whereas melting and freezing processes are based on equilibrium considerations. Convection is treated using a fractional-step method of time integration, including a semi-implicit pressure iteration. A higher-order differencing option is provided to control numerical diffusion. The Los Alamos SESAME equation-of-state has been implemented using densities and temperatures as the independent variables. AFDM programming has vectorized all computational loops consistent with the objective of producing an exportable code. 24 refs., 4 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Wang
Full Text Available Fluid-structural coupling occurs when microcantilever sensors vibrate in a fluid. Due to the complexity of the mechanical characteristics of microcantilevers and lack of high-precision microscopic mechanical testing instruments, effective methods for studying the fluid-structural coupling of microcantilevers are lacking, especially for non-rectangular microcantilevers. Here, we report fluid-structure interactions (FSI of the cable-membrane structure via a macroscopic study. The simplified aeroelastic model was introduced into the microscopic field to establish a fluid-structure coupling vibration model for microcantilever sensors. We used the finite element method to solve the coupled FSI system. Based on the simplified aeroelastic model, simulation analysis of the effects of the air environment on the vibration of the commonly used rectangular microcantilever was also performed. The obtained results are consistent with the literature. The proposed model can also be applied to the auxiliary design of rectangular and non-rectangular sensors used in fluid environments.
Modelling non-dust fluids in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopherson, Adam J.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Malik, Karim A.
2013-01-01
Currently, most of the numerical simulations of structure formation use Newtonian gravity. When modelling pressureless dark matter, or 'dust', this approach gives the correct results for scales much smaller than the cosmological horizon, but for scenarios in which the fluid has pressure this is no longer the case. In this article, we present the correspondence of perturbations in Newtonian and cosmological perturbation theory, showing exact mathematical equivalence for pressureless matter, and giving the relativistic corrections for matter with pressure. As an example, we study the case of scalar field dark matter which features non-zero pressure perturbations. We discuss some problems which may arise when evolving the perturbations in this model with Newtonian numerical simulations and with CMB Boltzmann codes
Charge distribution in an two-chain dual model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialkowski, K.; Kotanski, A.
1983-01-01
Charge distributions in the multiple production processes are analysed using the dual chain model. A parametrisation of charge distributions for single dual chains based on the νp and anti vp data is proposed. The rapidity charge distributions are then calculated for pp and anti pp collisions and compared with the previous calculations based on the recursive cascade model of single chains. The results differ at the SPS collider energies and in the energy dependence of the net forward charge supplying the useful tests of the dual chain model. (orig.)
Gravitational instantons as models for charged particle systems
Franchetti, Guido; Manton, Nicholas S.
2013-03-01
In this paper we propose ALF gravitational instantons of types A k and D k as models for charged particle systems. We calculate the charges of the two families. These are -( k + 1) for A k , which is proposed as a model for k + 1 electrons, and 2 - k for D k , which is proposed as a model for either a particle of charge +2 and k electrons or a proton and k - 1 electrons. Making use of preferred topological and metrical structures of the manifolds, namely metrically preferred representatives of middle dimension homology classes, we construct two different energy functionals which reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy for a system of charged particles.
Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faille I.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.
AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.
1994-01-01
This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices
Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles
Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur
2017-03-01
Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the
AIR INGRESS ANALYSIS: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; Hans Gougar; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang
2010-08-01
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the in-the core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of the lower plenum graphite can lead to a loss of structural support. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to the release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to a reactor safety. Computational fluid dynamic model developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD results for the quantitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. A portion of results of the density-driven stratified flow in the inlet pipe will be compared with results of the experimental results.
Numerical and experimental investigation on static electric charge model at stable cone-jet region
Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.
2018-03-01
In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...
Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict
Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R{sup n} gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana [University of Central Punjab, Faculty of Management Studies, Centre for Applicable Mathematics and Statistics, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-06-15
The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R{sup n} gravity. Using Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star. (orig.)
Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander M. Blokhin
2002-11-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.
Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Fluid-Induced Seismicity
Broccardo, M.; Mignan, A.; Wiemer, S.; Stojadinovic, B.; Giardini, D.
2017-11-01
In this study, we present a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model fluid-induced seismicity. The framework is based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with a fluid-induced seismicity rate proportional to the rate of injected fluid. The fluid-induced seismicity rate model depends upon a set of physically meaningful parameters and has been validated for six fluid-induced case studies. In line with the vision of hierarchical Bayesian modeling, the rate parameters are considered as random variables. We develop both the Bayesian inference and updating rules, which are used to develop a probabilistic forecasting model. We tested the Basel 2006 fluid-induced seismic case study to prove that the hierarchical Bayesian model offers a suitable framework to coherently encode both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability. Moreover, it provides a robust and consistent short-term seismic forecasting model suitable for online risk quantification and mitigation.
Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Chengxu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.
Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning
Fan Chengxu; Sun Zhaoyang; Xu Lan
2017-01-01
A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.
Generalized reduced fluid model with finite ion-gyroradius effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, C.T.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-04-01
Reduced fluid models have become important tools for studying the nonlinear dynamics of plasma in a large aspect-ratio tokamak. A self-consistent nonlinear reduced fluid model, with finite ion-gyroradius effects is presented. The model is distinctive in allowing for arbitrary beta and in satisfying an exact, relatively simple energy conservation law
The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V
2017-01-01
Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)
Multiscale modeling for fluid transport in nanosystems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jonathan W.; Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.
2013-09-01
Atomistic-scale behavior drives performance in many micro- and nano-fluidic systems, such as mircrofludic mixers and electrical energy storage devices. Bringing this information into the traditionally continuum models used for engineering analysis has proved challenging. This work describes one such approach to address this issue by developing atomistic-to-continuum multi scale and multi physics methods to enable molecular dynamics (MD) representations of atoms to incorporated into continuum simulations. Coupling is achieved by imposing constraints based on fluxes of conserved quantities between the two regions described by one of these models. The impact of electric fields and surface charges are also critical, hence, methodologies to extend finite-element (FE) MD electric field solvers have been derived to account for these effects. Finally, the continuum description can have inconsistencies with the coarse-grained MD dynamics, so FE equations based on MD statistics were derived to facilitate the multi scale coupling. Examples are shown relevant to nanofluidic systems, such as pore flow, Couette flow, and electric double layer.
Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per
. In fluid power motoring and pumping units, a significant problem is that loss mechanisms do not scale down with diminishing power throughput. Although machines can reach peak efficiencies above 95%, the actual efficiency during operation, which includes part-load situations, is much lower. The invention...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...
Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazighi, R.
1982-03-01
The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shen Min
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetrohelogical fluids (MRFs represent a class of smart materials whose rheological properties change in response to the magnetic field, which resulting in the drastic change of the acoustic impedance. This paper presents an acoustic propagation model that approximates a fluid-saturated porous medium as a fluid with a bulk modulus and effective density (EDFM to study the acoustic propagation in the MRF materials under magnetic field. The effective density fluid model derived from the Biot’s theory. Some minor changes to the theory had to be applied, modeling both fluid-like and solid-like state of the MRF material. The attenuation and velocity variation of the MRF are numerical calculated. The calculated results show that for the MRF material the attenuation and velocity predicted with this effective density fluid model are close agreement with the previous predictions by Biot’s theory. We demonstrate that for the MRF material acoustic prediction the effective density fluid model is an accurate alternative to full Biot’s theory and is much simpler to implement.
Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures
Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.
1976-01-01
The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.
Analytic Models for Sunlight Charging of a Rapidly Spinning Satellite
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tautz, Maurice
2003-01-01
... photoelectrons can be blocked by local potential barriers. In this report, we discuss two analytic models for sunlight charging of a rapidly spinning spherical satellite, both of which are based on blocked photoelectron currents...
Charge-coupled-device X-ray detector performance model
Bautz, M. W.; Berman, G. E.; Doty, J. P.; Ricker, G. R.
1987-01-01
A model that predicts the performance characteristics of CCD detectors being developed for use in X-ray imaging is presented. The model accounts for the interactions of both X-rays and charged particles with the CCD and simulates the transport and loss of charge in the detector. Predicted performance parameters include detective and net quantum efficiencies, split-event probability, and a parameter characterizing the effective thickness presented by the detector to cosmic-ray protons. The predicted performance of two CCDs of different epitaxial layer thicknesses is compared. The model predicts that in each device incomplete recovery of the charge liberated by a photon of energy between 0.1 and 10 keV is very likely to be accompanied by charge splitting between adjacent pixels. The implications of the model predictions for CCD data processing algorithms are briefly discussed.
Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen
2015-01-01
Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... based on shearing areas and venting channels. For fast acting valves the opposing fluid force may retard the valve performance significantly, if appropriate measures are not taken during the valve design. Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are available to simulate the total fluid...
Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo
2016-01-01
The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, which allows them to recover their costs while, at the same time, offer EV users a charging price which makes electro-mobility comparable to internal combustion engine vehicles. For that purpose, three scenarios are defined, which present different EV charging alternatives, in terms of charging power and charging station ownership and accessibility. A case study is presented for each scenario and the required charging station usage to have a profitable business model is calculated. We demonstrate that private home charging is likely to be the preferred option for EV users who can charge at home, as it offers a lower total cost of ownership under certain conditions, even today. On the contrary, finding a profitable business case for fast charging requires more intensive infrastructure usage. - Highlights: • Ecosystem is a network of actors who collaborate to create a positive business case. • Electro-mobility (electricity-powered road vehicles and ICT) is a complex ecosystem. • Methodological analysis to ensure that all actors benefit from electro-mobility. • Economic analysis of charging infrastructure deployment linked to its usage. • Comparison of EV ownership cost vs. ICE for vehicle users.
Modeling and control of magnetorheological fluid dampers using neural networks
Wang, D. H.; Liao, W. H.
2005-02-01
Due to the inherent nonlinear nature of magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers, one of the challenging aspects for utilizing these devices to achieve high system performance is the development of accurate models and control algorithms that can take advantage of their unique characteristics. In this paper, the direct identification and inverse dynamic modeling for MR fluid dampers using feedforward and recurrent neural networks are studied. The trained direct identification neural network model can be used to predict the damping force of the MR fluid damper on line, on the basis of the dynamic responses across the MR fluid damper and the command voltage, and the inverse dynamic neural network model can be used to generate the command voltage according to the desired damping force through supervised learning. The architectures and the learning methods of the dynamic neural network models and inverse neural network models for MR fluid dampers are presented, and some simulation results are discussed. Finally, the trained neural network models are applied to predict and control the damping force of the MR fluid damper. Moreover, validation methods for the neural network models developed are proposed and used to evaluate their performance. Validation results with different data sets indicate that the proposed direct identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can be used to predict the damping force accurately and the inverse identification dynamic model using the recurrent neural network can act as a damper controller to generate the command voltage when the MR fluid damper is used in a semi-active mode.
Introduction to fluid model for RHIC heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraya, Shin
2007-01-01
An introductory review of the fluid model which has been looked upon as the promising phenomenological model for the heavy ion scattering experiments at RHIC is presented here. Subjects are especially focused on the fundamental assumptions of the model and the decision process of the phenomenological parameters considering newcomers to hadron physics. Introduction of thermodynamical quantities, 1+1 dimension model, time-space evolution of fluid, correspondence of fluid to particles, initial condition, boundary condition and comparison of the equation of state of fluid model and that of hadron model are described. Limitation of fluid picture and the validity of the model are discussed finally. It is summarized that the present fluid model does not predict much about results in advance but gives interpretation after the event, nevertheless it reproduces much of the experimental results in natural form. It is expected that the parameter of the fluid model is to be used as the intermediate theory to relate experimental results with theory. (S. Funahashi)
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus
Pandey, S. K.; Tripathi, Dharmendra
2011-01-01
This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis N...
Approximate Riemann solver for the two-fluid plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Loverich, J.
2003-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the simulation of plasma dynamics using the two-fluid plasma model. The two-fluid plasma model is more general than the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model often used for plasma dynamic simulations. The two-fluid equations are derived in divergence form and an approximate Riemann solver is developed to compute the fluxes of the electron and ion fluids at the computational cell interfaces and an upwind characteristic-based solver to compute the electromagnetic fields. The source terms that couple the fluids and fields are treated implicitly to relax the stiffness. The algorithm is validated with the coplanar Riemann problem, Langmuir plasma oscillations, and the electromagnetic shock problem that has been simulated with the MHD plasma model. A numerical dispersion relation is also presented that demonstrates agreement with analytical plasma waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haoming Liu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available With the advance of battery energy technology, electric vehicles (EV are catching more and more attention. One of the influencing factors of electric vehicles large-scale application is the availability of charging stations and convenience of charging. It is important to investigate how to make reserving charging strategies and ensure electric vehicles are charged with shorter time and lower charging expense whenever charging request is proposed. This paper proposes a reserving charging decision-making model for electric vehicles that move to certain destinations and need charging services in consideration of traffic conditions and available charging resources at the charging stations. Besides, the interactive mechanism is described to show how the reserving charging system works, as well as the rolling records-based credit mechanism where extra charges from EV is considered to hedge default behavior. With the objectives of minimizing driving time and minimizing charging expenses, an optimization model with two objective functions is formulated. Then the optimizations are solved by a K shortest paths algorithm based on a weighted directed graph, where the time and distance factors are respectively treated as weights of corresponding edges of transportation networks. Case studies show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed route plan and reserving charging decision-making model.
Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model
Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg
2005-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.
Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.
2008-01-01
In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.
Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.
2006-01-01
The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed
Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model
M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches
Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model
M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an~overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a~connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches
Rotating fluid models in classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvieu, R.; Troudet, T.
1979-01-01
To describe the behavior of high-spin nuclei it is necessary to refer back to the classical mechanics of fluids in rotation where some results are general enough to apply to the rotational nuclear fluid. It is then shown that the quantum model of rotational oscillator gives a simple classification of rotating configurations [fr
Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails
Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda
2005-01-01
A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.
Atomistic Modeling of the Fluid-Solid Interface in Simple Fluids
Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas; Wang, Gerald
2017-11-01
Fluids can exhibit pronounced structuring effects near a solid boundary, typically manifested in a layered structure that has been extensively shown to directly affect transport across the interface. We present and discuss several results from molecular-mechanical modeling and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations aimed at characterizing the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid. We identify a new dimensionless group - termed the Wall number - which characterizes the degree of fluid layering, by comparing the competing effects of wall-fluid interaction and thermal energy. We find that in the layering regime, several key features of the first layer layer - including its distance from the solid, its width, and its areal density - can be described using mean-field-energy arguments, as well as asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation. For dense fluids, the areal density and the width of the first layer can be related to the bulk fluid density using a simple scaling relation. MD simulations show that these results are broadly applicable and robust to the presence of a second confining solid boundary, different choices of wall structure and thermalization, strengths of fluid-solid interaction, and wall geometries.
Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siambis, J.G.
1992-01-01
A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Conliffe
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study, based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy of inclusion oil, investigates the petroleum charge history at Parsons Pond, western Newfoundland. To address this matter, drill core and cuttings samples of allochthonous and autochthonous strata in the Parson’s Pond area were collected from three exploration wells. Fluid inclusions were examined from fragments of calcite and quartz veins, diagenetic cements in sandstone, and in large hydrothermal dolomite and calcite crystals. Primary aqueous inclusions in authigenic sandstone cements indicate that cementation occurred at relatively shallow depths and low temperatures (<50 °C. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (petroleum, wet gas and gas are generally restricted to calcite and quartz veins, indicating that petroleum and gas migration at Parson’s Pond is fracture-controlled. No hydrocarbons were observed in the diagenetic cements of the essentially tight sandstones. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy indicate the presence of multiple generations of hydrocarbon fluid, ranging in composition from ~33 API gravity petroleum to pure CH4. Petrographic evidence suggests that hydrocarbons were generated multiple times during progressive burial and heating. In addition, the distribution of hydrocarbon bearing inclusions with depth suggests that deeper levels are gas-prone, with petroleum confined to relatively shallow depths. Although only gas flow was encountered during the drilling of exploration wells at Parson’s Pond, the presence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions in calcite and quartz veins indicates that the historical production from shallow wells in the Parsons Pond area likely tapped small reservoirs of fractured petroliferous strata.
Electrostatic Model Applied to ISS Charged Water Droplet Experiment
Stevenson, Daan; Schaub, Hanspeter; Pettit, Donald R.
2015-01-01
The electrostatic force can be used to create novel relative motion between charged bodies if it can be isolated from the stronger gravitational and dissipative forces. Recently, Coulomb orbital motion was demonstrated on the International Space Station by releasing charged water droplets in the vicinity of a charged knitting needle. In this investigation, the Multi-Sphere Method, an electrostatic model developed to study active spacecraft position control by Coulomb charging, is used to simulate the complex orbital motion of the droplets. When atmospheric drag is introduced, the simulated motion closely mimics that seen in the video footage of the experiment. The electrostatic force's inverse dependency on separation distance near the center of the needle lends itself to analytic predictions of the radial motion.
Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns
Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland
2016-04-01
One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.
Simple standard model extension by heavy charged scalar
Boos, E.; Volobuev, I.
2018-05-01
We consider a Standard Model (SM) extension by a heavy charged scalar gauged only under the UY(1 ) weak hypercharge gauge group. Such an extension, being gauge invariant with respect to the SM gauge group, is a simple special case of the well-known Zee model. Since the interactions of the charged scalar with the Standard Model fermions turn out to be significantly suppressed compared to the Standard Model interactions, the charged scalar provides an example of a long-lived charged particle being interesting to search for at the LHC. We present the pair and single production cross sections of the charged scalar at different colliders and the possible decay widths for various boson masses. It is shown that the current ATLAS and CMS searches at 8 and 13 TeV collision energy lead to the bounds on the scalar boson mass of about 300-320 GeV. The limits are expected to be much larger for higher collision energies and, assuming 15 a b-1 integrated luminosity, reach about 2.7 TeV at future 27 TeV LHC thus covering the most interesting mass region.
Modeling space charge in beams for heavy-ion fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharp, W.M.
1995-01-01
A new analytic model is presented which accurately estimates the radially averaged axial component of the space-charge field of an axisymmetric heavy-ion beam in a cylindrical beam pipe. The model recovers details of the field near the beam ends that are overlooked by simpler models, and the results compare well to exact solutions of Poisson's equation. Field values are shown for several simple beam profiles and are compared with values obtained from simpler models
On Equilibria of the Two-fluid Model in Magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J.; Stratis, Ioannis G.; Yannacopoulos, Athanasios N.
2004-01-01
We show how the equilibria of the two-fluid model in magnetohydrodynamics can be described by the double curl equation and through the study of this equation we study some properties of these equilibria
Solid charged-core model of ball lightning
Muldrew, D. B.
2010-01-01
In this study, ball lightning (BL) is assumed to have a solid, positively-charged core. According to this underlying assumption, the core is surrounded by a thin electron layer with a charge nearly equal in magnitude to that of the core. A vacuum exists between the core and the electron layer containing an intense electromagnetic (EM) field which is reflected and guided by the electron layer. The microwave EM field applies a ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) to the electrons preventing them from falling into the core. The energetic electrons ionize the air next to the electron layer forming a neutral plasma layer. The electric-field distributions and their associated frequencies in the ball are determined by applying boundary conditions to a differential equation given by Stratton (1941). It is then shown that the electron and plasma layers are sufficiently thick and dense to completely trap and guide the EM field. This model of BL is exceptional in that it can explain all or nearly all of the peculiar characteristics of BL. The ES energy associated with the core charge can be extremely large which can explain the observations that occasionally BL contains enormous energy. The mass of the core prevents the BL from rising like a helium-filled balloon - a problem with most plasma and burning-gas models. The positively charged core keeps the negatively charged electron layer from diffusing away, i.e. it holds the ball together; other models do not have a mechanism to do this. The high electrical charges on the core and in the electron layer explains why some people have been electrocuted by BL. Experiments indicate that BL radiates microwaves upon exploding and this is consistent with the model. The fact that this novel model of BL can explain these and other observations is strong evidence that the model should be taken seriously.
Charge loss experiments in surface channel CCD's explained by the McWhorter interface states model
Penning De Vries, R.G.M.; Wallinga, Hans
1985-01-01
On the basis of the McWhorter interface states model the CCD charge loss is derived as a function of bias charge, signal charge and channel width. As opposed to existing models, the charge loss is now attributed to interface states in the entire gate area, even for high bias charge levels.
Charge and color breaking minima in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brhlik, Michal
2001-01-01
Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model include complicated scalar sectors leading to the possible occurrence of non-standard minima along suitable directions in the field space. These minima usually break charge and/or color and their presence in the theory would require an explanation why the universe has settled in the standard electroweak symmetry breaking minimum. In this talk I illustrate the relevance of the charge and color breaking minima in the framework of the minimal supergravity model and a string motivated Horava-Witten scenario
Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming
2013-01-01
The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors
Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems
Parvini, Yasha
The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems
Probing the Importance of Charge Flux in Force Field Modeling.
Sedghamiz, Elaheh; Nagy, Balazs; Jensen, Frank
2017-08-08
We analyze the conformational dependence of atomic charges and molecular dipole moments for a selection of ∼900 conformations of peptide models of the 20 neutral amino acids. Based on a set of reference density functional theory calculations, we partition the changes into effects due to changes in bond distances, bond angles, and torsional angles and into geometry and charge flux contributions. This allows an assessment of the limitations of fixed charge force fields and indications for how to design improved force fields. The torsional degrees of freedom are the main contribution to conformational changes of atomic charges and molecular dipole moments, but indirect effects due to change in bond distances and angles account for ∼25% of the variation. Charge flux effects dominate for changes in bond distances and are also the main component of the variation in bond angles, while they are ∼25% compared to the geometry variations for torsional degrees of freedom. The geometry and charge flux contributions to some extent produce compensating effects.
Models of charge pair generation in organic solar cells.
Few, Sheridan; Frost, Jarvist M; Nelson, Jenny
2015-01-28
Efficient charge pair generation is observed in many organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunctions, despite nominal electron-hole binding energies which greatly exceed the average thermal energy. Empirically, the efficiency of this process appears to be related to the choice of donor and acceptor materials, the resulting sequence of excited state energy levels and the structure of the interface. In order to establish a suitable physical model for the process, a range of different theoretical studies have addressed the nature and energies of the interfacial states, the energetic profile close to the heterojunction and the dynamics of excited state transitions. In this paper, we review recent developments underpinning the theory of charge pair generation and phenomena, focussing on electronic structure calculations, electrostatic models and approaches to excited state dynamics. We discuss the remaining challenges in achieving a predictive approach to charge generation efficiency.
Space-Charge-Limited Emission Models for Particle Simulation
Verboncoeur, J. P.; Cartwright, K. L.; Murphy, T.
2004-11-01
Space-charge-limited (SCL) emission of electrons from various materials is a common method of generating the high current beams required to drive high power microwave (HPM) sources. In the SCL emission process, sufficient space charge is extracted from a surface, often of complicated geometry, to drive the electric field normal to the surface close to zero. The emitted current is highly dominated by space charge effects as well as ambient fields near the surface. In this work, we consider computational models for the macroscopic SCL emission process including application of Gauss's law and the Child-Langmuir law for space-charge-limited emission. Models are described for ideal conductors, lossy conductors, and dielectrics. Also considered is the discretization of these models, and the implications for the emission physics. Previous work on primary and dual-cell emission models [Watrous et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 289-296 (2001)] is reexamined, and aspects of the performance, including fidelity and noise properties, are improved. Models for one-dimensional diodes are considered, as well as multidimensional emitting surfaces, which include corners and transverse fields.
Yu, Alex; Jackson, Trachette; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Koenigsknecht, Mark; Wysocki, Jeffrey; Marciani, Luca; Amidon, Gordon L; Frances, Ann; Baker, Jason R; Hasler, William; Wen, Bo; Pai, Amit; Sun, Duxin
2017-11-01
Gastrointestinal (GI) fluid volume and its dynamic change are integral to study drug disintegration, dissolution, transit, and absorption. However, key questions regarding the local volume and its absorption, secretion, and transit remain unanswered. The dynamic fluid compartment absorption and transit (DFCAT) model is proposed to estimate in vivo GI volume and GI fluid transport based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantified fluid volume. The model was validated using GI local concentration of phenol red in human GI tract, which was directly measured by human GI intubation study after oral dosing of non-absorbable phenol red. The measured local GI concentration of phenol red ranged from 0.05 to 168 μg/mL (stomach), to 563 μg/mL (duodenum), to 202 μg/mL (proximal jejunum), and to 478 μg/mL (distal jejunum). The DFCAT model characterized observed MRI fluid volume and its dynamic changes from 275 to 46.5 mL in stomach (from 0 to 30 min) with mucus layer volume of 40 mL. The volumes of the 30 small intestine compartments were characterized by a max of 14.98 mL to a min of 0.26 mL (0-120 min) and a mucus layer volume of 5 mL per compartment. Regional fluid volumes over 0 to 120 min ranged from 5.6 to 20.38 mL in the proximal small intestine, 36.4 to 44.08 mL in distal small intestine, and from 42 to 64.46 mL in total small intestine. The DFCAT model can be applied to predict drug dissolution and absorption in the human GI tract with future improvements.
A charge-based model of Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers
Latorre-Rey, Alvaro D.; Mudholkar, Mihir; Quddus, Mohammed T.; Salih, Ali
2018-06-01
A new charge-based model of the electric field distribution for Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes is presented, based on the description of the charge-sharing effect between the vertical Schottky junction and the lateral pn-junctions that constitute the active cell of the device. In our model, the inherently 2-D problem is transformed into a simple but accurate 1-D problem which has a closed analytical solution that captures the reshaping and reduction of the electric field profile responsible for the improved electrical performance of these devices, while preserving physically meaningful expressions that depend on relevant device parameters. The validation of the model is performed by comparing calculated electric field profiles with drift-diffusion simulations of a JBS device showing good agreement. Even though other fully 2-D models already available provide higher accuracy, they lack physical insight making the proposed model an useful tool for device design.
A dynamic neutral fluid model for the PIC scheme
Wu, Alan; Lieberman, Michael; Verboncoeur, John
2010-11-01
Fluid diffusion is an important aspect of plasma simulation. A new dynamic model is implemented using the continuity and boundary equations in OOPD1, an object oriented one-dimensional particle-in-cell code developed at UC Berkeley. The model is described and compared with analytical methods given in [1]. A boundary absorption parameter can be adjusted from ideal absorption to ideal reflection. Simulations exhibit good agreement with analytic time dependent solutions for the two ideal cases, as well as steady state solutions for mixed cases. For the next step, fluid sources and sinks due to particle-particle or particle-fluid collisions within the simulation volume and to surface reactions resulting in emission or absorption of fluid species will be implemented. The resulting dynamic interaction between particle and fluid species will be an improvement to the static fluid in the existing code. As the final step in the development, diffusion for multiple fluid species will be implemented. [4pt] [1] M.A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 2005.
Charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 759–763. Charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs boson decays and measurement of tan β at the compact linear collider. E CONIAVITIS and A FERRARI∗. Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden. ∗E-mail: ferrari@tsl.uu.se. Abstract.
Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces
Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.
2012-01-01
We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor
Computer simulation study of water using a fluctuating charge model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Typically, the simulated diffusion constants are larger, and relaxation times smaller than .... where λi is the Lagrange multiplier for the charge neutrality constraint. As the .... For a geometrically rigid model such as SPC, the integral turns out to ...
Fluid flow modeling in complex areas*, **
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poullet Pascal
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We show first results of 3D simulation of sea currents in a realistic context. We use the full Navier–Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluid. The problem is solved using a second order incremental projection method associated with the finite volume of the staggered (MAC scheme for the spatial discretization. After validation on classical cases, it is used in a numerical simulation of the Pointe à Pitre harbour area. The use of the fictious domain method permits us to take into account the complexity of bathymetric data and allows us to work with regular meshes and thus preserves the efficiency essential for a 3D code. Dans cette étude, nous présentons les premiers résultats de simulation d’un écoulement d’un fluide incompressible visqueux dans un contexte environnemental réel. L’approche utilisée utilise une méthode de domaines fictifs pour une prise en compte d’un domaine physique tridimensionnel très irrégulier. Le schéma numérique combine un schéma de projection incrémentale et des volumes finis utilisant des volumes de contrôle adaptés à un maillage décalé. Les tests de validation sont menés pour les cas tests de la cavité double entraînée ainsi que l’écoulement dans un canal avec un obstacle placé de manière asymmétrique.
A computational model for doctoring fluid films in gravure printing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hariprasad, Daniel S., E-mail: dshari@unm.edu [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Grau, Gerd [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1770 (United States); Schunk, P. Randall [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0826 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto [Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States)
2016-04-07
The wiping, or doctoring, process in gravure printing presents a fundamental barrier to resolving the micron-sized features desired in printed electronics applications. This barrier starts with the residual fluid film left behind after wiping, and its importance grows as feature sizes are reduced, especially as the feature size approaches the thickness of the residual fluid film. In this work, various mechanical complexities are considered in a computational model developed to predict the residual fluid film thickness. Lubrication models alone are inadequate, and deformation of the doctor blade body together with elastohydrodynamic lubrication must be considered to make the model predictive of experimental trends. Moreover, model results demonstrate that the particular form of the wetted region of the blade has a significant impact on the model's ability to reproduce experimental measurements.
Gyro-Landau fluid model of tokamak core fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Hedrick, C.L.; Sidikman, K.L.; Lynch, V.E.; Drake, J.B.; Walker, D.W.
1992-01-01
Dissipative trapped electron modes (DTEM) may be one of the causes of deterioration of confinement in tokamak and stellatator plasmas. We have implemented a fluid model to study DTEM turbulence in slab geometry. The electron dynamics include in addition to the adiabatic part, a non-adiabatic piece modeled with an i-delta-type response. The ion dynamics include Landau damping and FLR corrections through Landau fluid approximate techniques and Pade approximants for Γ 0 (b)=I 0 (b)e -b . The model follows from the gyrokinetic equation. Evolution equations, which closely resemble those used in standard reduced MHD, are presented since these are better suited to non-linear calculations. The numerical results of radially resolved calculations will be discussed. A recently developed hybrid model, which consists of a gyrokinetic implementation for the ions using particles and the same description for the electron dynamics as in the fluid model, will also be presented
Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fluid Network
Majumdar, Alok
2004-01-01
Fluid network modeling with conjugate heat transfer has many applications in Aerospace engineering. In modeling unsteady flow with heat transfer, it is important to know the variation of wall temperature in time and space to calculate heat transfer between solid to fluid. Since wall temperature is a function of flow, a coupled analysis of temperature of solid and fluid is necessary. In cryogenic applications, modeling of conjugate heat transfer is of great importance to correctly predict boil-off rate in propellant tanks and chill down of transfer lines. In TFAWS 2003, the present author delivered a paper to describe a general-purpose computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program). GFSSP calculates flow distribution in complex flow circuit for compressible/incompressible, with or without heat transfer or phase change in all real fluids or mixtures. The flow circuit constitutes of fluid nodes and branches. The mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes where as momentum conservation equations are solved at the branches. The proposed paper describes the extension of GFSSP to model conjugate heat transfer. The network also includes solid nodes and conductors in addition to fluid nodes and branches. The energy conservation equations for solid nodes solves to determine the temperatures of the solid nodes simultaneously with all conservation equations governing fluid flow. The numerical scheme accounts for conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. The paper will also describe the applications of the code to predict chill down of cryogenic transfer line and boil-off rate of cryogenic propellant storage tank.
Local lattice-gas model for immiscible fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.; Doolen, G.D.; Eggert, K.; Grunau, D.; Loh, E.Y.
1991-01-01
We present a lattice-gas model for two-dimensional immiscible fluid flows with surface tension that uses strictly local collision rules. Instead of using a local total color flux as Somers and Rem [Physica D 47, 39 (1991)], we use local colored holes to be the memory of particles of the same color. Interactions between walls and fluids are included that produce arbitrary contact angles
A Modeling of Compressible Droplets in a Fluid
Boudin, Laurent; Desvilletter, Laurent; Motte, Renaud
2003-01-01
In this work, we are interested in a complex fluid-kinetic model that aims to take into account the compressibility of the droplets of the spray. The ambient fluid is described by Euler-like equations, in which the transfer of momentum and energy form the droplets is taken into account, while the spray is represented by a probability density function satisfying a Vlasov-like equation. Implicit terms crop up because of the compressibility of the droplets. After having derived...
Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion
Zeytounian, Radyadour K
1991-01-01
The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.
Momentum and charge transport in non-relativistic holographic fluids from Hořava gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davison, Richard A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Grozdanov, Sašo [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Janiszewski, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Kaminski, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)
2016-11-28
We study the linearized transport of transverse momentum and charge in a conjectured field theory dual to a black brane solution of Hořava gravity with Lifshitz exponent z=1. As expected from general hydrodynamic reasoning, we find that both of these quantities are diffusive over distance and time scales larger than the inverse temperature. We compute the diffusion constants and conductivities of transverse momentum and charge, as well the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, and find that they differ from their relativistic counterparts. To derive these results, we propose how the holographic dictionary should be modified to deal with the multiple horizons and differing propagation speeds of bulk excitations in Hořava gravity. When possible, as a check on our methods and results, we use the covariant Einstein-Aether formulation of Hořava gravity, along with field redefinitions, to re-derive our results from a relativistic bulk theory.
Four-fluid model of PWR degraded cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dearing, J.F.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the new two-dimensional, four-fluid fluid dynamics and heat transfer (FLUIDS) module of the MELPROG code. MELPROG is designed to give an integrated, mechanistic treatment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) core meltdown accidents from accident initiation to vessel melt-through. The code has a modular data storage and transfer structure, with each module providing the others with boundary conditions at each computational time step. Thus the FLUIDS module receives mass and energy source terms from the fuel pin module, the structures module, and the debris bed module, and radiation energy source terms from the radiation module. MELPROG, which models the reactor vessel, is also designed to model the vessel as a component in the TRAC/PF1 networking solution of a PWR reactor coolant system (RCS). The coupling between TRAC and MELPROG is implicit in the fluid dynamics of the reactor coolant (liquid water and steam) allowing an accurate simulation of the coupling between the vessel and the rest of the RCS during an accident. This paper deals specifically with the numerical model of fluid dynamics and heat transfer within the reactor vessel, which allows a much more realistic simulation (with less restrictive assumptions on physical behavior) of the accident than has been possible before
Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models
Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo
2016-01-01
The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, w...
Dynamic Modeling of ThermoFluid Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Munch
2003-01-01
The objective of the present study has been to developed dynamic models for two-phase flow in pipes (evaporation and condensation). Special attention has been given to modeling evaporators for refrigeration plant particular dry-expansion evaporators. Models of different complexity have been...... formulated. The different models deviate with respect to the detail¿s included and calculation time in connection with simulation. The models have been implemented in a new library named ThermoTwoPhase to the programming language Modelica. A test rig has been built with an evaporator instrumented in a way...
Modeling the Electric Potential and Surface Charge Density near Charged Thunderclouds
Neel, Matthew Stephen
2018-01-01
Thundercloud charge separation, or the process by which the bottom portion of a cloud gathers charge and the top portion of the cloud gathers the opposite charge, is still not thoroughly understood. Whatever the mechanism, though, a charge separation definitely exists and can lead to electrostatic discharge via cloud-to-cloud lightning and…
A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Pandey
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.
Laszlo Tisza and the two-fluid model of superfluidity
Balibar, Sébastien
2017-11-01
The "two-fluid model" of superfluidity was first introduced by Laszlo Tisza in 1938. On that year, Tisza published the principles of his model as a brief note in Nature and two articles in French in the Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, followed in 1940 by two other articles in French in the Journal de physique et le Radium. In 1941, the two-fluid model was reformulated by Lev Landau on a more rigorous basis. Successive experiments confirmed the revolutionary idea introduced by Tisza: superfluid helium is indeed a surprising mixture of two fluids with independent velocity fields. His prediction of the existence of heat waves, a consequence of his model, was also confirmed. Then, it took several decades for the superfluidity of liquid helium to be fully understood.
Extended two-fluid model for simulating magneto-rheological fluid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivaram, A C
2011-01-01
The current practice of designing magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based devices is, to a large extent, based on simple phenomenological models like the Bingham model. Though useful for initial force or torque estimation and sizing, these models lack the capability to predict performance degradation due to changes in the particle volume fraction distribution. The present work demonstrates the use of the two-fluid model for predicting the particle volume fraction distribution inside a device in the absence of a field and proposes a novel modeling scheme which can simulate the fluid flow in the presence of a field. This modeling scheme can be used to (a) visualize flow patterns inside a device under various operating conditions, (b) predict the spatial distribution of particles inside a device after multiple operating cycles, (c) assist in estimating the extent of performance degradation due to non-uniform particle distribution and (d) enable testing of various design strategies to mitigate such performance issues using simulations. This is illustrated through numerical examples of a few case studies of typical MR device configurations
Physical modelling and the poroelastic model with application to fluid detection in a VTI medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Shengjie
2013-01-01
In this paper, both poroelasticity theory and pre-stack inversions have been combined to generate a flexible way to derive an effective fluid factor, which is then used to identify the presence of the hydrocarbon in weakly anisotropic VTI reservoirs. The effective fluid factor has been derived by using an approximate fluid substitution equation for anisotropic VTI media. The approximate equation provides a means of performing fluid substitution for elastic moduli along the vertical symmetry axis of a VTI medium with fewer elastic moduli. The effective fluid factor can be used to analyse the sensitivity of seismic attributes to fluid content. In order to examine the effectiveness of the effective fluid factor, an anisotropic physical model has been constructed. The rock properties of artificial sandstone used as a reservoir building material are properly selected by using an empirical model and Gassmann's equation. An effort is made to ensure the physical modelling data represent the 'true’ response of different fluid-filled sands. The fluid detection method is then applied to interpret the inverted seismic impedance obtained from physical modelling seismic data with some known gas-sands and wet-sands. The results shows that the interpretive resolution of seismic fluid detection has been dramatically improved by using the effective fluid factor. In addition, more information on lateral changes in fluid content can be distinguished. This study has demonstrated the potential of this method in detecting different fluid content in weakly anisotropic VTI reservoirs. (paper)
Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.
1993-01-01
This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,
Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1988-01-01
The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs
Flow modelling of a newtonian fluid by two regions- the region of pure fluid and porous region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da
1983-01-01
A model of flow with two regions is presented using mixture theory. One region contains only pure fluid and the other a mixture of fluid and porous rigid solid. Compatibility conditons on the pure fluid-mixture interface are carefully discussed. The theory is used to solve a problem of a flow induced by pressure gradient and helicoidal motion of an impermeable cylinder on two rings one of pure fluid and another of mixture. (Author) [pt
Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios
. The background and main targets for this thesis are presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, a comprehensive review of the application of group contribution (GC) models such as various forms of UNIFAC and the so-called AFC (Atom and Fragment Contributions) correlation model for Pow (octanol-water partition...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sussman, R.A.
1988-01-01
The topology of the solutions derived in Part I [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1118 (1987)] is discussed in detail using suitable topological embeddings. It is found that these solutions are homeomorphic to S 3 x R, R 4 , or S 2 x R 2 . Singularities and boundaries in these manifolds are examined within a global framework. One of these boundaries (mentioned but not examined in Part II) is regular (though unphysical), and is associated with an ''asymptotically de Sitter'' behavior characterized by an exponential form of the Hubble scale factor. Solutions with S 2 x R 2 topology lack a center of symmetry [fixed point of SO(3)] and present a null boundary at an infinite affine parameter distance along hypersurfaces orthogonal to the four-velocity. This boundary, which in most cases is singular, can be identified as a null I-script surface arising as an asymptotical null limit of timelike hypersurfaces. Solutions with this topology, matched to a Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstr≅m region, describe collapsing fluid spheres whose ''surface'' (as seen by observers in the vacuum region) has finite proper radius, but whose ''interior'' is a fluid region of cosmological proportions. In the case when the null boundary of the fluid region is singular, it behaves as a sort of ''white hole.'' Uniform density solutions which are not conformally flat are all homeomorphic to S 2 x R 2 . Conformally flat solutions are also examined in detail. Their global structure has common features with those of FRW and de Sitter solutions. The static limits of all nonstatic solutions are discussed. In particular, under suitable parameter restrictions, some of these static solutions, together with the nonstatic conformally flat subclass, are the less physically objectionable of all solutions
Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model
Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.
2018-05-01
With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.
Modelling Emission from Building Materials with Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per
This paper presents a numerical model that by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is capable of dealing with both pollutant transport across the boundary layer and internal diffusion in the source without prior knowledge of which is the limiting process. The model provides the concentration...
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-08-15
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
Statistical mechanics of a one-component fluid of charged hard rods in 1D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vericat, F.; Blum, L.
1986-09-01
The statistical mechanics of a classical one component system of charged hard rods in a neutralizing background is investigated in 1D stressing on the effects of the hard core interactions over the thermodynamic and the structure of the system. The crystalline status of the system at all temperatures and densities and the absence of phase transitions is shown by extending previous results of Baxter and Kunz on the one-component plasma of point particles. Explicit expressions for the thermodynamic functions and the one-particle correlation function are given in the limits of small and strong couplings. (author)
Zhou, Jing; Chen Chi Ping
2005-01-01
A new class of equilibrium is discovered for a large-aspect-ratio ellipse-shaped charged-particle beam in a non-axisymmetric periodic permanent magnet focusing field. A paraxial cold-fluid model is employed to derive the equilibrium flow properties and generalized envelope equations with negligibly small emittance. A periodic beam equilibrium solution is obtained numerically from the generalized envelope equations. It is shown that the beam edges are well confined in both transverse directions, and that the equilibrium beam exhibits a small-angle periodic wobble as it propagates. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PFB2D, is used to verify the theoretical predictions in the paraxial limit, and to establish validity under non-paraxial situations and the influence of the conductor walls of the beam tunnel.
Modeling of Non-Isothermal Cryogenic Fluid Sloshing
Agui, Juan H.; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
A computational fluid dynamic model was used to simulate the thermal destratification in an upright self-pressurized cryostat approximately half-filled with liquid nitrogen and subjected to forced sinusoidal lateral shaking. A full three-dimensional computational grid was used to model the tank dynamics, fluid flow and thermodynamics using the ANSYS Fluent code. A non-inertial grid was used which required the addition of momentum and energy source terms to account for the inertial forces, energy transfer and wall reaction forces produced by the shaken tank. The kinetics-based Schrage mass transfer model provided the interfacial mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation at the sloshing interface. The dynamic behavior of the sloshing interface, its amplitude and transition to different wave modes, provided insight into the fluid process at the interface. The tank pressure evolution and temperature profiles compared relatively well with the shaken cryostat experimental test data provided by the Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Wan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the “charge regulation” behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ζ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surface-nonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Optimization of morphing flaps based on fluid structure interaction modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barlas, Athanasios; Akay, Busra
2018-01-01
This article describes the design optimization of morphing trailing edge flaps for wind turbines with ‘smart blades’. A high fidelity Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation framework is utilized, comprised of 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models....... A coupled aero-structural simulation of a 10% chordwise length morphing trailing edge flap for a 4 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out and response surfaces are produced with respect to the flap internal geometry design parameters for the design conditions. Surrogate model based optimization is applied...
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Two-fluid model for locomotion under self-confinement
Reigh, Shang Yik; Lauga, Eric
2017-09-01
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes ulcers in the stomach of humans by invading mucus layers protecting epithelial cells. It does so by chemically changing the rheological properties of the mucus from a high-viscosity gel to a low-viscosity solution in which it may self-propel. We develop a two-fluid model for this process of swimming under self-generated confinement. We solve exactly for the flow and the locomotion speed of a spherical swimmer located in a spherically symmetric system of two Newtonian fluids whose boundary moves with the swimmer. We also treat separately the special case of an immobile outer fluid. In all cases, we characterize the flow fields, their spatial decay, and the impact of both the viscosity ratio and the degree of confinement on the locomotion speed of the model swimmer. The spatial decay of the flow retains the same power-law decay as for locomotion in a single fluid but with a decreased magnitude. Independent of the assumption chosen to characterize the impact of confinement on the actuation applied by the swimmer, its locomotion speed always decreases with an increase in the degree of confinement. Our modeling results suggest that a low-viscosity region of at least six times the effective swimmer size is required to lead to swimming with speeds similar to locomotion in an infinite fluid, corresponding to a region of size above ≈25 μ m for Helicobacter pylori.
Thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model.
Galliero, Guillaume; Boned, Christian
2009-12-01
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to estimate, analyze, and correlate the thermal conductivity of a fluid composed of short Lennard-Jones chains (up to 16 segments) over a large range of thermodynamic conditions. It is shown that the dilute gas contribution to the thermal conductivity decreases when the chain length increases for a given temperature. In dense states, simulation results indicate that the residual thermal conductivity of the monomer increases strongly with density, but is weakly dependent on the temperature. Compared to the monomer value, it has been noted that the residual thermal conductivity of the chain was slightly decreasing with its length. Using these results, an empirical relation, including a contribution due to the critical enhancement, is proposed to provide an accurate estimation of the thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model (up to 16 segments) over the domain 0.8values of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model merge on the same "universal" curve when plotted as a function of the excess entropy. Furthermore, it is shown that the reduced configurational thermal conductivity of the Lennard-Jones chain fluid model is approximately proportional to the reduced excess entropy for all fluid states and all chain lengths.
Conceptual models of microseismicity induced by fluid injection
Baro Urbea, J.; Lord-May, C.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Joern, D.
2017-12-01
Variations in the pore pressure due to fluid invasion are accountable for microseismic activity recorded in geothermal systems and during hydraulic fracturing operations. To capture this phenomenon on a conceptual level, invasion percolation models have been suggested to represent the flow network of fluids within a porous media and seismic activity is typically considered to be directly related to the expansion of the percolated area. Although such models reproduce scale-free frequency-magnitude distributions, the associated b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation do not align with observed data. Here, we propose an alternative conceptual invasion percolation model that decouples the fluid propagation from the microseismic events. Instead of a uniform pressure, the pressure is modeled to decay along the distance from the injection site. Wet fracture events are simulated with a stochastic spring block model exhibiting stick-slip dynamics as a result of the variations of the pore pressure. We show that the statistics of the stick-slip events are scale-free, but now the b-values depend on the level of heterogeneity in the local static friction coefficients. Thus, this model is able to reproduce the wide spectrum of b-values observed in field catalogs associated with fluid induced microseismicity. Moreover, the spatial distribution of microseismic events is also consistent with observations.
A preon model with hidden electric and magnetic type charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J.C.; Strathdee, J.
1980-11-01
The U(1) x U(1) binding forces in an earlier preonic composite model of quarks and leptons are interpreted as arising from hidden electric and magnetic type charges. The preons may possess intrinsic spin zero; the half-integer spins of the composites being contributed by the force field. The quark-lepton gauge symmetry is interpreted as an effective low-energy symmetry arising at the composite level. Some remarks are made regarding the possible composite nature of the graviton. (author)
A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori
Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.
Multiscale Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow
2016-08-01
was compared to the original equilibrium volume of the neat solvent as a measure of the solubility of carbon dioxide and ammonia in pure water and...temperature and two-temperature models has been used, in which either local thermal equilibrium ( LTE ) between PCM and foams was assumed, or the...solved in the simulations. 6.2.2 Direct Numerical Simulation of PCM in Foam Without the need for extra ad hoc assumptions such as LTE , direct
Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam
Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.
2016-01-01
Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.
Lattice Boltzmann model for three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow
Xie, Chiyu; Lei, Wenhai; Wang, Moran
2018-02-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) framework is developed for simulation of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flows in complex geometries. This model is based on a Rothman-Keller type model for immiscible multiphase flows which ensures mass conservation of each component in porous media even for a high density ratio. To account for the viscoelastic effects, the Maxwell constitutive relation is correctly introduced into the momentum equation, which leads to a modified lattice Boltzmann evolution equation for Maxwell fluids by removing the normal but excess viscous term. Our simulation tests indicate that this excess viscous term may induce significant errors. After three benchmark cases, the displacement processes of oil by dispersed polymer are studied as a typical example of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow. The results show that increasing either the polymer intrinsic viscosity or the elastic modulus will enhance the oil recovery.
Development of models of the magnetorheological fluid damper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazakov, Yu.B., E-mail: elmash@em.ispu.ru; Morozov, N.A.; Nesterov, S.A., E-mail: sergeinesterov37@gmail.com
2017-06-01
The algorithm for analytical calculation of a power characteristic of magnetorheological (MR) dampers taking into account the rheological properties of MR fluid is considered. The nonlinear magnetorheological characteristics are represented by piecewise linear approximation to MR fluid areas with different viscosities. The extended calculated power characteristics of a MR damper are received and they coincide with actual results. The finite element model of a MR damper is developed; it allows carrying out the analysis of a MR damper taking into account the mutual influence of electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and thermal fields. The results of finite element simulation coincide with analytical solutions that allows using them for design development of a MR damper. - Highlights: • Division of a MR fluid rheological curve into two sections with different viscosities. • Algorithm for calculation of a power characteristic of MR dampers is proposed. • Finite element model of a MR damper is developed. • Results of finite element simulation coincide with analytical solutions.
Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates
Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.
2010-01-01
The charge-spot technique for modeling the static electric forces acting between charged fine particles entails treating electric charges on individual particles as small sets of discrete point charges, located near their surfaces. This is in contrast to existing models, which assume a single charge per particle. The charge-spot technique more accurately describes the forces, torques, and moments that act on triboelectrically charged particles, especially image-charge forces acting near conducting surfaces. The discrete element method (DEM) simulation uses a truncation range to limit the number of near-neighbor charge spots via a shifted and truncated potential Coulomb interaction. The model can be readily adapted to account for induced dipoles in uncharged particles (and thus dielectrophoretic forces) by allowing two charge spots of opposite signs to be created in response to an external electric field. To account for virtual overlap during contacts, the model can be set to automatically scale down the effective charge in proportion to the amount of virtual overlap of the charge spots. This can be accomplished by mimicking the behavior of two real overlapping spherical charge clouds, or with other approximate forms. The charge-spot method much more closely resembles real non-uniform surface charge distributions that result from tribocharging than simpler approaches, which just assign a single total charge to a particle. With the charge-spot model, a single particle may have a zero net charge, but still have both positive and negative charge spots, which could produce substantial forces on the particle when it is close to other charges, when it is in an external electric field, or when near a conducting surface. Since the charge-spot model can contain any number of charges per particle, can be used with only one or two charge spots per particle for simulating charging from solar wind bombardment, or with several charge spots for simulating triboelectric charging
Landau fluid model for weakly nonlinear dispersive magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.
2005-01-01
In may astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind, the terrestrial magnetosphere, or in the interstellar medium at small enough scales, collisions are negligible. When interested in the large-scale dynamics, a hydrodynamic approach is advantageous not only because its numerical simulations is easier than of the full Vlasov-Maxwell equations, but also because it provides a deep understanding of cross-scale nonlinear couplings. It is thus of great interest to construct fluid models that extended the classical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to collisionless situations. Two ingredients need to be included in such a model to capture the main kinetic effects: finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and Landau damping, the only fluid-particle resonance that can affect large scales and can be modeled in a relatively simple way. The Modelization of Landau damping in a fluid formalism is hardly possible in the framework of a systematic asymptotic expansion and was addressed mainly by means of parameter fitting in a linearized setting. We introduced a similar Landau fluid model but, that has the advantage of taking dispersive effects into account. This model properly describes dispersive MHD waves in quasi-parallel propagation. Since, by construction, the system correctly reproduces their linear dynamics, appropriate tests should address the nonlinear regime. In a first case, we show analytically that the weakly nonlinear modulational dynamics of quasi-parallel propagating Alfven waves is well captured. As a second test we consider the parametric decay instability of parallel Alfven waves and show that numerical simulations of the dispersive Landau fluid model lead to results that closely match the outcome of hybrid simulations. (Author)
A MODEL FOR THE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED CURRENT SHEET OF A PULSAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Black, C. E. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Harding, A. K.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Kazanas, D.; Timokhin, A. N., E-mail: c.richard.devore@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2015-03-10
Global-scale solutions for the magnetosphere of a pulsar consist of a region of low-lying, closed magnetic field near the star, bounded by opposite-polarity regions of open magnetic field along which the pulsar wind flows into space. Separating these open-field regions is a magnetic discontinuity—an electric current sheet—consisting of generally nonneutral plasma. We have developed a self-consistent model for the internal equilibrium structure of the sheet by generalizing the charge-neutral Vlasov/Maxwell equilibria of Harris and Hoh to allow for net electric charge. The resulting equations for the electromagnetic field are solved analytically and numerically. Our results show that the internal thermal pressure needed to establish equilibrium force balance, and the associated effective current-sheet thickness and magnetization, can differ by orders of magnitude from the Harris/Hoh charge-neutral limit. The new model provides a starting point for kinetic or fluid investigations of instabilities that can cause magnetic reconnection and flaring in pulsar magnetospheres.
Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.
1994-08-01
We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs
On well-posedness of variational models of charged drops.
Muratov, Cyrill B; Novaga, Matteo
2016-03-01
Electrified liquids are well known to be prone to a variety of interfacial instabilities that result in the onset of apparent interfacial singularities and liquid fragmentation. In the case of electrically conducting liquids, one of the basic models describing the equilibrium interfacial configurations and the onset of instability assumes the liquid to be equipotential and interprets those configurations as local minimizers of the energy consisting of the sum of the surface energy and the electrostatic energy. Here we show that, surprisingly, this classical geometric variational model is mathematically ill-posed irrespective of the degree to which the liquid is electrified. Specifically, we demonstrate that an isolated spherical droplet is never a local minimizer, no matter how small is the total charge on the droplet, as the energy can always be lowered by a smooth, arbitrarily small distortion of the droplet's surface. This is in sharp contrast to the experimental observations that a critical amount of charge is needed in order to destabilize a spherical droplet. We discuss several possible regularization mechanisms for the considered free boundary problem and argue that well-posedness can be restored by the inclusion of the entropic effects resulting in finite screening of free charges.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Expressions for linearized perturbations in ideal-fluid cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratra, B.
1988-01-01
We present closed-form solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations (in synchronous gauge) that govern the evolution of inhomogeneities in homogeneous, spatially flat, ideal-fluid, cosmological models. These expressions, which are valid for irregularities on any scale, allow one to analytically interpolate between the known approximate solutions which are valid at early times and at late times
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of Blood Under Periodic Body Acceleration. ... The variation in body acceleration amplitude though affects the velocity profile in the capillary tubes, it has no effect on the leakback in the tubes. Leakback is mainly determined by the balance of the viscous drag and ...
A Unified Channel Charges Expression for Analytic MOSFET Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugues Murray
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on a 1D Poissons equation resolution, we present an analytic model of inversion charges allowing calculation of the drain current and transconductance in the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. The drain current and transconductance are described by analytical functions including mobility corrections and short channel effects (CLM, DIBL. The comparison with the Pao-Sah integral shows excellent accuracy of the model in all inversion modes from strong to weak inversion in submicronics MOSFET. All calculations are encoded with a simple C program and give instantaneous results that provide an efficient tool for microelectronics users.
Modeling fluid transport in 2d paper networks
Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Fereira Silva, Ademir; Esteves Ferreira, Matheus; Lopez Candela, William Fernando; Bryant, Peter William; Ohta, Ricardo Luis; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias Bernhard
2018-02-01
Paper-based microfluidic devices offer great potential as a low-cost platform to perform chemical and biochemical tests. Commercially available formats such as dipsticks and lateral-flow test devices are widely popular as they are easy to handle and produce fast and unambiguous results. While these simple devices lack precise control over the flow to enable integration of complex functionality for multi-step processes or the ability to multiplex several tests, intense research in this area is rapidly expanding the possibilities. Modeling and simulation is increasingly more instrumental in gaining insight into the underlying physics driving the processes inside the channels, however simulation of flow in paper-based microfluidic devices has barely been explored to aid in the optimum design and prototyping of these devices for precise control of the flow. In this paper, we implement a multiphase fluid flow model through porous media for the simulation of paper imbibition of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid such as when water, urine or serum is employed. The formulation incorporates mass and momentum conservation equations under Stokes flow conditions and results in two coupled Darcy's law equations for the pressures and saturations of the wetting and non-wetting phases, further simplified to the Richard's equation for the saturation of the wetting fluid, which is then solved using a Finite Element solver. The model tracks the wetting fluid front as it displaces the non-wetting fluid by computing the time-dependent saturation of the wetting fluid. We apply this to the study of liquid transport in two-dimensional paper networks and validate against experimental data concerning the wetting dynamics of paper layouts of varying geometries.
The Applicability of Fluid Model to Electrical Breakdown and Glow Discharge Modeling in Argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stankov, M. N.; Marković, V. Lj.; Stamenković, S. N.; Jovanović, A. P.; Petković, M. D.
2015-01-01
The simple fluid model, an extended fluid model, and the fluid model with nonlocal ionization are applied for the calculations of static breakdown voltages, Paschen curves and current-voltage characteristics. The best agreement with the experimental data for the Paschen curve modeling is achieved by using the model with variable secondary electron yield. The modeling of current-voltage characteristics is performed for different inter-electrode distances and the results are compared with the experimental data. The fluid model with nonlocal ionization shows an excellent agreement for all inter-electrode distances, while the extended fluid model with variable electron transport coefficients agrees well with measurements at short inter-electrode distances when ionization by fast electrons can be neglected. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Fluid analog model for boundary effects in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, L. H.; Svaiter, N. F.
2009-01-01
Quantum fluctuations in the density of a fluid with a linear phonon dispersion relation are studied. In particular, we treat the changes in these fluctuations due to nonclassical states of phonons and to the presence of boundaries. These effects are analogous to similar effects in relativistic quantum field theory, and we argue that the case of the fluid is a useful analog model for effects in field theory. We further argue that the changes in the mean squared density are, in principle, observable by light scattering experiments.
Numerical Cerebrospinal System Modeling in Fluid-Structure Interaction.
Garnotel, Simon; Salmon, Stéphanie; Balédent, Olivier
2018-01-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume in the aqueduct is widely used to evaluate CSF dynamics disorders. In a healthy population, aqueduct stroke volume represents around 10% of the spinal stroke volume while intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume represents 90%. The amplitude of the CSF oscillations through the different compartments of the cerebrospinal system is a function of the geometry and the compliances of each compartment, but we suspect that it could also be impacted be the cardiac cycle frequency. To study this CSF distribution, we have developed a numerical model of the cerebrospinal system taking into account cerebral ventricles, intracranial subarachnoid spaces, spinal canal and brain tissue in fluid-structure interactions. A numerical fluid-structure interaction model is implemented using a finite-element method library to model the cerebrospinal system and its interaction with the brain based on fluid mechanics equations and linear elasticity equations coupled in a monolithic formulation. The model geometry, simplified in a first approach, is designed in accordance with realistic volume ratios of the different compartments: a thin tube is used to mimic the high flow resistance of the aqueduct. CSF velocity and pressure and brain displacements are obtained as simulation results, and CSF flow and stroke volume are calculated from these results. Simulation results show a significant variability of aqueduct stroke volume and intracranial subarachnoid space stroke volume in the physiological range of cardiac frequencies. Fluid-structure interactions are numerous in the cerebrospinal system and difficult to understand in the rigid skull. The presented model highlights significant variations of stroke volumes under cardiac frequency variations only.
Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, S.K.
2006-01-01
Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)
Model for the radionuclide measurement of ascitic fluid volumes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, W.D.; Davis, M.A.; Uren, R.F.; Wisotsky, T.; LaTegola, M.
1978-01-01
Technetium-99m phytate colloids formed in vitro and in vivo were examined as radioindicators for estimation of the volume of third-space fluid in an ovarian ascites model using C3HeB/FeJ mice. In double-label experiments, the accuracy of the colloids for dilution analysis was found to be equal or superior to that of I-125 HSA. Sampling times 3 to 5 min after intraperitoneal administration were found to produce the best volume estimates. Four needle-stopcock assemblies inserted sequentially into the quadrants of the peritoneal cavity were used for administration and sampling of the radioindicators. The stopcocks could be closed to prevent leakage of ascitic fluid during the procedure. In contrast to radiolabeled albumin, Tc-99m phytate colloids have clinical use for simultaneous imaging of radiotracer migration to assess potential occlusion of diaphragmatic lymphatics by neoplastic cells, and for dilution analysis to estimate volume of ascitic fluid
Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.
Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian
2011-09-01
A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Eight equation model for arbitrary shaped pipe conveying fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.
2006-01-01
Linear eight-equation system for two-way coupling of single-phase fluid transient and arbitrary shaped one-dimensional pipeline movement is described and discussed. The governing phenomenon described with this system is also known as Fluid-Structure Interaction. Standard Skalak's four-equation model for axial coupling was improved with additional four Timoshenko's beam equations for description of flexural displacements and rotations. In addition to the conventional eight-equation system that enables coupling of straight sections, the applied mathematical model was improved for description of the arbitrary shaped pipeline located in two-dimensional plane. The applied model was solved with second-order accurate numerical method that is based on Godounov's characteristic upwind schemes. The model was successfully used for simulation of the rod impact induced transient and conventional instantaneous valve closure induced transient in the tank-pipe-valve system. (author)
Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-01
The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.
Qweak Data Analysis for Target Modeling Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu
2015-04-01
The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak parity violation experiment is the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) at Jefferson Lab. The Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized liquid hydrogen at small momentum transfer (Q2 = 0 . 025 GeV2). This target met the design goals of bench-marked with the Qweak target data. This work is an essential ingredient in future designs of very high power low noise targets like MOLLER (5 kW, target noise asymmetry contribution < 25 ppm) and MESA (4.5 kW).
On coupling fluid plasma and kinetic neutral physics models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Joseph
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The coupled fluid plasma and kinetic neutral physics equations are analyzed through theory and simulation of benchmark cases. It is shown that coupling methods that do not treat the coupling rates implicitly are restricted to short time steps for stability. Fast charge exchange, ionization and recombination coupling rates exist, even after constraining the solution by requiring that the neutrals are at equilibrium. For explicit coupling, the present implementation of Monte Carlo correlated sampling techniques does not allow for complete convergence in slab geometry. For the benchmark case, residuals decay with particle number and increase with grid size, indicating that they scale in a manner that is similar to the theoretical prediction for nonlinear bias error. Progress is reported on implementation of a fully implicit Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov coupling scheme. The present block Jacobi preconditioning method is still sensitive to time step and methods that better precondition the coupled system are under investigation.
Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan
2015-03-01
A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery with electrolyte flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, J.W.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.
2000-02-01
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. As in earlier one-dimensional models, the model accounts for transport of species and charge, and electrode porosity variations and electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures show good agreement with published experimental data, and are essentially identical to results published for one-dimensional models. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulations show that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell head space predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.
van Driel, M R
2000-11-01
A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.
Cosmological effects of a class of fluid dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carturan, Daniela; Finelli, Fabio
2003-01-01
We study the impact of a generalized Chaplygin gas as a candidate for dark energy on density perturbations and on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The generalized Chaplygin gas is a fluid component with an exotic equation of state p=-A/ρ α (a polytropic gas with negative constant and exponent). Such a component interpolates in time between dust and a cosmological constant, with an intermediate behavior as p=A 1/(1+α) +αρ. Perturbations of this fluid are stable on small scales but behave in a very different way with respect to standard quintessence. Moreover, a generalized Chaplygin gas could also represent an archetypal example of the phenomenological unified models of dark energy and dark matter. The results presented here show how CMB anisotropies and density perturbations in this class of models differ from those of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant
Fluid mechanics and heat transfer advances in nonlinear dynamics modeling
Asli, Kaveh Hariri
2015-01-01
This valuable new book focuses on new methods and techniques in fluid mechanics and heat transfer in mechanical engineering. The book includes the research of the authors on the development of optimal mathematical models and also uses modern computer technology and mathematical methods for the analysis of nonlinear dynamic processes. It covers technologies applicable to both fluid mechanics and heat transfer problems, which include a combination of physical, mechanical, and thermal techniques. The authors develop a new method for the calculation of mathematical models by computer technology, using parametric modeling techniques and multiple analyses for mechanical system. The information in this book is intended to help reduce the risk of system damage or failure. Included are sidebar discussions, which contain information and facts about each subject area that help to emphasize important points to remember.
Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milada KOZUBKOVÁ
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.
A computer model for dispersed fluid-solid turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.H.; Tulig, T.J.
1985-01-01
A computer model is being developed to simulate two-phase turbulent flow phenomena in fluids containing finely dispersed solids. The model is based on a dual-continuum picture of the individual phases and an extension of a two-equation turbulence closure theory. The resulting set of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved using a finite difference procedure with special treatment to promote convergence. The model has been checked against a number of idealized flow problems with known solutions. The authors are currently comparing model predictions with measurements to determine a proper set of turbulence parameters needed for simulating two-phase turbulent flows
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.
1995-09-01
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths
Study on Impact of Electric Vehicles Charging Models on Power Load
Cheng, Chen; Hui-mei, Yuan
2017-05-01
With the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, which will lead the power load on grid increased and have an adversely affect. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the following factors, such as scale of the electric cars, charging mode, initial charging time, initial state of charge, charging power and other factors. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to compare the two charging modes, which are conventional charging and fast charging, and MATLAB is used to model and simulate the electric vehicle charging load. The results show that compared with the conventional charging mode, fast charging mode can meet the requirements of fast charging, but also bring great load to the distribution network which will affect the reliability of power grid.
Review and comparison of bi-fluid interpenetration mixing models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enaux, C.
2006-01-01
Today, there is a lot of bi-fluid models with two different speeds: Baer-Nunziato models; Godunov-Romensky models. coupled Euler's equations, and so on. In this report, one compares the most used models in the fields of physics and mathematics while basing this study on the literature. From the point of view of physics. for each model. one reviews: -) the type of mixture considered and modeling assumptions, -) the technique of construction, -) some properties like the respect of thermodynamical principles, the respect of the Galilean invariance principle, or the equilibrium conservation. From the point of view of mathematics, for each model, one looks at: -) the possibility of writing the equations in conservative form, -) hyperbolicity, -) the existence of a mathematical entropy. Finally, a unified review of the models is proposed. It is shown that under certain closing assumptions or for certain flow types. some of the models become equivalent. (author)
Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Pietribiasi
Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.
Propositions for a PDF model based on fluid particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1997-05-01
This paper describes theoretical propositions to model the acceleration of a fluid particle in a turbulent flow. Such a model is useful for the PDF approach to turbulent reactive flows as well as for the Lagrangian modelling of two-phase flows. The model developed here draws from ideas already put forward by Sawford but which are generalized to the case of non-homogeneous flows. The model is built so as to revert continuously to Pope's model, which uses a Langevin equation for particle velocities, when the Reynolds number becomes very high. The derivation is based on the technique of fast variable elimination. This technique allow a careful analysis of the relations between different levels of modelling. It also allows to address certain problems in a more rigorous way. In particular, application of this technique shows that models presently used can in principle simulate bubbly flows including the pressure-gradient and added-mass forces. (author)
Thermal Models of the Niger Delta: Implications for Charge Modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejedawe, J.
2002-01-01
There are generally three main sources of temperature data-BHT data from log headers, production temperature data, and continuo's temperature logs. Analysis of continuous temperature profiles of over 100 wells in the Niger Delta two main thermal models (single leg and dogleg) are defined with occasional occurrence of a modified dogleg model.The dogleg model is characterised by a shallow interval of low geothermal gradient ( 3.0.C/100m). This is characteristically developed onshore area is simple, requiring only consideration of heat transients, modelling in the onshore require modelling programmes with built in modules to handle convective heat flow dissipation in the shallow layer. Current work around methods would involve tweaking of thermal conductivity values to mimic the underlying heat flow process effects, or heat flow mapping above and below the depth of gradient change. These methods allow for more realistic thermal modelling, hydrocarbon type prediction, and also more accurate prediction of temperature prior to drilling and for reservoir rock properties. The regional distribution of the models also impact on regional hydrocarbon distribution pattern in the Niger Delta
Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel
2012-10-01
Colloid particles that are partially wetted by two immiscible fluids can become confined to fluid-fluid interfaces. At sufficiently high volume fractions, the colloids may jam and the interface may crystallize. The fluids together with the interfacial colloids form an emulsion with interesting material properties and offer an important route to new soft materials. A promising approach to simulate these emulsions was presented in Aland et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 062103 (2011)], where a Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model for the macroscopic two-phase fluid system was combined with a surface phase-field-crystal model for the microscopic colloidal particles along the interface. Unfortunately this model leads to spurious velocities which require very fine spatial and temporal resolutions to accurately and stably simulate. In this paper we develop an improved Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard-surface phase-field-crystal model based on the principles of mass conservation and thermodynamic consistency. To validate our approach, we derive a sharp interface model and show agreement with the improved diffuse interface model. Using simple flow configurations, we show that the new model has much better properties and does not lead to spurious velocities. Finally, we demonstrate the solid-like behavior of the crystallized interface by simulating the fall of a solid ball through a colloid-laden multiphase fluid.
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
Modelling of reactive fluid transport in deformable porous rocks
Yarushina, V. M.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.
2009-04-01
One outstanding challenge in geology today is the formulation of an understanding of the interaction between rocks and fluids. Advances in such knowledge are important for a broad range of geologic settings including partial melting and subsequent migration and emplacement of a melt into upper levels of the crust, or fluid flow during regional metamorphism and metasomatism. Rock-fluid interaction involves heat and mass transfer, deformation, hydrodynamic flow, and chemical reactions, thereby necessitating its consideration as a complex process coupling several simultaneous mechanisms. Deformation, chemical reactions, and fluid flow are coupled processes. Each affects the others. Special effort is required for accurate modelling of the porosity field through time. Mechanical compaction of porous rocks is usually treated under isothermal or isoentropic simplifying assumptions. However, joint consideration of both mechanical compaction and reactive porosity alteration requires somewhat greater than usual care about thermodynamic consistency. Here we consider the modelling of multi-component, multi-phase systems, which is fundamental to the study of fluid-rock interaction. Based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy in the form adopted in the theory of mixtures, we derive a thermodynamically admissible closed system of equations describing the coupling of heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and fluid flow in a deformable solid matrix. Geological environments where reactive transport is important are located at different depths and accordingly have different rheologies. In the near surface, elastic or elastoplastic properties would dominate, whereas viscoplasticity would have a profound effect deeper in the lithosphere. Poorly understood rheologies of heterogeneous porous rocks are derived from well understood processes (i.e., elasticity, viscosity, plastic flow, fracturing, and their combinations) on the microscale by considering a
A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available “It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foun- dations. Maxwell’s theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrody- namics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle” [1, p.367]. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff [2] with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV [3], the basic idea for the model following from [2] with the PV theory adding some important details.
A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available "It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foundations. Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrodynamics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle" (Grandy W.T. Jr. Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-London, 1991, p.367. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV, the basic idea for the model following from Puthoff with the PV theory adding some important details.
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Computational fluid dynamics modelling of displacement natural ventilation.
Ji, Yingchun
2005-01-01
Natural ventilation is widely recognised as contributing towards low-energy building design. The requirement to reduce energy usage in new buildings has rejuvenated interest in natural ventilation. This thesis deals with computer modelling of natural displacement ventilation driven either by buoyancy or buoyancy combined with wind forces. Two benchmarks have been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to evaluate the accuracy with which CFD is able to mo...
Internal Stress in a Model Elasto-Plastic Fluid
Ooshida, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Ken
2004-01-01
Plastic materials can carry memory of past mechanical treatment in the form of internal stress. We introduce a natural definition of the vorticity of internal stress in a simple two-dimensional model of elasto-plastic fluids, which generates the internal stress. We demonstrate how the internal stress is induced under external loading, and how the presence of the internal stress modifies the plastic behavior.
Cellular-automata supercomputers for fluid-dynamics modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margolus, N.; Toffoli, T.; Vichniac, G.
1986-01-01
We report recent developments in the modeling of fluid dynamics, and give experimental results (including dynamical exponents) obtained using cellular automata machines. Because of their locality and uniformity, cellular automata lend themselves to an extremely efficient physical realization; with a suitable architecture, an amount of hardware resources comparable to that of a home computer can achieve (in the simulation of cellular automata) the performance of a conventional supercomputer
Modeling the cometary environment using a fluid approach
Shou, Yinsi
Comets are believed to have preserved the building material of the early solar system and to hold clues to the origin of life on Earth. Abundant remote observations of comets by telescopes and the in-situ measurements by a handful of space missions reveal that the cometary environments are complicated by various physical and chemical processes among the neutral gases and dust grains released from comets, cometary ions, and the solar wind in the interplanetary space. Therefore, physics-based numerical models are in demand to interpret the observational data and to deepen our understanding of the cometary environment. In this thesis, three models using a fluid approach, which include important physical and chemical processes underlying the cometary environment, have been developed to study the plasma, neutral gas, and the dust grains, respectively. Although models based on the fluid approach have limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low gas density environment, they are computationally much more efficient than alternatives. In the simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at various heliocentric distances with a wide range of production rates, our multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model and multi-fluid cometary dust model have achieved comparable results to the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid in all collisional regimes. Therefore, our model is a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. Capable of accounting for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions in a self-consistent way, the multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model is a good tool to study the dynamics of the cometary coma with different production rates and heliocentric distances. The modeled H2O expansion speeds reproduce the general trend and the speed's nonlinear dependencies of production rate
Perfect fluid models in noncomoving observational spherical coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha
2004-01-01
We use null spherical (observational) coordinates to describe a class of inhomogeneous cosmological models. The proposed cosmological construction is based on the observer past null cone. A known difficulty in using inhomogeneous models is that the null geodesic equation is not integrable in general. Our choice of null coordinates solves the radial ingoing null geodesic by construction. Furthermore, we use an approach where the velocity field is uniquely calculated from the metric rather than put in by hand. Conveniently, this allows us to explore models in a noncomoving frame of reference. In this frame, we find that the velocity field has shear, acceleration, and expansion rate in general. We show that a comoving frame is not compatible with expanding perfect fluid models in the coordinates proposed and dust models are simply not possible. We describe the models in a noncomoving frame. We use the dust models in a noncomoving frame to outline a fitting procedure
Charge transport models for reliability engineering of semiconductor devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bina, M.
2014-01-01
The simulation of semiconductor devices is important for the assessment of device lifetimes before production. In this context, this work investigates the influence of the charge carrier transport model on the accuracy of bias temperature instability and hot-carrier degradation models in MOS devices. For this purpose, a four-state defect model based on a non-radiative multi phonon (NMP) theory is implemented to study the bias temperature instability. However, the doping concentrations typically used in nano-scale devices correspond to only a small number of dopants in the channel, leading to fluctuations of the electrostatic potential. Thus, the granularity of the doping cannot be ignored in these devices. To study the bias temperature instability in the presence of fluctuations of the electrostatic potential, the advanced drift diffusion device simulator Minimos-NT is employed. In a first effort to understand the bias temperature instability in p-channel MOSFETs at elevated temperatures, data from direct-current-current-voltage measurements is successfully reproduced using a four-state defect model. Differences between the four-state defect model and the commonly employed trapping model from Shockley, Read and Hall (SRH) have been investigated showing that the SRH model is incapable of reproducing the measurement data. This is in good agreement with the literature, where it has been extensively shown that a model based on SRH theory cannot reproduce the characteristic time constants found in BTI recovery traces. Upon inspection of recorded recovery traces after bias temperature stress in n-channel MOSFETs it is found that the gate current is strongly correlated with the drain current (recovery trace). Using a random discrete dopant model and non-equilibrium greens functions it is shown that direct tunnelling cannot explain the magnitude of the gate current reduction. Instead it is found that trap-assisted tunnelling, modelled using NMP theory, is the cause of this
Model identification methodology for fluid-based inerters
Liu, Xiaofu; Jiang, Jason Zheng; Titurus, Branislav; Harrison, Andrew
2018-06-01
Inerter is the mechanical dual of the capacitor via the force-current analogy. It has the property that the force across the terminals is proportional to their relative acceleration. Compared with flywheel-based inerters, fluid-based forms have advantages of improved durability, inherent damping and simplicity of design. In order to improve the understanding of the physical behaviour of this fluid-based device, especially caused by the hydraulic resistance and inertial effects in the external tube, this work proposes a comprehensive model identification methodology. Firstly, a modelling procedure is established, which allows the topological arrangement of the mechanical networks to be obtained by mapping the damping, inertance and stiffness effects directly to their respective hydraulic counterparts. Secondly, an experimental sequence is followed, which separates the identification of friction, stiffness and various damping effects. Furthermore, an experimental set-up is introduced, where two pressure gauges are used to accurately measure the pressure drop across the external tube. The theoretical models with improved confidence are obtained using the proposed methodology for a helical-tube fluid inerter prototype. The sources of remaining discrepancies are further analysed.
Modelling Laccoliths: Fluid-Driven Fracturing in the Lab
Ball, T. V.; Neufeld, J. A.
2017-12-01
Current modelling of the formation of laccoliths neglects the necessity to fracture rock layers for propagation to occur [1]. In magmatic intrusions at depth the idea of fracture toughness is used to characterise fracturing, however an analogue for near surface intrusions has yet to be explored [2]. We propose an analytical model for laccolith emplacement that accounts for the energy required to fracture at the tip of an intrusion. For realistic physical parameters we find that a lag region exists between the fluid magma front and the crack tip where large negative pressures in the tip cause volatiles to exsolve from the magma. Crucially, the dynamics of this tip region controls the spreading due to the competition between viscous forces and fracture energy. We conduct a series of complementary experiments to investigate fluid-driven fracturing of adhered layers and confirm the existence of two regimes: viscosity dominant spreading, controlled by the pressure in the lag region, and fracture energy dominant spreading, controlled by the energy required to fracture layers. Our experiments provide the first observations, and evolution, of a vapour tip. These experiments and our simplified model provide insight into the key physical processes in near surface magmatic intrusions with applications to fluid-driven fracturing more generally. Michaut J. Geophys. Res. 116(B5), B05205. Bunger & Cruden J. Geophys. Res. 116(B2), B02203.
Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yarbro, Stephen Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1996-11-01
Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.
Generalized one-loop neutrino mass model with charged particles
Cheung, Kingman; Okada, Hiroshi
2018-04-01
We propose a radiative neutrino-mass model by introducing 3 generations of fermion pairs E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2 and a couple of multicharged bosonic doublet fields ΦN /2,ΦN /2 +1, where N =1 , 3, 5, 7, 9. We show that the models can satisfy the neutrino masses and oscillation data, and are consistent with lepton-flavor violations, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, the oblique parameters, and the beta function of the U (1 )Y hypercharge gauge coupling. We also discuss the collider signals for various N , namely, multicharged leptons in the final state from the Drell-Yan production of E-(N +1 )/2E+(N +1 )/2. In general, the larger the N the more charged leptons will appear in the final state.
Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coley, Alan A.; Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Sandin, Patrik, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl, E-mail: patrik.sandin@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-12-01
We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in (β−) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs models using appropriate bounded normalized variables. We then analyse these models, with special emphasis on the future asymptotic behaviour for different values of the parameters. Finally, we investigate static models for a mixture of a (necessarily non-tilted) perfect fluid with a barotropic equations of state and a scalar field.
Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankar DS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.
Accurate Online Full Charge Capacity Modeling of Smartphone Batteries
Hoque, Mohammad A.; Siekkinen, Matti; Koo, Jonghoe; Tarkoma, Sasu
2016-01-01
Full charge capacity (FCC) refers to the amount of energy a battery can hold. It is the fundamental property of smartphone batteries that diminishes as the battery ages and is charged/discharged. We investigate the behavior of smartphone batteries while charging and demonstrate that the battery voltage and charging rate information can together characterize the FCC of a battery. We propose a new method for accurately estimating FCC without exposing low-level system details or introducing new ...
SPH modeling of fluid-solid interaction for dynamic failure analysis of fluid-filled thin shells
Caleyron, F.; Combescure, A.; Faucher, V.; Potapov, S.
2013-05-01
This work concerns the prediction of failure of a fluid-filled tank under impact loading, including the resulting fluid leakage. A water-filled steel cylinder associated with a piston is impacted by a mass falling at a prescribed velocity. The cylinder is closed at its base by an aluminum plate whose characteristics are allowed to vary. The impact on the piston creates a pressure wave in the fluid which is responsible for the deformation of the plate and, possibly, the propagation of cracks. The structural part of the problem is modeled using Mindlin-Reissner finite elements (FE) and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) shells. The modeling of the fluid is also based on an SPH formulation. The problem involves significant fluid-structure interactions (FSI) which are handled through a master-slave-based method and the pinballs method. Numerical results are compared to experimental data.
Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok
2008-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening
Fluid flow and heat transfer modeling for castings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domanus, H.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Sha, W.T.
1986-01-01
Casting is fundamental to manufacturing of many types of equipment and products. Although casting is a very old technology that has been in existence for hundreds of years, it remains a highly empirical technology, and production of new castings requires an expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. In recent years, mathematical modeling of casting has received increasing attention; however, a majority of the modeling work has been in the area of heat transfer and solidification. Very little work has been done in modeling fluid flow of the liquid melt. This paper presents a model of fluid flow coupled with heat transfer of a liquid melt for casting processes. The model to be described in this paper is an extension of the COMMIX code and is capable of handling castings with any shape, size, and material. A feature of this model is the ability to track the liquid/gas interface and liquid/solid interface. The flow of liquid melt through the sprue and runners and into the mold cavity is calculated as well as three-dimensional temperature and velocity distributions of the liquid melt throughout the casting process. 14 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.
1990-01-01
A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns therein is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients, i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field, and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares
Fluid Dynamic Models for Bhattacharyya-Based Discriminant Analysis.
Noh, Yung-Kyun; Hamm, Jihun; Park, Frank Chongwoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Lee, Daniel D
2018-01-01
Classical discriminant analysis attempts to discover a low-dimensional subspace where class label information is maximally preserved under projection. Canonical methods for estimating the subspace optimize an information-theoretic criterion that measures the separation between the class-conditional distributions. Unfortunately, direct optimization of the information-theoretic criteria is generally non-convex and intractable in high-dimensional spaces. In this work, we propose a novel, tractable algorithm for discriminant analysis that considers the class-conditional densities as interacting fluids in the high-dimensional embedding space. We use the Bhattacharyya criterion as a potential function that generates forces between the interacting fluids, and derive a computationally tractable method for finding the low-dimensional subspace that optimally constrains the resulting fluid flow. We show that this model properly reduces to the optimal solution for homoscedastic data as well as for heteroscedastic Gaussian distributions with equal means. We also extend this model to discover optimal filters for discriminating Gaussian processes and provide experimental results and comparisons on a number of datasets.
Numerical modeling of a cryogenic fluid within a fuel tank
Greer, Donald S.
1994-01-01
The computational method developed to study the cryogenic fluid characteristics inside a fuel tank in a hypersonic aircraft is presented. The model simulates a rapid draining of the tank by modeling the ullage vapor and the cryogenic liquid with a moving interface. A mathematical transformation was developed and applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the moving interface. The formulation of the numerical method is a transient hybrid explicit-implicit technique where the pressure term in the momentum equations is approximated to first order in time by combining the continuity equation with an ideal equation of state.
A numerical method for a transient two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.
1978-01-01
The transient boiling two-phase flow is studied. In nuclear reactors, the driving conditions for the transient boiling are a pump power decay or/and an increase in heating power. The physical model adopted for the two-phase flow is the two fluid model with the assumption that the vapor remains at saturation. The numerical method for solving the thermohydraulics problems is a shooting method, this method is highly implicit. A particular problem exists at the boiling and condensation front. A computer code using this numerical method allow the calculation of a transient boiling initiated by a steady state for a PWR or for a LMFBR
Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.
1978-01-01
Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena
Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics
Goldstein, Raymond E.
2015-01-01
In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhou
2006-03-01
Full Text Available It is shown that there exists an exact paraxial cold-fluid equilibrium of a high-intensity, space-charge-dominated charged-particle beam with a periodically twisted elliptic cross section in a nonaxisymmetric periodic magnetic field. Generalized envelope equations, which determine the beam envelopes, ellipse orientation, density, and internal flow velocity profiles, are derived. Nonrelativistic and relativistic examples of such beam equilibria are presented. The equilibrium and stability of such beams are demonstrated by self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC simulations.
Modeling fluid-rock interaction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.
1992-08-01
Volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada aie being assessed for their suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Recent progress in modeling fluid-rock interactions, in particular the mineralogical and chemical changes that may accompany waste disposal at Yucca Mountain, will be reviewed in this publication. In Part 1 of this publication, ''Geochemical Modeling of Clinoptilolite-Water Interactions,'' solid-solution and cation-exchange models for the zeolite clinoptilolite are developed and compared to experimental and field observations. At Yucca Mountain, clinoptilolite which is found lining fractures and as a major component of zeolitized tuffs, is expected to play an important role in sequestering radionuclides that may escape from a potential nuclear waste repository. The solid-solution and ion-exchange models were evaluated by comparing predicted stabilities and exchangeable cation distributions of clinoptilolites with: (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff, and (4) high temperature experimental data. Good agreement was found between predictions and expertmental data, especially for binary exchange and Cs and Sr sorption on clinoptilolite. Part 2 of this publication, ''Geochemical Simulation of Fluid-Rock Interactions at Yucca Mountain,'' describes preliminary numerical simulations of fluid-rock interactions at Yucca Mountain. The solid-solution model developed in the first part of the paper is used to evaluate the stability and composition of clinciptilolite and other minerals in the host rock under ambient conditions and after waste emplacement
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.
1999-06-11
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
Electric vehicle charge planning using Economic Model Predictive Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels K.; Madsen, Henrik
2012-01-01
Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide...... grid services, both for peak reduction and for ancillary services, by absorbing short term variations in the electricity production. In this paper the Economic MPC minimizes the cost of electricity consumption for a single EV. Simulations show savings of 50–60% of the electricity costs compared...... to uncontrolled charging from load shifting based on driving pattern predictions. The future energy system in Denmark will most likely be based on renewable energy sources e.g. wind and solar power. These green energy sources introduce stochastic fluctuations in the electricity production. Therefore, energy...
Modelling of heat transfer to fluids at a supercritical pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuisheng, He
2014-01-01
A key feature of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is that, by raising the pressure of the reactor coolant fluid above the critical value, a phase change crisis is avoided. However, the changes in water density as it flows through the core of an SCWR are actually much higher than in the current water-cooled reactors. In a typical design, the ratio of the density of water at the core inlet to that at exit is as high as 7:1. Other fluid properties also vary significantly, especially around the pseudo-critical temperature (at which the specific heat capacity peaks). As a result, turbulent flow and heat transfer behaviour in the core is extremely complex and under certain conditions, significant heat transfer deterioration can potentially occur. Consequently, understanding and being able to predict flow and heat transfer phenomena under normal steady operation conditions and in start-up and hypothetical fault conditions are fundamental to the design of SCWR. There have been intensive studies on flow and heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure recently and several excellent review papers have been published. In the talk, we will focus on some turbulence modelling issues encountered in CFD simulations. The talk will first discuss some flow and heat transfer issues related to fluids at supercritical pressures and their potential implications in SCWR, and some recent developments in the understanding and modelling techniques of such problems, which will be followed by an outlook for some future developments.Factors which have a major influence on the flow and will be discussed are buoyancy and flow acceleration due to thermal expansion (both are due to density variations but involve different mechanisms) and the nonuniformity of other fluid properties. In addition, laminar-turbulent flow transition coupled with buoyancy and flow acceleration plays an important role in heat transfer effectiveness and wall temperature in the entrance region but such
Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saurabh Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.
A Fluid Model for Performance Analysis in Cellular Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coupechoux Marceau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new framework to study the performance of cellular networks using a fluid model and we derive from this model analytical formulas for interference, outage probability, and spatial outage probability. The key idea of the fluid model is to consider the discrete base station (BS entities as a continuum of transmitters that are spatially distributed in the network. This model allows us to obtain simple analytical expressions to reveal main characteristics of the network. In this paper, we focus on the downlink other-cell interference factor (OCIF, which is defined for a given user as the ratio of its outer cell received power to its inner cell received power. A closed-form formula of the OCIF is provided in this paper. From this formula, we are able to obtain the global outage probability as well as the spatial outage probability, which depends on the location of a mobile station (MS initiating a new call. Our analytical results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed in a traditional hexagonal network. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application of the outage probability related to cell breathing and densification of cellular networks.
Sarkar, N; Basu, A
2012-11-01
We construct a coarse-grained effective two-dimensional (2d hydrodynamic theory as a theoretical model for a coupled system of a fluid membrane and a thin layer of a polar active fluid in its ordered state that is anchored to the membrane. We show that such a system is prone to generic instabilities through the interplay of nonequilibrium drive, polar order and membrane fluctuation. We use our model equations to calculate diffusion coefficients of an inclusion in the membrane and show that their values depend strongly on the system size, in contrast to their equilibrium values. Our work extends the work of S. Sankararaman and S. Ramaswamy (Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 118107 (2009)) to a coupled system of a fluid membrane and an ordered active fluid layer. Our model is broadly inspired by and should be useful as a starting point for theoretical descriptions of the coupled dynamics of a cell membrane and a cortical actin layer anchored to it.
On the equivalence of continuum and lattice models for fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
2000-01-01
It was demonstrated that finely discretized lattice models for fluids with particles interacting via Lennard-Jones or exponential-6 potentials have essentially identical thermodynamic and structural properties to their continuum counterparts. Grand canonical histogram reweighting Monte Carlo calculations were performed for systems with repulsion exponents between 11 and 22. Critical parameters were determined from mixed-field finite-size scaling methods. Numerical equivalence of lattice and continuous space models, within simulation uncertainties, was observed for lattices with ratio of particle diameter σ to grid spacing of 10. The lattice model calculations were more efficient computationally by factors between 10 and 20. It was also shown that Lennard-Jones and exponential-6 based models with identical critical properties can be constructed by appropriate choice of the repulsion exponent. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Modeling track access charge to enhance railway industry performance
Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy; Susantono, Bambang; Leviakangas, Pekka; Radiansyah, Hendra
2017-11-01
Indonesia attempts to improve nation's competitiveness by increasing the quality and the availability of railway network. However, the infrastructure improperly managed by the operator in terms of the technical issue. One of the reasons for this problem is an unbalanced value of infrastructure charge. In 2000's track access charge and infrastructure maintenance and operation for Indonesia railways are equal and despite current formula of the infrastructure charge, issues of transparency and accountability still in question. This research aims to produce an alternative scheme of track access charge by considering marginal cost plus markup (MC+) approach. The research combines qualitative and quantitative method through an in-depth interview and financial analysis. The result will generate alternative formula of infrastructure charge in Indonesia's railway industry. The simulation also conducted to estimate track access charge for the operator and to forecast government support in terms of subsidy. The result is expected to enhance railway industry performance and competitiveness.
Discrete Charge Effects on an Infinitely Long Cylindrical Rod Model
Agung, Ahmad A. J; Jesudason, Christopher G.
2011-01-01
Two methods for determining the potential (\\psi) around a discretely charged rod have been devised. The methods utilize the potential around the continuously charged rod (\\bar{\\psi}) as the reference where \\bar{\\psi} isdetermined by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The potential data are used to determine the theoretical radial distribution function (RDF) which is compared with MD simulation data. It is shown that the magnitude of the charge and size parameters very strongly affects the shape ...
Time response model of ER fluids for precision control of motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyanagi, Ken' ichi [Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama (Japan)], E-mail: koyanagi@pu-toyama.ac.jp
2009-02-01
For improvement of control performance or new control demands of mechatronics devices using particle type ER fluids, it will be needed to further investigate a response time of the fluids. It is commonly said around 5-mili seconds, however, the formula structure of that delay has not been clear. This study aims to develop a functional damper (attenuators), that can control its viscous characteristics in real time using ER fluids as its working fluid. ER dampers are useful to accomplish high precision positioning not to prevent high speed movement of the motor. To realize the functional damper that can be manipulated according to situations or tasks, the modeling and control of ER fluids are necessary. This paper investigates time delay affects of ER fluids and makes an in-depth dynamic model of the fluid by utilizing simulation and experiment. The mathematical model has a dead-time and first ordered delays of the fluid and the high voltage amplifier for the fluid.
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander
2011-01-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence
Liu, Jian-Guo
2011-09-01
We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy
2012-04-01
This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given
Mathematical and numerical modelling of fluids at Nano-metric scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joubaud, R.
2012-01-01
This work presents some contributions to the mathematical and numerical modelling of fluids at Nano-metric scales. We are interested in two levels of modelling. The first level consists in an atomic description. We consider the problem of computing the shear viscosity of a fluid from a microscopic description. More precisely, we study the mathematical properties of the nonequilibrium Langevin dynamics allowing to compute the shear viscosity. The second level of description is a continuous description, and we consider a class of continuous models for equilibrium electrolytes, which incorporate on the one hand a confinement by charged solid objects and on the other hand non-ideality effects stemming from electrostatic correlations and steric exclusion phenomena due to the excluded volume effects. First, we perform the mathematical analysis of the case where the free energy is a convex function (mild non-ideality). Second, we consider numerically the case where the free energy is a non convex function (strong non-ideality) leading in particular to phase separation. (author)
Two-fluid model stability, simulation and chaos
Bertodano, Martín López de; Clausse, Alejandro; Ransom, Victor H
2017-01-01
This book addresses the linear and nonlinear two-phase stability of the one-dimensional Two-Fluid Model (TFM) material waves and the numerical methods used to solve it. The TFM fluid dynamic stability is a problem that remains open since its inception more than forty years ago. The difficulty is formidable because it involves the combined challenges of two-phase topological structure and turbulence, both nonlinear phenomena. The one dimensional approach permits the separation of the former from the latter. The authors first analyze the kinematic and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities with the simplified one-dimensional Fixed-Flux Model (FFM). They then analyze the density wave instability with the well-known Drift-Flux Model. They demonstrate that the Fixed-Flux and Drift-Flux assumptions are two complementary TFM simplifications that address two-phase local and global linear instabilities separately. Furthermore, they demonstrate with a well-posed FFM and a DFM two cases of nonlinear two-phase behavior that are ...
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a finite volume method
Studying Validity of Single-Fluid Model in Inertial Confinement Fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Jian-Fa; Fan Zheng-Feng; Dai Zhen-Sheng; Ye Wen-Hua; Pei Wen-Bing; Zhu Shao-Ping
2014-01-01
The validity of single-fluid model in inertial confinement fusion simulations is studied by comparing the results of the multi- and single-fluid models. The multi-fluid model includes the effects of collision and interpenetration between fluid species. By simulating the collision of fluid species, steady-state shock propagation into the thin DT gas and expansion of hohlraum Au wall heated by lasers, the results show that the validity of single-fluid model is strongly dependent on the ratio of the characteristic length of the simulated system to the particle mean free path. When the characteristic length L is one order larger than the mean free path λ, the single-fluid model's results are found to be in good agreement with the multi-fluid model's simulations, and the modeling of single-fluid remains valid. If the value of L/λ is lower than 10, the interpenetration between fluid species is significant, and the single-fluid simulations show some unphysical results; while the multi-fluid model can describe well the interpenetration and mix phenomena, and give more reasonable results. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Modelling of fluid-solid interaction using two stand-alone codes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Grobler, Jan H
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed for the modelling of fluid-solid interaction in applications where fluid forces dominate. Data are transferred between two stand-alone codes: a dedicated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code capable of free surface modelling...
Modeling of charge transport in ion bipolar junction transistors.
Volkov, Anton V; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus; Zozoulenko, Igor V
2014-06-17
Spatiotemporal control of the complex chemical microenvironment is of great importance to many fields within life science. One way to facilitate such control is to construct delivery circuits, comprising arrays of dispensing outlets, for ions and charged biomolecules based on ionic transistors. This allows for addressability of ionic signals, which opens up for spatiotemporally controlled delivery in a highly complex manner. One class of ionic transistors, the ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs), is especially attractive for these applications because these transistors are functional at physiological conditions and have been employed to modulate the delivery of neurotransmitters to regulate signaling in neuronal cells. Further, the first integrated complementary ionic circuits were recently developed on the basis of these ionic transistors. However, a detailed understanding of the device physics of these transistors is still lacking and hampers further development of components and circuits. Here, we report on the modeling of IBJTs using Poisson's and Nernst-Planck equations and the finite element method. A two-dimensional model of the device is employed that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the measurement data. On the basis of the detailed concentration and potential profiles provided by the model, the different modes of operation of the transistor are analyzed as well as the transitions between the different modes. The model correctly predicts the measured threshold voltage, which is explained in terms of membrane potentials. All in all, the results provide the basis for a detailed understanding of IBJT operation. This new knowledge is employed to discuss potential improvements of ion bipolar junction transistors in terms of miniaturization and device parameters.
Spacecraft Charging Modeling -- Nascap-2k 2014 Annual Report
2014-09-19
appears to work similarly in Internet Explorer, FireFox , and Opera, but fails in Safari and Chrome. Note that the SEE Spacecraft Charging Handbook is... Characteristics of Spacecraft Charging in Low Earth Orbit, J Geophys Res. 11 7, doi: 10.1029/20 11JA016875, 2012. 2 M. Cho, K. Saito, T. Hamanaga, Data
Modeling Prosecutors' Charging Decisions in Domestic Violence Cases
Worrall, John L.; Ross, Jay W.; McCord, Eric S.
2006-01-01
Relatively little research explaining prosecutors' charging decisions in criminal cases is available. Even less has focused on charging decisions in domestic violence cases. Past studies have also relied on restrictive definitions of domestic violence, notably cases with male offenders and female victims, and they have not considered prosecutors'…
Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads
2007-01-01
The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....
Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.
2013-01-01
The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.
Zweers, M. M.; Splint, L. J.; Krediet, R. T.; Struijk, D. G.
2001-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Hemoconcentration may influence peritoneal permeability parameters in anesthetized animals without fluid supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluid supplementation on peritoneal permeability in an acute peritoneal dialysis model in
Modeling charge transport properties of cyano-substituted PPV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correia, Helena M.G.; Ramos, Marta M.D.
2003-01-01
In recent years, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and its derivatives have attracted much interest due to their applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One of the issues that determine device performance is the transport of charge carriers along the polymer strands. For that reason, we investigate the influence of cyano substitution on geometry and electronic behaviour of PPV chains using self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that substitution by cyano groups induce distortion in the PPV chains and a charge rearrangement among the polymer atoms. Specifically addressed is the issue concerning estimates of charge (electron and hole) mobility by computer experiments. Significant differences have been found both in the strength of the electric field needed to move positive and negative charge carriers along the polymer chain as well as in charge mobility
Fluid model of inductively coupled plasma etcher based on COMSOL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Jia; Ji Linhong; Zhu Yu; Shi Yixiang
2010-01-01
Fluid dynamic models are generally appropriate for the investigation of inductively coupled plasmas. A commercial ICP etcher filled with argon plasma is simulated in this study. The simulation is based on a multiphysical software, COMSOL(TM), which is a partial differential equation solver. Just as with other plasma fluid models, there are drift-diffusion approximations for ions, the quasi-neutrality assumption for electrons movements, reduced Maxwell equations for electromagnetic fields, electron energy equations for electron temperatures and the Navier-Stokes equation for neutral background gas. The two-dimensional distribution of plasma parameters are shown at 200 W of power and 1.33 Pa (10 mTorr) of pressure. Then the profile comparison of the electron number density and temperature with respect to power is illustrated. Finally we believe that there might be some disagreement between the predicted values and the real ones, and the reasons for this difference would be the Maxwellian eedf assumption and the lack of the cross sections of collisions and the reaction rates. (semiconductor physics)
Experiments and Modeling of G-Jitter Fluid Mechanics
Leslie, F. W.; Ramachandran, N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
While there is a general understanding of the acceleration environment onboard an orbiting spacecraft, past research efforts in the modeling and analysis area have still not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter can use to assess how an experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling for better understanding the effect of residual gravity and gentler on experiments. The approach is to use magnetic fluids that respond to an imposed magnetic field gradient in much the same way as fluid density responds to a gravitational field. By utilizing a programmable power source in conjunction with an electromagnet, both static and dynamic body forces can be simulated in lab experiments. The paper provides an overview of the technique and includes recent results from the experiments.
Two-fluid model LES of a bubble column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brahma N Reddy Vanga; Martin A Lopez de Bertodano; Eckhard Krepper; Alexandr Zaruba; Horst-Michael Prasser
2005-01-01
The hydrodynamics of a rectangular bubble column operating in the dispersed bubbly regime has been numerically investigated using a two-fluid model Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Experimental data were obtained to validate the model. LES computational fluid dynamic calculations of the transient flow for the bubble column were performed to account for the turbulence in the liquid phase. The computational mesh is of the same scale as the bubble size. The sub grid-scale Reynolds stresses were calculated with the Smagorinsky model. Furthermore, the effect of the bubbles on the turbulence in the continuous phase was modeled using Sato's eddy viscosity model for bubble-induced turbulence. Mean quantities were computed by averaging over a time period that was longer than the dynamic time scales of the turbulence, in particular the void fraction and the average velocity of the bubbles. A systematic analysis of the effect of the interfacial momentum transfer terms on these quantities has been conducted. The bubble column was locally aerated using a sparger located in the center of the bottom plate. The experimental studies involve wire-mesh tomography measurements for void fraction and bubble size distributions and digital image processing of high speed camera images for estimation of bubble velocities, size distributions and flow patterns. Experiments were performed for various aspect ratios (height of water column to width ratio) and superficial gas velocities. It was found that the non-drag bubble forces play a very prominent role in the predicting the correct flow pattern and void fraction distributions. In the calculations, the lift force and the wall force were considered. A 'wall peak' in the time averaged void fraction distribution has been experimentally observed and this cannot be predicted without including these non-drag forces in the numerical calculations. In this paper, experimental data are compared with the results of the numerical simulations. (authors)
Equivalent circuit modeling of space charge dominated magnetically insulated transmission lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiraoka, Kazuki; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko
1997-12-31
A new equivalent circuit model for space charge dominated MITLs (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines) was developed. MITLs under high power operation are dominated with space charge current flowing between anode and cathode. Conventional equivalent circuit model does not account for space charge effects on power flow. The model was modified to discuss the power transportation through the high power MITLs. With this model, it is possible to estimate the effects of space charge current on the power flow efficiency, without using complicated particle code simulations. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.
Peristaltic Transport of a Rheological Fluid: Model for Movement of Food Bolus Through Esophagus
Misra, J. C.; Maiti, S.
2011-01-01
Fluid mechanical peristaltic transport through esophagus has been of concern in the paper. A mathematical model has been developed with an aim to study the peristaltic transport of a rheological fluid for arbitrary wave shapes and tube lengths. The Ostwald-de Waele power law of viscous fluid is considered here to depict the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid. The model is formulated and analyzed with the specific aim of exploring some important information concerning the movement of food bo...
Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varzandeh, Farhad
properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...
Development of bubble-induced turbulence model for advanced two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
A two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method. The two-fluid model is therefore useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in the large-scale domain such as rod bundles. However, since the two-fluid model includes a lot of constitutive equations verified by use of experimental results, it has problems that the result of analyses depends on accuracy of the constitutive equations. To solve these problems, an advanced two-fluid model has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this model, interface tracking method is combined with two-fluid model to accurately predict large interface structure behavior. Liquid clusters and bubbles larger than a computational cell are calculated using the interface tracking method, and those smaller than the cell are simulated by the two-fluid model. The constitutive equations to evaluate the effects of small bubbles or droplets on two-phase flow are also required in the advanced two-fluid model, just as with the conventional two-fluid model. However, the dependency of small bubbles and droplets on two-phase flow characteristics is relatively small, and fewer experimental results are required to verify the characteristics of large interface structures. Turbulent dispersion force model is one of the most important constitutive equations for the advanced two-fluid model. The turbulent dispersion force model has been developed by many researchers for the conventional two-fluid model. However, existing models implicitly include the effects of large bubbles and the deformation of bubbles, and are unfortunately not applicable to the advanced two-fluid model. In the previous study, the authors suggested the turbulent dispersion force model based on the analogy of Brownian motion. And the authors improved the turbulent dispersion force model in consideration of bubble-induced turbulence to improve the analysis results for small
Comparison of kinetic and fluid neutral models for attached and detached state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furubayashi, M.; Hoshino, K.; Toma, M.; Hatayama, A.; Coster, D.; Schneider, R.; Bonnin, X.; Kawashima, H.; Asakura, N.; Suzuki, Y.
2009-01-01
Neutral behavior has an important role in the transport simulations of the edge plasma. Most of the edge plasma transport codes treat neutral particles by a simple fluid model or a kinetic model. The fluid model allows faster calculations. However, the applicability of the fluid model is limited. In this study, simulation results of JT-60U from kinetic neutral model and fluid neutral model are compared under the attached and detached state, using the 2D edge plasma code package, SOLPS5.0. In the SOL region, no significant differences are observed in the upstream plasma profiles between kinetic and fluid neutral models. However, in the divertor region, large differences are observed in plasma and neutral profiles. Therefore, further optimization of the fluid neutral model should be performed. Otherwise kinetic neutral model should be used to analyze the divertor region.
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an
Dynamic modeling of fluid power transmissions for wind turbines
Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.
2011-01-01
Fluid power transmission for wind turbines is quietly gaining more ground/interest. The principle of the various concepts presented so far is to convert aerodynamic torque of the rotor blades into a pressurized fluid flow by means of a positive displacement pump. At the other end of the fluid power
Multiscale modeling of fluid flow and mass transport
Masuoka, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Bijeljic, B.; Lin, Q.; Blunt, M. J.
2017-12-01
In recent years, there are some reports on a simulation of fluid flow in pore spaces of rocks using Navier-Stokes equations. These studies mostly adopt a X-ray CT to create 3-D numerical grids of the pores in micro-scale. However, results may be of low accuracy when the rock has a large pore size distribution, because pores, whose size is smaller than resolution of the X-ray CT may be neglected. We recently found out by tracer tests in a laboratory using a brine saturated Ryukyu limestone and inject fresh water that a decrease of chloride concentration took longer time. This phenomenon can be explained due to weak connectivity of the porous networks. Therefore, it is important to simulate entire pore spaces even those of very small sizes in which diffusion is dominant. We have developed a new methodology for multi-level modeling for pore scale fluid flow in porous media. The approach is to combine pore-scale analysis with Darcy-flow analysis using two types of X-ray CT images in different resolutions. Results of the numerical simulations showed a close match with the experimental results. The proposed methodology is an enhancement for analyzing mass transport and flow phenomena in rocks with complicated pore structure.
Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei
2016-01-01
In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... station into consideration. Fuzzy logic inference system is applied to simulate the charging decision of EV drivers at fast charging station. Due to increasing EV loads in power system, the potential traffic congestion in fast charging stations is modeled and evaluated by queuing theory with spatial...
Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maikan; Lee, Hedok; Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Ratner, Vadim
2016-01-01
It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs [1,2]. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly throu...
Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A
2002-03-15
The dispersion of the agglomerating fluid process involving colloids has been investigated at the mesoscale level by a discrete particle approach--the hybrid fluid-particle model (FPM). Dynamical processes occurring in the granulation of colloidal agglomerate in solvents are severely influenced by coupling between the dispersed microstructures and the global flow. On the mesoscale this coupling is further exacerbated by thermal fluctuations, particle-particle interactions between colloidal beds, and hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal beds and the solvent. Using the method of FPM, we have tackled the problem of dispersion of a colloidal slab being accelerated in a long box filled with a fluid. Our results show that the average size of the agglomerated fragments decreases with increasing shearing rate gamma, according to the power law A x gamma(k), where k is around 2. For larger values of gamma, the mean size of the agglomerate S(avg) increases slowly with gamma from the collisions between the aggregates and the longitudinal stretching induced by the flow. The proportionality constant A increases exponentially with the scaling factor of the attractive forces acting between the colloidal particles. The value of A shows a rather weak dependence on the solvent viscosity. But A increases proportionally with the scaling factor of the colloid-solvent dissipative interactions. Similar type of dependence can be found for the mixing induced by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities involving the colloidal agglomerate and the solvent. Three types of fragmentation structures can be identified, which are called rupture, erosion, and shatter. They generate very complex structures with multiresolution character. The aggregation of colloidal beds is formed by the collisions between aggregates, which are influenced by the flow or by the cohesive forces for small dispersion energies. These results may be applied to enhance our understanding concerning the nonlinear complex
Multiphysics control of a two-fluid coaxial atomizer supported by electric-charge on the liquid jet
Machicoane, Nathanael; Osuna, Rodrigo; Aliseda, Alberto
2017-11-01
We present an experimental setup to investigate multiphysics control strategies on atomization of a laminar fluid stream by a coaxial turbulent jet. Spray control (i.e. driving the droplet size distribution and the spatio-temporal location of the droplets towards a desired objective) has many potential engineering applications, but requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes that control droplet formation and transport (primary and secondary instabilities, turbulent transport, hydrodynamic and electric forces on the droplets, ...). We characterize experimentally the break-up dynamics in a canonical coaxial atomizer, and the spray structure (droplet size, location, and velocity as a function of time) in a series of open loop conditions with harmonic forcing of the gas swirl ratio, liquid injection rate, the electric field strength at the nozzle and along the spray development region. The effect of these actuators are characterized for different gas Reynolds numbers ranging from 104-106. This open-loop characterization of the injector will be used to develop reduced order models for feedback control, as well as to validate assumptions underlying an adjoint-based computational control strategy. This work is part of a large-scale project funded by an ONR MURI to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for feedback control of sprays.
Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao
2010-07-01
In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)
A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents
Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de
2014-04-01
Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.
COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems
Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii
2014-05-01
Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guochang; Chen, George, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Electronic and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: gc@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: sli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2016-08-08
Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loading concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.
Revisited global drift fluid model for linear devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiser, Dirk
2012-01-01
The problem of energy conserving global drift fluid simulations is revisited. It is found that for the case of cylindrical plasmas in a homogenous magnetic field, a straightforward reformulation is possible avoiding simplifications leading to energetic inconsistencies. The particular new feature is the rigorous treatment of the polarisation drift by a generalization of the vorticity equation. The resulting set of model equations contains previous formulations as limiting cases and is suitable for efficient numerical techniques. Examples of applications on studies of plasma blobs and its impact on plasma target interaction are presented. The numerical studies focus on the appearance of plasma blobs and intermittent transport and its consequences on the release of sputtered target materials in the plasma. Intermittent expulsion of particles in radial direction can be observed and it is found that although the neutrals released from the target show strong fluctuations in their propagation into the plasma column, the overall effect on time averaged profiles is negligible for the conditions considered. In addition, the numerical simulations are utilised to perform an a-posteriori assessment of the magnitude of energetic inconsistencies in previously used simplified models. It is found that certain popular approximations, in particular by the use of simplified vorticity equations, do not significantly affect energetics. However, popular model simplifications with respect to parallel advection are found to provide significant deterioration of the model consistency.
Krishnan, M.
2017-05-01
We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostatics of biomolecules in solution. We show that while charge regulation addresses the true electrical charge of a molecule arising from the acid-base equilibria of its ionizable groups, charge renormalization finds relevance in the context of a molecule's interaction with another charged entity. Writing this electrostatic interaction free energy in terms of a local electrical potential, we obtain an "interaction charge" for the molecule which we demonstrate agrees closely with the "effective charge" discussed in charge renormalization and counterion-condensation theories. The predictions of this model agree well with direct high-precision measurements of effective electrical charge of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids and disordered proteins in solution, without tunable parameters. Including the effective interior dielectric constant for compactly folded molecules as a tunable parameter, the model captures measurements of effective charge as well as published trends of pKa shifts in globular proteins. Our results suggest a straightforward general framework to model electrostatics in biomolecules in solution. In offering a platform that directly links theory and experiment, these calculations could foster a systematic understanding of the interrelationship between molecular 3D structure and conformation, electrical charge and electrostatic interactions in solution. The model could find particular relevance in situations where molecular crystal structures are not available or
Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Si Young
2005-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information
Numerical models for fluid-grains interactions: opportunities and limitations
Esteghamatian, Amir; Rahmani, Mona; Wachs, Anthony
2017-06-01
In the framework of a multi-scale approach, we develop numerical models for suspension flows. At the micro scale level, we perform particle-resolved numerical simulations using a Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain approach. At the meso scale level, we use a two-way Euler/Lagrange approach with a Gaussian filtering kernel to model fluid-solid momentum transfer. At both the micro and meso scale levels, particles are individually tracked in a Lagrangian way and all inter-particle collisions are computed by a Discrete Element/Soft-sphere method. The previous numerical models have been extended to handle particles of arbitrary shape (non-spherical, angular and even non-convex) as well as to treat heat and mass transfer. All simulation tools are fully-MPI parallel with standard domain decomposition and run on supercomputers with a satisfactory scalability on up to a few thousands of cores. The main asset of multi scale analysis is the ability to extend our comprehension of the dynamics of suspension flows based on the knowledge acquired from the high-fidelity micro scale simulations and to use that knowledge to improve the meso scale model. We illustrate how we can benefit from this strategy for a fluidized bed, where we introduce a stochastic drag force model derived from micro-scale simulations to recover the proper level of particle fluctuations. Conversely, we discuss the limitations of such modelling tools such as their limited ability to capture lubrication forces and boundary layers in highly inertial flows. We suggest ways to overcome these limitations in order to enhance further the capabilities of the numerical models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alina Żogała
2014-01-01
Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.
Numerical modelling of needle-grid electrodes for negative surface corona charging system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang, Y; Chen, G; Rotaru, M
2011-01-01
Surface potential decay measurement is a simple and low cost tool to examine electrical properties of insulation materials. During the corona charging stage, a needle-grid electrodes system is often used to achieve uniform charge distribution on the surface of the sample. In this paper, a model using COMSOL Multiphysics has been developed to simulate the gas discharge. A well-known hydrodynamic drift-diffusion model was used. The model consists of a set of continuity equations accounting for the movement, generation and loss of charge carriers (electrons, positive and negative ions) coupled with Poisson's equation to take into account the effect of space and surface charges on the electric field. Four models with the grid electrode in different positions and several mesh sizes are compared with a model that only has the needle electrode. The results for impulse current and surface charge density on the sample clearly show the effect of the extra grid electrode with various positions.
Semi-empirical modelization of charge funneling in a NP diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musseau, O.
1991-01-01
Heavy ion interaction with a semiconductor generates a high density of electrons and holes pairs along the trajectory and in a space charge zone the collected charge is considerably increased. The chronology of this charge funneling is described in a semi-empirical model. From initial conditions characterizing the incident ion and the studied structure, it is possible to evaluate directly the transient current, the collected charge and the length of funneling with a good agreement. The model can be extrapolated to more complex structures
A fully dynamic magneto-rheological fluid damper model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Z; Christenson, R E
2012-01-01
Control devices can be used to dissipate the energy of a civil structure subjected to dynamic loading, thus reducing structural damage and preventing failure. Semiactive control devices have received significant attention in recent years. The magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is a promising type of semiactive device for civil structures due to its mechanical simplicity, inherent stability, high dynamic range, large temperature operating range, robust performance, and low power requirements. The MR damper is intrinsically nonlinear and rate-dependent, both as a function of the displacement across the MR damper and the command current being supplied to the MR damper. As such, to develop control algorithms that take maximum advantage of the unique features of the MR damper, accurate models must be developed to describe its behavior for both displacement and current. In this paper, a new MR damper model that includes a model of the pulse-width modulated (PWM) power amplifier providing current to the damper, a proposed model of the time varying inductance of the large-scale 200 kN MR dampers coils and surrounding MR fluid—a dynamic behavior that is not typically modeled—and a hyperbolic tangent model of the controllable force behavior of the MR damper is presented. Validation experimental tests are conducted with two 200 kN large-scale MR dampers located at the Smart Structures Technology Laboratory (SSTL) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Lehigh University Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. Comparison with experimental test results for both prescribed motion and current and real-time hybrid simulation of semiactive control of the MR damper shows that the proposed MR damper model can accurately predict the fully dynamic behavior of the large-scale 200 kN MR damper. (paper)
A Temperature Dependent Lumped-charge Model for Trench FS-IGBT
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duan, Yaoqiang; Kang, Yong; Iannuzzo, Francesco
2018-01-01
Abstract: This paper proposes a temperature dependent lumped-charge model for FS-IGBT. Due to the evolution of the IGBT structure, the existing lumped-charge IGBT model established for NPT-IGBT is not suitable for the simulation of FS-IGBT. This paper extends the lumped-charge IGBT model including...... the field-stop (FS) structure and temperature characteristics. The temperature characteristics of the model are considered for both the bipolar part and unipolar part. In addition, a new PN junction model which can distinguish the collector structure is presented and validated by TCAD simulation. Finally...
A fluid-mechanical model of elastocapillary coalescence
Singh, Kiran
2014-03-25
© 2014 Cambridge University Press. We present a fluid-mechanical model of the coalescence of a number of elastic objects due to surface tension. We consider an array of spring-block elements separated by thin liquid films, whose dynamics are modelled using lubrication theory. With this simplified model of elastocapillary coalescence, we present the results of numerical simulations for a large number of elements, N = O(10^{4}). A linear stability analysis shows that pairwise coalescence is always the most unstable mode of deformation. However, the numerical simulations show that the cluster sizes actually produced by coalescence from a small white-noise perturbation have a distribution that depends on the relative strength of surface tension and elasticity, as measured by an elastocapillary number K. Both the maximum cluster size and the mean cluster size scale like K^{-1/2} for small K. An analytical solution for the response of the system to a localized perturbation shows that such perturbations generate propagating disturbance fronts, which leave behind \\'frozen-in\\' clusters of a predictable size that also depends on K. A good quantitative comparison between the cluster-size statistics from noisy perturbations and this \\'frozen-in\\' cluster size suggests that propagating fronts may play a crucial role in the dynamics of coalescence.
Magnetic Electron Filtering by Fluid Models for the PEGASES Thruster
Leray, Gary; Chabert, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Allan; Lieberman, Michael
2009-10-01
The PEGASES thruster produces thrust by creating positive and negative ions, which are then accelerated. To accelerate both type of ions, electrons need to be filtered, which is achieved by applying a static magnetic field strong enough to magnetize the electrons but not the ions. A 1D fluid model with three species (electrons, positive and negative ions) and an analytical model are proposed to understand this process for an oxygen plasma with p = 10 mTorr and B0 = 300 G [1]. The resulting ion-ion plasma formation in the transverse direction (perpendicular to the magnetic field) is demonstrated. It is shown that an additional electron/positive ion loss term is required. The solutions are evaluated for two main parameters: the ionizing fraction at the plasma center (x = 0), ne0/ng, and the electronegativity ratio at the center, α0=nn0/ne0. The effect of geometry and magnetic field amplitude are also discussed. [4pt] [1] Leray G, Chabert P, Lichtenberg A J and Lieberman M A, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Plasma Modelling Cluster issue, to appear (2009)
Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements
Richter, Thomas
2017-01-01
This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.
Numerical Modeling of Porous Structure of Biomaterial and Fluid Flowing Through Biomaterial
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A Cellular Automata model of simulating body fluid flowing into porous bioceramic implants generated with stochastic methods is described, of which main parameters and evolvement rule are determined in terms of flow behavior of body fluid in porous biomaterials. The model is implemented by GUI( Graphical User Interface) program in MATLAB, and the results of numerical modeling show that the body fluid percolation is related to the size of pores and porosity.
Modeling charge polarization voltage for large lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Jiang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Polarization voltage of the lithium-ion battery is an important parameter that has direct influence on battery performance. The paper aims to analyze the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of currents, initial SOC of the battery on charge polarization voltage are investigated, which is approximately linear function of charge current. The change of charge polarization voltage is also analyzed with the gradient analytical method in the SOC domain. The charge polarization model with two RC networks is presented, and parts of model parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance are estimated by both EIS method and battery constant current testing method. Findings: This paper reveals that the Ohmic resistance accounts for much contribution to battery total polarization compared to charge transfer impedance. Practical implications: Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the model with the proposed identification method, which provides the foundation for battery charging optimization. Originality/value: The paper analyzed the impedance characteristics of the lithium-ion battery based on EIS data, presented a charge polarization model with two RC networks, and estimated parameters like Ohmic resistance and charge transfer impedance.
Mathematical modeling of fluid and solute transport in peritoneal dialysis
Waniewski, Jacek
2001-01-01
Optimization of peritoneal dialysis schedule and dialysis fluid composition needs, among others, methods for quantitative assessment of fluid and solute transport. Furthermore, an integrative quantitative description of physiological processes within the tissue, which contribute to the net transfer of fluid and solutes, is necessary for interpretation of the data and for predictions of the outcome of possible intervention into the peritoneal transport system. The current pro...
Fluid-Structure Interaction in Continuum Models of Bacterial Biofilms
Hicks, Jared A.
Bacterial biofilms are aggregates of cells that adhere to nearly any solid-fluid interface. While many have harmful effects, such as industrial damage and nosocomial infections, certain biofilm species are now generating renewable energy as the fundamental components of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). In an MFC, bacteria consume organic waste and, as they respire, produce free electrons. To do so efficiently, the bacteria must operate at peak metabolic activity, and so require an ample supply of nutrients. But existing MFC systems face several nutrient delivery problems, including clogging and downstream depletion. Ameliorating these problems will require a better understanding of the interplay between structural development and the surrounding fluid flow. In addition to delivering nutrients that affect biofilm growth, the fluid also exerts stresses that cause erosion, detachment, and deformation. These structural changes, in turn, affect the flow and alter the nutrient distribution. To account for this feedback effect, I have developed a continuum model that couples the growth and deformation processes. My model augments an existing growth model with evolution equations derived from Morphoelasticity Theory, by showing that the growth tensor can be directly related to the biofilm velocity potential. This result helps overcome one of the major practical limitations of Morphoelasticity--there is no physical framework for specifying the growth tensor. Through further analysis of the growth tensor, I define the related adjugate and anisotropic growth tensors, which can be more meaningful measures of growth for some models. Under the assumption of small strain, I show that there exists a small correction to the biofilm growth velocity (the accommodation velocity) that represents the effect of the elastic response on the evolution of the biofilm shape. I derive a solvability condition for the accommodation velocity, and show that it leads to a novel evolution equation for
Optimal Day-ahead Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles through an Aggregative Game Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun
2017-01-01
The electric vehicle (EV) market has been growing rapidly around the world. With large scale deployment of EVs in power systems, both the grid and EV owners will benefit if the flexible demand of EV charging is properly managed through the electricity market. When EV charging demand is considerable...... in a grid, it will impact spot prices in the electricity market and consequently influence the charging scheduling itself. The interaction between the spot prices and the EV demand needs to be considered in the EV charging scheduling, otherwise it will lead to a higher charging cost. A day-ahead EV charging...... scheduling based on an aggregative game model is proposed in this paper. The impacts of the EV demand on the electricity prices are formulated with the game model in the scheduling considering possible actions of other EVs. The existence and uniqueness of the pure strategy Nash equilibrium are proved...
Advanced Fluid Reduced Order Models for Compressible Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezaur, Irina Kalashnikova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fike, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Barone, Matthew F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maddix, Danielle [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mussoni, Erin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balajewicz, Maciej [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2017-09-01
This report summarizes fiscal year (FY) 2017 progress towards developing and implementing within the SPARC in-house finite volume flow solver advanced fluid reduced order models (ROMs) for compressible captive-carriage flow problems of interest to Sandia National Laboratories for the design and qualification of nuclear weapons components. The proposed projection-based model order reduction (MOR) approach, known as the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Least- Squares Petrov-Galerkin (LSPG) method, can substantially reduce the CPU-time requirement for these simulations, thereby enabling advanced analyses such as uncertainty quantification and de- sign optimization. Following a description of the project objectives and FY17 targets, we overview briefly the POD/LSPG approach to model reduction implemented within SPARC . We then study the viability of these ROMs for long-time predictive simulations in the context of a two-dimensional viscous laminar cavity problem, and describe some FY17 enhancements to the proposed model reduction methodology that led to ROMs with improved predictive capabilities. Also described in this report are some FY17 efforts pursued in parallel to the primary objective of determining whether the ROMs in SPARC are viable for the targeted application. These include the implemen- tation and verification of some higher-order finite volume discretization methods within SPARC (towards using the code to study the viability of ROMs on three-dimensional cavity problems) and a novel structure-preserving constrained POD/LSPG formulation that can improve the accuracy of projection-based reduced order models. We conclude the report by summarizing the key takeaways from our FY17 findings, and providing some perspectives for future work.
Rapid Charged Geosynchronous Debris Perturbation Modeling of Electrodynamic Disturbances
Hughes, Joseph; Schaub, Hanspeter
2018-04-01
Charged space objects experience small perturbative torques and forces from their interaction with Earth's magnetic field. These small perturbations can change the orbits of lightweight, uncontrolled debris objects dramatically even over short periods. This paper investigates the effects of the isolated Lorentz force, the effects of including or neglecting this and other electromagnetic perturbations in a full propagation, and then analyzes for which objects electromagnetic effects have the most impact. It is found that electromagnetic forces have a negligible impact on their own. However, if the center of charge is not collocated with the center of mass, electromagnetic torques are produced which do impact the attitude, and thus the position by affecting the direction and magnitude of the solar radiation pressure force. The objects for which electrostatic torques have the most influence are charged above the kilovolt level, have a difference between their center of mass and center of charge, have highly attitude-dependent cross-sectional area, and are not spinning stably about an axis of maximum inertia. Fully coupled numerical simulation illustrate the impact of electromagnetic disturbances through the solar radiation pressure coupling.
Modeling charged defects inside density functional theory band gaps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, Peter A.; Edwards, Arthur H.
2014-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) has emerged as an important tool to probe microscopic behavior in materials. The fundamental band gap defines the energy scale for charge transition energy levels of point defects in ionic and covalent materials. The eigenvalue gap between occupied and unoccupied states in conventional DFT, the Kohn–Sham gap, is often half or less of the experimental band gap, seemingly precluding quantitative studies of charged defects. Applying explicit and rigorous control of charge boundary conditions in supercells, we find that calculations of defect energy levels derived from total energy differences give accurate predictions of charge transition energy levels in Si and GaAs, unhampered by a band gap problem. The GaAs system provides a good theoretical laboratory for investigating band gap effects in defect level calculations: depending on the functional and pseudopotential, the Kohn–Sham gap can be as large as 1.1 eV or as small as 0.1 eV. We find that the effective defect band gap, the computed range in defect levels, is mostly insensitive to the Kohn–Sham gap, demonstrating it is often possible to use conventional DFT for quantitative studies of defect chemistry governing interesting materials behavior in semiconductors and oxides despite a band gap problem
Fluid model of dc glow discharge with nonlocal ionization source term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafatov, I R; Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A
2012-01-01
We developed and tested a simple hybrid model for a glow discharge, which incorporates nonlocal ionization by fast electrons into the fluid framework. Calculations have been performed for an argon gas. Comparison with the experimental data as well as with the hybrid (particle) and fluid modelling results demonstated good applicability of the proposed model.
Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Made Astina
2007-05-01
Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.
Study and discretization of kinetic models and fluid models at low Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, Stephane
2011-01-01
This thesis summarizes our work between 1995 and 2010. It concerns the analysis and the discretization of Fokker-Planck or semi-classical Boltzmann kinetic models and of Euler or Navier-Stokes fluid models at low Mach number. The studied Fokker-Planck equation models the collisions between ions and electrons in a hot plasma, and is here applied to the inertial confinement fusion. The studied semi-classical Boltzmann equations are of two types. The first one models the thermonuclear reaction between a deuterium ion and a tritium ion producing an α particle and a neutron particle, and is also in our case used to describe inertial confinement fusion. The second one (known as the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations) models the transitions between electronic quantified energy levels of uranium and iron atoms in the AVLIS isotopic separation process. The basic properties of these two Boltzmann equations are studied, and, for the Wang-Chang and Uhlenbeck equations, a kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm is proposed. This kinetic-fluid coupling algorithm incited us to study the relaxation concept for gas and immiscible fluids mixtures, and to underline connections with classical kinetic theory. Then, a diphasic low Mach number model without acoustic waves is proposed to model the deformation of the interface between two immiscible fluids induced by high heat transfers at low Mach number. In order to increase the accuracy of the results without increasing computational cost, an AMR algorithm is studied on a simplified interface deformation model. These low Mach number studies also incited us to analyse on cartesian meshes the inaccuracy at low Mach number of Godunov schemes. Finally, the LBM algorithm applied to the heat equation is justified
Numerical Study of Charged Inertial Particles in Turbulence using a Coupled Fluid-P3M Approach
Yao, Yuan; Capecelatro, Jesse
2017-11-01
Non-trivial interactions between charged particles and turbulence play an important role in many engineering and environmental flows, including clouds, fluidized bed reactors, charged hydrocarbon sprays and dusty plasmas. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic forces, Coulomb interactions in systems with many particles must be handled carefully to avoid O(N2) computations. The particle-mesh (PM) method is typically employed in Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations as it avoids computing direct pairwise sums, but it fails to capture short-range interactions that are anticipated to be important when particles cluster. In this presentation, the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method that scales with O(NlogN) is implemented within a EL framework to simulate charged particles accurately in a tractable manner. The EL-P3M method is used to assess the competition between drag and Coulomb forces for a range of Stokes numbers and charges. Simulations of like- and oppositely-charged particles suspended in a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex and three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence are reported. One-point and two-point statistics obtained using PM and P3M are compared to assess the effect of added accuracy on collision rate and clustering.
Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thibault Lemaire
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.
Woodcock, T E; Woodcock, T M
2012-03-01
I.V. fluid therapy does not result in the extracellular volume distribution expected from Starling's original model of semi-permeable capillaries subject to hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients within the extracellular fluid. Fluid therapy to support the circulation relies on applying a physiological paradigm that better explains clinical and research observations. The revised Starling equation based on recent research considers the contributions of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), the endothelial basement membrane, and the extracellular matrix. The characteristics of capillaries in various tissues are reviewed and some clinical corollaries considered. The oncotic pressure difference across the EGL opposes, but does not reverse, the filtration rate (the 'no absorption' rule) and is an important feature of the revised paradigm and highlights the limitations of attempting to prevent or treat oedema by transfusing colloids. Filtered fluid returns to the circulation as lymph. The EGL excludes larger molecules and occupies a substantial volume of the intravascular space and therefore requires a new interpretation of dilution studies of blood volume and the speculation that protection or restoration of the EGL might be an important therapeutic goal. An explanation for the phenomenon of context sensitivity of fluid volume kinetics is offered, and the proposal that crystalloid resuscitation from low capillary pressures is rational. Any potential advantage of plasma or plasma substitutes over crystalloids for volume expansion only manifests itself at higher capillary pressures.
Cellular-automation fluids: A model for flow in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothman, D.H.
1987-01-01
Because the intrinsic inhomogeneity of porous media makes the application of proper boundary conditions difficult, fluid flow through microgeometric models has typically been achieved with idealized arrays of geometrically simple pores, throats, and cracks. The author proposes here an attractive alternative, capable of freely and accurately modeling fluid flow in grossly irregular geometries. This new method numerically solves the Navier-Stokes equations using the cellular-automation fluid model introduced by Frisch, Hasslacher, and Pomeau. The cellular-automation fluid is extraordinarily simple - particles of unit mass traveling with unit velocity reside on a triangular lattice and obey elementary collisions rules - but capable of modeling much of the rich complexity of real fluid flow. The author shows how cellular-automation fluids are applied to the study of porous media. In particular, he discusses issues of scale on the cellular-automation lattice and present the results of 2-D simulations, including numerical estimation of permeability and verification of Darcy's law
Invasion percolation of single component, multiphase fluids with lattice Boltzmann models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukop, M.C.; Or, Dani
2003-01-01
Application of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to invasion percolation of single component multiphase fluids in porous media offers an opportunity for more realistic modeling of the configurations and dynamics of liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. The complex geometry of connected paths in standard invasion percolation models arises solely from the spatial arrangement of simple elements on a lattice. In reality, fluid interfaces and connectivity in porous media are naturally controlled by the details of the pore geometry, its dynamic interaction with the fluid, and the ambient fluid potential. The multiphase LBM approach admits realistic pore geometry derived from imaging techniques and incorporation of realistic hydrodynamics into invasion percolation models
Status of the charged Higgs boson in two Higgs doublet models
Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Stål, O.; Stefaniak, T.
2018-03-01
The existence of charged Higgs boson(s) is inevitable in models with two (or more) Higgs doublets. Hence, their discovery would constitute unambiguous evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Taking into account all relevant results from direct charged and neutral Higgs boson searches at LEP and the LHC, as well as the most recent constraints from flavour physics, we present a detailed analysis of the current phenomenological status of the charged Higgs sector in a variety of well-motivated two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs). We find that charged Higgs bosons as light as 75 GeV can still be compatible with the combined data, although this implies severely suppressed charged Higgs couplings to all fermions. In more popular models, e.g. the 2HDM of Type II, we find that flavour physics observables impose a combined lower limit on the charged Higgs mass of M_{H^± } ≳ 600 GeV - independent of tan β - which increases to M_{H^± } ≳ 650 GeV for tan β < 1. We furthermore find that in certain scenarios, the signature of a charged Higgs boson decaying into a lighter neutral Higgs boson and a W boson provides a promising experimental avenue that would greatly complement the existing LHC search programme for charged Higgs boson(s).
Integrated DEM-CFD modeling of the contact charging of pneumatically conveyed powders
Korevaar, M.W.; Padding, J.T.; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2014-01-01
A model is proposed that incorporates contact charging (also known as triboelectric charging) of pneumatically conveyed powders in a DEM–CFD framework, which accounts for the electrostatic interactions, both between particles and between the particles and conducting walls. The simulation results
Integrated DEM–CFD modeling of the contact charging of pneumatically conveyed powders
Korevaar, M.W.; Padding, J.T.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2014-01-01
A model is proposed that incorporates contact charging (also known as triboelectric charging) of pneumatically conveyed powders in a DEM–CFD framework, which accounts for the electrostatic interactions, both between particles and between the particles and conducting walls. The simulation results
A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, M.
1977-01-01
An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)
Status of the charged Higgs boson in two Higgs doublet models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Stefaniak, T.; Staal, O.
2018-01-01
The existence of charged Higgs boson(s) is inevitable in models with two (or more) Higgs doublets. Hence, their discovery would constitute unambiguous evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Taking into account all relevant results from direct charged and neutral Higgs boson searches at LEP and the LHC, as well as the most recent constraints from flavour physics, we present a detailed analysis of the current phenomenological status of the charged Higgs sector in a variety of well-motivated two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs). We find that charged Higgs bosons as light as 75 GeV can still be compatible with the combined data, although this implies severely suppressed charged Higgs couplings to all fermions. In more popular models, e.g. the 2HDM of Type II, we find that flavour physics observables impose a combined lower limit on the charged Higgs mass of M H ± > or similar 600 GeV - independent of tan β - which increases to M H ± > or similar 650 GeV for tan β < 1. We furthermore find that in certain scenarios, the signature of a charged Higgs boson decaying into a lighter neutral Higgs boson and a W boson provides a promising experimental avenue that would greatly complement the existing LHC search programme for charged Higgs boson(s). (orig.)
Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation
Zohdi, Tarek I
2012-01-01
The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...
Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasim, A.; Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)
2018-01-15
In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state. (orig.)
Analytical estimation of effective charges at saturation in Poisson-Boltzmann cell models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trizac, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Miguel; Bocquet, Lyderic
2003-01-01
We propose a simple approximation scheme for computing the effective charges of highly charged colloids (spherical or cylindrical with infinite length). Within non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we start from an expression for the effective charge in the infinite-dilution limit which is asymptotically valid for large salt concentrations; this result is then extended to finite colloidal concentration, approximating the salt partitioning effect which relates the salt content in the suspension to that of a dialysing reservoir. This leads to an analytical expression for the effective charge as a function of colloid volume fraction and salt concentration. These results compare favourably with the effective charges at saturation (i.e. in the limit of large bare charge) computed numerically following the standard prescription proposed by Alexander et al within the cell model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maneva, Yana G.; Laguna, Alejandro Alvarez; Poedts, Stefaan [Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Catholic University of Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lani, Andrea, E-mail: yana.maneva@ws.kuleuven.be, E-mail: stefaan.poedts@wis.kuleuven.be, E-mail: alejandro.alvarez.laguna@vki.ac.be, E-mail: lani@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, CFD group, Aeronautics and Aerospace, Rhode Saint-Genèse (Belgium)
2017-02-20
In order to study chromospheric magnetosonic wave propagation including, for the first time, the effects of ion–neutral interactions in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, we have developed a new multi-fluid computational model accounting for ionization and recombination reactions in gravitationally stratified magnetized collisional media. The two-fluid model used in our 2D numerical simulations treats neutrals as a separate fluid and considers charged species (electrons and ions) within the resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskiis transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations and the solenoidality of the magnetic field is enforced with a hyperbolic divergence-cleaning scheme. The initial density and temperature profiles are similar to VAL III chromospheric model in which dynamical, thermal, and chemical equilibrium are considered to ensure comparison to existing MHD models and avoid artificial numerical heating. In this initial setup we include simple homogeneous flux tube magnetic field configuration and an external photospheric velocity driver to simulate the propagation of MHD waves in the partially ionized reactive chromosphere. In particular, we investigate the loss of chemical equilibrium and the plasma heating related to the steepening of fast magnetosonic wave fronts in the gravitationally stratified medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksanyan, V.T.; Samvelyan, S.Kh.
1984-01-01
General principles of plotting the parametric theory of IR spectrum intensities of polyatomic molecules are outlined. The development of the effective charges model in this theory is considered and the mathematical formalism of the first approximation of the method of effective atom charges is described in detail. The results of calculations of charges distribution in the Mo(CO) 6 , W(CO) 6 , Cp 2 V, Cp 2 Ru and others (Cp-cyclopentadiene), performed in the frame work of the outlined scheme are presented. It is shown that in the investigated carbonyles the effective charge on oxygen and metal atoms is negative, on carbon atom - positive. In dicyclopentavienyl complexes the effective charge on the metal atom is positive and is not over 0.6e; charge values on hydrogen and carbon atoms do not exceed, 0.10-0.15e. The notions of ''electrovalence'' of coordination bond and charge distribution in the case of metallocenes are not correlated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enaux, C.
2007-11-01
The simulation of indirect laser implosion requires an accurate knowledge of the inter-penetration of the laser target materials turned into plasma. This work is devoted to the study of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model recently proposed by Scannapieco and Cheng (SC) to describe the inter-penetration of miscible fluids. In this document, we begin with presenting the SC model in the context of miscible fluids flow modelling. Afterwards, the mathematical analysis of the model is carried out (study of the hyperbolicity, existence of a strictly convex mathematical entropy, asymptotic analysis and diffusion limit). As a conclusion the problem is well set. Then, we focus on the problem of numerical resolution of systems of conservation laws with a relaxation source term, because SC model belongs to this class. The main difficulty of this task is to capture on a coarse grid the asymptotic behaviour of the system when the source term is stiff. The main contribution of this work lies in the proposition of a new technique, allowing us to construct a Lagrangian numerical flux taking into account the presence of the source term. This technique is applied first on the model-problem of a one-dimensional Euler system with friction, and then on the multi-fluid SC model. In both cases, we prove that the new scheme is asymptotic-preserving and entropic under a CFL-like condition. The two-dimensional extension of the scheme is done by using a standard alternate directions method. Some numerical results highlight the contribution of the new flux, compared with a standard Lagrange plus Remap scheme where the source term is processed using an operator splitting. (author)
Vortex dynamics in the two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thouless, D. J.; Geller, M. R.; Vinen, W. F.; Fortin, J.-Y.; Rhee, S. W.
2001-01-01
We have used two-fluid dynamics to study the discrepancy between the work of Thouless, Ao, and Niu (TAN) and that of Iordanskii. In TAN no transverse force on a vortex due to normal fluid flow was found, whereas the earlier work found a transverse force proportional to normal fluid velocity u n and normal fluid density ρ n . We have linearized the time-independent two-fluid equations about the exact solution for a vortex, and find three solutions that are important in the region far from the vortex. Uniform superfluid flow gives rise to the usual superfluid Magnus force. Uniform normal fluid flow gives rise to no forces in the linear region, but does not satisfy reasonable boundary conditions at short distances. A logarithmically increasing normal fluid flow gives a viscous force. As in classical hydrodynamics, and as in the early work of Hall and Vinen, this logarithmic increase must be cut off by nonlinear effects at large distances; this gives a viscous force proportional to u n /lnu n , and a transverse contribution that goes like u n /(lnu n ) 2 , even in the absence of an explicit Iordanskii force. In the limit u n ->0 the TAN result is obtained, but at nonzero u n there are important corrections that were not found in TAN. We argue that the Magnus force in a superfluid at nonzero temperature is an example of a topological relation for which finite-size corrections may be large
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuliano Marchi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intrinsic equilibrium constants of 17 representative Brazilian Oxisols were estimated from potentiometric titration measuring the adsorption of H+ and OH− on amphoteric surfaces in suspensions of varying ionic strength. Equilibrium constants were fitted to two surface complexation models: diffuse layer and constant capacitance. The former was fitted by calculating total site concentration from curve fitting estimates and pH-extrapolation of the intrinsic equilibrium constants to the PZNPC (hand calculation, considering one and two reactive sites, and by the FITEQL software. The latter was fitted only by FITEQL, with one reactive site. Soil chemical and physical properties were correlated to the intrinsic equilibrium constants. Both surface complexation models satisfactorily fit our experimental data, but for results at low ionic strength, optimization did not converge in FITEQL. Data were incorporated in Visual MINTEQ and they provide a modeling system that can predict protonation-dissociation reactions in the soil surface under changing environmental conditions.
Charge distributions and correlations in fragmentation models for soft hadron collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, E.A. de
1984-01-01
Data on charge distributions and charge correlations in pp and meson-proton interactions at PS and SPS energies are successfully compared with the Lund fragmentation model for low-psub(T) hadron collisions. It is argued that local conservation of quantum numbers and resonance production, as implemented in fragmentation models, are sufficient ingredients to explain most of the available experimental results at these energies. No necessity is found for dual-sheet contributions considered in DTU-based parton models. (orig.)
Kantowski-Sachs Einstein-æther perfect fluid models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latta, Joey [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Leon, Genly [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4950, Valparaíso (Chile); Paliathanasis, Andronikos, E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: genly.leon@pucv.cl, E-mail: anpaliat@phys.uoa.gr [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-11-01
We investigate Kantowski-Sachs models in Einstein-æ ther theory with a perfect fluid source using the singularity analysis to prove the integrability of the field equations and dynamical system tools to study the evolution. We find an inflationary source at early times, and an inflationary sink at late times, for a wide region in the parameter space. The results by A.A. Coley, G. Leon, P. Sandin and J. Latta ( JCAP 12 (2015) 010), are then re-obtained as particular cases. Additionally, we select other values for the non-GR parameters which are consistent with current constraints, getting a very rich phenomenology. In particular, we find solutions with infinite shear, zero curvature, and infinite matter energy density in comparison with the Hubble scalar. We also have stiff-like future attractors, anisotropic late-time attractors, or both, in some special cases. Such results are developed analytically, and then verified by numerics. Finally, the physical interpretation of the new critical points is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Kang Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu
2009-07-01
Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis have been executed as follows. First of all, divide the fluid and structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Destrigneville, Christine
1991-01-01
The alteration processes occurring in the volcanics of Mururoa have been studied using petrological data on secondary minerals, chemical analyses of the interstitial fluids and isotopic analyses on both minerals and fluids. Chemical and isotopic exchanges were first modelled, then thermodynamical modeling characterized the chemical evolution during the alteration of the secondary assemblage and of the fluid. The main secondary sequences which have been observed in Mururoa volcanics result from the alteration occurring during the lavas setting. Two different processes have been evidenced. The first one is the deuteric alteration with the CO_2-rich magmatic fluid exsolved from the magma and trapped in the vesicles and the olivine microcracks of the lava intrusions. This alteration in a closed system is dominated by the solid phases when the CO_2 molar fraction in the fluid is higher than 0.25. The second process is the alteration of the lavas by seawater or a meteoric fluid. The basaltic flows present alteration assemblages composed of clay minerals and zeolites whose chemical composition has been forced by the fluid composition. Shallowness emissions of lavas result in completely argillized levels. The present interstitial fluids chemistry result from the percolation of seawater in the volcano. In the argillized levels the fluids have interacted with the clay minerals and their chemical compositions have been modified. The important chemical changes in the present interstitial fluids show that the present alteration in the volcano is higher than the fluids circulation. (author) [fr
Hamiltonian models for the Madelung fluid and generalized Langevin equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonnenmacher, T.F.
1985-01-01
We present a Hamiltonian formulation of some type of an 'electromagnetic' Madelung fluid leading to a fluid mechanics interpretation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and to a subsidary condition to be required in order to make the correspondence between Schroedinger's quantum mechanics and Madelung's fluid mechanics unique. Then we discuss some problems related with the Brownian oscillator. Our aim is to start out with a Hamiltonian for the composite system with surrounding heat bath) and to finally arrive at a stochastic differential equation with completely determined statistical properties. (orig./HSI)
Bagheri, Shahriar; Wu, Nan; Filizadeh, Shaahin
2018-06-01
This paper presents an iterative numerical method that accurately models an energy harvesting system charging a capacitor with piezoelectric patches. The constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials connected with an external charging circuit with a diode bridge and capacitors lead to the electromechanical coupling effect and the difficulty of deriving accurate transient mechanical response, as well as the charging progress. The proposed model is built upon the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and takes into account the electromechanical coupling effects as well as the dynamic process of charging an external storage capacitor. The model is validated through experimental tests on a cantilever beam coated with piezoelectric patches. Several parametric studies are performed and the functionality of the model is verified. The efficiency of power harvesting system can be predicted and tuned considering variations in different design parameters. Such a model can be utilized to design robust and optimal energy harvesting system.
An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity
He, B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.
1995-01-01
A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface-charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to our understanding of bioelectric phenomena.
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations
Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P
We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by
D-string fluid in conifold, I: Topological gauge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahl Laamara, R.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.
2006-01-01
Motivated by similarities between quantum Hall systems a la Susskind and aspects of topological string theory on conifold as well as results obtained in [E.H. Saidi, Topological SL(2) gauge theory on conifold and noncommutative geometry, hep-th/0601020], we study the dynamics of D-string fluids running in deformed conifold in presence of a strong and constant RR background B-field. We first introduce the basis of D-string system in fluid approximation and then derive the holomorphic noncommutative gauge invariant field action describing its dynamics in conifold. This study may be also viewed as embedding Susskind description for Laughlin liquid in type IIB string theory. FQH systems on real manifolds RxS 2 and S 3 are shown to be recovered by restricting conifold to its Lagrangian sub-manifolds. Aspects of quantum behaviour of the string fluid are discussed. ring fluid are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfelsoufi, Z.; Azrar, L.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical modeling of flutter and divergence analyses of fluid conveying pipes based on integral equation formulations is presented. Dynamic stability problems related to fluid pressure, velocity, tension, topography slope and viscoelastic supports and foundations are formulated. A methodological approach is presented and the required matrices, associated to the influencing fluid and pipe parameters, are explicitly given. Internal discretizations are used allowing to investigate the deformation, the bending moment, slope and shear force at internal points. Velocity–frequency, pressure-frequency and tension-frequency curves are analyzed for various fluid parameters and internal elastic supports. Critical values of divergence and flutter behaviors with respect to various fluid parameters are investigated. This model is general and allows the study of dynamic stability of tubes crossed by stationary and instationary fluid on various types of supports. Accurate predictions can be obtained and are of particular interest for a better performance and for an optimal safety of piping system installations. - Highlights: • Modeling the flutter and divergence of fluid conveying pipes based on RBF. • Dynamic analysis of a fluid conveying pipe with generalized boundary conditions. • Considered parameters fluid are the pressure, tension, slopes topography, velocity. • Internal support increase the critical velocity value. • This methodologies determine the fluid parameters effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joris de Hoog
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Fast charging is an exciting topic in the field of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs/HEVs. In order to achieve faster charging times, fast-charging applications involve high-current profiles which can lead to high cell temperature increase, and in some cases thermal runaways. There has been some research on the impact caused by fast-charging profiles. This research is mostly focused on the electrical, thermal and aging aspects of the cell individually, but these factors are never treated together. In this paper, the thermal progression of the lithium-ion battery under specific fast-charging profiles is investigated and modeled. The cell is a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide/graphite-based cell (NMC rated at 20 Ah, and thermal images during fast-charging have been taken at four degradation states: 100%, 90%, 85%, and 80% State-of-Health (SoH. A semi-empirical resistance aging model is developed using gathered data from extensive cycling and calendar aging tests, which is coupled to an electrothermal model. This novel combined model achieves good agreement with the measurements, with simulation results always within 2 °C of the measured values. This study presents a modeling methodology that is usable to predict the potential temperature distribution for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs during fast-charging profiles at different aging states, which would be of benefit for Battery Management Systems (BMS in future thermal strategies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongjun Ahn
Full Text Available The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive
Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo
2015-01-01
The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric
Statistical properties of three-dimensional two-fluid plasma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qaisrani, M. Hasnain [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xia, ZhenWei [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zou, Dandan, E-mail: ddzou@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)
2015-09-15
The nonlinear dynamics of incompressible non-dissipative two-fluid plasma model is investigated through classical Gibbs ensemble methods. Liouville's theorem of phase space for each wave number is proved, and the absolute equilibrium spectra for Galerkin truncated two-fluid model are calculated. In two-fluid theory, the equilibrium is built on the conservation of three quadratic invariants: the total energy and the self-helicities for ions and electrons fluid, respectively. The implications of statistic equilibrium spectra with arbitrary ratios of conserved invariants are discussed.
Hu, Yin; White, Marvin H.
1993-10-01
A new analytical model is developed to investigate the influence of the charge loss processes in the retention mode of the SONOS NVSM device. The model considers charge loss by the following processes: (1) electron back-tunneling from the nitride traps to the Si conduction band, (2) electron back-tunneling from the nitride traps to the Si/SiO 2 interface traps and (3) hole injection from the Si valence band to the nitride traps. An amphoteric trap charge distribution is used in this model. The new charge retention model predicts that process (1) determines the short term retention, while processes (2) and (3) determine the long term retention. Good agreement has been reached between the results of analytical calculations and the experimental retention data on both surface channel and buried channel SONOS devices.
Dacuñ a, Javier; Salleo, Alberto
2011-01-01
We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows
Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.
2015-02-01
Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic approach under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.
An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing
2017-01-01
Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the SuperScaling model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ivanov, M. V., E-mail: martin.inrne@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Megias, G. D.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); González-Jiménez, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J. M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)
2016-03-25
SuperScaling model (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current π{sup +} production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The SuSA charged-current π{sup +} results are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux-averaged double-differential cross sections. The SuSA model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region are used for predictions of charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Results are also compared with the T2K experimental data for inclusive scattering.
Morphological Analysis on Business Model of Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure in China
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Suxiu; Liu, Yingqi; Wang, Jingyu
2016-01-01
of EVs charging infrastructure business model for China, and takes the city Shenzhen as a case study. The research shows that we can achieve EVs Charging infrastructure business model innovation by combining design possibility on the right side of morphological box as much as possible.......The issues of energy crisis and environment pollution have paved opportunities to electric vehicles (EVs), many countries take it as an effective way to reducing the depletion of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions. As the energy supply of electric vehicles, the development of charging infrastructure...
Beta functions and central charge of supersymmetric sigma models with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guadagnini, E.; Mintchev, M.
1987-01-01
We present a method for the computation of the renormalization group β-functions and the central charge in two-dimensional supersymmetric sigma models in a gravitational background. The two-loops results are exhibited. We use the Pauli-Villars regularization which preserves supersymmetry and permits an unambiguous treatment of the model with torsion. The central charge we derive for a general manifold is in agreement with the expression found on group manifolds. (orig.)
Development of the tube bundle structure for fluid-structure interaction analysis model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jae Yong
2010-02-01
Tube bundle structures within a Boiler or heat exchanger are laid the fluid-structure, thermal-structure and fluid-thermal-structure coupled boundary condition. In these complicated boundary conditions, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurs when fluid flow causes deformation of the structure. This deformation, in turn, changes the boundary conditions for the fluid flow. The structural analysis discipline, and then independently analyzed each other. However, the fluid dynamic force effect the behavior of the structure, and the vibration amplitude of the structure to fluid. FSI analysis model was separately created fluid and structure model, and then defined the fsi boundary condition, and simultaneously analyzed in one domain. The analysis results were compared with those of the experimental method for validating the analysis model. Flow-induced vibration test was executed with single rod configuration. The vibration amplitudes of a fuel rod were measured by the laser vibro-meter system in x and y-direction. The analyses results were not closely with the test data, but the trend was very similar with the test result. In fsi coupled analysis case, the turbulent model was very important with the reliability of the accuracy of the analysis model. Therefore, the analysis model will be needed to further study
Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow
Bultreys, Tom; Lin, Qingyang; Gao, Ying; Raeini, Ali Q.; AlRatrout, Ahmed; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.
2018-05-01
Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample. In these experiments, the exact fluid distributions were not fully repeatable on a pore-by-pore basis, while the global properties of the fluid distribution were. Then two fractional flow experiments were used to validate a quasistatic pore network model. The model correctly predicted the fluid present in more than 75% of pores and throats in drainage and imbibition. To quantify what this means for the relevant global properties of the fluid distribution, we compare the main flow paths and the connectivity across the different pore sizes in the modeled and experimental fluid distributions. These essential topology characteristics matched well for drainage simulations, but not for imbibition. This suggests that the pore-filling rules in the network model we used need to be improved to make reliable predictions of imbibition. The presented analysis illustrates the potential of our methodology to systematically and robustly test two-phase flow models to aid in model development and calibration.
Jougnot, D.; Roubinet, D.; Linde, N.; Irving, J.
2016-12-01
Quantifying fluid flow in fractured media is a critical challenge in a wide variety of research fields and applications. To this end, geophysics offers a variety of tools that can provide important information on subsurface physical properties in a noninvasive manner. Most geophysical techniques infer fluid flow by data or model differencing in time or space (i.e., they are not directly sensitive to flow occurring at the time of the measurements). An exception is the self-potential (SP) method. When water flows in the subsurface, an excess of charge in the pore water that counterbalances electric charges at the mineral-pore water interface gives rise to a streaming current and an associated streaming potential. The latter can be measured with the SP technique, meaning that the method is directly sensitive to fluid flow. Whereas numerous field experiments suggest that the SP method may allow for the detection of hydraulically active fractures, suitable tools for numerically modeling streaming potentials in fractured media do not exist. Here, we present a highly efficient two-dimensional discrete-dual-porosity approach for solving the fluid-flow and associated self-potential problems in fractured domains. Our approach is specifically designed for complex fracture networks that cannot be investigated using standard numerical methods due to computational limitations. We then simulate SP signals associated with pumping conditions for a number of examples to show that (i) accounting for matrix fluid flow is essential for accurate SP modeling and (ii) the sensitivity of SP to hydraulically active fractures is intimately linked with fracture-matrix fluid interactions. This implies that fractures associated with strong SP amplitudes are likely to be hydraulically conductive, attracting fluid flow from the surrounding matrix.
Charge asymmetry in e+e- → γ + hadrons: New tests of the quark-parton model and fractional charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Carlson, C.E.; Suaya, R.
1976-01-01
We consider the process e + e - → γ + h + X, where h is a hadron and γ is a hard photon, and show how it can be used to test the quark-parton model. Detailed formulas are given for the cross sections, which in the quark-parton model are products of cross sections for e + e - → γμanti μ and quark breakup functions. We focus on the asymmetry between h and h-bar production, and display sum rules and ratio tests which measure the quark charge, the quark Compton amplitude, and the large-x behavior of the quark breakup function. The asymmetry is calculated for the muon case, and is about 100% for the forward direction
A n-vector model for charge transport in molecular semiconductors.
Jackson, Nicholas E; Kohlstedt, Kevin L; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A
2016-11-28
We develop a lattice model utilizing coarse-grained molecular sites to study charge transport in molecular semiconducting materials. The model bridges atomistic descriptions and structureless lattice models by mapping molecular structure onto sets of spatial vectors isomorphic with spin vectors in a classical n-vector Heisenberg model. Specifically, this model incorporates molecular topology-dependent orientational and intermolecular coupling preferences, including the direct inclusion of spatially correlated transfer integrals and site energy disorder. This model contains the essential physics required to explicitly simulate the interplay of molecular topology and correlated structural disorder, and their effect on charge transport. As a demonstration of its utility, we apply this model to analyze the effects of long-range orientational correlations, molecular topology, and intermolecular interaction strength on charge motion in bulk molecular semiconductors.
Complexation of metal ions with humic acid: charge neutralization model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.I.; Czerwinski, K.R.
1995-01-01
A number of different approaches are being used for describing the complexation equilibrium of actinide ions with humic or fulvic acid. The approach chosen and verified experimentally by Tu Muenchen will be discussed with notable examples from experiment. This approach is based on the conception that a given actinide ion is neutralized upon complexation with functional groups of humic or fulvic acid, e.g. carboxylic and phenolic groups, which are known as heterogeneously cross-linked polyelectrolytes. The photon energy transfer experiment with laser light excitation has shown that the actinide ion binding with the functional groups is certainly a chelation process accompanied by metal ion charge neutralization. This fact is in accordance with the experimental evidence of the postulated thermodynamic equilibrium reaction. The experimental results are found to be independent of origin of humic or fulvic acid and applicable for a broad range of pH. (authors). 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Model for diffusion of a narrow beam of charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenhauer, C.
1980-01-01
A simple analytic expression is presented to describe the three-dimensioned spatial distribution of flux or energy deposition by a narrow beam of charged particles. In this expression distances are expressed in terms of a scaling parameter that is proportional to the mean square scattering angle in a single collision. Finite ranges are expressed in terms of the continuous-slowing-down range. Track-length distributions for one-velocity particles and energy deposition for electrons are discussed. Comparisons with rigorous Monte Carlo calculations show that departures from the analytic expression can be expressed as a slowly varying function of order unity. This function can be used as a basis for interpolation over a wide range of source energies and materials
Modeling of magnetorheological fluid in quasi-static squeeze flow mode
Horak, Wojciech
2018-06-01
This work presents a new nonlinear model to describe MR fluid behavior in the squeeze flow mode. The basis for deriving the model were the principles of continuum mechanics and the theory of tensor transformation. The analyzed case concerned quasi-static squeeze with a constant area, between two parallel plates with non-slip boundary conditions. The developed model takes into account the rheological properties or MR fluids as a viscoplastic material for which yield stress increases due to compression. The model also takes into account the formation of normal force in the MR fluid as a result of the magnetic field impact. Moreover, a new parameter has been introduced which characterizes the behavior of MR fluid subjected to compression. The proposed model has been experimentally validated and the obtained results suggest that the assumptions made in the model development are reasonable, as good model compatibility with the experiments was obtained.
A Monte Carlo modeling on charging effect for structures with arbitrary geometries
Li, C.; Mao, S. F.; Zou, Y. B.; Li, Yong Gang; Zhang, P.; Li, H. M.; Ding, Z. J.
2018-04-01
Insulating materials usually suffer charging effects when irradiated by charged particles. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo study on the charging effect caused by electron beam irradiation for sample structures with any complex geometry. When transporting in an insulating solid, electrons encounter elastic and inelastic scattering events; the Mott cross section and a Lorentz-type dielectric function are respectively employed to describe such scatterings. In addition, the band gap and the electron–long optical phonon interaction are taken into account. The electronic excitation in inelastic scattering causes generation of electron–hole pairs; these negative and positive charges establish an inner electric field, which in turn induces the drift of charges to be trapped by impurities, defects, vacancies etc in the solid, where the distributions of trapping sites are assumed to have uniform density. Under charging conditions, the inner electric field distorts electron trajectories, and the surface electric potential dynamically alters secondary electron emission. We present, in this work, an iterative modeling method for a self-consistent calculation of electric potential; the method has advantages in treating any structure with arbitrary complex geometry, in comparison with the image charge method—which is limited to a quite simple boundary geometry. Our modeling is based on: the combination of the finite triangle mesh method for an arbitrary geometry construction; a self-consistent method for the spatial potential calculation; and a full dynamic description for the motion of deposited charges. Example calculations have been done to simulate secondary electron yield of SiO2 for a semi-infinite solid, the charging for a heterostructure of SiO2 film grown on an Au substrate, and SEM imaging of a SiO2 line structure with rough surfaces and SiO2 nanoparticles with irregular shapes. The simulations have explored interesting interlaced charge layer distribution
Charged particle emission: the Child-Langmuir model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degond, P.; Raviart, P.A.
1993-01-01
The recent mathematical results concerning boundary emission modelling are reviewed with a synthetical view. The plane diode case is first studied; the Child-Langmuir model is then characterized as the limit to an absolutely non standard singular perturbation problem and is associated with approximate models (constrained and penalized models) which may be easily generalized in more realistic cases; an iterative solution method for the penalized problem is studied. The derived Child-Langmuir model is extended to the cylindrical diode case and to an arbitrary geometry case: constrained and penalized models related to the stationary Vlasov-Poisson equations are studied and extended to the Vlasov-Maxwell evolution equation general case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheppard, Colin; Waraich, Rashid; Campbell, Andrew; Pozdnukov, Alexei; Gopal, Anand R.
2017-05-01
This report summarizes the BEAM modeling framework (Behavior, Energy, Mobility, and Autonomy) and its application to simulating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) mobility, energy consumption, and spatiotemporal charging demand. BEAM is an agent-based model of PEV mobility and charging behavior designed as an extension to MATSim (the Multi-Agent Transportation Simulation model). We apply BEAM to the San Francisco Bay Area and conduct a preliminary calibration and validation of its prediction of charging load based on observed charging infrastructure utilization for the region in 2016. We then explore the impact of a variety of common modeling assumptions in the literature regarding charging infrastructure availability and driver behavior. We find that accurately reproducing observed charging patterns requires an explicit representation of spatially disaggregated charging infrastructure as well as a more nuanced model of the decision to charge that balances tradeoffs people make with regards to time, cost, convenience, and range anxiety.
Patsahan, O. V.; Patsahan, T. M.; Holovko, M. F.
2018-02-01
We develop a theory based on the method of collective variables to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium of asymmetric ionic fluids confined in a disordered porous matrix. The approach allows us to formulate the perturbation theory using an extension of the scaled particle theory for a description of a reference system presented as a two-component hard-sphere fluid confined in a hard-sphere matrix. Treating an ionic fluid as a size- and charge-asymmetric primitive model (PM) we derive an explicit expression for the relevant chemical potential of a confined ionic system which takes into account the third-order correlations between ions. Using this expression, the phase diagrams for a size-asymmetric PM are calculated for different matrix porosities as well as for different sizes of matrix and fluid particles. It is observed that general trends of the coexistence curves with the matrix porosity are similar to those of simple fluids under disordered confinement, i.e., the coexistence region gets narrower with a decrease of porosity and, simultaneously, the reduced critical temperature Tc* and the critical density ρi,c * become lower. At the same time, our results suggest that an increase in size asymmetry of oppositely charged ions considerably affects the vapor-liquid diagrams leading to a faster decrease of Tc* and ρi,c * and even to a disappearance of the phase transition, especially for the case of small matrix particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A. A.
2014-01-01
The propagation of finite amplitude ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén (SDA) waves, and their modulational instability in a magnetized plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids have been theoretically investigated by using the reductive perturbation method. The derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived to examine the stability analysis of such SDA waves. It is found that the SDA waves propagating in such an opposite polarity dust plasma medium are modulationally unstable, and that the instability criterion and the growth rate of these unstable SDA waves in such a novel opposite polarity dust plasma medium are found to be significantly different from those in electron–ion or electron–positron plasma media. The implications of the present investigation in different space environments and laboratory devices are briefly discussed.
Rotating cylindrically symmetric Kaluza-Klein fluid model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theory the spacetime of the universe is expected to be five dimensional in the early stages of its evolution, the ... fluids in the context of general relativity received considerable attention. Krasinski ... Some specific solutions of physical relevance along with their features of physical .... where « is arbitrary constant of integration.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Tape Casting Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2011-01-01
The flow behavior of the fluid in the tape casting process is analyzed. A simple geometry is assumed for running the numerical calculations in ANSYS Fluent and the main parameters are expressed in non-dimensional form. The effect of different values for substrate velocity and pressure force...
Discretization of the Joule heating term for plasma discharge fluid models in unstructured meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deconinck, T.; Mahadevan, S.; Raja, L.L.
2009-01-01
The fluid (continuum) approach is commonly used for simulation of plasma phenomena in electrical discharges at moderate to high pressures (>10's mTorr). The description comprises governing equations for charged and neutral species transport and energy equations for electrons and the heavy species, coupled to equations for the electromagnetic fields. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species (ion) energy equations. Proper numerical discretization of this term is necessary for accurate description of discharge energetics; however, discretization of this term poses a special problem in the case of unstructured meshes owing to the arbitrary orientation of the faces enclosing each cell. We propose a method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term using a cell-centered finite volume approach on unstructured meshes with closed convex cells. The Joule heating term is computed by evaluating both the electric field and the species flux at the cell center. The dot product of these two vector quantities is computed to obtain the Joule heating source term. We compare two methods to evaluate the species flux at the cell center. One is based on reconstructing the fluxes at the cell centers from the fluxes at the face centers. The other recomputes the flux at the cell center using the common drift-diffusion approximation. The reconstructed flux scheme is the most stable method and yields reasonably accurate results on coarse meshes.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION OF PIPES CONTAINING MOBILE BOILING FLUID CLOTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yevgeniy Tolbatov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Numerical modeling dynamic behavior of a pipe containing inner nonhomogeneous flows of a boiling fluid has been carried out. The system vibrations at different values of the parameters of the flow nonhomogeneity and its velocity are observed. The possibility of forming stable and unstable flows depending on the character ofnonhomogeneity and the velocity of fluid clots has been found.
Fluid dynamics of moving fish in a two-dimensional multiparticle collision dynamics model
Reid, Daniel A. P.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Hemelrijk, C. K.; Padding, J.T.
2012-01-01
The fluid dynamics of animal locomotion, such as that of an undulating fish, are of great interest to both biologists and engineers. However, experimentally studying these fluid dynamics is difficult and time consuming. Model studies can be of great help because of their simpler and more detailed
Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.
2016-01-01
A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...
Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.
Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L
2009-01-01
A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.
Askarinejad, A.; Philia Boru Sitanggang, Anggi; Schenkeveld, Ferry; Lee, W.; Lee, J-S.; Kim, H-K.; kim, D-S.
The common practice in centrifuge modelling of dynamic processes is to use high-viscosity pore fluids to unify the time scaling factors for the generation and dissipation of pore pressures. This paper focuses on the effects of the density and viscosity of the pore fluid on the behaviour of an
Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Benassi, A. [CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Tosatti, E. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)
2015-10-14
Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.
Currents, charges, and canonical structure of pseudodual chiral models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1994-01-01
We discuss the pseudodual chiral model to illustrate a class of two-dimensional theories which have an infinite number of conservation laws but allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations. We describe the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the usual chiral model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model, and we discuss the complete local current algebra for the pseudodual theory. We also exhibit the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual, further distinguishing the pseudodual theory
Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jessica Robinson
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee
2012-09-28
Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular "linear response" model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution).
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee
2012-01-01
Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular “linear response” model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution). PMID:23020318
Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Station Unified Modeling and Stability Analysis in the dq Frame
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Wang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The electric vehicle fast-charging station is an important guarantee for the popularity of electric vehicle. As the fast-charging piles are voltage source converters, stability issues will occur in the grid-connected fast-charging station. Since the dynamic input admittance of the fast-charging pile and the dynamic output impedance play an important role in the interaction system stability, the station and grid interaction system is regarded as load-side and source-side sub-systems to build the dynamic impedance model. The dynamic input admittance in matrix form is derived from the fast-charging pile current control loop considering the influence of the LC filter. Similarly, the dynamic output impedance can be obtained similarly by considering the regional power grid capacity, transformer capacity, and feed line length. On this basis, a modified forbidden region-based stability criterion is used for the fast-charging station stability analysis. The frequency-domain case studies and time-domain simulations are presented next to show the influence of factors from both the power grid side and fast-charging pile side. The simulation results validated the effectiveness of the dq frame impedance model and the stability analysis method.
Kipp, Dylan; Ganesan, Venkat
2013-06-01
We develop a kinetic Monte Carlo model for photocurrent generation in organic solar cells that demonstrates improved agreement with experimental illuminated and dark current-voltage curves. In our model, we introduce a charge injection rate prefactor to correct for the electrode grid-size and electrode charge density biases apparent in the coarse-grained approximation of the electrode as a grid of single occupancy, charge-injecting reservoirs. We use the charge injection rate prefactor to control the portion of dark current attributed to each of four kinds of charge injection. By shifting the dark current between electrode-polymer pairs, we align the injection timescales and expand the applicability of the method to accommodate ohmic energy barriers. We consider the device characteristics of the ITO/PEDOT/PSS:PPDI:PBTT:Al system and demonstrate the manner in which our model captures the device charge densities unique to systems with small injection energy barriers. To elucidate the defining characteristics of our model, we first demonstrate the manner in which charge accumulation and band bending affect the shape and placement of the various current-voltage regimes. We then discuss the influence of various model parameters upon the current-voltage characteristics.
Wang, Bo; Truhlar, Donald G
2013-02-12
Tuned and balanced redistributed charge schemes have been developed for modeling the electrostatic fields of bonds that are cut by a quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical boundary in combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. First, the charge is balanced by adjusting the charge on the MM boundary atom to conserve the total charge of the entire QM/MM system. In the balanced smeared redistributed charge (BSRC) scheme, the adjusted MM boundary charge is smeared with a smearing width of 1.0 Å and is distributed in equal portions to the midpoints of the bonds between the MM boundary atom and the MM atoms bonded to it; in the balanced redistributed charge-2 (BRC2) scheme, the adjusted MM boundary charge is distributed as point charges in equal portions to the MM atoms that are bonded to the MM boundary atom. The QM subsystem is capped by a fluorine atom that is tuned to reproduce the sum of partial atomic charges of the uncapped portion of the QM subsystem. The new aspect of the present study is a new way to carry out the tuning process; in particular, the CM5 charge model, rather than the Mulliken population analysis applied in previous studies, is used for tuning the capping atom that terminates the dangling bond of the QM region. The mean unsigned error (MUE) of the QM/MM deprotonation energy for a 15-system test suite of deprotonation reactions is 2.3 kcal/mol for the tuned BSRC scheme (TBSRC) and 2.4 kcal/mol for the tuned BRC2 scheme (TBRC2). As was the case for the original tuning method based on Mulliken charges, the new tuning method performs much better than using conventional hydrogen link atoms, which have an MUE on this test set of about 7 kcal/mol. However, the new scheme eliminates the need to use small basis sets, which can be problematic, and it allows one to be more consistent by tuning the parameters with whatever basis set is appropriate for applications. (Alternatively, since the tuning parameters and partial charges
Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2014-08-01
We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.
Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.
2014-01-01
We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.
A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole
2013-01-01
The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osdal, Bard; Granli, John Reidar
1998-12-31
Seismic lithology and fluid phase prediction (LFP) is becoming an important part of seismic interpretation, and can contribute significantly to risk reduction prior to drilling. In this presentation there is focused on quantitative interpretation of the amplitudes in a 2-D dataset, with respect to presence of hydrocarbons. Different aspect of the working producer, like data quality (well data and seismic data), rock modelling and seismic modelling will be illustrated. In the present study only one well has been used for calibration and to investigate the seismic response for different fluid and lithology scenarios. The rock modelling included evaluation of seismic parameter effect for different fluid and porosities. 1 ref., 4 figs.
Adler-type sum rule, charge symmetry and neutral current in general multi-triplet model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katuya, Mituaki; Baba, Yoshimitsu; Fujii, Kanji
1975-01-01
We derive Adler-type sum rule extended to general multi-triplet model. Paying attention to roles of the colour degree of freedom, we discuss the charge symmetry property of the weak charged current and the structure functions for ν(ν - )+N→l(l - )+X, and also the structure of the neutral current. A comment is given on implications in our theory of Koike and Konuma's result on the neutral hadronic current. (auth.)
Modelling of the charge carrier mobility in disordered linear polymer materials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Toman, Petr; Menšík, Miroslav; Bartkowiak, W.; Pfleger, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 11 (2017), s. 7760-7771 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501204 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : charge carrier mobility * conjugated polymer * charge transport modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016
Fermion local charged boson model and cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, K.P.; Kakani, S.L.
2002-01-01
One of the most exciting developments in Science in past few years is the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) in cuprates. It has been observed that the superconducting state in these cuprates is rather normal compared to the anomalous normal state. This discovery has led to deluge of experimental and theoretical researches all along the world. These cuprates are close to metal-insulator transition and the stability of the insulating and metallic phase depends on the degree of doping. Measurements of physical properties of these systems have revealed many anomalous results both in the superconducting and normal states, e.g. d-wave superconducting gap, the presence of pseudo gap in the normal state, static or dynamic striped structure of CuO 2 planes etc. These have posed serious theoretical challenges towards formulating the mechanisms of pairing and explanation of anomalous behaviour. Several theoretical proposals have been advanced and only a few are likely to survive in the teeth of some reliable experimental data. A combined mechanism mediated by phonons and lochons (local charged bosons, local pairs or bipolarons) for the pairing of fermions (holes or electrons) belonging to a wide band provides a microscopic explanation of anomalous normal state properties of HTSC cuprates and vindicates features of the phenomenological marginal Fermi liquid formulation. In the present review article detailed features of combined lochon and phonon mediated pairing mechanism are presented and a contact with the normal and superconducting state properties of HTSC in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x does indicate pair hopping between planes via such resonant centres lying in between the CuO 2 planes. (author)
Sectional modeling of nanoparticle size and charge distributions in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, Pulkit; Girshick, Steven L
2012-01-01
Sectional models of the dynamics of aerosol populations are well established in the aerosol literature but have received relatively less attention in numerical models of dusty plasmas, where most modeling studies have assumed the existence of monodisperse dust particles. In the case of plasmas in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow, significant polydispersity can exist in particle size distributions, and stochastic charging can cause particles of given size to have a broad distribution of charge states. Sectional models, while computationally expensive, are well suited to treating such distributions. This paper presents an overview of sectional modeling of nanodusty plasmas, and presents examples of simulation results that reveal important qualitative features of the spatiotemporal evolution of such plasmas, many of which could not be revealed by models that consider only monodisperse dust particles and average particle charge. These features include the emergence of bimodal particle populations consisting of very small neutral particles and larger negatively charged particles, the effects of size and charge distributions on coagulation, spreading and structure of the particle cloud, and the dynamics of dusty plasma afterglows. (paper)
Cosmological models described by a mixture of van der Waals fluid and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, G.M.
2003-01-01
The Universe is modeled as a binary mixture whose constituents are described by a van der Waals fluid and by a dark energy density. The dark energy density is considered either as quintessence or as the Chaplygin gas. The irreversible processes concerning the energy transfer between the van der Waals fluid and the gravitational field are taken into account. This model can simulate (a) an inflationary period where the acceleration grows exponentially and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflaton, (b) an accelerated period where the acceleration is positive but it decreases and tends to zero whereas the energy density of the van der Waals fluid decays, (c) a decelerated period which corresponds to a matter dominated period with a non-negative pressure, and (d) a present accelerated period where the dark energy density outweighs the energy density of the van der Waals fluid
Complex fluid network optimization and control integrative design based on nonlinear dynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sui, Jinxue; Yang, Li; Hu, Yunan
2016-01-01
In view of distribution according to complex fluid network’s needs, this paper proposed one optimization computation method of the nonlinear programming mathematical model based on genetic algorithm. The simulation result shows that the overall energy consumption of the optimized fluid network has a decrease obviously. The control model of the fluid network is established based on nonlinear dynamics. We design the control law based on feedback linearization, take the optimal value by genetic algorithm as the simulation data, can also solve the branch resistance under the optimal value. These resistances can provide technical support and reference for fluid network design and construction, so can realize complex fluid network optimization and control integration design.
Validation of Numerical Two-Fluid and Kinetic Plasma Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daniel Barnes
2011-03-25
This was a four year grant commencing October 1, 2003 and finishing September 30, 2007. The funding was primarily used to support the work of the Principal Investigator, who collaborated with Profs. Scott Parker and John Cary at U. Colorado, and with two students, N. Xiang and J. Cheng also of U. Colorado. The technical accomplishments of this grant can be found in the publications listed in the final Section here. The main accomplishments of the grant work were: (1) Development and implementation of time-implicit two-fluid simulation methods in collaboration with the NIMROD team; and (2) Development and testing of a new time-implicit delta-f, energy-conserving method The basic two-fluid method, with many improvements is used in present NIMROD calculations. The energy-conserving delta-f method is under continuing development under contract between Coronado Consulting, a New Mexico sole proprietorship and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Charged ρ Meson Condensate in Neutron Stars within RMF Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin A. Maslov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of the equation of state (EoS of cold and dense baryonic matter is essential for the description of properties of neutron stars (NSs. With an increase of the density, new baryon species can appear in NS matter, as well as various meson condensates. In previous works, we developed relativistic mean-field (RMF models with hyperons and Δ -isobars, which passed the majority of known experimental constraints, including the existence of a 2 M ⊙ neutron star. In this contribution, we present results of the inclusion of ρ − -meson condensation into these models. We have shown that, in one class of the models (so-called KVOR-based models, in which the additional stiffening procedure is introduced in the isoscalar sector, the condensation gives only a small contribution to the EoS. In another class of the models (MKVOR-based models with additional stiffening in isovector sector, the condensation can lead to a first-order phase transition and a substantial decrease of the NS mass. Nevertheless, in all resulting models, the condensation does not spoil the description of the experimental constraints.
Two-fluid model with droplet size distribution for condensing steam flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wróblewski, Włodzimierz; Dykas, Sławomir
2016-01-01
The process of energy conversion in the low pressure part of steam turbines may be improved using new and more accurate numerical models. The paper presents a description of a model intended for the condensing steam flow modelling. The model uses a standard condensation model. A physical and a numerical model of the mono- and polydispersed wet-steam flow are presented. The proposed two-fluid model solves separate flow governing equations for the compressible, inviscid vapour and liquid phase. The method of moments with a prescribed function is used for the reconstruction of the water droplet size distribution. The described model is presented for the liquid phase evolution in the flow through the de Laval nozzle. - Highlights: • Computational Fluid Dynamics. • Steam condensation in transonic flows through the Laval nozzles. • In-house CFD code – two-phase flow, two-fluid monodispersed and polydispersed model.
Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques
Guinot, Vincent
2012-01-01
This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betchen, L.J.; Straatman, A.G.
2005-01-01
A mathematical and numerical model for the treatment of conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer problems in domains containing pure fluid, porous, and pure solid regions has been developed. The model is general and physically reasoned, and allows for local thermal non-equilibrium in the porous region. The model is developed for implementation on a simple collocated finite volume grid. Of particular novelty are the conditions implemented at the interfaces between porous regions, and those containing a pure solid or pure fluid. The model is validated by simulation of a three-dimensional porous plug problem for which experimental results are available. (author)
Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge
Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.
2015-09-01
One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.
Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anele, A O; Hamam, Y; Djouani, K; Chassagne, L; Alayli, Y; Linares, J
2015-01-01
One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV. (paper)
Pion-nucleus double charge exchange and the nuclear shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, N.; Gibbs, W.R.; Ginocchio, J.N.; Kaufmann, W.B.
1988-01-01
The pion-nucleus double charge exchange reaction is studied with special emphasis on nuclear structure. The reaction mechanism and nuclear structure aspects of the process are separated using both the plane-wave and distorted-wave impulse approximations. Predictions are made employing both the seniority model and a full shell model (with a single active orbit). Transitions to the double analog state and to the ground state of the residual nucleus are computed. The seniority model yields particularly simple relations among double charge exchange cross sections for nuclei within the same shell. Limitations of the seniority model and of the plane-wave impulse approximation are discussed as well as extensions to the generalized seniority scheme. Applications of the foregoing ideas to single charge exchange are also presented
Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A
2016-06-14
Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All
Minow, Joseph I.
2011-01-01
Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.
Modeling of radiation-induced charge trapping in MOS devices under ionizing irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petukhov, M. A., E-mail: m.a.petukhov@gmail.com; Ryazanov, A. I. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The numerical model of the radiation-induced charge trapping process in the oxide layer of a MOS device under ionizing irradiation is developed; the model includes carrier transport, hole capture by traps in different states, recombination of free electrons and trapped holes, kinetics of hydrogen ions which can be accumulated in the material during transistor manufacture, and accumulation and charging of interface states. Modeling of n-channel MOSFET behavior under 1 MeV photon irradiation is performed. The obtained dose dependences of the threshold voltage shift and its contributions from trapped holes and interface states are in good agreement with experimental data.
Cosmological models constructed by van der Waals fluid approximation and volumetric expansion
Samanta, G. C.; Myrzakulov, R.
The universe modeled with van der Waals fluid approximation, where the van der Waals fluid equation of state contains a single parameter ωv. Analytical solutions to the Einstein’s field equations are obtained by assuming the mean scale factor of the metric follows volumetric exponential and power-law expansions. The model describes a rapid expansion where the acceleration grows in an exponential way and the van der Waals fluid behaves like an inflation for an initial epoch of the universe. Also, the model describes that when time goes away the acceleration is positive, but it decreases to zero and the van der Waals fluid approximation behaves like a present accelerated phase of the universe. Finally, it is observed that the model contains a type-III future singularity for volumetric power-law expansion.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Jianliang; Zhang, Tusheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used by NASA to optimize the design of propulsion systems. Current methods for CFD modeling rely on...
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: zhaijl@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: Tusheng.Zhang@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanika Prasad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.
Numerical Modelling of Three-Fluid Flow Using The Level-set Method
Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Shang, Zhi
2014-11-01
This work presents a numerical model for simulation of three-fluid flow involving two different moving interfaces. These interfaces are captured using the level-set method via two different level-set functions. A combined formulation with only one set of conservation equations for the whole physical domain, consisting of the three different immiscible fluids, is employed. Numerical solution is performed on a fixed mesh using the finite volume method. Surface tension effect is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force model. Validation of the present model is made against available results for stratified flow and rising bubble in a container with a free surface. Applications of the present model are demonstrated by a variety of three-fluid flow systems including (1) three-fluid stratified flow, (2) two-fluid stratified flow carrying the third fluid in the form of drops and (3) simultaneous rising and settling of two drops in a stationary third fluid. The work is supported by a Thematic and Strategic Research from A*STAR, Singapore (Ref. #: 1021640075).
Computational fluid-dynamic model of laser-induced breakdown in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dors, Ivan G.; Parigger, Christian G.
2003-01-01
Temperature and pressure profiles are computed by the use of a two-dimensional, axially symmetric, time-accurate computational fluid-dynamic model for nominal 10-ns optical breakdown laser pulses. The computational model includes a kinetics mechanism that implements plasma equilibrium kinetics in ionized regions and nonequilibrium, multistep, finite-rate reactions in nonionized regions. Fluid-physics phenomena following laser-induced breakdown are recorded with high-speed shadowgraph techniques. The predicted fluid phenomena are shown by direct comparison with experimental records to agree with the flow patterns that are characteristic of laser spark decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melo, Ana Cristina Bezerra Azedo de
2004-12-01
The fluid dynamic behavior of a riser in a cold type FCC model was investigated by means of catalyst concentration distribution measured with gamma attenuation and simulated with a mathematical model. In the riser of the cold model, MEF, 0,032 m in diameter, 2,30 m in length the fluidized bed, whose components are air and FCC catalyst, circulates. The MEF is operated by automatic control and instruments for measuring fluid dynamic variables. An axial catalyst concentration distribution was measured using an Am-241 gamma source and a NaI detector coupled to a multichannel provided with a software for data acquisition and evaluation. The MEF was adapted for a fluid dynamic model validation which describes the flow in the riser, for example, by introducing an injector for controlling the solid flow in circulation. Mathematical models were selected from literature, analyzed and tested to simulate the fluid dynamic of the riser. A methodology for validating fluid dynamic models was studied and implemented. The stages of the work were developed according to the validation methodology, such as data planning experiments, study of the equations which describe the fluidodynamic, computational solvers application and comparison with experimental data. Operational sequences were carried out keeping the MEF conditions for measuring catalyst concentration and simultaneously measuring the fluid dynamic variables, velocity of the components and pressure drop in the riser. Following this, simulated and experimental values were compared and statistical data treatment done, aiming at the required precision to validate the fluid dynamic model. The comparison tests between experimental and simulated data were carried out under validation criteria. The fluid dynamic behavior of the riser was analyzed and the results and the agreement with literature were discussed. The adopt model was validated under the MEF operational conditions, for a 3 to 6 m/s gas velocity in the riser and a slip
Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D
2008-08-01
Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.
Fuzzy chance constrained linear programming model for scrap charge optimization in steel production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto
2008-01-01
the uncertainty based on fuzzy set theory and constrain the failure risk based on a possibility measure. Consequently, the scrap charge optimization problem is modeled as a fuzzy chance constrained linear programming problem. Since the constraints of the model mainly address the specification of the product...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mungan, M.; Coppersmith, S.; Vinokur, V.M.
1999-01-01
We analyze the strains near threshold in 1-d charge density wave models at zero temperature and strong pinning. We show that in these models local strains diverge near the depinning threshold and characterize the scaling behavior of the phenomenon. This helps quantify when the underlying elastic description breaks down and plastic effects have to be included
Development of a charge transport model for white OLEDs
Vries, de R.J.
2012-01-01
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting applications since they can be made ultra-thin, color-tunable and exible. Improving their e??ciency is an important challenge in the ??eld of organic electronics. The availability of a device model can make the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balenzategui, J. L.
1999-01-01
A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquart algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V O D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs
Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.
1998-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)
Computational fluid dynamics in fire engineering theory, modelling and practice
Yuen, Kwok Kit
2009-01-01
Fire and combustion presents a significant engineering challenge to mechanical, civil and dedicated fire engineers, as well as specialists in the process and chemical, safety, buildings and structural fields. We are reminded of the tragic outcomes of 'untenable' fire disasters such as at King's Cross underground station or Switzerland's St Gotthard tunnel. In these and many other cases, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is at the forefront of active research into unravelling the probable causes of fires and helping to design structures and systems to ensure that they are less likely in the f
Ion association at discretely-charged dielectric interfaces: Giant charge inversion
Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jianzhong
2017-07-01
Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids. While the novel phenomenon is yet to be confirmed with experiment, the simulation results appear in excellent agreement with a wide range of existing observations in the subregime of charge inversion. Our findings may have far-reaching implications to understanding complex electrochemical phenomena entailing ionic fluids under dielectric confinements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajovic, V.S.
1995-01-01
A Faraday ideally segmented (the absence of the Hall electric current I x =0) MHD generator channel, with a weakly ionized plasma as a working fluid, is considered. The magnetic field is applied along the z axis and the working fluid flows along the x axis. The stationary state of the flow and the stationary electric current are considered. The new quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) electrodynamical part of a model is developed. The main assumption (besides j z = 0, E z = 0) taken in the whole working fluid flow, is j x = 0. It means that the bending of the electric current pattern in the working fluid, due to the nonmassive electrodes and the presence of the magnetic field, is not explicitly considered. In the frame of the assumption taken, the legitimacy regarding the equation of conservation of charges: div rvec j = 0 suggests that the straight electric current pattern in the model should be narrow. In other words, it suggests replacing of a rather complicated electric current pattern in a working fluid by an artificially straight and narrow one in the modeling, promising that it would still be possible to describe the global channel parameters - its electrical output, the influence of the shape and the size of the channel on the generator performance etc
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G
2014-10-07
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, "Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405-2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.
2014-01-01
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.
2014-01-01
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry. PMID:25296776
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardhan, Jaydeep P. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Knepley, Matthew G. [Computation Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-10-07
We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.
Model of electric field-induced charge disordering in praseodymium manganites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapinskas, S.; Tornau, E.E.; Semiconductor Physics Inst., Vilnius
2001-01-01
We propose a model for an electric field-driven transition from the ordered NaCl-type phase to the disordered phase. Such a transition might be a prototype of charge disordering transition observed in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 . We assume the lattice-gas model and hopping conductivity of charge carriers. The solution of this model, performed by the Monte Carlo method, demonstrates that considerably high electric field can disorder well-ordered phases. The comparison with the data for charge disordering in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 shows that required fields are much too high. We analyze the obtained results trying to determine a possible scenario for conductivity in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 . (orig.)
Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models
Parke, F. I.
1981-01-01
Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.
Son, Kwon Joong
2018-02-01
Hindering particle agglomeration and re-dispersion processes, gravitational sedimentation of suspended particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids causes inferior performance and controllability of MR fluids in response to a user-specified magnetic field. Thus, suspension stability is one of the principal factors to be considered in synthesizing MR fluids. However, only a few computational studies have been reported so far on the sedimentation characteristics of suspended particles under gravity. In this paper, the settling dynamics of paramagnetic particles suspended in MR fluids was investigated via discrete element method (DEM) simulations. This work focuses particularly on developing accurate fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction models which can account for the influence of stabilizing surfactants on the MR fluid sedimentation. Effect of the stabilizing surfactants on interparticle interactions was incorporated into the derivation of a reliable contact-impact model for DEM computation. Also, the influence of the stabilizing additives on fluid-particle interactions was considered by incorporating Stokes drag with shape and wall correction factors into DEM formulation. The results of simulations performed for model validation purposes showed a good agreement with the published sedimentation measurement data in terms of an initial sedimentation velocity and a final sedimentation ratio.
Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Van Cappellen, P.
2008-01-01
The Charge Distribution MUltiSite Ion Complexation or CD–MUSIC modeling approach is used to describe the chemical structure of carbonate mineralaqueous solution interfaces. The new model extends existing surface complexation models of carbonate minerals, by including atomic scale information on
Roure, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Callot, J.P.; Ferket, H.; Gonzales, E.; Guilhaumou, N.; Hardebol, N.J.; Lacombe, O.; Malandain, J.; Mougin, P.; Muska, K.; Ortuno, S.; Sassi, W.; Swennen, R.; Vilasi, N.
2010-01-01
Basin modelling tools are now more efficient to reconstruct palinspastic structural cross sections and compute the history of temperature, pore-fluid pressure and fluid flow circulations in complex structural settings. In many cases and especially in areas where limited erosion occurred, the use of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amini, Y; Emdad, H; Farid, M
2014-01-01
Piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) from ambient energy sources, particularly vibrations, has attracted considerable interest throughout the last decade. Since fluid flow has a high energy density, it is one of the best candidates for PEH. Indeed, a piezoelectric energy harvesting process from the fluid flow takes the form of natural three-way coupling of the turbulent fluid flow, the electromechanical effect of the piezoelectric material and the electrical circuit. There are some experimental and numerical studies about piezoelectric energy harvesting from fluid flow in literatures. Nevertheless, accurate modeling for predicting characteristics of this three-way coupling has not yet been developed. In the present study, accurate modeling for this triple coupling is developed and validated by experimental results. A new code based on this modeling in an openFOAM platform is developed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escobar Remolina, Juan Carlos M; Barrios Ortiz, Wilson; Santoyo Ramirez Gildardo
2009-01-01
A thermodynamic structure has been modified in order to calculate cloud point, fluidity and amount of precipitated wax under a wide range of temperature conditions, composition, and high pressures. The model is based on a combination of ideal solution concepts, fluid characterization, and formation of multiple solid phases using Cubic State Equations. The experimental data utilized for testing the prediction capacity and potentiality of a model exhibit different characteristics: continuous series synthetic systems of heavy alkanes, discontinuous series, and dead or living petroleum fluids with indefinite fractions such as C7+, C10+, C20+, and C30+. The samples were taken from the literature, petroleum fluids from the main Colombian reservoirs, and some samples of Bolivian fluids. Results presented in this paper show the minimum standard deviations between experimental data and data calculated with a model. This allows a progress in decision-making processes for flow assurance in reservoirs, wells, and surface facilities in the petroleum industry.
Exact EGB models for spherical static perfect fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansraj, Sudan; Chilambwe, Brian; Maharaj, Sunil D. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)
2015-06-15
We obtain a new exact solution to the field equations for a 5-dimensional spherically symmetric static distribution in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet modified theory of gravity. By using a transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single second order nonlinear differential equation. In general the condition of pressure isotropy produces a first order differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. An exact solution is found. The solution is examined for physical admissibility. In particular a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which defines the boundary of the distribution. Additionally the isotropic pressure and the energy density are shown to be positive within the radius of the sphere. The adiabatic sound-speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution. On setting the Gauss-Bonnet coupling to zero, an exact solution for 5-dimensional perfect fluids in the standard Einstein theory is obtained. Plots of the dynamical quantities for the Gauss-Bonnet and the Einstein case reveal that the pressure is unaffected, while the energy density increases under the influence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. (orig.)
Blind intercomparison of nuclear models for predicting charged particle emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, K.; Cierjacks, S.
1994-01-01
Neutron activation data are important for dosimetry, radiation-damage and production of long-lived activities. For fusion energy applications, it is required to develop 'low-activation materials' from the viewpoints of safety, maintenance and waste disposal. Existing evaluated activation cross-section libraries are to a large extent based on nuclear-model calculations. The former Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee, NEANDC, (presently replaced by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee) organized the working group on activation cross sections. The first meeting of the group was held in 1989, and it was then agreed that a blind intercomparison of nuclear-model calculations should be undertaken in order to test the predictive power of the theoretical calculations. As a first stage the working group selected the reactions 60g Co(n,p) 60 Fe and 60m Co(n,p) 60 Fe, for which no experimental data were available, in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The preliminary results compiled at the NEA Data Bank were sent to each participant and a meeting was held during the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology in Julich 1991 to discuss the results. Following the outcome of the discussion in Julich, it was decided to extend this intercomparison. In the second-stage calculation, the same optical-model parameters were employed for neutrons, protons and α-particles, i.e., V = 50 MeV, W = 10 MeV, r = 1.25 fm and a = 0.6 fm with the Woods-Saxon volume-type form factors. No spin-orbit interaction was considered. Concerning the level density, the Fermi gas model with a = A/8 MeV -1 was assumed without pairing corrections. Moreover, gamma-ray competition was neglected to simplify the calculation. This report describes the final results of the blind comparison. Section 2 deals with a survey of the received contributions. The final results are graphically presented in section 3. 67 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs
Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Model for Heterogeneous Charged Systems
Stanton, L. G.; Glosli, J. N.; Murillo, M. S.
2018-04-01
Modeling matter across large length scales and timescales using molecular dynamics simulations poses significant challenges. These challenges are typically addressed through the use of precomputed pair potentials that depend on thermodynamic properties like temperature and density; however, many scenarios of interest involve spatiotemporal variations in these properties, and such variations can violate assumptions made in constructing these potentials, thus precluding their use. In particular, when a system is strongly heterogeneous, most of the usual simplifying assumptions (e.g., spherical potentials) do not apply. Here, we present a multiscale approach to orbital-free density functional theory molecular dynamics (OFDFT-MD) simulations that bridges atomic, interionic, and continuum length scales to allow for variations in hydrodynamic quantities in a consistent way. Our multiscale approach enables simulations on the order of micron length scales and 10's of picosecond timescales, which exceeds current OFDFT-MD simulations by many orders of magnitude. This new capability is then used to study the heterogeneous, nonequilibrium dynamics of a heated interface characteristic of an inertial-confinement-fusion capsule containing a plastic ablator near a fuel layer composed of deuterium-tritium ice. At these scales, fundamental assumptions of continuum models are explored; features such as the separation of the momentum fields among the species and strong hydrogen jetting from the plastic into the fuel region are observed, which had previously not been seen in hydrodynamic simulations.
Schottky’s conjecture, field emitters, and the point charge model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin L. Jensen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available A Point Charge Model of conical field emitters, in which the emitter is defined by an equipotential surface of judiciously placed charges over a planar conductor, is used to confirm Schottky’s conjecture that field enhancement factors are multiplicative for a small protrusion placed on top of a larger base structure. Importantly, it is shown that Schottky’s conjecture for conical / ellipsoidal field emitters remains unexpectedly valid even when the dimensions of the protrusion begin to approach the dimensions of the base structure. The model is analytic and therefore the methodology is extensible to other configurations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azhar Ul-Haq
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.
Nemchinova, N. V.; Tyutrin, A. A.; Salov, V. M.
2018-03-01
The silicon production process in the electric arc reduction furnaces (EAF) is studied using pelletized charge as an additive to the standard on the basis of the generated mathematical model. The results obtained due to the model will contribute to the analysis of the charge components behavior during melting with the achievement of optimum final parameters of the silicon production process. The authors proposed using technogenic waste as a raw material for the silicon production in a pelletized form using liquid glass and aluminum production dust from the electrostatic precipitators as a binder. The method of mathematical modeling with the help of the ‘Selector’ software package was used as a basis for the theoretical study. A model was simulated with the imitation of four furnace temperature zones and a crystalline silicon phase (25 °C). The main advantage of the created model is the ability to analyze the behavior of all burden materials (including pelletized charge) in the carbothermic process. The behavior analysis is based on the thermodynamic probability data of the burden materials interactions in the carbothermic process. The model accounts for 17 elements entering the furnace with raw materials, electrodes and air. The silicon melt, obtained by the modeling, contained 91.73 % wt. of the target product. The simulation results showed that in the use of the proposed combined charge, the recovery of silicon reached 69.248 %, which is in good agreement with practical data. The results of the crystalline silicon chemical composition modeling are compared with the real silicon samples of chemical analysis data, which showed the results of convergence. The efficiency of the mathematical modeling methods in the studying of the carbothermal silicon obtaining process with complex interphase transformations and the formation of numerous intermediate compounds using a pelletized charge as an additive to the traditional one is shown.
Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.
1991-01-01
Perturbation techniques used for identification of rotating system dynamic characteristics are described. A comparison between two periodic frequency-swept perturbation methods applied in identification of fluid forces of rotating machines is presented. The description of the fluid force model identified by inputting circular periodic frequency-swept force is given. This model is based on the existence and strength of the circumferential flow, most often generated by the shaft rotation. The application of the fluid force model in rotor dynamic analysis is presented. It is shown that the rotor stability is an entire rotating system property. Some areas for further research are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, V.L.
2011-01-01
The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.
Poisson-Boltzmann theory of charged colloids: limits of the cell model for salty suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denton, A R
2010-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions and polyelectrolyte solutions are commonly modelled by implementing the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory within a cell model. This approach models a bulk system by a single macroion, together with counterions and salt ions, confined to a symmetrically shaped, electroneutral cell. While easing numerical solution of the nonlinear PB equation, the cell model neglects microion-induced interactions and correlations between macroions, precluding modelling of macroion ordering phenomena. An alternative approach, which avoids the artificial constraints of cell geometry, exploits the mapping of a macroion-microion mixture onto a one-component model of pseudo-macroions governed by effective interparticle interactions. In practice, effective-interaction models are usually based on linear-screening approximations, which can accurately describe strong nonlinear screening only by incorporating an effective (renormalized) macroion charge. Combining charge renormalization and linearized PB theories, in both the cell model and an effective-interaction (cell-free) model, we compute osmotic pressures of highly charged colloids and monovalent microions, in Donnan equilibrium with a salt reservoir, over a range of concentrations. By comparing predictions with primitive model simulation data for salt-free suspensions, and with predictions from nonlinear PB theory for salty suspensions, we chart the limits of both the cell model and linear-screening approximations in modelling bulk thermodynamic properties. Up to moderately strong electrostatic couplings, the cell model proves accurate for predicting osmotic pressures of deionized (counterion-dominated) suspensions. With increasing salt concentration, however, the relative contribution of macroion interactions to the osmotic pressure grows, leading predictions from the cell and effective-interaction models to deviate. No evidence is found for a liquid
Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling
2008-01-01
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.
Unsteady Model for Transverse Fluid Elastic Instability of Heat Exchange Tube Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available From the viewpoint of practical application, based on the unsteady analytical model for transverse fluid elastic instability of tube array proposed by Yetisir and the linear attenuation function introduced by Li Ming, a new explicit model based on nonsteady state “streamtube” hypothesis is proposed and solved using complex number method. In the model, numerical integral is avoided and inappropriate aspects in Li Ming model are modified. Using the model, the fluid elastic instability analysis of a single flexible tube is made. The stability graphs for four typical types of tube array are plotted and contrasted with experimental results. It is found that the current explicit model is effective in the analysis of transverse fluid elastic instability of tube bundle.
Absence of ballistic charge transport in the half-filled 1D Hubbard model
Carmelo, J. M. P.; Nemati, S.; Prosen, T.
2018-05-01
Whether in the thermodynamic limit of lattice length L → ∞, hole concentration mηz = - 2 Sηz/L = 1 -ne → 0, nonzero temperature T > 0, and U / t > 0 the charge stiffness of the 1D Hubbard model with first neighbor transfer integral t and on-site repulsion U is finite or vanishes and thus whether there is or there is no ballistic charge transport, respectively, remains an unsolved and controversial issue, as different approaches yield contradictory results. (Here Sηz = - (L -Ne) / 2 is the η-spin projection and ne =Ne / L the electronic density.) In this paper we provide an upper bound on the charge stiffness and show that (similarly as at zero temperature), for T > 0 and U / t > 0 it vanishes for mηz → 0 within the canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic limit L → ∞. Moreover, we show that at high temperature T → ∞ the charge stiffness vanishes as well within the grand-canonical ensemble for L → ∞ and chemical potential μ →μu where (μ -μu) ≥ 0 and 2μu is the Mott-Hubbard gap. The lack of charge ballistic transport indicates that charge transport at finite temperatures is dominated by a diffusive contribution. Our scheme uses a suitable exact representation of the electrons in terms of rotated electrons for which the numbers of singly occupied and doubly occupied lattice sites are good quantum numbers for U / t > 0. In contrast to often less controllable numerical studies, the use of such a representation reveals the carriers that couple to the charge probes and provides useful physical information on the microscopic processes behind the exotic charge transport properties of the 1D electronic correlated system under study.
Hamiltonian structure of reduced fluid models for plasmas obtained from a kinetic description
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillebon, L. de; Chandre, C.
2012-01-01
We consider the Hamiltonian structure of reduced fluid models obtained from a kinetic description of collisionless plasmas by Vlasov–Maxwell equations. We investigate the possibility of finding Poisson subalgebras associated with fluid models starting from the Vlasov–Maxwell Poisson algebra. In this way, we show that the only possible Poisson subalgebra involves the moments of zeroth and first order of the Vlasov distribution, meaning the fluid density and the fluid velocity. We find that the bracket derived in [B.A. Shadwick, G.M. Tarkenton, E.H. Esarey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 175002] which involves moments of order 2 is not a Poisson bracket since it does not satisfy the Jacobi identity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate fluid reductions from the Vlasov–Maxwell Poisson bracket. ► The only Poisson subalgebra involves fluid density and fluid velocity. ► The bracket derived in [B.A. Shadwick, G.M. Tarkenton, E.H. Esarey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 175002] is not Hamiltonian.
Two-equation and multi-fluid turbulence models for Rayleigh–Taylor mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokkinakis, I.W.; Drikakis, D.; Youngs, D.L.; Williams, R.J.R.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We present a new improved version of the K–L model. • The improved K–L is found in good agreement with the multi-fluid model and ILES. • The study concerns Rayleigh–Taylor flows at initial density ratios 3:1 and 20:1. - Abstract: This paper presents a new, improved version of the K–L model, as well as a detailed investigation of K–L and multi-fluid models with reference to high-resolution implicit large eddy simulations of compressible Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. The accuracy of the models is examined for different interface pressures and specific heat ratios for Rayleigh–Taylor flows at initial density ratios 3:1 and 20:1. It is shown that the original version of the K–L model requires modifications in order to provide comparable results to the multi-fluid model. The modifications concern the addition of an enthalpy diffusion term to the energy equation; the formulation of the turbulent kinetic energy (source) term in the K equation; and the calculation of the local Atwood number. The proposed modifications significantly improve the results of the K–L model, which are found in good agreement with the multi-fluid model and implicit large eddy simulations with respect to the self-similar mixing width; peak turbulent kinetic energy growth rate, as well as volume fraction and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. However, a key advantage of the two-fluid model is that it can represent the degree of molecular mixing in a direct way, by transferring mass between the two phases. The limitations of the single-fluid K–L model as well as the merits of more advanced Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models are also discussed throughout the paper.
Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Edgell
1999-12-01
Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.
Modeling centrifugal cell washers using computational fluid dynamics.
Kellet, Beth E; Han, Binbing; Dandy, David S; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil
2004-11-01
Reinfusion of shed blood during surgery could avoid the need for blood transfusions. Prior to reinfusion of the red blood cells, the shed blood must be washed in order to remove leukocytes, platelets, and other contaminants. Further, the hematocrit of the washed blood must be increased. The feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to guide the design of better centrifuges for processing shed blood is explored here. The velocity field within a centrifuge bowl and the rate of protein removal from the shed blood has been studied. The results obtained indicate that CFD could help screen preliminary centrifuge bowl designs, thus reducing the number of initial experimental tests required when developing new centrifuge bowls. Although the focus of this work is on washing shed blood, the methods developed here are applicable to the design of centrifuge bowls for other blood-processing applications.
Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2001-05-01
This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.
A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection
Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.
2006-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting
Numerical modelling of cuttings transport in horizontal wells using conventional drilling fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y.; Bjorndalen, E.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2004-07-01
Some of the problems associated with poor wellbore cleaning include high drag or torque, slower rate of penetration, formation fractures and difficulty in wellbore steering. Some of the factors that affect cuttings transport include drilling fluid velocity, inclination angle, drilling fluid viscosity and drilling rate. The general practice is to stop drilling when necessary to clean boreholes with viscous pills, pipe rotation or drilling fluid circulation. It is important to predict when drilling should be stopped for remedial wellbore cleaning. This can be accomplished with a transient cuttings transport model which can improve drilling hydraulics, particularly in long horizontal well sections and extended reach (ERD) wells. This paper presents a newly developed 1-dimensional transient mechanistic model of cuttings transport with conventional (incompressible) drilling fluids in horizontal wells. The numerically solved model predicts the height of cutting beds as a function of different drilling operational parameters such as fluid flow rate and rheological characteristics, drilling rates, wellbore geometry and drillpipe eccentricity. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated the effects of these parameters on the efficiency of solids transport. The proposed model can be used in the creation of computer programs designed to optimize drilling fluid rheology and flow rates for horizontal well drilling. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenberg, Bob; Liu, Weishi; Xu, Hongguo
2015-01-01
In this work, we are interested in effects of a simple profile of permanent charges on ionic flows. We determine when a permanent charge produces current reversal. We adopt the classical Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) models of ionic flows for this study. The starting point of our analysis is the recently developed geometric singular perturbation approach for PNP models. Under the setting in the paper for case studies, we are able to identify a single governing equation for the existence and the value of the permanent charge for a current reversal. A number of interesting features are established. The related topic on reversal potential can be viewed as a dual problem and is briefly examined in this work too. (paper)
Camargo, Manuel; Téllez, Gabriel
2008-04-07
The renormalized charge of a simple two-dimensional model of colloidal suspension was determined by solving the hypernetted chain approximation and Ornstein-Zernike equations. At the infinite dilution limit, the asymptotic behavior of the correlation functions is used to define the effective interactions between the components of the system and these effective interactions were compared to those derived from the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The results we obtained show that, in contrast to the mean-field theory, the renormalized charge does not saturate, but exhibits a maximum value and then decays monotonically as the bare charge increases. The results also suggest that beyond the counterion layer near to the macroion surface, the ionic cloud is not a diffuse layer which can be handled by means of the linearized theory, as the two-state model claims, but a more complex structure is settled by the correlations between microions.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics modelling in continuum mechanics: fluid-structure interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Groenenboom P. H. L.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Within this study, the implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method solving the complex problem of interaction between a quasi-incompressible fluid involving a free surface and an elastic structure is outlined. A brief description of the SPH model for both the quasi-incompressible fluid and the isotropic elastic solid is presented. The interaction between the fluid and the elastic structure is realised through the contact algorithm. The results of numerical computations are confronted with the experimental as well as computational data published in the literature.
Two-fluid modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for best-estimate LWR safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.
1989-01-01
Two-fluid formulation of the conservation equations has allowed modelling of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and situations involving strong departures in thermal and velocity equilibrium between the phases. The paper reviews the state of the art in modelling critical flows, and certain phase separation phenomena, as well as post-dryout heat transfer situations. Although the two-fluid models and the codes have the potential for correctly modelling such situations, this potential has not always been fully used in practice. (orig.)
Five decades of tackling models for stiff fluid dynamics problems a scientific autobiography
Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh
2014-01-01
Rationality - as opposed to 'ad-hoc' - and asymptotics - to emphasize the fact that perturbative methods are at the core of the theory - are the two main concepts associated with the Rational Asymptotic Modeling (RAM) approach in fluid dynamics when the goal is to specifically provide useful models accessible to numerical simulation via high-speed computing. This approach has contributed to a fresh understanding of Newtonian fluid flow problems and has opened up new avenues for tackling real fluid flow phenomena, which are known to lead to very difficult mathematical and numerical problems irrespective of turbulence. With the present scientific autobiography the author guides the reader through his somewhat non-traditional career; first discovering fluid mechanics, and then devoting more than fifty years to intense work in the field. Using both personal and general historical contexts, this account will be of benefit to anyone interested in the early and contemporary developments of an important branch of the...
Neural Network Modeling of Cutting Fluid Impact on Energy Consumption during Turning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bachraty
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a part of research on power consumption differences between various cutting fluids used during turning operations. An attempt was made to study the possibility of artificial neural network to model the behavior function and predicting the electrical power consumption. Friction factor of examined cutting fluids was also measured to describe a more complete picture of investigated cutting fluids characteristics. It was discovered that wide spectrum of characteristics is present in today’s market and that artificial neural networks are suitable for purpose of modeling the power consumption of the lathe during machining. This paper could be used as a foundation for later database building where it would be possible to predict how certain cutting fluid will behave in a specific machining parameter combination.
Samsudin, A.; Fratiwi, N.; Amin, N.; Wiendartun; Supriyatman; Wibowo, F.; Faizin, M.; Costu, B.
2018-05-01
This study based on an importance of improving students’ conceptions and reduces students’ misconceptions on fluid dynamics concepts. Consequently, should be done the study through combining Peer Teaching Model (PTM) and PDEODE (Prediction, Discuss, Explain, Observe, Discuss and Explain) learning strategy (PTM-PDEODE). For the research methods, we used the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing, and Disseminating). The samples are 38 students (their ages were an average of 17 years-old) at one of the senior high schools in Bandung. The improvement of students’ conceptions was diagnosed through a four-tier test of fluid dynamics. At the disseminating phase, students’ conceptions of fluid dynamics concepts are increase after the use of PTM-PDEODE. In conclusion, the development of PTM-PDEODE is respectable enough to improve students’ conceptions on dinamics fluid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, Hilde Kristina
the velocity and pressure distributions in a fluid. CFD also enables the modelling of several fluids simultaneously, e.g. gas bubbles in a liquid, as well as the presence of turbulence and dissolved chemicals in a fluid, and many other phenomena. This makes CFD an appreciated tool for studying flow structures......, mixing, and other mass transfer phenomena in chemical and biochemical reactor systems. In this project, four selected case studies are investigated in order to explore the capabilities of CFD. The selected cases are a 1 ml stirred microbioreactor, an 8 ml magnetically stirred reactor, a Rushton impeller...... and an ion-exchange reaction are also modelled and compared to experimental data. The thesis includes a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals behind a CFD software, as well as a more detailed review of the fluid dynamic phenomena investigated in this project. The momentum and continuity equations...
Wei, Wei; Gu, Zhaolin
2015-10-01
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas-solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Wei; Gu, Zhaolin
2015-01-01
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas–solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Wei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430063 (China); School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Gu, Zhaolin, E-mail: guzhaoln@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China)
2015-10-28
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas–solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orkoulas, G.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.
1994-01-01
In this work, we investigate the liquid--vapor phase transition of the restricted primitive model of ionic fluids. We show that at the low temperatures where the phase transition occurs, the system cannot be studied by conventional molecular simulation methods because convergence to equilibrium is slow. To accelerate convergence, we propose cluster Monte Carlo moves capable of moving more than one particle at a time. We then address the issue of charged particle transfers in grand canonical and Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, for which we propose a biased particle insertion/destruction scheme capable of sampling short interparticle distances. We compute the chemical potential for the restricted primitive model as a function of temperature and density from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and the phase envelope from Gibbs Monte Carlo simulations. Our calculated phase coexistence curve is in agreement with recent results of Caillol obtained on the four-dimensional hypersphere and our own earlier Gibbs ensemble simulations with single-ion transfers, with the exception of the critical temperature, which is lower in the current calculations. Our best estimates for the critical parameters are T * c =0.053, ρ * c =0.025. We conclude with possible future applications of the biased techniques developed here for phase equilibrium calculations for ionic fluids
Downhole Temperature Modeling for Non-Newtonian Fluids in ERD Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Sui
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Having precise information of fluids' temperatures is a critical process during planning of drilling operations, especially for extended reach drilling (ERD. The objective of this paper is to develop an accurate temperature model that can precisely calculate wellbore temperature distributions. An established semi-transient temperature model for vertical wellbores is extended and improved to include deviated wellbores and more realistic scenarios using non-Newtonian fluids. The temperature model is derived based on an energy balance between the formation and the wellbore. Heat transfer is considered steady-state in the wellbore and transient in the formation through the utilization of a formation cooling effect. In this paper, the energy balance is enhanced by implementing heat generation from the drill bit friction and contact friction force caused by drillpipe rotation. A non-linear geothermal gradient as a function of wellbore inclination, is also introduced to extend the model to deviated wellbores. Additionally, the model is improved by considering temperature dependent drilling fluid transport and thermal properties. Transport properties such as viscosity and density are obtained by lab measurements, which allows for investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian fluid behavior on the heat transfer. Furthermore, applying a non-Newtonian pressure loss model enables an opportunity to evaluate the impact of viscous forces on fluid properties and thus the overall heat transfer. Results from sensitivity analysis of both drilling fluid properties and other relevant parameters will be presented. The main application area of this model is related to optimization of drilling fluid, hydraulics, and wellbore design parameters, ultimately leading to safe and cost efficient operations.
Static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis for 3-D rotary blade model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yu Sung; Kim, Dong Man; Park, Kang Kyun
2009-01-01
In this study, static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analyses have been conducted for a 3D rotary blade model like a turbo-machinery or wind turbine blade. Advanced computational analysis system based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) has been developed in order to investigate detailed dynamic responses of rotary type models. Fluid domains are modeled using the computational grid system with local grid deforming techniques. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with various turbulence model are solved for unsteady flow problems of the rotating blade model. Detailed static/dynamic responses and instantaneous pressure contours on the blade surfaces considering flow-separation effects are presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the rotating blades.
Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in aluminum ladles for degasification with impeller - injector
Ramos-Gómez, E.; González-Rivera, C.; Ramírez-Argáez, M. A.
2012-09-01
In this work a fundamental Eulerian mathematical model was developed to simulate fluid flow in a water physical model of an aluminum ladle equipped with impeller for degassing treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, gas flow rate on the fluid flow and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. Commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 was used to solve all conservation equations governing the process for this twophase fluid flow system. The mathematical model was successfully validated against experimentally measured liquid velocity and turbulent profiles in a physical model. From the results it was concluded that the angular speed of the impeller is the most important parameter promoting better stirred baths. Pumping effect of the impeller is increased as impeller rotation speed increases. Gas flow rate is detrimental on bath stirring and diminishes pumping effect of impeller.
Geophysical fluid dynamics understanding (almost) everything with rotating shallow water models
Zeitlin, Vladimir
2018-01-01
The book explains the key notions and fundamental processes in the dynamics of the fluid envelopes of the Earth (transposable to other planets), and methods of their analysis, from the unifying viewpoint of rotating shallow-water model (RSW). The model, in its one- or two-layer versions, plays a distinguished role in geophysical fluid dynamics, having been used for around a century for conceptual understanding of various phenomena, for elaboration of approaches and methods, to be applied later in more complete models, for development and testing of numerical codes and schemes of data assimilations, and many other purposes. Principles of modelling of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows, and corresponding approximations, are explained and it is shown how single- and multi-layer versions of RSW arise from the primitive equations by vertical averaging, and how further time-averaging produces celebrated quasi-geostrophic reductions of the model. Key concepts of geophysical fluid dynamics are exposed and inte...
Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua
2017-02-01
A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.
Electrolyte effects in a model of proton discharge on charged electrodes
Wiebe, Johannes; Kravchenko, Kateryna; Spohr, Eckhard
2015-01-01
We report results on the influence of NaCl electrolyte dissolved in water on proton discharge reactions from aqueous solution to charged platinum electrodes. We have extended a recently developed combined proton transfer/proton discharge model on the basis of empirical valence bond theory to include NaCl solutions with several different concentrations of cations and anions, both stoichiometric (1:1) compositions and non-stoichiometric ones with an excess of cations. The latter solutions partially screen the electrostatic potential from the surface charge of the negatively charged electrode. 500-1000 trajectories of a discharging proton were integrated by molecular dynamics simulations until discharge occurred, or for at most 1.5 ns. The results show a strong dependence on ionic strength, but only a weak dependence on the screening behavior, when comparing stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric solutions. Overall, the Na+ cations exert a more dominant effect on the discharge reaction, which we argue is likely due to the very rigid arrangements of the cations on the negatively polarized electrode surface. Thus, our model predicts, for the given and very high negative surface charge densities, the fastest discharge reaction for pure water, but obviously cannot take into account the fact that such high charge densities are even more out of reach experimentally than for higher electrolyte concentrations.
N'Doye, Ibrahima
2015-05-25
In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khosravian, N [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, H [Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2007-11-21
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases.
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H
2007-01-01
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases
Advances in engineering turbulence modeling. [computational fluid dynamics
Shih, T.-H.
1992-01-01
Some new developments in two equation models and second order closure models are presented. In this paper, modified two equation models are proposed to remove shortcomings such as computing flows over complex geometries and the ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. The calculations using various two equation models are compared with direct numerical solutions of channel flows and flat plate boundary layers. Development of second order closure models will also be discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the three dimensional effect of mean flow on the turbulence. The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model to be described in this paper is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of three dimension mean flow on the turbulence.
A New Equivalent Statistical Damage Constitutive Model on Rock Block Mixed Up with Fluid Inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available So far, there are few studies concerning the effect of closed “fluid inclusions” on the macroscopic constitutive relation of deep rock. Fluid-matrix element (FME is defined based on rock element in statistical damage model. The properties of FME are related to the size of inclusions, fluid properties, and pore pressure. Using FME, the equivalent elastic modulus of rock block containing fluid inclusions is obtained with Eshelby inclusion theory and the double M-T homogenization method. The new statistical damage model of rock is established on the equivalent elastic modulus. Besides, the porosity and confining pressure are important influencing factors of the model. The model reflects the initial damage (void and fluid inclusion and the macroscopic deformation law of rock, which is an improvement of the traditional statistical damage model. Additionally, the model can not only be consistent with the rock damage experiment date and three-axis compression experiment date of rock containing pore water but also describe the locked-in stress experiment in rock-like material. It is a new fundamental study of the constitutive relation of locked-in stress in deep rock mass.
Fluid Survival Tool: A Model Checker for Hybrid Petri Nets
Postema, Björn Frits; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Ghasemieh, Hamed
2014-01-01
Recently, algorithms for model checking Stochastic Time Logic (STL) on Hybrid Petri nets with a single general one-shot transition (HPNG) have been introduced. This paper presents a tool for model checking HPNG models against STL formulas. A graphical user interface (GUI) not only helps to
Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Jinghua
2006-01-01
We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model
Charge quantization in the standard model and some of its extensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foot, R.; Joshi, G.C.; Lew, H.; Volkas, R.R.
1990-01-01
Recent advances in the theoretical understanding of electric charge quantization in the Standard Model and some of its extensions are reviewed. The roles played by classical constraints, gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly cancellation and the demand of vector-like electromagnetic interactions, are discussed. An attempt is made to clearly explain and contrast the points of view of various authors. 17 refs
3D numerical surface charge model including relative permeability : the general theory
Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.
2014-01-01
One of the still "open" issues within low-frequency magnetics is the inclusion of µr in the calculations using the magnetic charge method. In this paper a new iterative method to take the relative permeability into account is investigated. Results show that the model accurately accounts for the
Polyhedral charge-packing model for blood pH changes in disease ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Administrator
2007-05-02
May 2, 2007 ... The six negatively charged hydroxyl ions occupy the six vertices of the octahedron, while the lone proton,. H+, occupies the octahedral hole at the centroid. ... ge packing can account for the common pH of 7.4 of mammals, in spite of other differences that are well known (Jackson, 1997). In the original model ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karbunar, L.; Borka, D.; Radović, I.; Mišković, Z.L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We study the interaction of protons with carbon nanotubes under channeling conditions. • We use the linearized, 2D, one-fluid and two-fluid hydrodynamic models. • The image potential for a proton moving parallel to the nanotube axis is calculated. • Results for the image potential are compared for different types of nanotubes. • We also compute the angular and spatial distributions of channeled protons. - Abstract: We study the interaction of charged particles with four different types of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under channeling conditions by means of the linearized, two dimensional, one-fluid and two-fluid hydrodynamic models. The models are used to calculate the image potential for protons moving parallel to the axis of the SWNTs at the speeds up to 10 a.u. Numerical results are obtained to show the influence of the damping factor, the nanotube radius, and the particle position on the image potential inside the nanotube. We also compute the spatial and angular distributions of protons and compare them for the two models
Magnetorheological fluid dampers: a review of parametric modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D H; Liao, W H
2011-01-01
Due to the inherent nonlinear nature of magnetorheological (MR) dampers, one of the challenging aspects for developing and utilizing these devices to achieve high performance is the development of models that can accurately describe their unique characteristics. In this review, the characteristics of MR dampers are summarized according to the measured responses under different conditions. On these bases, the considerations and methods of the parametric dynamic modelling for MR dampers are given and the state-of-the-art parametric dynamic modelling, identification and validation techniques for MR dampers are reviewed. In the past two decades, the models for MR dampers have been focused on how to improve the modelling accuracy. Although the force–displacement behaviour is well represented by most of the proposed dynamic models for MR dampers, no simple parametric models with high accuracy for MR dampers can be found. In addition, the parametric dynamic models for MR dampers with on-line updating ability and the inverse parametric models for MR dampers are scarcely explored. Moreover, whether one dynamic model for MR dampers can portray the force–displacement and force–velocity behaviour is not only determined by the dynamic model itself but also determined by the identification method. (topical review)
Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas
2016-09-01
Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, Zhengyu; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A novel non-destructive fast charging algorithm of lithium-ion batteries is proposed. •A close-loop observer of lithium deposition status is constructed based on the SP2D model. •The charging current is modified online using the feedback of the lithium deposition status. •The algorithm can shorten the charging time and can be used for charging from different initial SOCs. •The post-mortem observation and degradation tests show that no lithium deposition occurs during fast charging. -- Abstract: Fast charging is critical for the application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Conventional fast charging algorithms may shorten the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries and induce safety problems, such as internal short circuit caused by lithium deposition at the negative electrode. In this paper, a novel, non-destructive model-based fast charging algorithm is proposed. The fast charging algorithm is composed of two closed loops. The first loop includes an anode over-potential observer that can observe the status of lithium deposition online, whereas the second loop includes a feedback structure that can modify the current based on the observed status of lithium deposition. The charging algorithm enhances the charging current to maintain the observed anode over-potential near the preset threshold potential. Therefore, the fast charging algorithm can decrease the charging time while protecting the health of the battery. The fast charging algorithm is validated on a commercial large-format nickel cobalt manganese/graphite cell. The results showed that 96.8% of the battery capacity can be charged within 52 min. The post-mortem observation of the surface of the negative electrode and degradation tests revealed that the fast charging algorithm proposed here protected the battery from lithium deposition.
Toward multiscale modelings of grain-fluid systems
Chareyre, Bruno; Yuan, Chao; Montella, Eduard P.; Salager, Simon
2017-06-01
Computationally efficient methods have been developed for simulating partially saturated granular materials in the pendular regime. In contrast, one hardly avoid expensive direct resolutions of 2-phase fluid dynamics problem for mixed pendular-funicular situations or even saturated regimes. Following previous developments for single-phase flow, a pore-network approach of the coupling problems is described. The geometry and movements of phases and interfaces are described on the basis of a tetrahedrization of the pore space, introducing elementary objects such as bridge, meniscus, pore body and pore throat, together with local rules of evolution. As firmly established local rules are still missing on some aspects (entry capillary pressure and pore-scale pressure-saturation relations, forces on the grains, or kinetics of transfers in mixed situations) a multi-scale numerical framework is introduced, enhancing the pore-network approach with the help of direct simulations. Small subsets of a granular system are extracted, in which multiphase scenario are solved using the Lattice-Boltzman method (LBM). In turns, a global problem is assembled and solved at the network scale, as illustrated by a simulated primary drainage.
Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena
Greenspan, H. P.
1982-01-01
The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.
Inderbitzen, K. E.; Wheat, C. G.; Baker, P. A.; Fisher, A. T.
2014-12-01
Currently, fluid circulation patterns and the evolution of rock/fluid compositions as circulation occurs in subseafloor hydrothermal systems are poorly constrained. Sedimented spreading centers provide a unique opportunity to study subsurface flow because sediment acts as an insulating blanket that traps heat from the cooling magma body and limits: (a) potential flow paths for seawater to recharge the aquifer in permeable upper basaltic basement and (b) points of altered fluid egress. This also allows for a range of thermal and geochemical gradients to exist near the sediment-water interface. Models of fluid circulation patterns in this type of hydrologic setting have been generated (eg. Stein and Fisher, 2001); however fluid chemistry datasets have not previously been used to test the model's viability. We address this issue by integrating the existing circulation model with fluid compositional data collected from sediment pore waters and high temperature hydrothermal vents located in Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Middle Valley hosts a variety of hydrologic regimes: including areas of fluid recharge (Site 855), active venting (Site 858/1036; Dead Dog vent field), recent venting (Site 856/1035; Bent Hill Massive Sulfide deposit) and a section of heavily sedimented basement located between recharge and discharge sites (Site 857). We will present new results based on thermal and geochemical data from the area of active venting (Sites 858 and 1036), that was collected during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 139 and 169 and a subsequent heat flow/gravity coring effort. These results illuminate fine scale controls on secondary recharge and fluid flow within the sediment section at Site 858/1036. The current status of high temperature vents in this area (based on observations made in July, 2014) will also be outlined.
Cosmic ray muon charge ratio derived from the new scaling variable model
Bhattacharya, D P
1980-01-01
The charge ratio of sea level muons has been estimated from the new scaling variable model and the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring data of Capiluppi et al. (1974) for pp to pi /sup +or-/X and pp to K/sup +or- /X inclusive reactions. The estimated muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21 and the result has been compared with the experimental data of Parker et al. (1969), Burnet et al. (1973), Ashley et al., and Muraki et al. (1979). (20 refs).
Charge Transport in Conjugated Materials: From Theoretical Models to Experimental Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olivier, Yoann; Cornil, Jerome; Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio
2008-01-01
Charge carrier mobility is the key quantity to characterize the charge transport properties in devices. Based on earlier work of Baessler and co-workers, we set up a Monte-Carlo approach that allows us to calculate mobility using transfer rates derived from Marcus theory. The parameters entering into the rate expression are evaluated by means of different quantum-chemical techniques. Our approach is applied here to a model one-dimensional system made of pentacene molecules as well as to real systems such as crystalline structures and columnar liquid crystal phases.
Modeling and analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities in two-phase flow using two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, J.; Podowski, M.Z.
2001-01-01
Because of the practical importance of two-phase flow instabilities, especially in boiling water nuclear reactor technology, substantial efforts have been made to date to understand the physical phenomena governing such instabilities and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of marginally-stable/unstable boiling systems. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated methodology for the analysis of flow-induced instabilities in boiling channels and systems. The major novel aspects of the proposed approach are: (a) it is based on the combined frequency-domain and time-domain methods, the former used to quantify stability margins and to determine the onset of instability conditions, the latter to study the nonlinear system response outside the stability boundaries identified using the nearly-exact results of the frequency-domain analysis; (b) the two-fluid model of two-phase flow has been used for the first time to analytically derive the boiling channel transfer functions for the parallel-channel and channel-to-channel instability modes. In this way, the major characteristics of a boiling system, including the onset-of-instability conditions, can be readily evaluated by using the qualitative frequency-domain approach, whereas the explicit time-domain integration is performed, if necessary, only for the operating conditions that have already been identified as unstable. Both methods use the same physical two-fluid model that, in one case, is linearized and used to derive a rigorous analytical solution in the complex domain, and, in the other case, is solved numerically using an algorithm developed especially for this purpose. The results using both methods have been compared against each other and extensively tested. The testing and validation of the new model included comparisons of the predicted steady-state distributions of major parameters and of the transient channel response against experimental data
A Brief Review on the Baer-Nunziato type Multi-pressure Multi-fluid Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Gyu Cheon
2010-01-01
Single pressure two-fluid flow equations have complex characteristics. This causes ill-posedness problem. Even though some authors show that the numerical solutions are well behaved if the number of mesh points is sufficiently small, the stability of the solution is always challenged. There have been several attempts to overcome these problems. Multi-pressure multi-fluid models are one of them. Among them, Baer and Nunziato (BN) derived an interesting two-fluid model. BN model has independent phase pressures. It is closed by inserting volume fraction evolution equation. In this paper, several aspects of the BN type model will be reviewed and some suggestion for the future study will be made
Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.
2017-01-01
This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.
Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media.
Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette
2015-02-01
We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete.
Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a Newtonian fluid
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smit GJF
2010-11-01
Full Text Available the necessity to model the discrete nature of sep- cite this article in press as: G.J.F. Smit et al., Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a ian fluid, Appl. Math. Comput. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.amc.2010.07.055 2... and Ribberin large-scale and long term morphologica Please cite this article in press as: G.J.F. Smit Newtonian fluid, Appl. Math. Comput. (2010), � 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. modeling of multiphase flow has increasingly become the subject...
An exploration of viscosity models in the realm of kinetic theory of liquids originated fluids
Hussain, Azad; Ghafoor, Saadia; Malik, M. Y.; Jamal, Sarmad
The preeminent perspective of this article is to study flow of an Eyring Powell fluid model past a penetrable plate. To find the effects of variable viscosity on fluid model, continuity, momentum and energy equations are elaborated. Here, viscosity is taken as function of temperature. To understand the phenomenon, Reynold and Vogel models of variable viscosity are incorporated. The highly non-linear partial differential equations are transfigured into ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The numerical solution of the problem is presented. Graphs are plotted to visualize the behavior of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles.