Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak
Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan
2018-04-01
Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.
Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak
Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan
2018-06-01
Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak
This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo P. Chamorro
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.
Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.
Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine
Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah
2015-12-01
In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.
Free-stream turbulence effects on the flow around an S809 wind turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Maldonado, Victor; Lebron, Jose [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Kang, Hyung-Suk [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Meneveau, Charles [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Castillo, Luciano [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
2012-07-01
Two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements were performed to study the effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow around a smooth and rough surface airfoil, specifically under stall conditions. A 0.25-m chord model with an S809 profile, common for horizontal-axis wind turbine applications, was tested at a wind tunnel speed of 10 m/s, resulting in Reynolds numbers based on the chord of Re{sub c} {approx} 182,000 and turbulence intensity levels of up to 6.14%. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency (from L/D {approx} 4.894 to L/D {approx} 0.908). On the contrary, when the flow is mostly stalled, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (from L/D {approx} 1.696 to L/D {approx} 1.787). Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, contrary to what is expected, free-stream turbulence is actually advancing separation, particularly when the turbulent scales in the free-stream are of the same order as the chord. This is a result of the complex dynamics between the boundary layer scales and the free-stream turbulence length scales when relatively high levels of active-grid generated turbulence are present. (orig.)
Near-wake flow structure downwind of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D. [University of Minnesota, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Porte-Agel, Fernando [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), ENAC-IIE-WIRE, Wind Engineering and Renewable Energy Laboratory (WIRE), Lausanne (Switzerland)
2012-05-15
Wind turbines operate in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer, where they are subjected to strong wind shear and relatively high turbulence levels. These incoming boundary layer flow characteristics are expected to affect the structure of wind turbine wakes. The near-wake region is characterized by a complex coupled vortex system (including helicoidal tip vortices), unsteadiness and strong turbulence heterogeneity. Limited information about the spatial distribution of turbulence in the near wake, the vortex behavior and their influence on the downwind development of the far wake hinders our capability to predict wind turbine power production and fatigue loads in wind farms. This calls for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the 3D flow and coherent turbulence structures in the near wake. Systematic wind-tunnel experiments were designed and carried out to characterize the structure of the near-wake flow downwind of a model wind turbine placed in a neutral boundary layer flow. A horizontal-axis, three-blade wind turbine model, with a rotor diameter of 13 cm and the hub height at 10.5 cm, occupied the lowest one-third of the boundary layer. High-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure velocities in multiple vertical stream-wise planes (x-z) and vertical span-wise planes (y-z). In particular, we identified localized regions of strong vorticity and swirling strength, which are the signature of helicoidal tip vortices. These vortices are most pronounced at the top-tip level and persist up to a distance of two to three rotor diameters downwind. The measurements also reveal strong flow rotation and a highly non-axisymmetric distribution of the mean flow and turbulence structure in the near wake. The results provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the development of the near wake of a wind turbine immersed in a neutral boundary layer. They also serve as important data for the development and
Viscous-inviscid method for the simulation of turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, L.; Velazquez, A.; Matesanz, A. [Thermal Engineering Area, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2002-06-01
A Viscous-inviscid interaction method is presented that allows for the simulation of unsteady airfoil flow in the context of wind turbine applications. The method couples a 2-D external unsteady potential flow to a 2-D unsteady turbulent boundary layer. The separation point on the airfoil leeward side is determined in a self-consistent way from the boundary-layer equations, and the separated flow region is modelled independently. Wake shape and motion are also determined in a self-consistent way, while an unsteady Kutta condition is implemented. The method is able to deal with attached flow and light stall situations characterised by unsteady turbulent boundary-layer separation size up to 50% of the airfoil chord length. The results of the validation campaign show that the method could be used for industrial design purposes because of its numerical robustness, reasonable accuracy, and limited computational time demands.
Comparative analysis of turbulence models for flow simulation around a vertical axis wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, S.; Saha, U.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Guwahati (India)
2012-07-01
An unsteady computational investigation of the static torque characteristics of a drag based vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been carried out using the finite volume based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent 6.3. A comparative study among the various turbulence models was conducted in order to predict the flow over the turbine at static condition and the results are validated with the available experimental results. CFD simulations were carried out at different turbine angular positions between 0 deg.-360 deg. in steps of 15 deg.. Results have shown that due to high static pressure on the returning blade of the turbine, the net static torque is negative at angular positions of 105 deg.-150 deg.. The realizable k-{epsilon} turbulent model has shown a better simulation capability over the other turbulent models for the analysis of static torque characteristics of the drag based VAWT. (Author)
Turbulent Reynolds stress and quadrant event activity in wind flow over a coastal foredune
Chapman, Connie A.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.
2012-05-01
Recent research on quasi-instantaneous turbulent kinematic Reynolds stresses (RS, - u'w') and decomposed quadrant event activity (e.g., ejections and sweeps) over dunes in fluvial settings and in wind tunnels has shown that turbulent stresses at the toe of a dune often exceed time-averaged, streamwise shear stress (ρ u * 2) estimates. It is believed that semi-coherent turbulent structures are conveyed toward the bed along concave streamlines in this region and that impact of these structures cause fluctuations in local surface stresses that assist in grain entrainment. This has been hypothesized to explain how sand is supplied to the windward slope through a region of flow stagnation. Toward the crest, surface stress increases and becomes dominated by streamwise accelerations resulting from streamline compression and convexity that suppress vertical motions. High-frequency (32 Hz) measurements of turbulent wind flow from 3-D ultrasonic anemometers are analyzed for oblique onshore flow over a vegetated coastal foredune in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Reynolds stress and quadrant activity distributions varied with height (0.60 m and 1.66 m) and location over the dune. In general, quadrant 2 ejection (u' 0) and quadrant 4 sweep activity (u' > 0, w' 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 3 inward interaction (u' dune and may help to explain sand transport potential and dune maintenance. For example, areas with a high frequency of ejection and sweep activity may have higher rates of sediment entrainment and transport, whereas areas with lower ejection and sweep activity and an increase in outward and inward interactions, which contribute negatively to Reynolds stress generation, may experience a greater potential for deposition. Further research on associations between quadrant event activity and coincident sand transport is required to confirm this hypothesis and the resultant significance of the flow exuberance effect in aeolian dune morphodynamics.
Wind effect in turbulence parametrization
Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.
2005-09-01
The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.
Flow and turbulence control in a boundary layer wind tunnel using passive hardware devices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Ribičić, Mihael; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Plut, Mihael; Trush, Arsenii; Kozmar, H.
2017-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 6 (2017), s. 643-661 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : turbulent flow * atmospheric boundary layer * wind-tunnel simulation * castellated barrier wall * Counihan vortex generators * surface roughness elements * hot-wire measurements Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-017-0196-z
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jaehne, Bernd
2000-01-01
The primary goal of this project was to advance the knowledge of small-scale air-sea interaction processes at the ocean surface, focussing on the dynamics of short waves, the surface flow field and the micro-turbulence...
VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles
2014-02-01
In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative
ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)
2015-12-15
Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.
Wind energy impact of turbulence
Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan
2014-01-01
This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application
Large-eddy simulation analysis of turbulent flow over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Tae Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (United States); You, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-15
Unsteady turbulent flow characteristics over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor is analyzed using a large-eddy simulation technique. The wind turbine rotor corresponds to the configuration of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI campaign. The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a non-inertial reference frame fixed at the centroid of the rotor, are solved with centrifugal and Coriolis forces using an unstructured-grid finite-volume method. A systematic analysis of effects of grid resolution, computational domain size, and time-step size on simulation results, is carried out. Simulation results such as the surface pressure coefficient, thrust coefficient, torque coefficient, and normal and tangential force coefficients are found to agree favorably with experimental data. The simulation showed that pressure fluctuations, which produce broadband flow-induced noise and vibration of the blades, are especially significant in the mid-chord area of the suction side at around 70 to 95 percent spanwise locations. Large-scale vortices are found to be generated at the blade tip and the location connecting the blade with an airfoil cross section and the circular hub rod. These vortices propagate downstream with helical motions and are found to persist far downstream from the rotor.
On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
Lignarolo, L.E.M.
2016-01-01
The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production
Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Sten Tronæs
2007-01-01
of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms......Turbulence - in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations - and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to “wind farm flow......”. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence...
A model for the response of vertical axis wind turbines to turbulent flow: Parts 1 and 2
Malcolm, D. R.
1988-07-01
This report describes a project intended to incorporate the effects of atmospheric turbulence into the structural response of Darrieus rotor, vertical axis wind turbines. The basis of the technique is the generation of a suitable time series of wind velocities, which are passed through a double multiple streamtube aerodynamic representation of the rotor. The aerodynamic loads are decomposed into components of the real eigenvectors of the rotor and subsequently into full-power and cross-spectral densities. These modal spectra are submitted as input to a modified NASTRAN random load analysis and the power spectra of selected responses are obtained. This procedure appears to be successful. Results at zero turbulence agree with alternative solutions, and when turbulence is included, the predicted stress spectra for the Indal 6400 rotor are in good agreement with field data. The model predicts that the effect of turbulence on harmonic frequency peaks and on all lead-lag bending will not be great. However, it appears that only 11 percent turbulence intensity can almost double the rms of cyclic flatwise blade bending.
Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo
The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...
Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.; Lee, Z. S.
2010-12-01
The past decade has seen a growing body of research on the relation between turbulence in the wind and the resultant transport of sediment over active sand surfaces. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated recent field studies over dunes and beach surfaces, to move beyond monitoring of mean wind speed and bulk transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a field study conducted in the recirculation flow and re-attachment zone on a beach behind a foredune at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. The offshore winds over the foredune at this site are associated with flow separation and reversal located over the beach surface in the lee of the dune row, often strong enough to induce sand transport toward the toe of the foredune (‘against’ the overall offshore flow). The re-attachment and recirculation zone are associated with strongly turbulent fluid flow and complex streamlines that do not follow the underlying topography. High frequency (25 Hz) wind and sand transport data were collected at a grid of point locations distributed over the beach surface between 35 m to 55 m distance from the 10 m high dune crest, using ultrasonic anemometers at 0.5 m height and co-located load cell traps and Safires at the bed surface. The wind data are used to investigate the role of Reynolds shear stresses and quadrant analysis techniques for identifying burst-sweep events in relation to sand transport events. This includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to complex flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results illustrate how transport may exist under threshold mean velocities because of the role played by coherent flow structures, and the findings corroborate previous findings that
3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas
2017-01-01
WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated...... structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation...
Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rethore, P -E
2009-10-15
This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)
Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rethore, P.-E.
2009-10-15
This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Yahaya
2009-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the vicinity of the ground, and particularly with the profile of the horizontal wind variance. The study is based on experimental measurements performed with fast cup anemometers located near the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. The experiment was carried over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The results of this study reveal that near the ground surface and under moderate wind, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, in direct relationship with the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. A theoretical development has allowed us to link this behaviour to the modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE transport through the eddy diffusivity. Thus, the study proposes a formulation of the similarity universal function of the horizontal wind variance. Besides, the formulation offers a new method for the determination of the friction velocity and the roughness length scale and can be used for the evaluation of the TKE transport rate.
Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
In order to design and operate a wind farm optimally it is necessary to know in detail how the wind behaves and interacts with the turbines in a farm. This not only requires knowledge about meteorology, turbulence and aerodynamics, but it also requires access to powerful computers and efficient s...... software. Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence was established in 2010 in order to create a world-leading cross-disciplinary flow center that covers all relevant disciplines within wind farm meteorology and aerodynamics.......In order to design and operate a wind farm optimally it is necessary to know in detail how the wind behaves and interacts with the turbines in a farm. This not only requires knowledge about meteorology, turbulence and aerodynamics, but it also requires access to powerful computers and efficient...
3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges
Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.
2017-12-01
WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.
Producing Turbulent Wind Tunnel Inflows Relevant to Wind Turbines using an Active Grid
Rumple, Christopher; Welch, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan
2017-11-01
The rise of industries like wind energy have provided motivation for generating realistic turbulent inflows in wind tunnels. Facilities with the ability to produce such inflows can study the interaction between the inflow turbulence and the flow of interest such as a wind turbine wake. An active grid - a system of actively driven elements - has gained increasing acceptance in turbulence research over the last 20 years. The ability to tailor the inflow turbulence quantities (e.g. turbulence intensities, integral length scale, and turbulence spectrum) is a driving reason for the growing use of active grids. An active grid with 40 independent axes located within the forward contraction of a low speed wind tunnel is used to explore the range of turbulent inflows possible using hot-wire anemometry to characterize the turbulence. Motor control algorithms (i.e. user waveform inputs) used to produce various turbulent inflows will be presented. Wind data available from meteorological towers are used to develop relevant inflows for wind turbines to demonstrate the usefulness of the active grid. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.
Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow
Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn
2018-04-01
Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.
Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine
Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.
2015-02-01
The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.
Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
2014-01-01
. The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...
Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frandsen, Sten
2007-01-15
Turbulence, in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to 'wind farm flow'. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence and horizontal flow-shear also influence the dynamic response and thus fatigue loading. However, these parameters are typically negatively or positively correlated with the standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, which therefore can, if need be, represent these other variables. Thus, models for spatially averaged turbulence intensity inside the wind farm and direct-wake turbulence intensity are being devised and a method to combine the different load situations is proposed. The combination of the load cases implies a weighting method involving the slope of the considered material's Woehler curve. In the context, this is novel and necessary to avoid excessive safety for fatigue estimation of the structure's steel components, and non-conservatism for fibreglass components. The proposed model offers significant reductions in computational efforts in the design process. The status for the implementation of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms are discussed. (au)
Atmospheric turbulence affects wind turbine nacelle transfer functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. St. Martin
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their potential as a valuable source of individual turbine power performance and turbine array energy production optimization information, nacelle-mounted anemometers have often been neglected because complex flows around the blades and nacelle interfere with their measurements. This work quantitatively explores the accuracy of and potential corrections to nacelle anemometer measurements to determine the degree to which they may be useful when corrected for these complex flows, particularly for calculating annual energy production (AEP in the absence of other meteorological data. Using upwind meteorological tower measurements along with nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE 1.5sle model, we calculate empirical nacelle transfer functions (NTFs and explore how they are impacted by different atmospheric and turbulence parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of NTFs for deriving useful wind measurements from nacelle-mounted anemometers. Corrections to the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurements can be made with NTFs and used to calculate an AEP that comes within 1 % of an AEP calculated with upwind measurements. We also calculate unique NTFs for different atmospheric conditions defined by temperature stratification as well as turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy, and wind shear. During periods of low stability as defined by the Bulk Richardson number (RB, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of high stability at some wind speed bins below rated speed, leading to a steeper NTF during periods of low stability. Similarly, during periods of high turbulence, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of low turbulence at most wind bins between cut-in and rated wind speed. Based on these results, we suggest different NTFs be calculated for different regimes of atmospheric stability and turbulence
Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence
Wilkening, H. D.
1972-01-01
Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.
Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2005-10-01
This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.
Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zrake, Jonathan [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-09-20
We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ -problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ -ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.
Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan
2017-09-01
We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan
2016-01-01
by a bound vorticity lifting line while the turbine wake vorticity and the turbulence vorticity are projected onto vortex particles. In the present work the rotor blades are stiff leaving aero-elastic interactions for future work. Inflow turbulence is generated with the model of Mann and converted to vortex......? Is it acceptable to neglect the influence of the wake and the wind turbine on the turbulent inflow? Is there evidence to justify the extra cost of a method capable of including these effects correctly? To this end, a unified vorticity representation of the flow is used: the wind turbine model is represented......A vortex particle representation of turbulent fields is devised in order to address the following questions: Does a wind turbine affect the statistics of the incoming turbulence? Should this imply a change in the way turbulence boxes are used in wind turbine aero-elastic simulations...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heraud, P.; Masson, C.; Tusch, M. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2010-07-01
This PowerPoint presentation discussed the impacts of meteorological masts on the measurement of wind resources. Two types of meteorological masts are used in wind power applications, namely lattice, and tubular masts. Anemometer accuracy can be impacted by the logger as well as by the instrumentation layout. The International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) recommends that anemometers are placed at a 45 degree angle from pre-dominant winds. However, the impact of turbulent flow around meteorological masts is poorly understood. The numerical model developed in the study included mass and momentum conservation models for tubular and lattice towers. Distortion level recommendations were presented. The study showed that distortion depends on the layout, and that IEC recommendations for instrumentation layouts need to be revised. tabs., figs.
Lidar for Wind and Optical Turbulence Profiling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fastig Shlomo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A field campaign for the comparison investigation of systems to measure wind and optical turbulence profiles was conducted in northern Germany. The experimental effort was to compare the performance of the LIDAR, SODAR-RASS and ultrasonic anemometers for the measurement of the above mentioned atmospheric parameters. Soreq's LIDAR is a fiber laser based system demonstrator for the vertical profiling of the wind and turbulence, based on the correlation of aerosol density variations. It provides measurements up to 350m with 20m resolution.
Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terziev Angel
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.
Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.
Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case...... of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly...
Turbulence models in supersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Ahmadikia, H.; Talebi, S.
2001-05-01
The aim of this paper is to evaluate five different turbulence models when used in rather complicated two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic flows. They are Baldwin-Lomax, k-l, k-ε, k-ω and k-ζ turbulence models. The compressibility effects, axisymmetric correction terms and some modifications for transition region are used and tested in the models. Two computer codes based on the control volume approach and two flux-splitting methods. Roe and Van Leer, are developed. The codes are used to simulate supersonic mixing layers, flow behind axisymmetric body, under expanded jet, and flow over hollow cylinder flare. The results are compared with experimental data and behavior of the turbulence models is examined. It is shown that both k-l and k-ζ models produce very good results. It is also shown that the compressibility correction in the model is required to obtain more accurate results. (author)
Separated Flow over Wind Turbines
Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques
2015-11-01
The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.
Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia
2011-01-01
Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination and coni...
The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenzo Carbone
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both astrophysics and plasma physics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Helios inner heliosphere and Ulysses' high latitude observations, recent multi-spacecrafts measurements in the solar wind (Cluster four satellites and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.
Topology optimization of turbulent flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Cetin B.; Dilgen, Sumer B.; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The aim of this work is to present a fast and viable approach for taking into account turbulence in topology optimization of complex fluid flow systems, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions in the derivation of discrete adjoints. Topology optimization is an iterative gradient...
Turbulent wind waves on a water current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Zavolgensky
2008-05-01
Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.
The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Roberto
2005-09-01
Full Text Available In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both plasma physics and astrophysics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained in the past decade or so. As a matter of fact, Ulysses’ high latitude observations and new numerical approaches to the problem, based on the dynamics of complex systems, brought new important insights which helped to better understand how turbulent fluctuations behave in the solar wind. In particular, numerical simulations within the realm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD turbulence theory unraveled what kind of physical mechanisms are at the basis of turbulence generation and energy transfer across the spectral domain of the fluctuations. In other words, the advances reached in these past years in the investigation of solar wind turbulence now offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the problem to be tentatively presented in a rather organic way.
Turbulent flows over sparse canopies
Sharma, Akshath; García-Mayoral, Ricardo
2018-04-01
Turbulent flows over sparse and dense canopies exerting a similar drag force on the flow are investigated using Direct Numerical Simulations. The dense canopies are modelled using a homogeneous drag force, while for the sparse canopy, the geometry of the canopy elements is represented. It is found that on using the friction velocity based on the local shear at each height, the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds stress within the sparse canopy are similar to those from a comparable smooth-wall case. In addition, when scaled with the local friction velocity, the intensity of the off-wall peak in the streamwise vorticity for sparse canopies also recovers a value similar to a smooth-wall. This indicates that the sparse canopy does not significantly disturb the near-wall turbulence cycle, but causes its rescaling to an intensity consistent with a lower friction velocity within the canopy. In comparison, the dense canopy is found to have a higher damping effect on the turbulent fluctuations. For the case of the sparse canopy, a peak in the spectral energy density of the wall-normal velocity, and Reynolds stress is observed, which may indicate the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instabilities. It is also found that a sparse canopy is better modelled by a homogeneous drag applied on the mean flow alone, and not the turbulent fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.
2012-12-01
Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine
Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows
Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M
2016-01-01
This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.
Experiments in turbulent pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torbergsen, Lars Even
1998-12-31
This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.
On the prediction of turbulent secondary flows
Speziale, C. G.; So, R. M. C.; Younis, B. A.
1992-01-01
The prediction of turbulent secondary flows, with Reynolds stress models, in circular pipes and non-circular ducts is reviewed. Turbulence-driven secondary flows in straight non-circular ducts are considered along with turbulent secondary flows in pipes and ducts that arise from curvature or a system rotation. The physical mechanisms that generate these different kinds of secondary flows are outlined and the level of turbulence closure required to properly compute each type is discussed in detail. Illustrative computations of a variety of different secondary flows obtained from two-equation turbulence models and second-order closures are provided to amplify these points.
Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan Mikael
to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-ε turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply......) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-ε model’s issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake...
Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.
2017-01-01
Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 158. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa67e0
Tian, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Ning; Song, Yi-Lei; Zhu, Chun-Ling
2018-05-01
This work is devoted to perform systematic sensitivity analysis of different turbulence models and various inflow boundary conditions in predicting the wake flow behind a horizontal axis wind turbine represented by an actuator disc (AD). The tested turbulence models are the standard k-𝜀 model and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). A single wind turbine immersed in both uniform flows and in modeled atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows is studied. Simulation results are validated against the field experimental data in terms of wake velocity and turbulence intensity.
PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows
Hsu, Andrew T.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.
MODELLING OF TURBULENT WAKE FOR TWO WIND TURBINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arina S. Kryuchkova
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The construction of several large wind farms (The Ulyanovsk region, the Republic of Adygea, the Kaliningrad region, the North of the Russian Federation is planned on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018–2020. The tasks, connected with the design of new wind farms, are currently important. One of the possible direction in the design is connected with mathematical modeling. Large eddy method (eddy-resolving simulation, developed within the Computational Fluid Dynamics, allows to reproduce unsteady structure of the flow in details and define various integrated characteristics for wind turbines. The mathematical model included the main equations of continuity and momentum equations for incompressible viscous flow. The large-scale vortex structures were calculated by means of integration the filtered equations. The calculation was carried out using lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky’s model to define turbulent subgrid viscosity. The parallelepiped-shaped numerical domain and 3 different unstructured meshes (with 2,4,8 million cells were used for numerical simulation.The geometrical parameters of wind turbine were set proceeding to open sources for BlindTest 2–4 project from Internet. All physical values were defined at the center of computational cell. The approximation of items in the equations was performed with the second order of accuracy for time and space. The equations for coupling of velocity, pressure were solved by means of iterative algorithm PIMPLE. The total quantity of the calculated physical values at each time step was equal 18. So, the resources of a high performance computer were required. As a result of flow simulation in the wake for two three-bladed wind turbines the average and instantaneous values of velocity, pressure, subgrid kinetic energy, turbulent viscosity, components of stress tensor were calculated. The received results qualitatively matching the known results of experiment and numerical simulation testify
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
Turbulence modelling for incompressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodi, W.
1985-12-01
EUROMECH colloquium 180 was held at Karlsruhe from 4-6 July, 1984, with the aim of bringing together specialists working in the area of turbulence modelling and of reviewing the state-of-the-art in this field. 44 scientists from 12 countries participated and 28 papers were presented. The meeting started with a review of the performance of two-equation turbulence models employing transport equations for both the velocity and the length scale of turbulence. These models are now generally well established, but it was found that their application to certain flow situations remains problematic. The modelling assumptions involved in Reynolds stress-equation models were reviewed next, and new assumptions were proposed. It was generally agreed that, as computing power increases, these more complex models will become more popular also for practical applications. The increase in computing power also allows more and more to resolve the viscous sublayer with low Reynolds numbers models, and the capabilities and problems of these models were discussed. In this connection, special aspects of boundary layer calculations were also discussed, namely those associated with 3D boundary layers, converging and diverging flow and slightly detached boundary layers. The complex physical phenomena prevalent in situations under the influence of buoyancy and rotation were reviewed, and several papers were presented on models for simulating these effects. (orig./HP) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Esau
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of wind climate of the Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley, Svalbard. The Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley is relatively densely covered with meteorological observations, which facilitate joint statistical analysis of the turbulent surface layer structure and the structure of the higher atmospheric layers. Wind direction diagrams reveal strong wind channeled in the surface layer up to 300 m to 500 m. The probability analysis links strong wind channeling and cold temperature anomalies in the surface layer. To explain these links, previous studies suggested the katabatic wind flow mechanism as the leading driver responsible for the observed wind climatology. In this paper, idealized turbulence-resolving simulations are used to distinct between different wind driving mechanisms. The simulations were performed with the real surface topography at resolution of about 60 m. These simulations resolve the obstacle-induced turbulence and the turbulence in the non-stratified boundary layer core. The simulations suggest the leading roles of the thermal land-sea breeze circulation and the mechanical wind channeling in the modulation of the valley winds. The characteristic signatures of the developed down-slope gravity-accelerated flow, that is, the katabatic wind, were found to be of lesser significance under typical meteorological conditions in the valley.
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2013-01-01
Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...
Experimental study of wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics in high turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devinant, Ph.; Laverne, T.; Hureau, J. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique Ecole Superieure de l' Energie et des Materiaux Universite d' Orleans, rue Leonard de Vinci F-45072 , Cedex 2 Orleans (France)
2002-06-01
Wind turbines very often have to operate in high turbulence related, for example, with lower layers atmospheric turbulence or wakes of other wind turbines. Most available data on airfoil aerodynamics concerns mainly aeronautical applications, which are characterized by a low level of turbulence (generally less than 1%) and low angles of attack. This paper presents wind tunnel test data for the aerodynamic properties-lift, drag, pitching moment, pressure distributions-of an airfoil used on a wind turbine when subjected to incident flow turbulence levels of 0.5-16% and placed at angles of attack up to 90. The results show that the aerodynamic behavior of the airfoil can be strongly affected by the turbulence level both qualitatively and quantitatively. This effect is especially evidenced in the angle of attack range corresponding to airfoil stall, as the boundary layer separation point advances along the leeward surface of the airfoil.
Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bruno, R., E-mail: shiota@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)
2017-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.
Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Zeleke, Aklilu
2014-09-01
We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model.
Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Zeleke, Aklilu
2014-01-01
We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model. (paper)
Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow
Gatski, Thomas B
2009-01-01
This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...
Wind tunnel measurements of pollutant turbulent fluxes in urban intersections
Carpentieri, Matteo; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan G.
2012-01-01
Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out at the EnFlo laboratory to measure mean and turbulent tracer fluxes in geometries of real street canyon intersections. The work was part of the major DAPPLE project, focussing on the area surrounding the intersection between Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place in Central London, UK. Understanding flow and dispersion in urban streets is a very important issue for air quality management and planning, and turbulent mass exchange processes are important phenomena that are very often neglected in urban modelling studies. The adopted methodology involved the combined use of laser Doppler anemometry and tracer concentration measurements. This methodology was applied to quantify the mean and turbulent flow and dispersion fields within several street canyon intersections. Vertical profiles of turbulent tracer flux were also measured. The technique, despite a number of limitations, proved reliable and allowed tracer balance calculations to be undertaken in the selected street canyon intersections. The experience gained in this work will enable much more precise studies in the future as issues affecting the accuracy of the experimental technique have been identified and resolved.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cambon, C
2004-01-01
This is a handbook for a computational approach to reacting flows, including background material on statistical mechanics. In this sense, the title is somewhat misleading with respect to other books dedicated to the statistical theory of turbulence (e.g. Monin and Yaglom). In the present book, emphasis is placed on modelling (engineering closures) for computational fluid dynamics. The probabilistic (pdf) approach is applied to the local scalar field, motivated first by the nonlinearity of chemical source terms which appear in the transport equations of reacting species. The probabilistic and stochastic approaches are also used for the velocity field and particle position; nevertheless they are essentially limited to Lagrangian models for a local vector, with only single-point statistics, as for the scalar. Accordingly, conventional techniques, such as single-point closures for RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subgrid-scale models for LES (large-eddy simulations), are described and in some cases reformulated using underlying Langevin models and filtered pdfs. Even if the theoretical approach to turbulence is not discussed in general, the essentials of probabilistic and stochastic-processes methods are described, with a useful reminder concerning statistics at the molecular level. The book comprises 7 chapters. Chapter 1 briefly states the goals and contents, with a very clear synoptic scheme on page 2. Chapter 2 presents definitions and examples of pdfs and related statistical moments. Chapter 3 deals with stochastic processes, pdf transport equations, from Kramer-Moyal to Fokker-Planck (for Markov processes), and moments equations. Stochastic differential equations are introduced and their relationship to pdfs described. This chapter ends with a discussion of stochastic modelling. The equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics are addressed in chapter 4. Classical conservation equations (mass, velocity, internal energy) are derived from their
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain
Banks, D.; Cochran, B.
2010-12-01
, vortex shedding, and local turbulence intensity and wind shear values. To achieve accurate results, attention must of course be paid to issues such as ensuring Reynolds number independence, avoiding blockage issues, and properly matching the velocity power spectrum, but once this is done, the laws of fluid mechanics take care of the rest. There will not be an overproduction of turbulent kinetic energy at the top of escarpments, or unacceptable dissipation of inlet turbulence levels. Modern atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnels are also often used to provide validation data for evaluating the performance of CFD model in complex flow environments. Present day computers have further increased the quality and quantity of data that can be economically obtained in a timely manner, for example through wind speed measurement using a computer controlled 3-D measurement positioning system Given this accuracy and widespread acceptance, it is perhaps surprising that ours was the only wind tunnel model in the Bolund blind experiment, an indication of how seldom physical modelling is used when estimating terrain effect for wind farms. In demonstrating how the Bolund test was modeled, this presentation will provide background on wind tunnel testing, including the governing scaling parameters. And we’ll see how our results compared to the full scale tests.
Particle Entrainment under Turbulent Flow Conditions
Diplas, Panayiotis
2009-11-01
Erosion, transportation and deposition of sediments and pollutants influence the hydrosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and atmosphere in profound ways. The global amount of sediment eroded annually over the continental surface of the earth via the action of water and wind is estimated to be around 80 billion metric tons, with 20 of them delivered by rivers to the oceans. This redistribution of material over the surface of the earth affects most of its physical, chemical and biological processes in ways that are exceedingly difficult to comprehend. The criterion currently in use for predicting particle entrainment, originally proposed by Shields in 1936, emphasizes the time-averaged boundary shear stress and therefore is incapable of accounting for the fluctuating forces encountered in turbulent flows. A new criterion that was developed recently in an effort to overcome the limitations of the previous approach will be presented. It is hypothesized that not only the magnitude, but also the duration of energetic near bed turbulent events is relevant in predicting grain removal from the bed surface. It is therefore proposed that the product of force and its duration, or impulse, is a more appropriate and universal criterion for identifying conditions suitable for particle dislodgement. Analytical formulation of the problem and experimental data are used to examine the validity of the new criterion.
Kaplan, Michael L.; Huffman, Allan W.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Charney, Joseph J.; Riordan, Allen J.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Waight, Kenneth T., III; Proctor, Fred (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Simulation experiments reveal key processes that organize a hydrostatic environment conducive to severe turbulence. The paradigm requires juxtaposition of the entrance region of a curved jet stream, which is highly subgeostrophic, with the entrance region of a straight jet stream, which is highly supergeostrophic. The wind and mass fields become misphased as the entrance regions converge resulting in the significant spatial variation of inertial forcing, centripetal forcing, and along- and cross-stream pressure gradient forcing over a mesobeta scale region. This results in frontogenesis and the along-stream divergence of cyclonic and convergence of cyclonic ageostrophic vertical vorticity. The centripetally forced mesoscale front becomes the locus of large gradients of ageostrophic vertical vorticity along an overturning isentrope. This region becomes favorable for streamwise vorticity gradient formation enhancing the environment for organization of horizontal vortex tubes in the presence of buoyant forcing.
Nearly incompressible MHD turbulence in the solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthaeus, W.H.; Zhou, Y.
1989-01-01
Observational studies indicate that solar wind plasma and magnetic field fluctuations may be meaningfully viewed as an example of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. This paper presents a brief summary of some relevant results of turbulence theory and reviews a turbulence style description of 'typical' solar wind conditions. Recent results, particularly those regarding the radial evolution of inertial range cross helicity, support the viewpoint that interplanetary turbulence is active and evolving with heliocentric distance. A number of observed properties can be understood by appeal to incompressible turbulence mechanisms. This connection may be understood by appeal to incompressible turbulence mechanisms. This connection may be understood in terms of theories of pseudosound density fluctuations and nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics, which are also reviewed here. Finally, we summarize a recent two-scale dynamical theory of the radial and temporal evolution of the turbulence, which may provide an additional framework for understanding the observations. (author). 49 refs
Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.
2014-01-01
Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...
Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling
Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.
1992-01-01
It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.
Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling
Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.
1992-12-01
It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.
Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis
Laituri, Tony R.
1988-01-01
Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.
Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.
2015-01-01
proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...... fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...
Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow
Zhou, Kun
2012-01-01
Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par
Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels
De Vriend, H.J.
1979-01-01
After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river
Turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jungpyo; Barnes, Michael; Parra, Felix I; Belli, Emily; Candy, Jeff
2015-01-01
Intrinsic toroidal rotation in a tokamak can be driven by turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flow effects breaking a symmetry of turbulence. In this paper we categorize the contributions due to neoclassical effects to the turbulent momentum transport, and evaluate each contribution using gyrokinetic simulations. We find that the relative importance of each contribution changes with collisionality. For low collisionality, the dominant contributions come from neoclassical particle and parallel flows. For moderate collisionality, there are non-negligible contributions due to neoclassical poloidal electric field and poloidal gradients of density and temperature, which are not important for low collisionality. (paper)
Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars
Sathe, A.R.
2012-01-01
Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, J.P.; Houze, R.N.; Buenger, D.E.; Theofanous, T.G.
1981-01-01
Hot film Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry have been employed in this work to study the turbulence characteristics of Bubbly and Stratified two-phase flows, respectively. Extensive consistency checks were made to establish the reliability and hence the utility of these experimental techniques for the measurement of turbulence in two-phase flows. Buoyancy-driven turbulence in vertical bubbly flows has been identified experimentally and correlated in terms of a shear velocity superposition approach. This approach provides a criterion for the demarcation of the buoyancy-driven turbulence region from the wall shear-generated turbulence region. Our data confirm the roughly isotropic behavior expected for buoyancy-driven turbulence. Upgrading of our experimental system will permit investigations of the wall-shear dominated regime (i.e., isotropy, superposition approach, etc.). The stratified flow data demonstrate clearly that the maximum in the mean velocity profile does not coincide with the zero shear plane, indicating the existence of a negative eddy viscosity region. Previous studies do not take into account this difference and thus they yield incorrect friction factor data in addition to certain puzzling behavior in the upper wall region. The conditioned turbulence data in the wavy region indicate interesting trends and that an appropriate normalization of intensities must take into account the shear velocity at the interfacial (wavy) region
Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow
Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo
2013-11-01
In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).
Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.
Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.
2017-12-01
Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular
Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie
Wang, H
2014-06-16
Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.
On Electron-Scale Whistler Turbulence in the Solar Wind
Narita, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Giles, B.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.
2016-01-01
For the first time, the dispersion relation for turbulence magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly on small scales of the order of the electron inertial length, using four-point magnetometer observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The data are analyzed using the high-resolution adaptive wave telescope technique. Small-scale solar wind turbulence is primarily composed of highly obliquely propagating waves, with dispersion consistent with that of the whistler mode.
The influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine power curve
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honrubia, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E. [Castilla-La Mancha Univ., Albacete (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.; Vigueras-Rodriguez, A. [Albacete Science and Technolgy Park, Albacete (Spain)
2012-07-01
To identify the influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine performance, wind speed measurements at different heights have been performed. Measurements have been developed using a cup anemometer and a LIDAR equipment, specifically a pulsed wave one. The wind profile has been recorded to study the effect of the atmospheric conditions over the energy generated by a wind turbine located close to the LIDAR system. The changes in the power production of the wind turbine are relevant. (orig.)
Turbulence intensity measurement in the wind tunnel used for airfoil flutter investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper reports on hot wire turbulence intensity measurements performed in the entry of a suction-type wind tunnel, used for investigation of flow-induced vibration of airfoils and slender structures. The airfoil is elastically supported with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge in the test section of the wind tunnel with lateral optical access for interferometric measurements, and free to oscillate. The turbulence intensity was measured for velocities up to M = 0.3 i with the airfoil blocked, ii with the airfoil self-oscillating. Measurements were performed for a free inlet and further with two different turbulence grids generating increased turbulence intensity levels. For the free inlet and static airfoil, the turbulence intensity lies below 0.4%. The turbulence grids G1 and G2 increase the turbulence level up to 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively. When the airfoil is free to oscillate due to fluid-structure interaction, its motion disturbs the surrounding flow field and increases the measured turbulence intensity levels up to 5%.
Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh
2008-01-01
Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.
TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE SIMULATION OF TURBULENT THERMAL FLOWS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the simulation of turbulent thermal flows, which is aimed at improving the visualization and the modeling of the flow fields of wind flows, which are necessary for aviation. The physical-mathematical model of gas flow in thermal is proposed on the basis of thermodynamic model and dynamic model under the assumption that the condensation energy, when the movement of the thermal is upward, becomes the turbulent fluctuations. A thermal is an air mass, which goes up and is capable to intermix with ambient air. In the work the thermodynamic model of thermal is presented, the equations and the system of equations are derived, that describe the main characteristics of wind flow, which are required for the modeling of airflows. The generation of vertical turbulent gust with von Karman spectrum is shown. The basic assumption in the construction of the dynamic model of generation was that the energy, which is stood out in the thermal due to the condensation of steam, is converted into the energy of turbulent pulsations. Some examples of numerical simulation are given in the article. The visualizations of the generation of the vertical velocity of random wind gust are given depending on the size of the considered space and depending on the pitch of cell partition. The analysis and comparison of the obtained results of the calculation are presented. The conducted studies are aimed at the simulation of the atmospheric background and atmospheric processes and, in the final result, at the increasing of flight safety.
Dynamical eigenfunction decomposition of turbulent channel flow
Ball, K. S.; Sirovich, L.; Keefe, L. R.
1991-01-01
The results of an analysis of low-Reynolds-number turbulent channel flow based on the Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion are presented. The turbulent flow field is generated by a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at a Reynolds number Re(tau) = 80 (based on the wall shear velocity and channel half-width). The K-L procedure is then applied to determine the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for this flow. The random coefficients of the K-L expansion are subsequently found by projecting the numerical flow field onto these eigenfunctions. The resulting expansion captures 90 percent of the turbulent energy with significantly fewer modes than the original trigonometric expansion. The eigenfunctions, which appear either as rolls or shearing motions, possess viscous boundary layers at the walls and are much richer in harmonics than the original basis functions.
Molecular mixing in turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerstein, A.R.
1993-01-01
The evolution of a diffusive scalar field subject to turbulent stirring is investigated by comparing two new modeling approaches, the linear-eddy model and the clipped-laminar-profile representation, to results previously obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and by mapping-closure analysis. The comparisons indicate that scalar field evolution is sensitive to the bandwidth of the stirring process, and they suggest that the good agreement between DNS and mapping closure reflects the narrowband character of both. The new models predict qualitatively new behaviors in the wideband stirring regime corresponding to high-Reynolds-number turbulence
The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.
2013-01-01
Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.
Torque fluctuations caused by upstream mean flow and turbulence
Farr, T. D.; Hancock, P. E.
2014-12-01
A series of studies are in progress investigating the effects of turbine-array-wake interactions for a range of atmospheric boundary layer states by means of the EnFlo meteorological wind tunnel. The small, three-blade model wind turbines drive 4-quadrant motor-generators. Only a single turbine in neutral flow is considered here. The motor-generator current can be measured with adequate sensitivity by means of a current sensor allowing the mean and fluctuating torque to be inferred. Spectra of torque fluctuations and streamwise velocity fluctuations ahead of the rotor, between 0.1 and 2 diameters, show that only the large-scale turbulent motions contribute significantly to the torque fluctuations. Time-lagged cross-correlation between upstream velocity and torque fluctuations are largest over the inner part of the blade. They also show the turbulence to be frozen in behaviour over the 2 diameters upstream of the turbine.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2015-01-01
models that compensate for axial and tangential induction, approximated by blade element momentum theory, radial expansion of the inflow, rotor tilt, dynamic and skew inflow, tip loss, as well as braking and circulation of the flow local to the airfoil. The wind speeds measured on the rotating blades...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...
Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow
Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, Daniel B; Voth, Greg A; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gibert, Mathieu; Xu Haitao; Gylfason, Ármann; Mydlarski, Laurent; Yeung, P K
2011-01-01
We present a systematic comparison of conditional structure functions in nine turbulent flows. The flows studied include forced isotropic turbulence simulated on a periodic domain, passive grid wind tunnel turbulence in air and in pressurized SF 6 , active grid wind tunnel turbulence (in both synchronous and random driving modes), the flow between counter-rotating discs, oscillating grid turbulence and the flow in the Lagrangian exploration module (in both constant and random driving modes). We compare longitudinal Eulerian second-order structure functions conditioned on the instantaneous large-scale velocity in each flow to assess the ways in which the large scales affect the small scales in a variety of turbulent flows. Structure functions are shown to have larger values when the large-scale velocity significantly deviates from the mean in most flows, suggesting that dependence on the large scales is typical in many turbulent flows. The effects of the large-scale velocity on the structure functions can be quite strong, with the structure function varying by up to a factor of 2 when the large-scale velocity deviates from the mean by ±2 standard deviations. In several flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are similar at all the length scales we measured, indicating that the large-scale effects are scale independent. In a few flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are larger on the smallest length scales. (paper)
Measuring gas concentration and wind intensity in a turbulent wind tunnel with a mobile robot
Martínez Lacasa, Daniel; Moreno Blanc, Javier; Tresánchez, Marcel; Clotet Bellmunt, Eduard; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M.; Magrans, Rudys; Pardo Martínez, Antonio; Marco Colás, Santiago; Palacín Roca, Jordi
2016-01-01
This paper presents themeasurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with amobile robot in a customturbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources.This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber...
Magnetic fluctuations in turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruzmaikin, A.A.
1990-01-01
For dynamo excitation of the magnetic fluctuations in infinite fluid only a sufficient large magnetic Reynolds number is needed. In a infinite region an additional condition appears. Due to the diffusion of the magnetic field through the boundaries a size of the region must be large enough compare with a correlation length of the turbulence. Author)
Turbulent wind at the equatorial segment of an operating Darrieus wind turbine blade
Connell, J. R.; Morris, V. R.
1989-09-01
Six turbulent wind time series, measured at equally spaced equator-height locations on a circle 3 m outside a 34-m Darrieus rotor, are analyzed to approximate the wind fluctuations experienced by the rotor. The flatwise lower root-bending stress of one blade was concurrently recorded. The wind data are analyzed in three ways: wind components that are radial and tangential to the rotation of a blade were rotationally sampled; induction and wake effects of the rotor were estimated from the six Eulerian time series; and turbulence spectra of both the measured wind and the modeled wind from the PNL theory of rotationally sampled turbulence. The wind and the rotor response are related by computing the spectral response function of the flatwise lower root-bending stress. Two bands of resonant response that surround the first and second flatwise modal frequencies shift with the rotor rotation rate.
On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben
2009-01-01
Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraternale, F; Gallana, L; Iovieno, M; Tordella, D; Opher, M; Richardson, J D
2016-01-01
Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between −2.1 and −1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. (invited comment)
Statistical analysis of dispersion relations in turbulent solar wind fluctuations using Cluster data
Perschke, C.; Narita, Y.
2012-12-01
Multi-spacecraft measurements enable us to resolve three-dimensional spatial structures without assuming Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis. This is very useful to study frequency-wave vector diagram in solar wind turbulence through direct determination of three-dimensional wave vectors. The existence and evolution of dispersion relation and its role in fully-developed plasma turbulence have been drawing attention of physicists, in particular, if solar wind turbulence represents kinetic Alfvén or whistler mode as the carrier of spectral energy among different scales through wave-wave interactions. We investigate solar wind intervals of Cluster data for various flow velocities with a high-resolution wave vector analysis method, Multi-point Signal Resonator technique, at the tetrahedral separation about 100 km. Magnetic field data and ion data are used to determine the frequency- wave vector diagrams in the co-moving frame of the solar wind. We find primarily perpendicular wave vectors in solar wind turbulence which justify the earlier discussions about kinetic Alfvén or whistler wave. The frequency- wave vector diagrams confirm (a) wave vector anisotropy and (b) scattering in frequencies.
Adaptive control algorithm for improving power capture of wind turbines in turbulent winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diaz-Guerra, Lluis; Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob
2012-01-01
, the complex and time-varying aerodynamics a WT face due to turbulent winds make their determination a hard task. The selected constant parameters may maximize energy for a particular, but not all, wind regime conditions. Adaptivity can modify the controller to increase power capture under variable wind...
Richardson effects in turbulent buoyant flows
Biggi, Renaud; Blanquart, Guillaume
2010-11-01
Rayleigh Taylor instabilities are found in a wide range of scientific fields from supernova explosions to underwater hot plumes. The turbulent flow is affected by the presence of buoyancy forces and may not follow the Kolmogorov theory anymore. The objective of the present work is to analyze the complex interactions between turbulence and buoyancy. Towards that goal, simulations have been performed with a high order, conservative, low Mach number code [Desjardins et. al. JCP 2010]. The configuration corresponds to a cubic box initially filled with homogeneous isotropic turbulence with heavy fluid on top and light gas at the bottom. The initial turbulent field was forced using linear forcing up to a Reynolds number of Reλ=55 [Meneveau & Rosales, POF 2005]. The Richardson number based on the rms velocity and the integral length scale was varied from 0.1 to 10 to investigate cases with weak and strong buoyancy. Cases with gravity as a stabilizer of turbulence (gravity pointing up) were also considered. The evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and the total kinetic energy was analyzed and a simple phenomenological model was proposed. Finally, the energy spectra and the isotropy of the flow were also investigated.
[Statistical modeling studies of turbulent reacting flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwyer, H.A.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the study of turbulent wall shear flows, and we feel that this problem is both more difficult and a better challenge for the new methods we are developing. Turbulent wall flows have a wide variety of length and time scales which interact with the transport processes to produce very large fluxes of mass, heat, and momentum. At the present time we have completed the first calculation of a wall diffusion flame, and we have begun a velocity PDF calculation for the flat plate boundary layer. A summary of the various activities is contained in this report
Spacecraft observations of solar wind turbulence: an overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horbury, T S; Forman, M A; Oughton, S
2005-01-01
Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and the presence of intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. We also discuss the presence of anisotropy in wavevector space relative to the local magnetic field direction. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wavevectors either parallel to the magnetic field ('slab' fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it ('2D'). We review the existing evidence for such anisotropy, which has important consequences for the transport of energetic particles. Finally, we present the first results of a new analysis which provides the most accurate measurements to date of the wave-vector anisotropy of wavevector power in solar wind MHD turbulence
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans
2017-01-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...
Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow
Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant
2010-11-01
An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.
Wintertime slope winds and its turbulent characteristics in the Yeongdong region of Korea
Jeon, H. R.; Eun, S. H.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, Y. H.
2015-12-01
The Yeongdong region has various meteorological phenomenons by virtue of complicated geographical characteristics with high Taebaek Mountains running from the north to the south and an adjacent East Sea to the east. There are few studies on the slope winds and its turbulent characteristics over the complex terrain, which are critical information in mountain climbing, hiking, paragliding, even winter sports such as alpine skiing and ski jump etc. For the understanding of diverse mountain winds in the complex terrain in Yeongdong, hot-wire anemometers (Campbell Scientific) have been installed at a couple of sites since October 2014 and several automatic weather stations at several sites around the mountainous region in Yeongdong since November 2012.WRF model simulations have been also done with an ultra-fine horizontal resolution of 300 m for 10 years. Generally, model and observation show that the dominant wind is westerly, approximately more than 75%. It is quite consistent that wind fields from both model and observation agree with each other in the valley region and at the top of the mountain, but there is a significant disagreement in wind direction specifically in the slide slope. Probably this implies model's performance with even an ultra-fine resolution is still not enough for the slide slope domain of complex terrains. Despite that, the observation clearly showed up- and down slope winds for the weak synoptic conditions carefully selected such as strong insolation and a synoptic wind less than 5m/s in the 850 hPa. The up- and down slope flows are also demonstrated in the snow-covered condition as well as grass ground. Further, planar fit transformation algorithm against the coordinate tilt has been applied to raw wind data (10Hz) of the slope site for the analysis of turbulence properties. Turbulence also increases with synoptic wind strength. Detailed analysis of mechanical turbulence and buoyance will be discussed for different surface properties (grass
3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs
Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.
Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.
1975-01-01
Flow over surface obstructions can produce significantly large wind shears such that adverse flying conditions can occur for aeronautical systems (helicopters, STOL vehicles, etc.). Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow and highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient. Discussion of the effects of the disturbed wind field in CTOL and STOL aircraft flight path and obstruction clearance standards is given. The results indicate that closer inspection of these presently recommended standards as influenced by wind over irregular terrains is required.
Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.
2003-01-01
The motion of passively convected particles in turbulent flows is studied experimentally in approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, generated in water by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small passively convected, neutrally buoyant, polystyrene particles...
Rough flows and homogenization in stochastic turbulence
Bailleul, I.; Catellier, R.
2016-01-01
We provide in this work a tool-kit for the study of homogenisation of random ordinary differential equations, under the form of a friendly-user black box based on the tehcnology of rough flows. We illustrate the use of this setting on the example of stochastic turbulence.
Turbulent Buoyant Jets in Flowing Ambients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Hai-Bo; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, Ole
1991-01-01
The mean behaviour of horizontal turbulent buoyant jets in co-flowing currents is investigated experimentally and numerically, in terms of jet trajectory, dilution and centerline density deficit and velocity decay. It is demonstrated in the paper that the laboratory data on the jet trajectory and...
Tackling complex turbulent flows with transient RANS
Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K.
2009-01-01
This article reviews some recent applications of the transient-Reynoldsaveraged Navier–Stokes (T-RANS) approach in simulating complex turbulent flows dominated by externally imposed body forces, primarily by thermal buoyancy and the Lorentz force. The T-RANS aims at numerical resolving unsteady
Aly, Aly Mousaad
2014-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings.
2014-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence results from the vertical movement of air, together with flow disturbances around surface obstacles which make low- and moderate-level winds extremely irregular. Recent advancements in wind engineering have led to the construction of new facilities for testing residential homes at relatively high Reynolds numbers. However, the generation of a fully developed turbulence in these facilities is challenging. The author proposed techniques for the testing of residential buildings and architectural features in flows that lack fully developed turbulence. While these methods are effective for small structures, the extension of the approach for large and flexible structures is not possible yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of turbulence in the response of tall buildings to extreme winds. In addition, the paper presents a detailed analysis to investigate the influence of upstream terrain conditions, wind direction angle (orientation), and the interference effect from the surrounding on the response of high-rise buildings. The methodology presented can be followed to help decision makers to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, and/or damping enhancement, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability of buildings. PMID:24701140
3D Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence, Tubes, or Ribbons?
Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny
2018-01-01
We study the anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at magnetofluid scales in the solar wind. Previous measurements in the fast solar wind obtained axisymmetric anisotropy, despite that the analysis method allows nonaxisymmetric structures. These results are probably contaminated by the wind expansion that introduces another symmetry axis, namely, the radial direction, as indicated by recent numerical simulations. These simulations also show that while the expansion is strong, the principal fluctuations are in the plane perpendicular to the radial direction. Using this property, we separate 11 yr of Wind spacecraft data into two subsets characterized by strong and weak expansion and determine the corresponding turbulence anisotropy. Under strong expansion, the small-scale anisotropy is consistent with the Goldreich & Sridhar critical balance. As in previous works, when the radial symmetry axis is not eliminated, the turbulent structures are field-aligned tubes. Under weak expansion, we find 3D anisotropy predicted by the Boldyrev model, that is, turbulent structures are ribbons and not tubes. However, the very basis of the Boldyrev phenomenology, namely, a cross-helicity increasing at small scales, is not observed in the solar wind: the origin of the ribbon formation is unknown.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs
Flow-induced separation in wall turbulence.
Nguyen, Quoc; Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V
2015-03-01
One of the defining characteristics of turbulence is its ability to promote mixing. We present here a case where the opposite happens-simulation results indicate that particles can separate near the wall of a turbulent channel flow, when they have sufficiently different Schmidt numbers without use of any other means. The physical mechanism of the separation is understood when the interplay between convection and diffusion, as expressed by their characteristic time scales, is considered, leading to the determination of the necessary conditions for a successful separation between particles. Practical applications of these results can be found when very small particles need to be separated or removed from a fluid.
Large eddy simulation of bundle turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.; Barsamian, H.R.
1995-01-01
Large eddy simulation may be defined as simulation of a turbulent flow in which the large scale motions are explicitly resolved while the small scale motions are modeled. This results into a system of equations that require closure models. The closure models relate the effects of the small scale motions onto the large scale motions. There have been several models developed, the most popular is the Smagorinsky eddy viscosity model. A new model has recently been introduced by Lee that modified the Smagorinsky model. Using both of the above mentioned closure models, two different geometric arrangements were used in the simulation of turbulent cross flow within rigid tube bundles. An inlined array simulations was performed for a deep bundle (10,816 nodes) as well as an inlet/outlet simulation (57,600 nodes). Comparisons were made to available experimental data. Flow visualization enabled the distinction of different characteristics within the flow such as jet switching effects in the wake of the bundle flow for the inlet/outlet simulation case, as well as within tube bundles. The results indicate that the large eddy simulation technique is capable of turbulence prediction and may be used as a viable engineering tool with the careful consideration of the subgrid scale model. (author)
Modeling turbulence structure. Chemical kinetics interaction in turbulent reactive flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnussen, B F [The Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
1998-12-31
The challenge of the mathematical modelling is to transfer basic physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation such that this knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems. The combustion phenomena can be subdivided into a large set of interconnected phenomena like flow, turbulence, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radiation, extinction, ignition etc. Combustion in one application differs from combustion in another area by the relative importance of the various phenomena. The difference in fuel, geometry and operational conditions often causes the differences. The computer offers the opportunity to treat the individual phenomena and their interactions by models with wide operational domains. The relative magnitude of the various phenomena therefore becomes the consequence of operational conditions and geometry and need not to be specified on the basis of experience for the given problem. In mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion, one of the big challenges is how to treat the interaction between the chemical reactions and the fluid flow i.e. the turbulence. Different scientists adhere to different concepts like the laminar flamelet approach, the pdf approach of the Eddy Dissipation Concept. Each of these approaches offers different opportunities and problems. All these models are based on a sound physical basis, however none of these have general validity in taking into consideration all detail of the physical chemical interaction. The merits of the models can only be judged by their ability to reproduce physical reality and consequences of operational and geometric conditions in a combustion system. The presentation demonstrates and discusses the development of a coherent combustion technology for energy conversion and safety based on the Eddy Dissipation Concept by Magnussen. (author) 30 refs.
Modeling turbulence structure. Chemical kinetics interaction in turbulent reactive flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnussen, B.F. [The Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
1997-12-31
The challenge of the mathematical modelling is to transfer basic physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation such that this knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems. The combustion phenomena can be subdivided into a large set of interconnected phenomena like flow, turbulence, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radiation, extinction, ignition etc. Combustion in one application differs from combustion in another area by the relative importance of the various phenomena. The difference in fuel, geometry and operational conditions often causes the differences. The computer offers the opportunity to treat the individual phenomena and their interactions by models with wide operational domains. The relative magnitude of the various phenomena therefore becomes the consequence of operational conditions and geometry and need not to be specified on the basis of experience for the given problem. In mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion, one of the big challenges is how to treat the interaction between the chemical reactions and the fluid flow i.e. the turbulence. Different scientists adhere to different concepts like the laminar flamelet approach, the pdf approach of the Eddy Dissipation Concept. Each of these approaches offers different opportunities and problems. All these models are based on a sound physical basis, however none of these have general validity in taking into consideration all detail of the physical chemical interaction. The merits of the models can only be judged by their ability to reproduce physical reality and consequences of operational and geometric conditions in a combustion system. The presentation demonstrates and discusses the development of a coherent combustion technology for energy conversion and safety based on the Eddy Dissipation Concept by Magnussen. (author) 30 refs.
Analysis of turbulent wake behind a wind turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass and mome...
Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels
2014-01-01
, superimposed on top of a mean deterministic shear layer consistent with that used in the IEC standard for wind turbine load calculations. First, the method is evaluated by running a series of large-eddy simulations in an empty domain, where the imposed turbulence and wind shear is allowed to reach a fully...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengwu Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is known as one of the most efficient clean renewable energy sources and has attracted extensive research interests in both academic and industry fields. In this study, the effects of turbulent wind and voltage disturbance on a wind turbine drivetrain are analyzed, and a wind turbine drivetrain dynamic model combined with the electric model of a doubly fed induction generator is established. The proposed model is able to account for the dynamic interaction between turbulent wind, voltage disturbance, and mechanical system. Also, the effects of time-varying meshing stiffness, transmission error, and bearing stiffness are included in the mechanical part of the coupled dynamic model. From the resultant model, system modes are computed. In addition, by considering the actual control strategies in the simulation process, the effects of turbulent wind and voltage disturbance on the geared rotor system are analyzed. The computational results show that the turbulent wind and voltage disturbance can cause adverse effects on the wind turbine drivetrain, especially the gearbox. A series of parametric studies are also performed to understand the influences of generator and gearbox parameters on the drivetrain system dynamics. Finally, the appropriate generator parameters having a positive effect on the gearbox in alleviating the extreme loads and the modeling approach for investigating the transient performance of generator are discussed.
Vertical axis wind turbine wake in boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2016-04-01
A vertical axis wind turbine is placed in a boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel, and its wake is investigated. Measurements are performed using an x-wire to measure two components of velocity and turbulence statistics in the wake of the wind turbine. The study is performed at various heights and crosswind positions in order to investigate the full volume of the wake for a range of tip speed ratios. The velocity deficit and levels of turbulence in the wake are related to the performance of the turbine. The asymmetric incoming boundary layer flow causes the rate of recovery in the wake to change as a function of height. Higher shear between the wake and unperturbed flow occurs at the top edge of the wake, inducing stronger turbulence and mixing in this region. The difference in flow relative to the blades causes the velocity deficit and turbulence level to change as a function of crosswind position behind the rotor. The relative difference diminishes with increasing tip speed ratio. Therefore, the wake becomes more homogeneous as tip speed ratio increases.
Turbulent Structure Under Short Fetch Wind Waves
2015-12-01
maximum 200 words ) Momentum transfer from wind forcing into the ocean is complicated by the presence of surface waves. Wind momentum and energy are...1,520 m from the mouth of the river to the deployment site ). Map created in Google Earth, October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/earth/. 33...Doppler processing electronics for each transducer uses 14 bit analog to digital converter to digitize the 1.2 MHz acoustic frequency from the four
On Usage of Pareto curves to Select Wind Turbine Controller Tunings to the Wind Turbulence Level
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh
2015-01-01
Model predictive control has in recently publications shown its potential for lowering of cost of energy of modern wind turbines. Pareto curves can be used to evaluate performance of these controllers with multiple conflicting objectives of power and fatigue loads. In this paper an approach...... to update an model predictive wind turbine controller tuning as the wind turbulence increases, as increased turbulence levels results in higher loads for the same controller tuning. In this paper the Pareto curves are computed using an industrial high fidelity aero-elastic model. Simulations show...
Turbulent flow in a partially filled pipe
Ng, Henry; Cregan, Hope; Dodds, Jonathan; Poole, Robert; Dennis, David
2017-11-01
Turbulent flow in a pressure driven pipe running partially full has been investigated using high-speed 2D-3C Stereoscopic Particle Imaging Velocimetry. With the field-of-view spanning the entire pipe cross section we are able to reconstruct the full three dimensional quasi-instantaneous flow field by invoking Taylor's hypothesis. The measurements were carried out over a range of flow depths at a constant Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter and bulk velocity of Re = 32 , 000 . In agreement with previous studies, the ``velocity dip'' phenomenon, whereby the location of the maximum streamwise velocity occurs below the free surface was observed. A mean flow secondary current is observed near the free surface with each of the counter-rotating rollers filling the half-width of the pipe. Unlike fully turbulent flow in a rectangular open channel or pressurized square duct flow where the secondary flow cells appear in pairs about a corner bisector, the mean secondary motion observed here manifests only as a single pair of vortices mirrored about the pipe vertical centreline.
Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401,CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-04-01
The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.
Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, P; Duponcheel, M; Buffin, S; Caprace, D-G; Winckelmans, G; Bricteux, L; Zeoli, S
2017-01-01
The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed. (paper)
Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes
Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Zeoli, S.; Buffin, S.; Caprace, D.-G.; Winckelmans, G.; Bricteux, L.
2017-05-01
The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed.
Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence
Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire
2017-11-01
The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.
Redistribution of Kinetic Energy in Turbulent Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alain Pumir
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In statistically homogeneous turbulent flows, pressure forces provide the main mechanism to redistribute kinetic energy among fluid elements, without net contribution to the overall energy budget. This holds true in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D flows, which show fundamentally different physics. As we demonstrate here, pressure forces act on fluid elements very differently in these two cases. We find in numerical simulations that in 3D pressure forces strongly accelerate the fastest fluid elements, and that in 2D this effect is absent. In 3D turbulence, our findings put forward a mechanism for a possibly singular buildup of energy, and thus may shed new light on the smoothness problem of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in 3D.
Role of Turbulent Damping in Cosmic Ray Galactic Winds
Holguin, Francisco; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Lazarian, Alex; Yang, H. Y. Karen
2018-06-01
Large-scale galactic winds driven by stellar feedback are one phenomenon that influences the dynamical and chemical evolution of a galaxy, pushing and redistributing material throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) and galactic halo. A detailed understanding of the exact physical mechanisms responsible for these winds is lacking. Non-thermal feedback from galactic cosmic rays (CR), high-energy charged particles accelerated in supernovae and young stars, can impact the efficiency in accelerating the wind. In the self-confinement model, CR stream along magnetic field lines at the Alfven speed due to scattering off self-excited Aflv{é}n waves. However, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence stirred up by stellar feedback dissipates these confining waves, allowing CR to be super Aflvenic. Previous simulations relying on a simplified model of transport have shown that super-Alfv{é}nic streaming of CRs can launch a stronger wind. We perform three-dimensional MHD simulations of a section of a galactic disk, including CR streaming dependent on the local environment, using a realistic model of turbulent dissipation of Alfven waves presented in Lazarian (2016). In this implementation, the CR streaming speed can be super Alfv{é}nic depending on local conditions. We compare results for Alfv{é}nic and locally determined streaming, and find that gas/CR distributions and instantaneous mass loading factor of the wind are different depending on the level of turbulence.Lazarian, A. “Damping of Alfven waves by turbulence and its consequences: from cosmic-ray streaming to launching winds.” ApJ. Vol. 833, Num. 2. (2016).
Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashiwa, B.
1987-10-01
Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of κ-ε modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy κ, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation ε, for each material. Hence a set of κ and ε equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both κ and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a pipe
Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows
Dominguez, A.; Clercx, H.J.H.
2006-01-01
Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environmental turbulent flows. In oceans turbulence play an important role on Marine Snow (aggregate) formation. For a proper description, the study of aggregate formation in turbulent flows requires a particle based model i.e. following
Fractal flow design how to design bespoke turbulence and why
Vassilicos, Christos
2016-01-01
This book focuses on turbulent flows generated and/or influenced by multiscale/fractal structures. It consists of six chapters which demonstrate, each one in its own way, how such structures and objects can be used to design bespoke turbulence for particular applications and also how they can be used for fundamental studies of turbulent flows.
CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels
Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish
2018-02-01
Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.
CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels
Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish
2018-06-01
Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.
On the computation of the turbulent flow near rough surface
Matveev, S. K.; Jaychibekov, N. Zh.; Shalabayeva, B. S.
2018-05-01
One of the problems in constructing mathematical models of turbulence is a description of the flows near a rough surface. An experimental study of such flows is also difficult because of the impossibility of measuring "inside" the roughness. The theoretical calculation is difficult because of the lack of equations describing the flow in this zone. In this paper, a new turbulence model based on the differential equation of turbulent viscosity balance was used to describe a turbulent flow near a rough surface. The difference between the new turbulence model and the previously known consists in the choice of constants and functions that determine the generation, dissipation and diffusion of viscosity.
Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine power performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Paulsen, U.S.
2010-01-15
Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case of a uniform inflow. Secondly, a similar analysis was done for cases with direction shear. In each case, we derived a standard power curve (function of the wind speed at hub height) and power curves obtained with various definitions of equivalent wind speed in order to reduce the scatter due to shear. Thirdly, the variations of the power output and the power curve were analysed for various turbulence intensities. Furthermore, the equivalent speed method was successfully tested on a power curve resulting from simulations cases combining shear and turbulence. Finally, we roughly simulated the wind speed measurements we may get from a LIDAR mounted on the nacelle of the turbine (measuring upwind) and we investigated different ways of deriving an equivalent wind speed from such measurements. (author)
Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.
2001-01-01
Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directions...... where the mean flow was horizontal. This difference was large enough to be attributed to the well-known overspeeding effect related to the differing distance constant (ranging from 1.7 to 5 m) of the cup anemometers. The application of a theoretical model of the cup-anemometer behaviour in a three...... to correct the 10-min mean wind speed. The necessary information for the correction is the turbulent intensity (preferably in the vertical direction) and the mean flow inclination. For demanding applications, the angular response parameters of cup anemometers should be taken into account. The incorporation...
Cup anemometer response to the wind turbulence-measurement of the horizontal wind variance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Yahaya
2004-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some dynamic characteristics of an opto-electronic cup anemometer model in relation to its response to the wind turbulence. It is based on experimental data of the natural wind turbulence measured both by an ultrasonic anemometer and two samples of the mentioned cup anemometer. The distance constants of the latter devices measured in a wind tunnel are in good agreement with those determined by the spectral analysis method proposed in this study. In addition, the study shows that the linear compensation of the cup anemometer response, beyond the cutoff frequency, is limited to a given frequency, characteristic of the device. Beyond this frequency, the compensation effectiveness relies mainly on the wind characteristics, particularly the direction variability and the horizontal turbulence intensity. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of fast cup anemometers to measure some turbulence parameters (like wind variance with errors of the magnitude as those deriving from the mean speed measurements. This result proves that fast cup anemometers can be used to assess some turbulence parameters, especially for long-term measurements in severe climate conditions (icing, snowing or sandy storm weathers.
Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.
2017-01-01
Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016
Mach Number effects on turbulent superstructures in wall bounded flows
Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Scharnowski, Sven
2017-11-01
Planer and three-dimensional flow field measurements along a flat plat boundary layer in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel Munich (TWM) are examined with the aim to characterize the scaling, spatial organization, and topology of large scale turbulent superstructures in compressible flow. This facility is ideal for this investigation as the ratio of boundary layer thickness to test section spanwise extent ratio is around 1/25, ensuring minimal sidewall and corner effects on turbulent structures in the center of the test section. A major difficulty in the experimental investigation of large scale features is the mutual size of the superstructures which can extend over many boundary layer thicknesses. Using multiple PIV systems, it was possible to capture the full spatial extent of large-scale structures over a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0.3 - 3. To calculate the average large-scale structure length and spacing, the acquired vector fields were analyzed by statistical multi-point methods that show large scale structures with a correlation length of around 10 boundary layer thicknesses over the range of Mach numbers investigated. Furthermore, the average spacing between high and low momentum structures is on the order of a boundary layer thicknesses. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Homogeneous wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Favier, B.; Le Reun, T.; Barker, A.; Le Bars, M.
2017-12-01
When a moon orbits around a planet, the rotation of the induced tidal bulge drives a homogeneous, periodic, large-scale flow. The combination of such an excitation with the rotating motion of the planet has been shown to drive parametric resonance of a pair of inertial waves in a mechanism called the elliptical instability. Geophysical fluid layers can also be stratified: this is the case for instance of the Earth's oceans and, as suggested by several studies, of the upper part of the Earth's liquid Outer Core. We thus investigate the stability of a rotating and stratified layer undergoing tidal distortion in the limit where either rotation or stratification is dominant. We show that the periodic tidal flow drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of inertial (resp. internal) waves in the rotating (resp. stratified) case. The instability saturates into a wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid layer. In such a state, the instability mechanism conveys the tidal energy from the large scale tidal flow to the resonant modes, which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. In the rotating case, we observe a kinetic energy spectrum with a k-2 slope for which the Coriolis force is dominant at all spatial scales. In the stratified case, where the timescale separation is increased between the tidal excitation and the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, the temporal spectrum decays with a ω-2 power law up to the cut-off frequency beyond which waves do not exist. This result is reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans and theoretically described as a manifestation of internal wave turbulence. In addition to revealing an instability driving homogeneous turbulence in geophysical fluid layers, our approach is also an efficient numerical tool to investigate the possibly universal properties of wave turbulence in a geophysical context.
Turbulent Flow and Sand Dune Dynamics: Identifying Controls on Aeolian Sediment Transport
Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G.
2007-12-01
Sediment transport models are founded on cubic power relationships between the transport rate and time averaged flow parameters. These models have achieved limited success and recent aeolian and fluvial research has focused on the modelling and measurement of sediment transport by temporally varying flow conditions. Studies have recognised turbulence as a driving force in sediment transport and have highlighted the importance of coherent flow structures in sediment transport systems. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, research in the fluvial environment has identified the significance of turbulent structures for bedform morphology and spacing. However, equivalent research in the aeolian domain is absent. This paper reports the findings of research carried out to characterise the importance of turbulent flow parameters in aeolian sediment transport and determine how turbulent energy and turbulent structures change in response to dune morphology. The relative importance of mean and turbulent wind parameters on aeolian sediment flux was examined in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Measurements of wind velocity (using sonic anemometers) and sand transport (using grain impact sensors) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz were made across a flat surface and along transects on a 9 m high barchan dune. Mean wind parameters and mass sand flux were measured using cup anemometers and wedge-shaped sand traps respectively. Vertical profile data from the sonic anemometers were used to compute turbulence and turbulent stress (Reynolds stress; instantaneous horizontal and vertical fluctuations; coherent flow structures) and their relationship with respect to sand transport and evolving dune morphology. On the flat surface time-averaged parameters generally fail to characterise sand transport dynamics, particularly as the averaging interval is reduced. However, horizontal wind speed correlates well with sand transport even with short averaging times. Quadrant
Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todde, V
1998-09-01
Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet
Mathematical model for the calculation of internal turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolau, V. de P.; Valle Pereira Filho, H. do
1981-01-01
The Navier-Stokes and the turbulent kinetic energy equations for the incompressible, turbulent and fully developed pipe flow, were solved by a finite difference procedure. The distributions of the mean velocity, turbulent shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were obtained at different Reynolds numbers. Those numerical results were compared with experimental data and the agreement was good in whole cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt
Numerical simulation of turbulent convective flow over wavy terrain
Dörnbrack, A.; Schumann, U.
1993-09-01
By means of a large-eddy simulation, the convective boundary layer is investigated for flows over wavy terrain. The lower surface varies sinusoidally in the downstream direction while remaining constant in the other. Several cases are considered with amplitude δ up to 0.15 H and wavelength λ of H to 8 H, where H is the mean fluid-layer height. At the lower surface, the vertical heat flux is prescribed to be constant and the momentum flux is determined locally from the Monin-Obukhov relationship with a roughness length z o=10-4 H. The mean wind is varied between zero and 5 w *, where w * is the convective velocity scale. After rather long times, the flow structure shows horizontal scales up to 4 H, with a pattern similar to that over flat surfaces at corresponding shear friction. Weak mean wind destroys regular spatial structures induced by the surface undulation at zero mean wind. The surface heating suppresses mean-flow recirculation-regions even for steep surface waves. Short surface waves cause strong drag due to hydrostatic and dynamic pressure forces in addition to frictional drag. The pressure drag increases slowly with the mean velocity, and strongly with δ/ H. The turbulence variances increase mainly in the lower half of the mixed layer for U/w *>2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)
2011-09-15
An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)
Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow
Iida, Oaki
2018-04-01
Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.
Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oleg V. Vasilyev
2008-06-12
Although turbulent flows are common in the world around us, a solution to the fundamental equations that govern turbulence still eludes the scientific community. Turbulence has often been called one of the last unsolved problem in classical physics, yet it is clear that the need to accurately predict the effect of turbulent flows impacts virtually every field of science and engineering. As an example, a critical step in making modern computational tools useful in designing aircraft is to be able to accurately predict the lift, drag, and other aerodynamic characteristics in numerical simulations in a reasonable amount of time. Simulations that take months to years to complete are much less useful to the design cycle. Much work has been done toward this goal (Lee-Rausch et al. 2003, Jameson 2003) and as cost effective accurate tools for simulating turbulent flows evolve, we will all benefit from new scientific and engineering breakthroughs. The problem of simulating high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows of engineering and scientific interest would have been solved with the advent of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques if unlimited computing power, memory, and time could be applied to each particular problem. Yet, given the current and near future computational resources that exist and a reasonable limit on the amount of time an engineer or scientist can wait for a result, the DNS technique will not be useful for more than 'unit' problems for the foreseeable future (Moin & Kim 1997, Jimenez & Moin 1991). The high computational cost for the DNS of three dimensional turbulent flows results from the fact that they have eddies of significant energy in a range of scales from the characteristic length scale of the flow all the way down to the Kolmogorov length scale. The actual cost of doing a three dimensional DNS scales as Re{sup 9/4} due to the large disparity in scales that need to be fully resolved. State-of-the-art DNS calculations of isotropic
Interactions between bedforms, turbulence and pore flow
Blois, G.; Best, J.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Hardy, R. J.; Lead, J.
2010-12-01
A widespread occurrence of flow-form interaction in rivers is represented by subaqueous bedforms such as dunes. Many models have been proposed to explain how bedform generation and evolution are driven by turbulent flow structures that control the incipient motion of cohesionless sediments and later bedform development. However, most of these models have assumed such bedforms to be migrating over an impermeable bed, and that any surface-subsurface flow interaction is negligible. However, for some gravel-bed rivers the porosity can be high, up to 43%, which may result in significant flow both through the permeable bed (hyporheic flow) and across the surface-subsurface interface. The mass and momentum exchange occurring at the interface may have a strong impact on the structure of turbulent flow in the near-bed region. In the case of a dune, its topography induces a local pressure gradient that enhances flow across the interface. This results in a flow structure that may be radically different from that commonly proposed by past work. This paper presents results from a simplified laboratory model akin to a fine-grained bedform generated on top of a coarser sediment bed. Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted in order to characterise flow both over and underneath an idealised 2-dimensional dune (0.41 m long, 0.056 m high and having a leeside angle of 27°) overlaying a packed bed of uniform size spheres (D = 0.04 m diameter). Experiments were conducted in free surface flow conditions (Froude number = 0.1; Reynolds number = 25,000) for one bedform height: flow depth ratio (0.31). The flow above the dune was measured using a standard PIV technique while a novel endoscopic PIV (EPIV) system allowed collection of flow data within the pore spaces beneath the dune. The results show that topographically-induced subsurface flow significantly modifies the structure of flow in the leeside of the dune, resulting in a flow field that is radically different
Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-L. Caccia
2004-11-01
Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the
Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers
Caccia, J.; Guénard, V.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Drobinski, P.
2004-11-01
The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program) in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission) in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking), which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the vertical motions are
Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V. [LSEET, CNRS/Univ. de Toulon, La Garde (France); Benech, B.; Campistron, B. [CRA/LA, CNRS/Obs. Midi-Pyrenees, Campistrous (France); Drobinski, P. [IPSL/SA, CNRS/Univ. de Paris VI, Paris (France)
2004-07-01
The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhone-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhone-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (mesoscale alpine program) in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospheriques et de Transports d'Emission) in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhone valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of ''flow around'' and ''flow over'' mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking), which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with
Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Franci, Luca, E-mail: offelius@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2017-07-20
We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.
Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Franci, Luca
2017-01-01
We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steen, M.
1989-01-01
A suspension of glass fibers in alcohol has been used to investigate a upward vertical developing pipe flow. The refractive index of the alcohol was matched to that of the glass fibers, making the whole suspension transparent. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) was applied, and fluid velocities could then be measured for consistencies up to c = 12 g/l. Radial profiles of axial U-velocity and turbulence spectra have been recorded at various positions (z/D = 2, 5, 36) downstream of an orifice (step) with 64% open area. Measurements were taken for different consistencies (c = 1.2, 12 g/l), fiber lengths (l = 1, 3 mm) and Reynolds numbers (R e = 8.5 ⋅ 10 3 , 6.5 ⋅ 10 4 ). The fiber crowding factor (n f ) has been used to discuss the observed effects of the present fibers on momentum transfer and turbulence structure. The results show both an increase (l= 1 mm, c= 1.2 g/l) and decrease (l=3 mm, c = 12 g/l) in turbulence levels in the presence of fibers. Suspensions with long fibers at the highest consistency show plug flow in parts of the core. This causes damping of the turbulence mainly at smaller length scales. For short fibers at low consistency, the increased turbulent energy was mainly observed at small length scales in the spectrum. (author)
Turbulence and Waves as Sources for the Solar Wind
Cranmer, S. R.
2008-05-01
Gene Parker's insights from 50 years ago provided the key causal link between energy deposition in the solar corona and the acceleration of solar wind streams. However, the community is still far from agreement concerning the actual physical processes that give rise to this energy. It is still unknown whether the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wavelike fluctuations) or if mass and energy is input more intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. No matter the relative importance of reconnections and loop-openings, though, we do know that waves and turbulent motions are present everywhere from the photosphere to the heliosphere, and it is important to determine how they affect the mean state of the plasma. In this presentation, I will give a summary of wave/turbulence models that seem to succeed in explaining the time-steady properties of the corona (and the fast and slow solar wind). The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration in these models comes from anisotropic turbulent cascade, which is driven by the partial reflection of low-frequency Alfven waves propagating along the open magnetic flux tubes. Specifically, a 2D model of coronal holes and streamers at solar minimum reproduces the latitudinal bifurcation of slow and fast streams seen by Ulysses. The radial gradient of the Alfven speed affects where the waves are reflected and damped, and thus whether energy is deposited below or above Parker's critical point. As predicted by earlier studies, a larger coronal expansion factor gives rise to a slower and denser wind, higher temperature at the coronal base, less intense Alfven waves at 1 AU, and correlative trends for commonly measured ratios of ion charge states and FIP-sensitive abundances that are in general agreement with observations. Finally, I will outline the types of future observations that would be most able to test and refine these ideas.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow
Zhou, Kun
2012-01-01
Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par-ticles are nucleated in a thin layer region corresponding to a specific narrow temperature range near the cool stream side. However, particles undergo high growth rate on the hot stream side due to condensation. Coagulation decreases the total particle number density at a rate which is highly correlated to the in-stantaneous number density.
CISM-IUTAM School on Advanced Turbulent Flow Computations
Krause, Egon
2000-01-01
This book collects the lecture notes concerning the IUTAM School on Advanced Turbulent Flow Computations held at CISM in Udine September 7–11, 1998. The course was intended for scientists, engineers and post-graduate students interested in the application of advanced numerical techniques for simulating turbulent flows. The topic comprises two closely connected main subjects: modelling and computation, mesh pionts necessary to simulate complex turbulent flow.
Xie, S.; Archer, C. L.
2013-12-01
-wake and reaches its maximum at about x/D ~ 5, then it gradually decreases further downstream. In the far-wake, the added turbulence intensity is primarily dependent on the induction factor and the ambient turbulence: it increases with the induction factor and ambient turbulence and it decays exponentially downstream. An analysis of the added TKE budget shows that production by shear and advection by the mean flow dominate throughout the wake, whereas dissipation and turbulent transport are less important. In the near-wake, TKE is entrained from the upper regions of the annular shear layer into the center of the wake. The nacelle causes a significant increase of production, advection, and dissipation in the near-wake. Wind shear and momentum fluxes are reduced in the lower part of the wake, thus TKE production is reduced at the bottom-tip level. In summary, we find that the WiTTS model, although applied to a simplified case of neutral stability with a single wind turbine, was able to offer new insights into wake properties, including non-symmetric wake growth and reduced vertical mixing near the ground.
FADING CORONAL STRUCTURE AND THE ONSET OF TURBULENCE IN THE YOUNG SOLAR WIND
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeForest, C. E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Viall, N. M. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cranmer, S. R. [University of Colorado, Duane E226, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
2016-09-10
Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low- β , magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high- β , less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO /HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.
Fading Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Young Solar Wind
DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.
2016-01-01
Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low-beta, magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high-beta, less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10deg from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO/HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4deg to 24deg from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term "flocculae." We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.
Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinson, F.
2006-03-01
- This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - ε RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - f - w >f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then successfully applied to the study of
Characterization of the Boundary Layer Wind and Turbulence in the Gulf of Mexico
Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; McCarty, B.; Marchbanks, R.
2014-12-01
A dataset of ship-borne Doppler lidar measurements taken in the Gulf of Mexico was analyzed to provide insight into marine boundary-layer (BL) features and wind-flow characteristics, as needed for offshore wind energy development. This dataset was obtained as part of the intensive Texas Air Quality Study in summer of 2006 (TexAQS06). During the project, the ship, the R/V Ronald H. Brown, cruised in tracks in the Gulf of Mexico along the Texas coast, in Galveston Bay, and in the Houston Ship Channel obtaining air chemistry and meteorological data, including vertical profile measurements of wind and temperature. The primary observing system used in this paper is NOAA/ESRL's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which features high-precision and high-resolution wind measurements and a motion compensation system to provide accurate wind data despite ship and wave motions. The boundary layer in this warm-water region was found to be weakly unstable typically to a depth of 300 m above the sea surface. HRDL data were analyzed to provide 15-min averaged profiles of wind flow properties (wind speed, direction, and turbulence) from the water surface up to 2.5 km at a vertical resolution of 15 m. The paper will present statistics and distributions of these parameters over a wide range of heights and under various atmospheric conditions. Detailed analysis of the BL features including LLJs, wind and directional ramps, and wind shear through the rotor level heights, along with examples of hub-height and equivalent wind will be presented. The paper will discuss the diurnal fluctuations of all quantities critical to wind energy and their variability along the Texas coast.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Aerodynamic flow simulation of wind turbine: Downwind versus upwind configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janajreh, Isam; Qudaih, Rana; Talab, Ilham; Ghenai, Chaouki
2010-01-01
Large scale wind turbines and wind farms continue to grow mounting 94.1 GW of the electrical grid capacity in 2007 and expected to reach 160.0 GW in 2010. Wind energy plays a vital role in the quest for renewable and sustainable energy as well as in reducing carbon emission. Early generation wind turbines (windmills) were used mainly for water pumping and seed grinding, whereas today they generate 1/5 of the current Denmark's electricity and will double its grid capacity reaching 12.5% in 2010. Wind energy is plentiful (72 TW estimated to be commercially viable) and clean while its intensive capital cost still impede widespread deployment. However, there are technological challenges, i.e. high fatigue load, noise emission, and meeting stringent reliability and safety standards. Newer inventions, e.g., downstream wind turbines and flapping rotor blades, are sought to enhance their performance, i.e. lower turning moments and cut-in speed and to absorb portion of the cost due to the absent of yaw mechanisms. In this work, numerical analysis of the downstream wind turbine blade is conducted. In particular, the interaction between the tower and the rotor passage is investigated. Circular cross sectional tower and aerofoil shapes are considered in a staggered configuration and under cross-stream motion. The resulting blade static pressure and aerodynamic forces are computed at different incident wind angles and wind speeds. The computed forces are compared to the conventional upstream wind turbine. Steady state and transient, incompressible, viscous Navier-Stokes and turbulent flow analysis are employed. The k-epsilon model is utilized as the turbulence closure. The passage of the rotor blade is governed by ALE and is represented numerically as a sliding mesh against the upstream fixed tower domain.
DETAILED FIT OF 'CRITICAL BALANCE' THEORY TO SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forman, Miriam A.; Wicks, Robert T.; Horbury, Timothy S.
2011-01-01
We derive the reduced spectrum of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at different frequencies f which would be observed by a single spacecraft in the solar wind when the magnetic field was at an angle θ B to the solar wind flow, if the wavevector spectrum in the solar wind frame were in anisotropic 'critical balance' (CB) as proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar in 1995 (GS95). The anisotropic power spectrum in the inertial range, P(f, θ B ), is scaled onto one curve with f- 5/3 behavior at θ B near 90 0 and f -2 behavior at small θ B . The transition between the two limiting spectra depends on the form of the GS95 wavevector spectrum and the CB scaling parameter L. Using wavelet analysis of Ulysses magnetic field data in three 30-day periods in the high-latitude solar wind in 1995, we verify that the scaling of power with angle and frequency is qualitatively consistent with GS95 theory. However, the scale length L required to fit the observed P(f, θ B ) to the original CB theory is rather less than the scale predicted by that theory for the solar wind. Part, possibly all, of this discrepancy is removed when the GS95 theory modified for imbalanced turbulence is used.
MHD turbulence in the solar wind: evolution and anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horbury, T. S.; Forman, M. A.; Oughton, S.
2005-01-01
Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. The presence of a magnetic field leads to anisotropy of the fluctuations, which are predominantly perpendicular to this direction, as well as anisotropy of the spectrum. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wave vectors either parallel to the magnetic field (slab fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it (2D). We present results of a new, wavelet-based analysis of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind, and demonstrate that the 2D component has a spectral index near the Kolmogorov value of 5/3, while slab fluctuations have a spectral index near 2. We also estimate the relative power levels in slab and 2D fluctuations, as well as the level of compressive fluctuations. Deviations of the data from the simple slab/2D model suggest the presence of power in intermediate directions and we compare our data with critical balance models. (Author)
3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence
Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.
2018-01-01
Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.
BOOK REVIEW: Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Flows
Cambon, C.
2004-10-01
This is a handbook for a computational approach to reacting flows, including background material on statistical mechanics. In this sense, the title is somewhat misleading with respect to other books dedicated to the statistical theory of turbulence (e.g. Monin and Yaglom). In the present book, emphasis is placed on modelling (engineering closures) for computational fluid dynamics. The probabilistic (pdf) approach is applied to the local scalar field, motivated first by the nonlinearity of chemical source terms which appear in the transport equations of reacting species. The probabilistic and stochastic approaches are also used for the velocity field and particle position; nevertheless they are essentially limited to Lagrangian models for a local vector, with only single-point statistics, as for the scalar. Accordingly, conventional techniques, such as single-point closures for RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subgrid-scale models for LES (large-eddy simulations), are described and in some cases reformulated using underlying Langevin models and filtered pdfs. Even if the theoretical approach to turbulence is not discussed in general, the essentials of probabilistic and stochastic-processes methods are described, with a useful reminder concerning statistics at the molecular level. The book comprises 7 chapters. Chapter 1 briefly states the goals and contents, with a very clear synoptic scheme on page 2. Chapter 2 presents definitions and examples of pdfs and related statistical moments. Chapter 3 deals with stochastic processes, pdf transport equations, from Kramer-Moyal to Fokker-Planck (for Markov processes), and moments equations. Stochastic differential equations are introduced and their relationship to pdfs described. This chapter ends with a discussion of stochastic modelling. The equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics are addressed in chapter 4. Classical conservation equations (mass, velocity, internal energy) are derived from their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.; Leonardis, E.; Kiyani, K.; Carbone, V.
2009-01-01
We perform statistical analysis of the fluctuating magnetic field observed in-situ by the Ulysses spacecraft, from the perspective of quantitative characterization of the evolving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We focus on two successive polar passes around solar minimum which provide extended intervals of quiet, fast solar wind at a range of radial distances and latitudes: the south polar pass of 1994 and the north polar pass of 1995. Fully developed inertial range turbulence has a characteristic statistical similarity property of quantities that characterize the flow, such as the magnetic field components B k (t), so that the pth moment of fluctuations has power-law dependence on scale τ such that k (t + τ) - B k (t)| p > ∼ τ ζ(p) . We instead find a generalized similarity k (t + τ) - B k (t)| p > ∼ g(τ/τ 0 ) ζ(p) consistent with extended self-similarity; and in particular all of these Ulysses observations, from both polar passes, share the same single function g(τ/τ 0 ). If these observations are indeed characteristic of MHD turbulence evolving in-situ, then this quantifies for the first time a key aspect of the universal nature of evolving MHD turbulence in a system of finite size, with implications both for theoretical development, and for our understanding of the evolving solar wind.
Dissipation and heating in solar wind turbulence: from the macro to the micro and back again.
Kiyani, Khurom H; Osman, Kareem T; Chapman, Sandra C
2015-05-13
The past decade has seen a flurry of research activity focused on discerning the physics of kinetic scale turbulence in high-speed astrophysical plasma flows. By 'kinetic' we mean spatial scales on the order of or, in particular, smaller than the ion inertial length or the ion gyro-radius--the spatial scales at which the ion and electron bulk velocities decouple and considerable change can be seen in the ion distribution functions. The motivation behind most of these studies is to find the ultimate fate of the energy cascade of plasma turbulence, and thereby the channels by which the energy in the system is dissipated. This brief Introduction motivates the case for a themed issue on this topic and introduces the topic of turbulent dissipation and heating in the solar wind. The theme issue covers the full breadth of studies: from theory and models, massive simulations of these models and observational studies from the highly rich and vast amount of data collected from scores of heliospheric space missions since the dawn of the space age. A synopsis of the theme issue is provided, where a brief description of all the contributions is discussed and how they fit together to provide an over-arching picture on the highly topical subject of dissipation and heating in turbulent collisionless plasmas in general and in the solar wind in particular. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Wind Tunnel Measurements of Turbulent Boundary Layer over Hypothetical Urban Roughness Elements
Ho, Y. K.; Liu, C. H.
2012-04-01
Urban morphology affects the near-ground atmospheric boundary layer that in turn modifies the wind flows and pollutant dispersion over urban areas. A number of numerical models (large-eddy simulation, LES and k-ɛ turbulence models) have been developed to elucidate the transport processes in and above urban street canyons. To complement the modelling results, we initiated a wind tunnel study to examine the influence of idealized urban roughness on the flow characteristics and pollutant dispersion mechanism over 2D idealized street canyons placed in cross flows. Hot-wire anemometry (HWA) was employed in this study to measure the flows over 2D street canyons in the wind tunnel in our university. Particular focus in the beginning stage was on the fabrication of hot-wire probes, data acquisition system, and signal processing technique. Employing the commonly adopted hot-wire universal function, we investigated the relationship in between and developed a scaling factor which could generalize the output of our hot-wire probes to the standardized one as each hot-wire probes has its unique behaviour. Preliminary experiments were performed to measure the wind flows over street canyons of unity aspect ratio. Vertical profiles of the ensemble average velocity and fluctuations at three different segments over the street canyons were collected. The results were then compared with our LES that show a good argument with each other. Additional experiments are undertaken to collect more data in order to formulate the pollutant dispersion mechanism of street canyons and urban areas.
A computer model for dispersed fluid-solid turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.H.; Tulig, T.J.
1985-01-01
A computer model is being developed to simulate two-phase turbulent flow phenomena in fluids containing finely dispersed solids. The model is based on a dual-continuum picture of the individual phases and an extension of a two-equation turbulence closure theory. The resulting set of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved using a finite difference procedure with special treatment to promote convergence. The model has been checked against a number of idealized flow problems with known solutions. The authors are currently comparing model predictions with measurements to determine a proper set of turbulence parameters needed for simulating two-phase turbulent flows
Plane waves and structures in turbulent channel flow
Sirovich, L.; Ball, K. S.; Keefe, L. R.
1990-01-01
A direct simulation of turbulent flow in a channel is analyzed by the method of empirical eigenfunctions (Karhunen-Loeve procedure, proper orthogonal decomposition). This analysis reveals the presence of propagating plane waves in the turbulent flow. The velocity of propagation is determined by the flow velocity at the location of maximal Reynolds stress. The analysis further suggests that the interaction of these waves appears to be essential to the local production of turbulence via bursting or sweeping events in the turbulent boundary layer, with the additional suggestion that the fast acting plane waves act as triggers.
Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2016-01-01
Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...
Theoretical models for MHD turbulence in the solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veltri, P.; Malara, F.
1997-01-01
The in situ measurements of velocity, magnetic field, density and temperature fluctuations performed in the solar wind have greatly improved our knowledge of MDH turbulence not only from the point of view of space physics but also from the more general point of view of plasma physics. These fluctuations which extend over a wide range of frequencies (about 5 decades), a fact which seems to be the signature of turbulent nonlinear energy cascade, display, mainly in the trailing edge of high-speed streams, a number of features characteristic of a self-organized situation: i) a high degree of correlation between magnetic and velocity field fluctuations, ii) a very low level of fluctuations in mass density and magnetic-field intensity, iii) a considerable anisotropy revealed by minimum variance analysis of the magnetic-field correlation tensor. Many fundamental processes in plasma physics, which were largely unknown or not understood before their observations in the solar wind, have been explained, by building up analytical models or performing numerical simulations. We discuss the most recent analytical theories and numerical simulations and outline the limits implicit in any analysis which consider the low-frequency solar-wind fluctuations as a superposition of linear modes. The characterization of low-frequency fluctuations during Alfvenic periods, which results from the models discussed, is finally presented
Mechanics of dense suspensions in turbulent channel flows
Picano, F.; Costa, P.; Breugem, W.P.; Brandt, L.
2015-01-01
Dense suspensions are usually investigated in the laminar limit where inertial effects are insignificant. When the flow rate is high enough, i.e. at high Reynolds number, the flow may become turbulent and the interaction between solid and liquid phases modifies the turbulence we know in single-phase
Computational analysis of turbulent flow in hydroelectric plant intakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhadji, L.; Lemon, D.D.; Billenness, D.; Fissel, D. [ASL Environmental Sciences Inc., Sidney, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: lbouhadji@aslenv.com; Djilali, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: ndjilali@uvic.ca
2003-07-01
Turbulent flows in the Lower Monumental powerhouse intake are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Simulations are carried out to gain an understanding into the impact of a grid-like trash rack on the downstream turbulent flow characteristics within the intake. (author)
Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)
2009-09-15
A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)
Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.
Smith, Michael Wayne
This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high
A new wind vane for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, M.J.; Heverly, M.
1997-02-01
A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments, Incorporated (Met One) and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) was created to develop a new wind vane that more accurately measures atmospheric turbulence. Through a process that had several phases, Met One created a prototype vane that was designed to attach to the existing Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane instrument structure. The prototype contained over 20% less mass to enhance responsiveness, which was also increased through the use of a teardrop-shaped fin structure. The prototype vane can be readily manufactured for commercial retail. Tests in wind tunnel of Building 735-7A, the Meteorological Engineering Facility, indicated that the new vane has a superior starting threshold of less than 0.14 meter per second, a delay distance of 0.72 meter, and a damping ratio of 0.4. The relative accuracy of less than one degree is unchanged from the previous design. The vane bias was acceptable at 0.8 degree for the horizontal wind angle, but was slightly high at 1.4 degree for the verticle wind angle. The high value of the verticle wind angle bias can most likely be reduced to the desired less than one degree value with standard manufacturing production techniques. The durability of the prototype vane was not tested in the field but is expected to be slightly less due to the use of hollow rather than foam-filled fins. However, the loss of some durability is more than compensated with increased sensitivity at low wind speeds. Field testing of the prototype is required to test for adequacy of durability.
Tijera, Manuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Cano, José L.; López, Pilar; Yagüe, Carlos
2010-05-01
The wind velocity series of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), in spite of being highly erratic, present a self-similarity structure (Frisch, 1995; Peitgen et., 2004; Falkovich et., 2006). So, the wind velocity can be seen as a fractal magnitude. We calculate the fractal dimension (Komolgorov capacity or box-counting dimension) of the wind perturbation series (u' = u- ) in the physical spaces (namely velocity-time). It has been studied the time evolution of the fractal dimension along different days and at three levels above the ground (5.8 m, 13.5 m, 32 m). The data analysed was recorded in the experimental campaign SABLES-98 (Cuxart et al., 2000) at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) located in Valladolid (Spain). In this work the u, v and w components of wind velocity series have been measured by sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate). The fractal dimension versus the integral length scales of the mean wind series have been studied, as well as the influence of different turbulent parameters. A method for estimating these integral scales is developed using the normalized autocorrelation function and a Gaussian fit. Finally, it will be analysed the variation of the fractal dimension versus stability parameters (as Richardson number) in order to explain some of the dominant features which are likely immersed in the fractal nature of these turbulent flows. References - Cuxart J, Yagüe C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler MR, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen HE, Rees JM, Vilá J, Redondo JM, Cantalapiedra IR and Conangla L (2000) Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (SABLES98): a report. Boundary- Layer Meteorol 96:337-370 - Falkovich G and Kattepalli R. Sreenivasan (2006) Lessons from Hidrodynamic Turbulence. Physics Today 59: 43-49 - Frisch U (1995) Turbulence the legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov Cambridge University Press 269pp - Peitgen H, Jürgens H and
Measuring Gas Concentration and Wind Intensity in a Turbulent Wind Tunnel with a Mobile Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dani Martínez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with a mobile robot in a custom turbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources. This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber. The information layers have been generated from the measurements gathered by individual onboard gas and wind sensors carried out by an autonomous mobile robot. On the one hand, the assumption was that the size and cost of these specialized sensors do not allow the creation of a net of sensors or other measurement alternatives based on the simultaneous use of several sensors, and on the other hand, the assumption is that the information layers created will have application on the development and test of automatic gas source location procedures based on reactive or nonreactive algorithms.
Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.
The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aasen, S E
1995-10-01
This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.
Flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical rod bundles at rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Binghuo; Yu Lei; Gu Hanyang
2011-01-01
The influence mechanism of rolling motion on the flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in typical four rod bundles was investigated with Fluent code. The flowing and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in rod bundles can be affected by rolling motion. But the flowing similarity of turbulent flow in adiabatic and non-adiabatic can not be affected. If the rolling period is small, the radial additional force can make the parameter profiles, the turbulent flowing and heat transfer change greatly. At rolling motion, as the pitch to diameter ratio decreases, especially if it is less than 1.1, the flowing and heat transfer of turbulent flow at rolling motion change significantly. The variation of pitch to diameter ratio can change the profiles of secondary flow and turbulent kinetic energy in cross-section greatly. (authors)
Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines
2017-03-01
Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts, were also...through an Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts...facilities by 2025. This meets a larger DOD mandate, Title 10 USC § 2911, which directs at least 25 percent of any DOD facility’s energy consumption come
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sprague, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fischer, Paul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Grout, Ray [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gustafson, Jr., William I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moser, Robert [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
2017-01-01
This report details the impact exascale will bring to turbulent-flow simulations in applied science and technology. The need for accurate simulation of turbulent flows is evident across the DOE applied-science and engineering portfolios, including combustion, plasma physics, nuclear-reactor physics, wind energy, and atmospheric science. The workshop brought together experts in turbulent-flow simulation, computational mathematics, and high-performance computing. Building upon previous ASCR workshops on exascale computing, participants defined a research agenda and path forward that will enable scientists and engineers to continually leverage, engage, and direct advances in computational systems on the path to exascale computing.
Vertical structure of turbulence in offshore flow during RASEX
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Edson, J.
2001-01-01
and dissipation. However, weakly stable and weakly unstable cases exhibit completely different vertical structure. With flow of warm air from land over cooler water, modest buoyancy destruction of turbulence and reduced shear generation of turbulence over the less rough sea surface cause the turbulence to rapidly...... with height and downward transport of turbulence energy toward the surface. With flow of cool air over a warmer sea surface, a convective internal boundary layer develops downstream from the coast. An overlying relatively thick layer of downward buoyancy flux (virtual temperature flux) is sometimes maintained...
Compressible turbulent flows: aspects of prediction and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedrich, R. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fachgebiet Stroemungsmechanik
2007-03-15
Compressible turbulent flows are an important element of high-speed flight. Boundary layers developing along fuselage and wings of an aircraft and along engine compressor and turbine blades are compressible and mostly turbulent. The high-speed flow around rockets and through rocket nozzles involves compressible turbulence and flow separation. Turbulent mixing and combustion in scramjet engines is another example where compressibility dominates the flow physics. Although compressible turbulent flows have attracted researchers since the fifties of the last century, they are not completely understood. Especially interactions between compressible turbulence and combustion lead to challenging, yet unsolved problems. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) represent modern powerful research tools which allow to mimic such flows in great detail and to analyze underlying physical mechanisms, even those which cannot be accessed by the experiment. The present lecture provides a short description of these tools and some of their numerical characteristics. It then describes DNS and LES results of fully-developed channel and pipe flow and highlights effects of compressibility on the turbulence structure. The analysis of pressure fluctuations in such flows with isothermal cooled walls leads to the conclusion that the pressure-strain correlation tensor decreases in the wall layer and that the turbulence anisotropy increases, since the mean density falls off relative to the incompressible flow case. Similar increases in turbulence anisotropy due to compressibility are observed in inert and reacting temporal mixing layers. The nature of the pressure fluctuations is however two-facetted. While inert compressible mixing layers reveal wave-propagation effects in the pressure and density fluctuations, compressible reacting mixing layers seem to generate pressure fluctuations that are controlled by the time-rate of change of heat release and mean density
PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows
Pope, Stephen B.
1995-01-01
This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zentgraf, Florian; Baum, Elias; Dreizler, Andreas [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Böhm, Benjamin [Fachgebiet Energie und Kraftwerkstechnik (EKT), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Peterson, Brian, E-mail: brian.peterson@ed.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Institute for Energy Systems, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2016-04-15
Planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tomographic PIV (TPIV) measurements are utilized to analyze turbulent statistical theory quantities and the instantaneous turbulence within a single-cylinder optical engine. Measurements are performed during the intake and mid-compression stroke at 800 and 1500 RPM. TPIV facilitates the evaluation of spatially resolved Reynolds stress tensor (RST) distributions, anisotropic Reynolds stress invariants, and instantaneous turbulent vortical structures. The RST analysis describes distributions of individual velocity fluctuation components that arise from unsteady turbulent flow behavior as well as cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV). A conditional analysis, for which instantaneous PIV images are sampled by their tumble center location, reveals that CCV and turbulence have similar contributions to RST distributions at the mean tumble center, but turbulence is dominant in regions peripheral to the tumble center. Analysis of the anisotropic Reynolds stress invariants reveals the spatial distribution of axisymmetric expansion, axisymmetric contraction, and 3D isotropy within the cylinder. Findings indicate that the mid-compression flow exhibits a higher tendency toward 3D isotropy than the intake flow. A novel post-processing algorithm is utilized to classify the geometry of instantaneous turbulent vortical structures and evaluate their frequency of occurrence within the cylinder. Findings are coupled with statistical theory quantities to provide a comprehensive understanding of the distribution of turbulent velocity components, the distribution of anisotropic states of turbulence, and compare the turbulent vortical flow distribution that is theoretically expected to what is experimentally observed. The analyses reveal requisites of important turbulent flow quantities and discern their sensitivity to the local flow topography and engine operation.
Overview of edge turbulence and zonal flow studies on TEXTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Y.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Reiser, D.
2008-01-01
In the TEXTOR tokamak, the edge turbulence properties and turbulence-associated zonal flows have been systematically investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results include the investigation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior, the intermittent blob transport and the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) zonal flows. During the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) operation in TEXTOR, the impact of an ergodized plasma boundary on edge turbulence, turbulent transport and the fluctuation propagation has also been studied in detail. The results show substantial influence by the DED on edge turbulence. The theoretical simulations for TEXTOR parameters show characteristic features of the GAM flows and strong reduction of the blob transport by the DED at the plasma periphery. Moreover, the modelling reveals the importance of the Reynolds stress in driving mean (or zonal) flows at the plasma edge in the ohmic discharge phase in TEXTOR. (author)
Turbulent flow simulation of the NREL S809 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerri, Ouahiba; Bouhadef, Khadidja; Harhad, Ameziane
2006-05-15
Numerical computations are carried out for the NREL S809 airfoil. The flow is modelled using an unsteady incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Two turbulence models (SST {kappa}/{omega}of Menter and RNG {kappa}/{epsilon}) are applied to close the RANS equations. All computations are performed assuming fully turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed at various angles of attack from 0 to 20 degrees. Lift and drag forces are obtained from the computations by integrating the pressure and shear stress over the blade surface. The performance of the two turbulence models is compared and the influence of the free stream turbulence intensity is checked. The results confirm the satisfactory performance of the SST {kappa}/{omega} model of Menter for modelling turbulent flow around airfoils. (author)
Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn
2010-01-01
Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2π periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.
Experimental study of turbulent flows through pipe bends
Kalpakli, Athanasia
2012-01-01
This thesis deals with turbulent flows in 90 degree curved pipes of circular cross-section. The flow cases investigated experimentally are turbulent flow with and without an additional motion, swirling or pulsating, superposed on the primary flow. The aim is to investigate these complex flows in detail both in terms of statistical quantities as well as vortical structures that are apparent when curvature is present. Such a flow field can contain strong secondary flow in a plane normal to the ...
Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine
Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team
2016-11-01
A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).
Accounting for the effect of turbulence on wind turbine power curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clifton, A.; Wagner, Rozenn
2014-01-01
in turbulence; the turbulence renormalization method cannot account for changes in shear other than by using the the equivalent wind speed, which is derived from wind speed data at multiple heights in the rotor disk. The machine learning method is best able to predict the power as conditions change, and could...
THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo
2013-01-01
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.
CFD Calculations of the Flow Around a Wind Turbine Nacelle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varela, J.; Bercebal, D.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of a MADE AE30 wind turbine nacelle on the site calibration anemometer placed on the upper back of the nacelle by means of flow simulations around the nacelle using FLUENT, a Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD), which provides modeling capabilities for the simulation of wide range laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Different 2D and 3D simulations were accomplished in order to estimate the effects of the complex geometry on the flow behavior. The speed up and braking values of the air flow at the anemometer position are presented for different flow conditions. Finally some conclusions about the accuracy of results are mentioned. (Author) 5 refs
CFD Calculations of the Flow Around a Wind Turbine Nacelle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varela, J.; Bercebal, D. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)
2000-07-01
The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of a MADE AE30 wind turbine nacelle on the site calibration anemometer placed on the upper back of the nacelle by means of flow simulations around the nacelle using FLUENT, a Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD), which provides modeling capabilities for the simulation of wide range laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Different 2D and 3D simulations were accomplished in order to estimate the effects of the complex geometry on the flow behavior. The speed up and braking values of the air flow at the anemometer position are presented for different flow conditions. Finally some conclusions about the accuracy of results are mentioned. (Author) 5 refs.
Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi
2017-06-12
Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.
Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain
Kramer, W.
2006-01-01
Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures
The influence of turbulence on the aero-elastic instability of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2014-01-01
Modern multi-megawatt wind turbines are designed with longer and slender blades using new composite materials and advanced fabrication methods. The trend towards lighter and more flexible blades may lead to aeroelastic instability of wind turbines under certain circumstances, thus resulting...... calibrated to the NREL 5 MW baseline wind turbine. Aeroelastic stability of the wind turbine system has been evaluated for various values of the rated generator torque, the rated rotational speed of the rotor, the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity. Critical turbulence intensity, at which the wind...
Smith, Craig M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.
2013-09-01
Observations of wakes from individual wind turbines and a multi-megawatt wind energy installation in the Midwestern US indicate that directly downstream of a turbine (at a distance of 190 m, or 2.4 rotor diameters (D)), there is a clear impact on wind speed and turbulence intensity (TI) throughout the rotor swept area. However, at a downwind distance of 2.1 km (26 D downstream of the closest wind turbine) the wake of the whole wind farm is not evident. There is no significant reduction of hub-height wind speed or increase in TI especially during daytime. Thus, in high turbulence regimes even very large wind installations may have only a modest impact on downstream flow fields. No impact is observable in daytime vertical potential temperature gradients at downwind distances of >2 km, but at night the presence of the wind farm does significantly decrease the vertical gradients of potential temperature (though the profile remains stably stratified), largely by increasing the temperature at 2 m.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Craig M; Barthelmie, R J; Pryor, S C
2013-01-01
Observations of wakes from individual wind turbines and a multi-megawatt wind energy installation in the Midwestern US indicate that directly downstream of a turbine (at a distance of 190 m, or 2.4 rotor diameters (D)), there is a clear impact on wind speed and turbulence intensity (TI) throughout the rotor swept area. However, at a downwind distance of 2.1 km (26 D downstream of the closest wind turbine) the wake of the whole wind farm is not evident. There is no significant reduction of hub-height wind speed or increase in TI especially during daytime. Thus, in high turbulence regimes even very large wind installations may have only a modest impact on downstream flow fields. No impact is observable in daytime vertical potential temperature gradients at downwind distances of >2 km, but at night the presence of the wind farm does significantly decrease the vertical gradients of potential temperature (though the profile remains stably stratified), largely by increasing the temperature at 2 m. (letter)
Validation of turbulence models for LMFBR outlet plenum flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.B.; Golay, M.W.
1977-01-01
Small scale experiments involving water flows are used to provide mean flow and turbulence field data for LMFBR outlet plenum flows. Measurements are performed at Reynolds number (Re) values of 33000 and 70000 in a 1/15 - scale FFTF geometry and at Re = 35000 in a 3/80-scale CRBR geometry. The experimental behavior is predicted using two different two-equation turbulence model computer programs, TEACH-T and VARR-II. It is found that the qualitative nature of the flow field within the plenum depends strongly upon the distribution of the mean inlet flow field, importantly also upon the degree of inlet turbulence, and also upon the turbulent momentum exchange model used in the calculations. In the FFTF geometry, the TEACH-T predictions agree well with the experiments. 7 refs
Regulation of ETG turbulence by TEM driven zonal flows
Asahi, Yuuichi; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2013-10-01
Anomalous heat transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the ETG turbulence can be suppressed by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs). The TEMs appear in a statistically steady state of ETG turbulence and generate zonal flows, while its growth rate is much smaller than those of ETGs. The TEM-driven zonal flows with lower radial wave numbers are more strongly generated than those driven by ETG modes, because of the higher zonal flow response to a density source term. An ExB shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is strong enough to suppress the long-wavelength ETG modes which make the main contribution to the turbulent transport.
Large Eddy Simulation of Unstably Stratified Turbulent Flow over Urban-Like Building Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal instability induced by solar radiation is the most common condition of urban atmosphere in daytime. Compared to researches under neutral conditions, only a few numerical works studied the unstable urban boundary layer and the effect of buoyancy force is unclear. In this paper, unstably stratified turbulent boundary layer flow over three-dimensional urban-like building arrays with ground heating is simulated. Large eddy simulation is applied to capture main turbulence structures and the effect of buoyancy force on turbulence can be investigated. Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model is used for complex flow together with a wall function, taking into account the large pressure gradient near buildings. The numerical model and method are verified with the results measured in wind tunnel experiment. The simulated results satisfy well with the experiment in mean velocity and temperature, as well as turbulent intensities. Mean flow structure inside canopy layer varies with thermal instability, while no large secondary vortex is observed. Turbulent intensities are enhanced, as buoyancy force contributes to the production of turbulent kinetic energy.
1990-01-01
The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending.
Application of HPCN to direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow
Verstappen, RWCP; Veldman, AEP; van Waveren, GM; Hertzberger, B; Sloot, P
1997-01-01
This poster shows how HPCN can be used as a path-finding tool for turbulence research. The parallelization of direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow using the data-parallel model and Fortran 95 constructs is treated, both on a shared memory and a distributed memory computer.
Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows
Dominguez, A.; Aartrijk, van M.; Castello, Del L.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.; Clercx, H
2006-01-01
Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environ mental turbulent flows. Two examples in the environmental area, where turbulent aggregate formation takes place, are raindrop formation in clouds and Marine Snow (aggregate) formation in the upper layer in the oceans. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.
1980-01-01
The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours
Large-eddy simulations for turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husson, S.
2007-07-01
The aim of this work is to study the impact of thermal gradients on a turbulent channel flow with imposed wall temperatures and friction Reynolds numbers of 180 and 395. In this configuration, temperature variations can be strong and induce significant variations of the fluid properties. We consider the low Mach number equations and carry out large eddy simulations. We first validate our simulations thanks to comparisons of some of our LES results with DNS data. Then, we investigate the influence of the variations of the conductivity and the viscosity and show that we can assume these properties constant only for weak temperature gradients. We also study the thermal sub-grid-scale modelling and find no difference when the sub-grid-scale Prandtl number is taken constant or dynamically calculated. The analysis of the effects of strongly increasing the temperature ratio mainly shows a dissymmetry of the profiles. The physical mechanism responsible of these modifications is explained. Finally, we use semi-local scaling and the Van Driest transformation and we show that they lead to a better correspondence of the low and high temperature ratios profiles. (author)
Organized Oscillations of Initially-Turbulent Flow Past a Cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell
2002-09-17
Flow past an open cavity is known to give rise to self-sustained oscillations in a wide variety of configurations, including slotted-wall, wind and water tunnels, slotted flumes, bellows-type pipe geometries, high-head gates and gate slots, aircraft components and internal piping systems. These cavity-type oscillations are the origin of coherent and broadband sources of noise and, if the structure is sufficiently flexible, flow-induced vibration as well. Moreover, depending upon the state of the cavity oscillation, substantial alterations of the mean drag may be induced. In the following, the state of knowledge of flow past cavities, based primarily on laminar inflow conditions, is described within a framework based on the flow physics. Then, the major unresolved issues for this class of flows will be delineated. Self-excited cavity oscillations have generic features, which are assessed in detail in the reviews of Rockwell and Naudascher, Rockwell, Howe and Rockwell. These features, which are illustrated in the schematic of Figure 1, are: (i) interaction of a vorticity concentration(s) with the downstream corner, (ii) upstream influence from this corner interaction to the sensitive region of the shear layer formed from the upstream corner of the cavity; (iii) conversion of the upstream influence arriving at this location to a fluctuation in the separating shear layer; and (iv) amplification of this fluctuation in the shear layer as it develops in the streamwise direction. In view of the fact that inflow shear-layer in the present investigation is fully turbulent, item (iv) is of particular interest. It is generally recognized, at least for laminar conditions at separation from the leading-corner of the cavity, that the disturbance growth in the shear layer can be described using concepts of linearized, inviscid stability theory, as shown by Rockwell, Sarohia, and Knisely and Rockwell. As demonstrated by Knisely and Rockwell, on the basis of experiments interpreted
Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator
Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza
2017-11-01
The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).
Lee, Z. S.; Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.
2010-12-01
Recent studies have suggested the significant role of boundary layer turbulence and coherent flow structures on sand transport by wind over beaches and desert dunes. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated a move beyond the basic monitoring of shear velocities and bulk sediment transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a small-scale point-location field study of boundary layer turbulence and shear stresses conducted under obliquely onshore winds over a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. High-frequency (25 Hz) 3D wind vector measurements were collected at five different heights between 0.13 and 1.67 metres above the bed using sonic anemometry for durations of several hours, and the associated sand transport response was measured using an array of Safires. The wind data are used to investigate the vertical structure of Reynolds shear stresses and burst-sweep event characteristics, as well as a comparison with the standard logarithmic (law-of-the-wall) wind profile. The study explores the identification and selection of a characteristic event duration based on integral time-scales as well as spectral analysis, and includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results show how the contributions to shear stress and the average pitch of bursts and sweeps changes as a function of height above the bed, indicating the transformation of top-down turbulent eddies as they travel toward the surface. A comparison between the turbulence data and the synchronous sand transport events, meanwhile, reveals the potential effects of enhanced saltation layer roughness feedback on eddies close to the bed.
Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical
Distillation and Visualization of Spatiotemporal Structures in Turbulent Flow Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hege, Hans-Christian; Hotz, Ingrid; Kasten, Jens
2011-01-01
Although turbulence suggests randomness and disorder, organized motions that cause spatiotemporal 'coherent structures' are of particular interest. Revealing such structures in numerically given turbulent or semi-turbulent flows is of interest both for practically working engineers and theoretically oriented physicists. However, as long as there is no common agreement about the mathematical definition of coherent structures, extracting such structures is a vaguely defined task. Instead of searching for a general definition, the data visualization community takes a pragmatic approach and provides various tool chains implemented in flexible software frameworks that allow the user to extract distinct flow field structures. Thus physicists or engineers can select those flow structures which might advance their insight best. We present different approaches to distill important features from turbulent flows and discuss the necessary steps to be taken on the example of Lagrangian coherent structures.
The role of pair dispersion in turbulent flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bourgoin, M.; Ouellette, N.T.; Xu, H.T.
2006-01-01
Mixing and transport in turbulent flows - which have strong local concentration fluctuations - essential in many natural and industrial systems including reactions in chemical mixers, combustion in engines and burners, droplet formation in warm clouds, and biological odor detection and chemotaxis...
Experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aounalah Mohamed
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In the present paper an experimental and a numerical simulation of the turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles have been performed. The experiments were carried out using a subsonic wind tunnel. The pressure distributions along the tubes (22 circumferential pressure taping were determined for a variation of the azimuthal angle from 0 to 360deg. The drag and lift forces are measured using the TE 44 balance. The Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using Reynolds Stress and K-ε, turbulence models (RANS provided by Fluent CFD code. An adapted grid using static pressure, pressure coefficient and velocity gradient, furthermore, a second order upwind scheme were used. The obtained results from the experimental and numerical studies show a satisfactory agreement.
Effects of normal and extreme turbulence spectral parameters on wind turbine loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob
2017-01-01
the recommended values in the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 that is used for wind turbine design. The present paper investigates the impact of Mann turbulence model parameter variations on the design loads envelope for 5 MW and 10 MW reference wind turbines. Specific focus is made on the blade root loads, tower top moments...... of design loads is investigated with a focus on the commonly used Mann turbulence model. Quantification of the Mann model parameters is made through wind measurements acquired from the Høvsøre site. The parameters of the Mann model fitted to site specific observations can differ significantly from...... and tower base loads under normal turbulence and extreme turbulence, whereby the change in operating extreme and fatigue design loads obtained through turbulence model parameter variations is compared with corresponding variations obtained from random seeds of turbulence. The investigations quantify...
TESTING THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION ON SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vech, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H K
2016-01-01
We present a multi-spacecraft approach to test the predictions of recent studies on the effect of solar wind expansion on the radial spectral, variance, and local 3D anisotropies of the turbulence. We found that on small scales (5000–10,000 km) the power levels of the B-trace structure functions do not depend on the sampling direction with respect to the radial suggesting that on this scale the effect of expansion is small possibly due to fast turbulent timescales. On larger scales (110–135 R E ), the fluctuations of the radial magnetic field component are reduced by ∼20% compared to the transverse (perpendicular to radial) ones, which could be due to expansion confining the fluctuations into the plane perpendicular to radial. For the local 3D spectral anisotropy, the B-trace structure functions showed dependence on the sampling direction with respect to radial. The anisotropy in the perpendicular plane is reduced when the increments are taken perpendicular with respect to radial, which could be an effect of expansion.
TESTING THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION ON SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vech, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H K, E-mail: dvech@umich.edu [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2016-11-20
We present a multi-spacecraft approach to test the predictions of recent studies on the effect of solar wind expansion on the radial spectral, variance, and local 3D anisotropies of the turbulence. We found that on small scales (5000–10,000 km) the power levels of the B-trace structure functions do not depend on the sampling direction with respect to the radial suggesting that on this scale the effect of expansion is small possibly due to fast turbulent timescales. On larger scales (110–135 R{sub E}), the fluctuations of the radial magnetic field component are reduced by ∼20% compared to the transverse (perpendicular to radial) ones, which could be due to expansion confining the fluctuations into the plane perpendicular to radial. For the local 3D spectral anisotropy, the B-trace structure functions showed dependence on the sampling direction with respect to radial. The anisotropy in the perpendicular plane is reduced when the increments are taken perpendicular with respect to radial, which could be an effect of expansion.
Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence
Gary, S. P.
2015-12-01
The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.
Zonal flow generation in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J; Nordman, H; Singh, R; Weiland, J
2006-01-01
In the present work the generation of zonal flows in collisionless trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence is studied analytically. A reduced model for TEM turbulence is utilized based on an advanced fluid model for reactive drift waves. An analytical expression for the zonal flow growth rate is derived and compared with the linear TEM growth, and its scaling with plasma parameters is examined for typical tokamak parameter values
Chaotic Dynamos Generated by a Turbulent Flow of Liquid Sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravelet, F.; Monchaux, R.; Aumaitre, S.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Berhanu, M.; Fauve, S.; Mordant, N.; Petrelis, F.; Bourgoin, M.; Odier, Ph.; Plihon, N.; Pinton, J.-F.; Volk, R.
2008-01-01
We report the observation of several dynamical regimes of the magnetic field generated by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium (VKS experiment). Stationary dynamos, transitions to relaxation cycles or to intermittent bursts, and random field reversals occur in a fairly small range of parameters. Large scale dynamics of the magnetic field result from the interactions of a few modes. The low dimensional nature of these dynamics is not smeared out by the very strong turbulent fluctuations of the flow
Isothermal and Reactive Turbulent Jets in Cross-Flow
Gutmark, Ephraim; Bush, Scott; Ibrahim, Irene
2004-11-01
Jets in cross flow have numerous applications including vertical/short takeoff/landing (V/STOL) aircraft, cooling jets for gas turbine blades and combustion air supply inlets in gas turbine engine. The properties exhibited by these jets are dictated by complex three dimensional turbulence structures which form due to the interaction of the jet with the freestream. The isothermal tests are conducted in a wind tunnel measuring the characteristics of air jets injected perpendicular into an otherwise undisturbed air stream. Different nozzle exit geometries of the air jets were tested including circular, triangular and elongated configurations. Jets are injected in single and paired combinations with other jets to measure the effect of mutual interaction on the parameters mentioned. Quantitative velocity fields are obtained using PIV. The data obtained allows the extraction of flow parameters such as jet structure, penetration and mixing. The reacting tests include separate and combined jets of fuel/air mixture utilized to explore the stabilization of combustion at various operating conditions. Different geometrical configurations of transverse jets are tested to determine the shape and combination of jets that will optimize the jets ability to successfully stabilize a flame.
Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellakhal, Ghazi
2005-03-15
The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)
Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-L. Caccia
2004-11-01
Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001.
Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events.
In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations.
An experimental investigation of turbulent flow heat transfer through ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the turbulent flow heat transfer and to determine the pressure drop characteristics of air, flowing through a tube with insert. An insert of special geometry is used inside the tube. The test section is electrically heated, and air is allowed to flow as the working fluid ...
Models for turbulent flows with variable density and combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.P.
1980-01-01
Models for transport processes and combustion in turbulent flows are outlined with emphasis on the situation where the fuel and air are injected separately. Attention is restricted to relatively simple flames. The flows investigated are high Reynolds number, single-phase, turbulent high-temperature flames in which radiative heat transfer can be considered negligible. Attention is given to the lower order closure models, algebraic stress and flux models, the k-epsilon turbulence model, the diffusion flame approximation, and finite rate reaction mechanisms
Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear
Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders
2017-05-01
The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fleurence, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bertrand, P [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Besse, N [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Latu, G [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France); Violard, E [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France)
2006-12-15
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y; Grandgirard, V; Dif-Pradalier, G; Fleurence, E; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P; Besse, N; Crouseilles, N; Sonnendruecker, E; Latu, G; Violard, E
2006-01-01
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport
Turbulence-chemistry interactions in reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlow, R.S.; Carter, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Interactions between turbulence and chemistry in nonpremixed flames are investigated through multiscalar measurements. Simultaneous point measurements of major species, NO, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction are obtained by combining spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). NO and OH fluorescence signals are converted to quantitative concentrations by applying shot-to-shot corrections for local variations of the Boltzmann fraction and collisional quenching rate. These measurements of instantaneous thermochemical states in turbulent flames provide insights into the fundamental nature of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The measurements also constitute a unique data base for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models. Experimental work during the past year has focused on three areas: (1) investigation of the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent combustion: (2) experiments on the effects of Halon CF{sub 3}Br, a fire retardant, on the structure of turbulent flames of CH{sub 4} and CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; and (3) experiments on NO formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames.
Nonlinear Flow Generation By Electrostatic Turbulence In Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Diamond, P.H.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
2010-01-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations have revealed an important nonlinear flow generation process due to the residual stress produced by electrostatic turbulence of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM). In collisionless TEM (CTEM) turbulence, nonlinear residual stress generation by both the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of broken symmetry in the parallel wave number spectrum is identified for the first time. Concerning the origin of the symmetry breaking, turbulence self-generated low frequency zonal flow shear has been identified to be a key, universal mechanism in various turbulence regimes. Simulations reported here also indicate the existence of other mechanisms beyond E - B shear. The ITG turbulence driven 'intrinsic' torque associated with residual stress is shown to increase close to linearly with the ion temperature gradient, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations in various devices. In CTEM dominated regimes, a net toroidal rotation is driven in the cocurrent direction by 'intrinsic' torque, consistent with the experimental trend of observed intrinsic rotation. The finding of a 'flow pinch' in CTEM turbulence may offer an interesting new insight into the underlying dynamics governing the radial penetration of modulated flows in perturbation experiments. Finally, simulations also reveal highly distinct phase space structures between CTEM and ITG turbulence driven momentum, energy and particle fluxes, elucidating the roles of resonant and non-resonant particles.
Stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows
Grigoryev, Yurii N
2017-01-01
This book presents an in-depth systematic investigation of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The work describes the theoretical foundations of a new way to control stability and laminar turbulent transitions in aerodynamic flows. It develops hydrodynamic models for describing thermal nonequilibrium gas flows which allow the consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows. Then, nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both linear and nonlinear classical energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of the book is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flo...
Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].
2014-01-01
Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, X.; Liu, C. [Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Sung, C.H. [David Taylor Model Basin, Bethesda, MD (United States)
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Turbulent water flow over rough bed - part I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ksiazek, Leszek; Bartnik, Wojciech; Rumian, Jacek; Zagorowski, Pawel, E-mail: rmksiaze@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Geotechnics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza Avenue 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2011-12-22
Restitution of diadromic fish requires restoration of ecological continuity of watercourses, e.g. by building fish ladders. Directions for fish ladders require that ichthyofauna is granted accurate conditions of water flow. To describe them, average values are used, that do not convey e.g. turbulence intensity or its spatial differentiation. The paper presents results of research on the turbulent water flow over the rough bed. The measurements were carried out with high sampling frequency probe for three velocity components. Bed configuration, distribution of average velocities and turbulence intensity were defined. The range of bed influence for the discussed water flow conditions was ascertained to reach the maximum of about 0.25 of height and decline at 0.35. The lowest turbulence and relatively lowest velocities near the bed may promote successive stages of ichthyofauna development.
The structure of turbulence in a rapid tidal flow.
Milne, I A; Sharma, R N; Flay, R G J
2017-08-01
The structure of turbulence in a rapid tidal flow is characterized through new observations of fundamental statistical properties at a site in the UK which has a simple geometry and sedate surface wave action. The mean flow at the Sound of Islay exceeded 2.5 m s -1 and the turbulent boundary layer occupied the majority of the water column, with an approximately logarithmic mean velocity profile identifiable close to the seabed. The anisotropic ratios, spectral scales and higher-order statistics of the turbulence generally agree well with values reported for two-dimensional open channels in the laboratory and other tidal channels, therefore providing further support for the application of universal models. The results of the study can assist in developing numerical models of turbulence in rapid tidal flows such as those proposed for tidal energy generation.
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Free flow wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben Juul; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2018-01-01
This paper presents a method for obtaining the free-inflow velocities from a 3-D flow sensor mounted on the blade of a wind turbine. From its position on the rotating blade, e.g. one-third from the tip, a blade-mounted flow sensor (BMFS) is able to provide valuable information about the turbulent...... sheared inflow in different regions of the rotor. At the rotor, however, the inflow is affected by the wind turbine, and in most cases the wind of interest is the inflow that the wind turbine is exposed to, i.e. the free-inflow velocities. The current method applies a combination of aerodynamic models...... and procedures to estimate the induced velocities, i.e. the disturbance of the flow field caused by the wind turbine. These velocities are subtracted from the flow velocities measured by the BMFS to obtain the free-inflow velocities. Aeroelastic codes, like HAWC2, typically use a similar approach to calculate...
Forces on zonal flows in tokamak core turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, K.
2005-01-01
The saturation of stationary zonal flows (ZF) in the core of a tokamak has been analyzed in numerical fluid turbulence computer studies. The model was chosen to properly represent the kinetic global plasma flows, i.e., undamped stationary toroidal or poloidal flows and Landau damped geodesic acoustic modes. Reasonable agreement with kinetic simulations in terms of magnitude of transport and occurrence of the Dimits shift was verified. Contrary to common perception, in the final saturated state of turbulence and ZFs, the customary perpendicular Reynolds stress continues to drive the ZFs. The force balance is established by the essentially quasilinear parallel Reynolds stress acting on the parallel return flows required by incompressibility. (author)
Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.
2017-11-01
Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.
Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows
1992-07-01
Chemically-Reacting, Gas-Phase Turbulent Jets (Gilbrech 1991), that explored Reynolds number effects on turbulent flame length and the influence of...and asymptotes to a constant value beyond the flame tip. The main result of the work is that the flame length , as estimated from the temperature...8217. Specifically, the normalized flame length Lf/d* displays a linear dependence on the stoichiometric mixture ratio 0, with a slope that decreases from Re "• 1.0
Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on the Flow-Induced Background Noise of In-Flow Microphones
Allen, Christopher S.; Olson, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
When making noise measurements of sound sources in flow using microphones immersed in an air stream or wind tunnel, the factor limiting the dynamic range of the measurement is, in many cases, the noise caused by the flow over the microphone. To lower this self-noise, and to protect the microphone diaphragm, an aerodynamic microphone forebody is usually mounted on the tip of the omnidirectional microphone. The microphone probe is then pointed into the wind stream. Even with a microphone forebody, however, the self-noise persists, prompting further research in the area of microphone forebody design for flow-induced self-noise reduction. The magnitude and frequency characteristics of in-flow microphone probe self-noise is dependent upon the exterior shape of the probe and on the level of turbulence in the onset flow, among other things. Several recent studies present new designs for microphone forebodies, some showing the forbodies' self-noise characteristics when used in a given facility. However, these self-noise characteristics may change when the probes are used in different facilities. The present paper will present results of an experimental investigation to determine an empirical relationship between flow turbulence and self-noise levels for several microphone forebody shapes as a function of frequency. As a result, the microphone probe self-noise for these probes will be known as a function of freestream turbulence, and knowing the freestream turbulence spectra for a given facility, the probe self-noise can be predicted. Flow-induced microphone self-noise is believed to be related to the freestream. turbulence by three separate mechanisms. The first mechanism is produced by large scale, as compared to the probe size, turbulence which appears to the probe as a variation in the angle of attack of the freestream. flow. This apparent angle of attack variation causes the pressure along the probe surface to fluctuate, and at the location of the sensor orifice this
Turbulence Modeling of Flows with Extensive Crossflow Separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Argyris G. Panaras
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The reasons for the difficulty in simulating accurately strong 3-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SBLIs and high-alpha flows with classical turbulence models are investigated. These flows are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation. In view of recent additional evidence, a previously published flow analysis, which attributes the poor performance of classical turbulence models to the observed laminarization of the separation domain, is reexamined. According to this analysis, the longitudinal vortices into which the separated boundary layer rolls up in this type of separated flow, transfer external inviscid air into the part of the separation adjacent to the wall, decreasing its turbulence. It is demonstrated that linear models based on the Boussinesq equation provide solutions of moderate accuracy, while non-linear ones and others that consider the particular structure of the flow are more efficient. Published and new Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations are reviewed, as well as results from a recent Large Eddy Simulation (LES study, which indicate that in calculations characterized by sufficient accuracy the turbulent kinetic energy of the reverse flow inside the separation vortices is very low, i.e., the flow is almost laminar there.
Numerical simulation of random stresses on an annular turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marti-Moreno, Marta
2000-01-01
The flow along a circular cylinder may induce structural vibrations. For the predictive analysis of such vibrations, the turbulent forcing spectrum needs to be characterized. The aim of this work is to study the turbulent fluid forces acting on a single tube in axial flow. More precisely we have performed numerical simulations of an annular flow. These simulations were carried out on a cylindrical staggered mesh by a finite difference method. We consider turbulent flow with Reynolds number up to 10 6 . The Large Eddy Simulation Method has been used. A survey of existent experiments showed that hydraulic diameter acts as an important parameter. We first showed the accuracy of the numerical code by reproducing the experiments of Mulcahy. The agreement between pressure spectra from computations and from experiments is good. Then, we applied this code to simulate new numerical experiments varying the hydraulic diameter and the flow velocity. (author) [fr
2016-12-22
Oceanogr., 46, 1377-1397 Cebeci, T. & P. Bradshaw, 1988: physical and computational aspects of convective heat transfer , Springer-Verlag, p.487...on surface properties and flow separation. Strongly-forced wind seas are characterized by enhanced group modulation , as significant additional...energy flux from the wind augments the hydrodynamic modulations . Using compact steep chirped wave packets, we investigated for the first time the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, G.C.
1998-09-01
The fatigue loading of turbines situated in complex terrain is investigated in order to determine the crucial parameters in the spatial structure of the turbulence in such situations. The parameter study is performed by means of numerical calculations, and it embraces three different wind turbine types, representing a pitch controlled concept, a stall controlled concept, and a stall controlled concept with an extremely flexible tower. For each of the turbine concepts, the fatigue load sensibility to the selected turbulence characteristics are investigated for three different mean wind speeds at hub height. The selected mean wind speeds represent the linear-, the stall-, and the post stall aerodynamic region for the stall controlled turbines and analogously the unregulated-, the partly regulated-, and the fully regulated regime for the pitch controlled turbine. Denoting the turbulence component in the mean wind direction by u, the lateral turbulence component by v, and the vertical turbulence component by w, the selected turbulence characteristics comprise the u-turbulence length scale, the ratio between the v- and w-turbulence intensities and the u-turbulence intensity, the uu-coherence decay factor, and finally the u-v and u-w cross-correlations. The turbulence length scale in the mean wind direction gives rise to significant modification of the fatigue loading on all the investigated wind turbine concepts, but for the other selected parameter variations, large individual differences exists between the turbines. With respect to sensitivity to the performed parameter variations, the Vestas V39 wind turbine is the most robust of the investigated turbines. The Nordtank 500/37 turbine, equipped with the (artificial) soft tower, is by far the most sensitive of the investigated turbine concepts - also much more sensitive than the conventional Nordtank 500/37 turbine equipped with a traditional tower. (au) 2 tabs., 43 ills., 7 refs.
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.
2017-12-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree -1
An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm
Evans, Joni K.
2013-01-01
The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.
Relationship between velocity gradients and magnetic turbulence in the solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrett, H.B.
1974-01-01
The correlations among the time derivative of the solar-wind velocity, the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the IMF turbulence level are examined to test the idea that interaction between two colliding solar-wind streams can generate turbulence in the solar wind and the IMF. Data obtained by Explorer 33 on the solar wind and IMF are described, and the analysis techniques are outlined. The results indicate that the IMF turbulence level, as measured by the variance, is correlated with the existence of positive velocity gradients in the solar wind. It is noted that while the variance is an increasing function of the field magnitude, it is also independently correlated with the solar-wind velocity gradient
Large-Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Through a Wind Farm Sited on Topography
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-04-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has recently been well validated and applied in the context of wind turbines over flat terrain; however, to date its accuracy has not been tested systematically in the case of turbine-wake flows over topography. Here, we investigate the wake flow in a wind farm situated on hilly terrain using LES for a case where wind-tunnel experimental data are available. To this end, first boundary-layer flow is simulated over a two-dimensional hill in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the mean velocity and the turbulence statistics. A flow simulation is then performed through a wind farm consisting of five horizontal-axis wind turbines sited over the same hill in an aligned layout. The resulting flow characteristics are compared with the former case, i.e., without wind turbines. To assess the validity of the simulations, the results are compared with the wind-tunnel measurements. It is found that LES can reproduce the flow field effectively, and, specifically, the speed-up over the hilltop and the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity enhancement induced by the turbines are well captured by the simulations. Besides, the vertical profiles of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity at different streamwise positions match well those for the experiment. In addition, another numerical experiment is carried out to show how higher (and more realistic) thrust coefficients of the turbines lead to stronger wakes and, at the same time, higher turbulence intensities.
Nicolleau, FCGA; Redondo, J-M
2012-01-01
This book contains a collection of the main contributions from the first five workshops held by Ercoftac Special Interest Group on Synthetic Turbulence Models (SIG42. It is intended as an illustration of the sig's activities and of the latest developments in the field. This volume investigates the use of Kinematic Simulation (KS) and other synthetic turbulence models for the particular application to environmental flows. This volume offers the best syntheses on the research status in KS, which is widely used in various domains, including Lagrangian aspects in turbulence mixing/stirring, partic
The most intense electric currents in turbulent high speed solar wind
Podesta, J. J.
2017-12-01
Theory and simulations suggest that dissipation of turbulent energy in collisionless astrophysical plasmas occurs most rapidly in spatial regions where the current density is most intense. To advance understanding of plasma heating by turbulent dissipation in the solar corona and solar wind, it is of interest to characterize the properties of plasma regions where the current density takes exceptionally large values and to identify the operative dissipation processes. In the solar wind, the curl of the magnetic field cannot be measured using data from a single spacecraft, however, a suitable proxy for this quantity can be constructed from the spatial derivative of the magnetic field along the flow direction of the plasma. This new approach is used to study the properties of the most intense current carrying structures in a high speed solar wind stream near 1 AU. In this study, based on 11 Hz magnetometer data from the WIND spacecraft, the spatial resolution of the proxy technique is approximately equal to the proton inertial length. Intense current sheets or current carrying structures were identified as events where the magnitude of the current density exceeds μ+5σ, where μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation of the magnitude of the current density (or its proxy), respectively. Statistical studies show (1) the average size of these 5σ events is close to the smallest resolvable scale in the data set, the proton inertial length; (2) the linear distance between neighboring events follows a power law distribution; and (3) the average peak current density of 5σ events is around 1 pA/cm2. The analysis techniques used in these studies have been validated using simulated spacecraft data from three dimensional hybrid simulations which show that results based on the analysis of the proxy are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to results based on the analysis of the true current density.
A numerical study on the flow upstream of a wind turbine on complex terran
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Bechmann, Andreas; Troldborg, Niels
2016-01-01
The interaction of a wind turbine with the upstream flow-field in complex and flat terrain is studied using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with a two equation turbulence closure. The complex site modelled is Perdigao (Portugal), where a turbine is located on one of two parallel...... the wind turbine wake trajectory which in turn governs the orientation of the induction zone...
Flow widening through a Darrieus wind turbine - Theory and experiment
Comolet, R.; Harajli, I.; Mercier Des Rochettes, P.; Yeznasni, A.
1982-11-01
A two-dimensional multiple stream tube model is developed for the air flow through a Darrieus wind turbine. The model is configured to account for the widening of the flux tubes as they cross the interior of the actuator disk. Note is made of the lateral broadening of the flow as it moves through the area, leaving a turbulent wake. A relation is defined between the variation in the kinetic energy of the flow and the aerodynamic forces acting on the blades. The global efficiency and the power output of the machine are calculated. Experimental results are reported for a machine equipped with two NACA 0015 blades, each 110 cm long and with a 10 cm chord. The Darrieus had a 1 m diam and was tested in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0-18 m/sec. Soap bubbles inflated with He were used for visualization. Power output was found to match prediction. The model is recommended for use in calculating the forces acting on the machine and studying vibration and fatigue causative mechanisms.
Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehme, K.
1978-04-01
The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de
A finite-elements method for turbulent flow analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autret, A.
1986-03-01
The work discussed here covers turbulent flow calculations using GALERKIN's finite-element method. Turbulence effects on the mean field are taken into account by the k-epsilon model with two evolution equations: one for the kinetic energy of the turbulence, and one for the energy dissipation rate. The wall zone is covered by wall laws, and by REICHARDT's law in particular. A law is advanced for the epsilon input profile, and a numerical solution is proposed for the physically aberrant values of k and epsilon generated by the model. Single-equation models are reviewed comparatively with the k-epsilon model. A comparison between calculated and analytical solutions or calculated and experimental results is presented for decreasing turbulence behind a grid, for the flow between parallel flat plates with three REYNOLDS numbers, and for backward facing step. This part contains graphs and curves corresponding to results of the calculations presented in part one [fr
Simulation of turbulent flow in a packed bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, B.; Yu, A. [Centre for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems and School of Material Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Wright, B.; Zulli, P. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 202, Port Kembla, NSW 2505 (Australia)
2006-05-15
Numerous models for simulating the flow and transport in packed beds have been proposed in the literature with few reported applications. In this paper, several turbulence models for porous media are applied to the gas flow through a randomly packed bed and are examined by means of a parametric study against some published experimental data. These models predict widely different turbulent eddy viscosity. The analysis also indicates that deficiencies exist in the formulation of some model equations and selection of a suitable turbulence model is important. With this realization, residence time distribution and velocity distribution are then simulated by considering a radial profile of porosity and turbulence induced dispersion, and the results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer by the lattice Boltzmann method
Liou, Tong-Miin; Wang, Chun-Sheng
2018-01-01
Due to its advantage in parallel efficiency and wall treatment over conventional Navier-Stokes equation-based methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool in simulating turbulent heat and fluid flows. To properly simulate the rotating turbulent flow and heat transfer, which plays a pivotal role in tremendous engineering devices such as gas turbines, wind turbines, centrifugal compressors, and rotary machines, the lattice Boltzmann equations must be reformulated in a rotating coordinate. In this study, a single-rotating reference frame (SRF) formulation of the Boltzmann equations is newly proposed combined with a subgrid scale model for the large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer. The subgrid scale closure is modeled by a shear-improved Smagorinsky model. Since the strain rates are also locally determined by the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function, the calculation process is entirely local. The pressure-driven turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation and heat transfer is used for validating the approach. The Reynolds number characterized by the friction velocity and channel half height is fixed at 194, whereas the rotation number in terms of the friction velocity and channel height ranges from 0 to 3.0. A working fluid of air is chosen, which corresponds to a Prandtl number of 0.71. Calculated results are demonstrated in terms of mean velocity, Reynolds stress, root mean square (RMS) velocity fluctuations, mean temperature, RMS temperature fluctuations, and turbulent heat flux. Good agreement is found between the present LBM predictions and previous direct numerical simulation data obtained by solving the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, which confirms the capability of the proposed SRF LBM and subgrid scale relaxation time formulation for the computation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komori, S.
1996-01-01
in clarifying environmental flow phenomena. This report summarizes research on two turbulence structure and diffusion topics; turbulence structure and the gas transfer mechanism across the air-sea (air-water) interface and the heat and momentum transfer mechanism in thermally stratified flows. The first study shows the relationship between the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) transfer mechanism across a sheared air-water interface and the turbulence structure near the interface. The results revealed that the conventional proportional relationship between CO 2 transfer velocity across the air-sea interface and mean wind speed over the sea surface is incorrect. The second study numerically clarified the significant effects of molecular diffusivity (the Prandtl number) of active heat on heat transfer in stable thermally-stratified Hows. The results obtained from the two studies are described in the next two chapters. Since the results are mainly quoted from a series of previously published and in press works by Komori et al.'s research group (see references), this report might be considered as a summary of those works
Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted, continuous wave wind lidar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medley, John; Barker, Will; Harris, Mike
2014-01-01
Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...... mounted on the nacelle of a 550 kW turbine at the Risø campus of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Lidar measurements of wind speed and turbulence were compared against those made by anemometers on a high-quality traditional mast. Analysis showed excellent correlation between mast and Zeph...... that this is the first time that a commercially available nacelle-mounted lidar has been used to evaluate such rotor-equivalent power curves....
Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...
Numerical prediction of flow, heat transfer, turbulence and combustion
Spalding, D Brian; Pollard, Andrew; Singhal, Ashok K
1983-01-01
Numerical Prediction of Flow, Heat Transfer, Turbulence and Combustion: Selected Works of Professor D. Brian Spalding focuses on the many contributions of Professor Spalding on thermodynamics. This compilation of his works is done to honor the professor on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Relatively, the works contained in this book are selected to highlight the genius of Professor Spalding in this field of interest. The book presents various research on combustion, heat transfer, turbulence, and flows. His thinking on separated flows paved the way for the multi-dimensional modeling of turbu
Flow Topology Transition via Global Bifurcation in Thermally Driven Turbulence
Xie, Yi-Chao; Ding, Guang-Yu; Xia, Ke-Qing
2018-05-01
We report an experimental observation of a flow topology transition via global bifurcation in a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. This transition corresponds to a spontaneous symmetry breaking with the flow becomes more turbulent. Simultaneous measurements of the large-scale flow (LSF) structure and the heat transport show that the LSF bifurcates from a high heat transport efficiency quadrupole state to a less symmetric dipole state with a lower heat transport efficiency. In the transition zone, the system switches spontaneously and stochastically between the two long-lived metastable states.
Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows
Verma, Mahendra K.
2017-05-14
Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.
Suboptimal control for drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jung Il; Sung, Hyung Jin; Xu, Chun Xiao
2001-01-01
A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂ρ/∂θ / w and ∂ν θ /∂r / w are applied with two actuations φ θ and φ γ . To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re τ =150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂υ θ /∂r / w and φ γ . An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant
Specific aspects of turbulent flow in rectangular ducts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanković Branislav D.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The essential ideas of investigations of turbulent flow in a straight rectangular duct are chronologically presented. Fundamentally significant experimental and theoretical studies for mathematical modeling and numerical computations of this flow configuration are analyzed. An important physical aspect of this type of flow is presence of secondary motion in the plane perpendicular to the streamwise direction, which is of interest from both the engineering and the scientific viewpoints. The key facts for a task of turbulence modeling and optimal choice of the turbulence model are obtained through careful examination of physical mechanisms that generate secondary flows. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no.TR-33018: Increase in Energy and Ecology Efficiency of Processes in Pulverized Coal-Fired Furnace and Optimization of Utility Steam Boiler Air Pre-heater by Using In-House Developed Software Tools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Hollweg, Joseph V.
2009-01-01
We study the propagation, reflection, and turbulent dissipation of Alfven waves in coronal holes and the solar wind. We start with the Heinemann-Olbert equations, which describe non-compressive magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in an inhomogeneous medium with a background flow parallel to the background magnetic field. Following the approach of Dmitruk et al., we model the nonlinear terms in these equations using a simple phenomenology for the cascade and dissipation of wave energy and assume that there is much more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun than waves propagating toward the Sun. We then solve the equations analytically for waves with periods of hours and longer to obtain expressions for the wave amplitudes and turbulent heating rate as a function of heliocentric distance. We also develop a second approximate model that includes waves with periods of roughly one minute to one hour, which undergo less reflection than the longer-period waves, and compare our models to observations. Our models generalize the phenomenological model of Dmitruk et al. by accounting for the solar wind velocity, so that the turbulent heating rate can be evaluated from the coronal base out past the Alfven critical point-that is, throughout the region in which most of the heating and acceleration occurs. The simple analytical expressions that we obtain can be used to incorporate Alfven-wave reflection and turbulent heating into fluid models of the solar wind.
A Dual-Plane PIV Study of Turbulent Heat Transfer Flows
Wernet, Mark P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Locke, Randy J.
2016-01-01
Thin film cooling is a widely used technique in turbomachinery and rocket propulsion applications, where cool injection air protects a surface from hot combustion gases. The injected air typically has a different velocity and temperature from the free stream combustion flow, yielding a flow field with high turbulence and large temperature differences. These thin film cooling flows provide a good test case for evaluating computational model prediction capabilities. The goal of this work is to provide a database of flow field measurements for validating computational flow prediction models applied to turbulent heat transfer flows. In this work we describe the application of a Dual-Plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in a thin film cooling wind tunnel facility where the injection air stream velocity and temperatures are varied in order to provide benchmark turbulent heat transfer flow field measurements. The Dual-Plane PIV data collected include all three components of velocity and all three components of vorticity, spanning the width of the tunnel at multiple axial measurement planes.
Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.; Scott, B.D.
2004-01-01
The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 ≤ κ ≥ 2 and triangularity 0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)
Modeling Scramjet Flows with Variable Turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt Numbers
Xiao, X.; Hassan, H. A.; Baurle, R. A.
2006-01-01
A complete turbulence model, where the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are calculated as part of the solution and where averages involving chemical source terms are modeled, is presented. The ability of avoiding the use of assumed or evolution Probability Distribution Functions (PDF's) results in a highly efficient algorithm for reacting flows. The predictions of the model are compared with two sets of experiments involving supersonic mixing and one involving supersonic combustion. The results demonstrate the need for consideration of turbulence/chemistry interactions in supersonic combustion. In general, good agreement with experiment is indicated.
Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kendl, A. [Innsbruck Univ., Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM (Austria); Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2004-07-01
The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 {<=} {kappa} {>=} 2 and triangularity 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)
Dynamics and statistics of heavy particles in turbulent flows
Cencini, M.; Bec, J.; Biferale, L.; Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Lanotte, A.; Musacchio, S.; Toschi, F.
2006-01-01
We present the results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows seeded with millions of passive inertial particles. The maximum Reynolds number is Re¿~ 200. We consider particles much heavier than the carrier flow in the limit when the Stokes drag force dominates their dynamical
Numerical modeling of fine particle fractal aggregates in turbulent flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Feifeng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A method for prediction of fine particle transport in a turbulent flow is proposed, the interaction between particles and fluid is studied numerically, and fractal agglomerate of fine particles is analyzed using Taylor-expansion moment method. The paper provides a better understanding of fine particle dynamics in the evolved flows.
Flow instability and turbulence - ONERA water tunnel visualizations
Werle, H.
The experimental technique used for visualizing laminar-turbulent transition phenomena, developed in previous tests in ONERA's small TH1 water tunnel, has been successfully applied in the new TH2 tunnel. With its very extensive Reynold's number domain (10 to the 4th - 10 to the 6th), this tunnel has shown itself to be well adapted to the study of turbulence and of the flow instabilities related to its appearance.
Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.
Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H
2011-12-09
The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.
STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi
2015-01-01
Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds
STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-10
Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds.
Turbulent mixing in nonreactive and reactive flows
1975-01-01
Turbulence, mixing and the mutual interaction of turbulence and chemistry continue to remain perplexing and impregnable in the fron tiers of fluid mechanics. The past ten years have brought enormous advances in computers and computational techniques on the one hand and in measurements and data processing on the other. The impact of such capabilities has led to a revolution both in the understanding of the structure of turbulence as well as in the predictive methods for application in technology. The early ideas on turbulence being an array of complicated phenomena and having some form of reasonably strong coherent struc ture have become well substantiated in recent experimental work. We are still at the very beginning of understanding all of the aspects of such coherence and of the possibilities of incorporating such structure into the analytical models for even those cases where the thin shear layer approximation may be valid. Nevertheless a distinguished body of "eddy chasers" has come into existence. T...
Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel
2015-02-01
The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolian Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a wind energy conversion system (WECS. In this paper, three conventional MPPT methods are reviewed: power signal feedback (PSF control, decreased torque gain (DTG control, and adaptive torque gain (ATG control, and their potential challenges are investigated. It is found out that the conventional MPPT method ignores the effect of wind turbine inertia and wind speed fluctuations, which lowers WECS efficiency. Accordingly, an improved adaptive torque gain (IATG method is proposed, which customizes adaptive torque gains and enhances MPPT performances. Specifically, the IATG control considers wind farm turbulences and works out the relationship between the optimal torque gains and the wind speed characteristics, which has not been reported in the literature. The IATG control is promising, especially under the ongoing trend of building wind farms with large-scale wind turbines and at low and medium wind speed sites.
Statistical descriptions of polydisperse turbulent two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minier, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.minier@edf.fr
2016-12-15
Disperse two-phase flows are flows containing two non-miscible phases where one phase is present as a set of discrete elements dispersed in the second one. These discrete elements, or ‘particles’, can be droplets, bubbles or solid particles having different sizes. This situation encompasses a wide range of phenomena, from nano-particles and colloids sensitive to the molecular fluctuations of the carrier fluid to inertia particles transported by the large-scale motions of turbulent flows and, depending on the phenomenon studied, a broad spectrum of approaches have been developed. The aim of the present article is to analyze statistical models of particles in turbulent flows by addressing this issue as the extension of the classical formulations operating at a molecular or meso-molecular level of description. It has a three-fold purpose: (1) to bring out the thread of continuity between models for discrete particles in turbulent flows (above the hydrodynamical level of description) and classical mesoscopic formulations of statistical physics (below the hydrodynamical level); (2) to reveal the specific challenges met by statistical models in turbulence; (3) to establish a methodology for modeling particle dynamics in random media with non-zero space and time correlations. The presentation is therefore centered on organizing the different approaches, establishing links and clarifying physical foundations. The analysis of disperse two-phase flow models is developed by discussing: first, approaches of classical statistical physics; then, by considering models for single-phase turbulent flows; and, finally, by addressing current formulations for discrete particles in turbulent flows. This brings out that particle-based models do not cease to exist above the hydrodynamical level and offer great interest when combined with proper stochastic formulations to account for the lack of equilibrium distributions and scale separation. In the course of this study, general
Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows
Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.
1997-09-01
A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.
Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Elliott, H. A.; Zank, G. P.
2017-12-01
The outer heliosphere is an interesting region characterized by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar neutral atoms. Having accomplished the mission to Pluto in 2015 and currently on the way to the Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft is following the footsteps of the two Voyager spacecraft that previously explored this region lying roughly beyond 30 AU from the Sun. We model the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind plasma flow to the outer heliosphere using our own software Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS), which, in addition to the thermal solar wind plasma, takes into account charge exchange of the solar wind protons with interstellar neutral atoms and treats nonthermal ions (i.e., pickup ions) born during this process as a separate fluid. Additionally, MS-FLUKSS allows us to model turbulence generated by pickup ions. We use MS-FLUKSS to investigate the evolution of plasma and turbulent fluctuations along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft using plasma and turbulence parameters from OMNI data as time-dependent boundary conditions at 1 AU for the Reynolds-averaged MHD equations. We compare the model with in situ plasma observations by New Horizons, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We also compare the model pickup proton parameters with those derived from the Ulysses-SWICS data.
Magnetic intermittency of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range
Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua
2016-04-01
The feature, nature, and fate of intermittency in the dissipation range are an interesting topic in the solar wind turbulence. We calculate the distribution of flatness for the magnetic field fluctuations as a functionof angle and scale. The flatness distribution shows a "butterfly" pattern, with two wings located at angles parallel/anti-parallel to local mean magnetic field direction and main body located at angles perpendicular to local B0. This "butterfly" pattern illustrates that the flatness profile in (anti-) parallel direction approaches to the maximum value at larger scale and drops faster than that in perpendicular direction. The contours for probability distribution functions at different scales illustrate a "vase" pattern, more clear in parallel direction, which confirms the scale-variation of flatness and indicates the intermittency generation and dissipation. The angular distribution of structure function in the dissipation range shows an anisotropic pattern. The quasi-mono-fractal scaling of structure function in the dissipation range is also illustrated and investigated with the mathematical model for inhomogeneous cascading (extended p-model). Different from the inertial range, the extended p-model for the dissipation range results in approximate uniform fragmentation measure. However, more complete mathematicaland physical model involving both non-uniform cascading and dissipation is needed. The nature of intermittency may be strong structures or large amplitude fluctuations, which may be tested with magnetic helicity. In one case study, we find the heating effect in terms of entropy for large amplitude fluctuations seems to be more obvious than strong structures.
Comparison of FPS-16 radar/jimsphere and NASA's 50-MHz radar wind profiler turbulence indicators
Susko, Michael
1993-01-01
Measurements of the wind and turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km by the FPS-11 radar/jimsphere system are reported with particular attention given to the use of these turbulence and wind assessments to validate the NASA 50-MHz radar wind profiler. Wind profile statistics were compared at 150-m wavelengths, a wavelength validated from 20 jimspheres, simultaneously tracked by FPS-16 and FPQ-14 radar, and the resulting analysis of auto spectra, cross-spectra, and coherence squared spectra of the wind profiles. Results demonstrate that the NASA prototype wind profiler is an excellent monitoring device illustrating the measurements of the winds within 1/2 hour of launch zero.
Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammelsaeter, H.R.
1997-12-31
Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.
On the freestream matching condition for stagnation point turbulent flows
Speziale, C. G.
1989-01-01
The problem of plane stagnation point flow with freestream turbulence is examined from a basic theoretical standpoint. It is argued that the singularity which arises from the standard kappa-epsilon model is not due to a defect in the model but results from the use of an inconsistent freestream boundary condition. The inconsistency lies in the implementation of a production equals dissipation equilibrium hypothesis in conjunction with a freestream mean velocity field that corresponds to homogeneous plane strain - a turbulent flow which does not reach such a simple equilibrium. Consequently, the adjustment that has been made in the constants of the epsilon-transport equation to eliminate this singularity is not self-consistent since it is tantamount to artificially imposing an equilibrium structure on a turbulent flow which is known not to have one.
Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)
2000-03-01
A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)
Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven turbulent flows in enclosures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, K.J.; Lien, F.S.
2004-01-01
Modeling turbulent natural convection in enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls is numerically challenging, in particular, when low-Reynolds-number (low-Re) models are adopted. When the turbulence level in the core region of cavity is low, most low-Re models, particular those showing good performance for bypass transitional flows, tend to relaminarize the flow and, as a consequence, significantly underpredict the near-wall turbulence intensities and boundary-layer thickness. Another challenge associated with low-turbulence buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures is its inherent unsteadiness, which can pose convergence problems when a steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is solved. In the present study, an unsteady RANS approach in conjunction with the low-Re k-ε model of Lien and Leschziner [Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 12 (1999) 1] is initially adopted and the predicted flow field is found effectively relaminarized. To overcome this difficulty, likely caused by the low-Re functions in the ε-equation, the two-layer approach is attempted, in which ε is prescribed algebraically using the one-equation k-l model of Wolfshtein [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12 (1969) 301]. The two-layer approach combined with a quadratic stress-strain relation gives overall the best performance in terms of mean velocities, temperature and turbulence quantities
The turbulent flow in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, S.V.
1989-01-01
Experimental studies have shown that the axial and azimuthal turbulence intensities in the gap regions of rod bundles increase strongly with decreasing rod spacing; the fluctuating velocities in the axial and azimuthal directions have a quasi-periodic behaviour. To determine the origin of this phenomenon, an its characteristics as a function of the geometry and the Reynolds number, an experimental investigation was performed on the turbulent in several rod bundles with different aspect ratios (P/D, W/D). Hot-wires and microsphones were used for the measurements of velocity and wall pressure fluctuations. The data were evaluated to obtain spectra as well as auto and cross correlations. Based on the results, a phenomenological model is presented to explain this phenomenon. By means of the model, the mass exchange between neighbouring subchannels is explained [pt
The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence
Vanon, R.
2018-04-01
The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.
The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence
Vanon, R.
2018-07-01
The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.
Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows. Revision.
1983-08-02
jet diameter F2 fluorine H2 hydrogen HF hydrogen fluoride I(y) instantaneous fluorescence intensity distribution L-s flame length measured from...virtual origin -.4 of turbulent region (L-s). flame length at high Reynolds number LIF laser induced fluorescence N2 nitrogen PI product thickness (defined...mixing is attained as a function of the equivallence ratio. For small values of the equivalence ratio f, the flame length - defined here as the
Mueller, J.; Petersen, J. C.; Pilz, E.; Wiegand, H.
1981-06-01
The flow behavior in a jet mixing visualization chamber for turbulent fuel spray mixing with air under compression, e.g., at top dead center in diesel engines, was investigated with a laser Doppler velocimeter. The measurements were performed in two cuts in the profile perpendicular to the flow direction. The range of flow conditions in the measuring chamber was tested. The measurements were conducted with and without turbulence grids and shear flow grids behind the inlet nozzle. Wire grids did not enhance the turbulence in the measuring chamber. One of the tested shear flow grids produced shear flow as expected. A turbulence grid whose design was based on experimental results, produced a turbulence degree of up to 30% over the whole measuring cross section.
Study of turbulent natural-circulation flow and low-Prandtl-number forced-convection flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, K.S.; Thompson, D.H.
1980-01-01
Calculational methods and results are discussed for the coupled energy and momentum equations of turbulent natural circulation flow and low Prandtl number forced convection flow. The objective of this paper is to develop a calculational method for the study of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of coolant flowing in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor channel under natural circulation conditions. The two-equation turbulence model is used to evaluate the turbulent momentum transport property. Because the analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer does not generally hold for low Prandtl number fluid and natural circulation flow conditions, the turbulent thermal conductivity is calculated independently using equations similar to the two-equation turbulence model. The numerical technique used in the calculation is the finite element method
Interfacial structures in confined cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Cheng Ling; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.
2004-01-01
The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined flow passage. Experiments of a total of 13 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200 mm in width and 10 mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. Bubble characteristics captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired local parameters are time-averaged void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for each group of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed in detail. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structures along the flow direction due to bubble interactions and the hydrodynamic effects. Furthermore, these data can serve as one part of the experimental data for investigation of the interfacial area transport in a confined two-phase flow
Intermittent characteristics in coupling between turbulence and zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, A; Shimizu, A; Nakano, H; Ohshima, S; Itoh, K; Nagashima, Y; Itoh, S-I; Iguchi, H; Yoshimura, Y; Minami, T; Nagaoka, K; Takahashi, C; Kojima, M; Nishimura, S; Isobe, M; Suzuki, C; Akiyama, T; Ido, T; Matsuoka, K; Okamura, S; Diamond, P H
2007-01-01
An extended application of Gabour's wavelet to bicoherence analysis succeeds in resolving the instantaneous structure of three wave couplings between disparate scale electric field fluctuations in the high temperature core in a toroidal plasma device named the compact helical system. The obtained results quantify an intermittent linkage between turbulence and zonal flows-a highlighted issue in the present plasma research. This is the first demonstration that the intermittent nature of the three wave coupling should underlie the turbulence power modulation due to zonal flows
Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay
2002-01-01
Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...... and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha Galeazzo, Flavio Cesar
2016-07-01
The analysis of turbulent mixing in complex turbulent flows is a challenging task. The effective mixing of entrained fluids to a molecular level is a vital part of the dynamics of turbulent flows, especially when combustion is involved. The work has shown the limitations of the steady-state simulations and acknowledged the need of applying high-fidelity unsteady methods for the calculation of flows with pronounced unsteadiness promoted by large-scale coherent structures or other sources.
Modeling molecular mixing in a spatially inhomogeneous turbulent flow
Meyer, Daniel W.; Deb, Rajdeep
2012-02-01
Simulations of spatially inhomogeneous turbulent mixing in decaying grid turbulence with a joint velocity-concentration probability density function (PDF) method were conducted. The inert mixing scenario involves three streams with different compositions. The mixing model of Meyer ["A new particle interaction mixing model for turbulent dispersion and turbulent reactive flows," Phys. Fluids 22(3), 035103 (2010)], the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model and its velocity-conditional variant, i.e., the IECM model, were applied. For reference, the direct numerical simulation data provided by Sawford and de Bruyn Kops ["Direct numerical simulation and lagrangian modeling of joint scalar statistics in ternary mixing," Phys. Fluids 20(9), 095106 (2008)] was used. It was found that velocity conditioning is essential to obtain accurate concentration PDF predictions. Moreover, the model of Meyer provides significantly better results compared to the IECM model at comparable computational expense.
Mean Flow and Turbulence Near a Series of Dikes
Yaeger, M. A.; Duan, J. G.
2008-12-01
Scour around various structures obstructing flow in an open channel is a common problem faced by river engineers. To better understand why this occurs, two questions must be answered: what are the mean flow and turbulence distributions around these structures and how do these two fields affect sediment transport? In addition, are the mean flow or turbulence properties more important in predicting the local transport rate? To answer these questions, a near-bed turbulence and shear stress study was conducted in a flat, fixed bed laboratory flume. Three dikes were placed on the left wall at right angles to the flow, extending partway into the flow, and remaining fully emerged throughout the experiment. A micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure velocities near the bed in the x, y, and z directions and then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from these measurements. Preliminary results showed that mean velocity has no relation to the formation of scour near the tips of the dikes but that Reynolds stresses and turbulence intensities do. It was shown that the horizontal component of the Reynolds stress near the bed contributed the most to the formation of scour. The maximum value of this component was over 200 times that of the mean bed shear stress of the incoming flow, whereas in a single dike field, the same Reynolds stress is about 60 times that of the incoming flow. The magnitudes of the other two components of the Reynolds stress were less than that of the horizontal component, with magnitudes about 20 times that of the incoming flow. This may be attributed to the very small contribution of the vertical velocity in these components. Turbulence intensity magnitudes were about 3 to 5 times that of the incoming flow, with the largest being u'. The largest values for both Reynolds stresses and turbulence intensities were seen at the tip of the second dike in the series. Better understanding of these flow processes will
Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.
2014-01-01
The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
Turbulence modeling and surface heat transfer in a stagnation flow region
Wang, C. R.; Yeh, F. C.
1987-01-01
Analysis for the turbulent flow field and the effect of freestream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate of a stagnation flow is presented. The emphasis is on modeling and its augmentation of surface heat transfer rate. The flow field considered is the region near the forward stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a uniform turbulent mean flow.
Large artificially generated turbulent boundary layers for the study of atmospheric flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guimaraes, Joao Henrique D.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. dos; Freire, Atila P. Silva; Jian, Su
1999-01-01
The present work discusses in detail the experimental conditions for the establishment of thick artificially generated turbulent boundary layer which can be classified as having the near characteristics of an atmospheric boundary layer. The paper describes the experimental arrangement, including the features of the designed wind tunnel and of the instrumentation. the boundary layer is made to develop over a surface fitted with wedge generators which are used to yield a very thick boundary layer. The flow conditions were validated against the following features: growth, structure, equilibrium and turbulent transport momentum. Results are presented for the following main flow variables: mean velocity, local skin-friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum thickness and the Clauser factor. The velocity boundary layer characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with the expected trend in view of the classical expressions found in literature. (author)
Diffusive separation of particles by diffusion in swirled turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, V.N.; Shiliaev, M.I.
1984-01-01
An analysis of the dynamics of turbulent flow and diffusive separation of solid particles in a centrifugal air separator (consisting of two flat disks rotating at the same angular velocity) is presented. A closed set of balances for all the components of the tensor of turbulent stresses, extended to the entire flow region, is employed in the numerical analysis of transition and turbulent air flows between the rotating disks. The analytical relationships obtained for the case of the mixed flow for the various components of the average velocity, energy of fluctuations, and turbulence level in the circumferential direction agreed well with the theoretical and experimental distributions of Bakke, et al. (1973). It is shown that at high Reynolds numbers the flow is isotropic, the dependence of the circumferential component of the average velocity obeys a power law, and the generation of the radial component is controlled by the local centrifugal field. The sharpness of particle separation was calculated by the eddy diffusion equation and was found to depend on the geometry and the operating conditions. 8 references
STRUCTURES OF TURBULENT VORTICES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON FLOW PROPERTIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfonsas Rimkus
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In spite of the many investigations that have been conducted on turbulent flows, the generation and development of turbulent vortices has not been investigated sufficiently yet. This prevents to understand well the processes involved in the flow. That is unfavorable for the further investigations. The developing vortex structures are interacting, and this needs to be estimated. Physical summing of velocities, formed by all structures, can be unfavorable for investigations, therefore they must be separated; otherwise bias errors can occur. The difficulty for investigations is that the widely employed Particle Image Velocity (PIV method, when a detailed picture of velocity field picture is necessary, can provide photos covering only a short interval of flow, which can’t include the largest flow structures, i.e. macro whirlpools. Consequently, action of these structures could not be investigated. Therefore, in this study it is tried to obtain the necessary data about the flow structure by analyzing the instantaneous velocity measurements by 3D means, which lasts for several minutes, therefore the existence and interaction of these structures become visible in measurement data. The investigations conducted in this way have been already discussed in the article, published earlier. Mostly the generation and development of bottom vortices was analyzed. In this article, the analysis of these turbulent velocity measurements is continued and the additional data about the structure of turbulent vortices is obtained.
Three-dimensional density and compressible magnetic structure in solar wind turbulence
Roberts, Owen W.; Narita, Yasuhito; Escoubet, C.-Philippe
2018-03-01
The three-dimensional structure of both compressible and incompressible components of turbulence is investigated at proton characteristic scales in the solar wind. Measurements of the three-dimensional structure are typically difficult, since the majority of measurements are performed by a single spacecraft. However, the Cluster mission consisting of four spacecraft in a tetrahedral formation allows for a fully three-dimensional investigation of turbulence. Incompressible turbulence is investigated by using the three vector components of the magnetic field. Meanwhile compressible turbulence is investigated by considering the magnitude of the magnetic field as a proxy for the compressible fluctuations and electron density data deduced from spacecraft potential. Application of the multi-point signal resonator technique to intervals of fast and slow wind shows that both compressible and incompressible turbulence are anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field direction P⟂ ≫ P∥ and are sensitive to the value of the plasma beta (β; ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) and the wind type. Moreover, the incompressible fluctuations of the fast and slow solar wind are revealed to be different with enhancements along the background magnetic field direction present in the fast wind intervals. The differences in the fast and slow wind and the implications for the presence of different wave modes in the plasma are discussed.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows past the RoBin helicopter with a four-bladed rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, H.; Mamou, M.; Khalid, M. [National Research Council, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Hongyi.Xu@nrc.ca
2003-07-01
The current paper presents a turbulent flow simulation study past a generic helicopter RoBin with a four-bladed rotor using the Chimera moving grid approach. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor blades and their interactions with the RoBin fuselage are investigated using the k - {omega} SST turbulence model contained in the WIND code. The rotor is configured as a Chimera moving grid in a quasisteady flow field. The rotor blades are rectangular, untapered, linearly twisted and are made from NACA 0012 airfoil profile. The blade motion (rotation and cyclic pitching) schedule is specified in the NASA wind tunnel testing of a generic helicopter RoBin. The aerodynamic radial load distributions in the rotor plane are generated by integrating the pressure on each blade surfaces along the blade chordwise direction. The rotor flow interacts strongly with the flow coming off from the fuselage and thus has a significant impact on helicopter aerodynamic performance. (author)
Semi-local scaling and turbulence modulation in variable property turbulent channel flows
Patel, A.; Peeters, J.W.R.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.
2015-01-01
We theoretically and numerically investigate the effect of temperature dependent density and viscosity on turbulence in channel flows. First, a mathematical framework is developed to support the validity of the semi-local scaling as proposed based on heuristic arguments by Huang, Coleman, and
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki
2010-01-01
In this study, the direct numerical simulation of a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles were conducted by means of the refined MARS method, turbulent Reynolds number 150, and Bubble Reynolds number 120. As the results, large-scale wake motions were observed round the bubbles. At the bubble located region, mean velocity was degreased and turbulent intensities and Reynolds shear stress were increased by the effects of the large-scale wake motions round bubbles. On the other hands, near wall region, bubbles might effect on the flow laminarlize and drag reduction. Two types of drag coefficient of bubble were estimated from the accelerated velocity of bubble and correlation equation as a function of Particle Reynolds number. Empirical correlation equation might be overestimated the drag effects in this Particle Reynolds number range. (author)
Experiments in polydisperse two-phase turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachalo, W.D.; Houser, M.J.
1985-01-01
Aspects of turbulent two-phase flow measurements obtained with a laser Doppler velocimeter that was modified to also obtain particle size were investigated. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity allowed the determination of the lag characteristics of particles over a range of sizes. Relatively large particles were found to respond well to the turbulent fluctuations in low speed flows. Measurements of sprays were obtained at various points throughout the spray plume. Velocity measurements for each drop size class were obtained and revealed the relative velocity relaxation with downstream distance. The evolution of the rms velocities for each size class was also examined. Difficulties associated with seeding polydispersions to obtain gas phase turbulence data were discussed. Several approaches for mitigating the errors due to seed particle concentration bias were reviewed
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloud Abdelkrim
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir
2014-03-01
Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines
Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.
2016-09-01
Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.
Effects of swirl in turbulent pipe flows : computational studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, Frode
2011-07-01
The primary objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the effect of swirl in steady turbulent pipe flows. The work has been carried out by a numerical approach, with direct numerical simulations as the method of choice. A key target to pursue was the effects of the swirl on the wall friction in turbulent pipe flows. The motivation came from studies of rotating pipe flows in which drag reduction was achieved. Drag reduction was reported to be due to the swirl favourably influencing the coherent turbulent structures in the near-wall region. Based on this, it was decided to investigate if similar behaviour could be obtained by inducing a swirl in a pipe with a stationary wall. To do a thorough investigation of the general three-dimensional swirl flow and particularly of the swirl effects; chosen variations of mean and turbulent flow parameters were explored together with complementary flow visualizations. Two different approaches in order to induce the swirl in the turbulent pipe flow, have been carried out. However, the present thesis might be regarded to be comprised of three parts. The first part consists of the first approach to induce the swirl. Here a prescribed circumferential force was implemented in a serial open source Navier-Stokes solver. In the second approach, the swirl was intended induced by implementing structures at the wall. Simulations of flows through a pipe with one or more helical fin(s) at the pipe wall was decided to be performed. In order to pursue this approach, it was found necessary to do a parallelization of the existing serial numerical code. The key element of this parallelization has been included as a part of the present work. Additionally, the helical fin(s) were implemented into the code by use of an immersed boundary method. A validation of this work is also documented in the thesis. The work done by parallelizing the code and implementing an immersed boundary method constitutes the second part of the present thesis. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Felix Jørgensen
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates gear tooth fatigue damage in a 500 kW wind turbine using FLEX5 and own multibody code. FLEX5 provides the physical wind field, rotor and generator torque and the multibody code is used for obtaining gear tooth reaction forces in the planetary gearbox. Different turbulence levels are considered and the accumulated fatigue damage levels are compared. An example where the turbulence/fatigue sensitivity could be important, is in the middle of a big wind farm. Interior wind turbines in large wind farms will always operate in the wake of other wind turbines, causing increased turbulence and therefore increased fatigue damage levels. This article contributes to a better understanding of gear fatigue damage when turbulence is increased (e.g. in the center of large wind farms or at places where turbulence is pronounced.
Water droplet condensation and evaporation in turbulent channel flow
Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in the turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapour. We adopt an Euler–Lagrangian formulation based on conservation laws for the mass, momentum and energy of the continuous phase and on empirical
Physical mechanisms in shock-induced turbulent separated flow
Dolling, D. S.
1987-12-01
It has been demonstrated that the flow downstream of the moving shock is separated and that the foot of the shock is effectively the instantaneous separation point. The shock induced turbulent separation is an intermittant process and the separation line indicated by surface tracer methods, such as kerosene-lampblack, is a downstream boundary of a region of intermittent separation.
Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flames in Hypersonic Flows
2015-09-01
the flow direction and (b) typical flame length scales seen in the OH-PLIF image with Mach 4.5 freestream (high turbulence) at P0 = 0.65 bar, T0...flame structures (3 mm) are observed at the upstream location of area 1 where the combustion localization first appears. The typical flame length scale
Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flow in a driven cavity
Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Cazemier, W.; Veldman, A.E.P.
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 2 and 3D turbulent flows in a lid-driven cavity have been performed. DNS are numerical solutions of the unsteady (here: incompressible) Navier-Stokes equations that compute the evolution of all dynamically significant scales of motion. In view of the large
Investigation of reattachment length for a turbulent flow over a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
(2D), segregated, renormalized group (RNG) k−ε turbulence model has been chosen ... noise, as it also exhibits an unsteady structure with a large scale vortex in the .... possible because at low Re and high ER, the flow gets enough space and ...
Mass transfer from smooth alabaster surfaces in turbulent flows
Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gust, Giselher; Ledwell, James R.
1987-11-01
The mass transfer velocity for alabaster plates in smooth-wall turbulent flow is found to vary with the friction velocity according to an analytic solution of the advective diffusion equation. Deployment of alabaster plates on the sea floor can perhaps be used to estimate the viscous stress, and transfer velocities for other species.
Effect of turbulent flow on the double electric layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutten, F. van.
1978-01-01
The existence of the double electric layer could explain the local deposition of corrosion products in water cooled reactors. It is shown that turbulent flow tends to drive the ions away from the wall, disturbs the diffuse layer and enables the electric field to extend further into the liquid phase. This electric field attracts the particles to the walls by electrophoresis [fr
Symmetry-preserving discretization of turbulent channel flow
Verstappen, RWCP; Veldman, AEP; Breuer, M; Durst, F; Zenger, C
2002-01-01
We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the underlying differential operators, i.e. the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric matrix and the diffusive operator is approximated by a
Scalar statistics in variable property turbulent channel flows
Patel, A.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.
2017-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of fully developed, internally heated channel flows with isothermal walls is performed using the low-Mach-number approximation of Navier-Stokes equation to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent properties on turbulent scalar statistics. Different constitutive
Instantaneous planar pressure determination from PIV in turbulent flow
De Kat, R.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the determination of instantaneous planar pressure fields from velocity data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent flow. The operating principles of pressure determination using a Eulerian or a Lagrangian approach are described together with theoretical
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Vibrations Induced by Turbulent Flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Sváček, P.
2015-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 1 (2015), s. 146-188 ISSN 1815-2406 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluid-structure interaction * flow induced vibrations * turbulence models * finite element method Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2015
Numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flow
Li, Y.; McLaughlin, J.B.; Kontomaris, K.; Portela, L.
2001-01-01
This paper presents results for the behavior of particle-laden gases in a small Reynolds number vertical channel down flow. Results will be presented for the effects of particle feedback on the gas-phase turbulence and for the concentration profile of the particles. The effects of density ratio,
Finite element analysis of turbulent flow in fast reactor fuel subassembly elementary flow cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlbauer, P.
1987-03-01
The method is described of calculating fully developed longitudinal steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid through an infinite bundle of parallel smooth rods, based on the finite element method and one-equation turbulence model. Theoretical calculation results are compared with experimental results. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs
Three-dimensional spatial structures of solar wind turbulence from 10 000-km to 100-km scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique without assuming the validity of Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasi-two-dimensional power. However, the dominance of two-dimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Afanasiev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper studies the convective heat exchange intensification due to two-dimensional depressions formed on the initially flat surface. This problem is of interest for engineering applications because many different convective surfaces have cavities and depressions of constructive or random occurrence. During flow around a depression the boundary layer separation and its reattachment result in occurring specific phenomena, which have a significant impact on drag and heat exchange.The work involved an experimental study of hydrodynamic and heat characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer formed when there was an external airflow of the flat surface with a single transversal separation trench.The experimental part used an open subsonic low-turbulence wind tunnel operating in suction mode. A numerical simulation involves hydrodynamics and heat exchange parameters analysis via solution of the system of differential equations, which describe momentum and heat transport processes using ANSYS Fluent solver.The experimental data of this study are compared with numerical simulation results obtained by solving the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS with a two-parametrical Menter k-ω (MSST turbulence model.The comparison shows that simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data, heat exchange surface profiling by a transversal trench system with or without flow separation does not lead to increasing surface drag and, moreover, at the certain ratios of geometrical parameters (cylindrical trenches with h/S£ 0.5 it can decrease the surface drag. Surface conjugations in these depressions should be smooth without any sharp curves and transitions, which can lead to forming stagnation regions.The reason for raising heat exchange is a spatial non-uniformity of the generated turbulence field. During flow analysis there were two sources of turbulence generation found out, namely a wall (heat exchange surface and a mixing
Turbulent Flow Modification With Thermoacoustic Waves for Separation Control
2017-08-24
respectively. At the outlet, the time-average flow is set to be the target state of the sponge zone. In this section, the effects of momentum thickness...Turbulent Flow Modification With Thermoacoustic Waves For Separation Control The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Florida State University Sponsored Research Administration 874
Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Dynamics Response of a Vertical-Axis Spiral Rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuli Wang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The concept of a vertical-axis spiral wind rotor is proposed and implemented in the interest of adapting it to air flows from all directions and improving the rotor’s performance. A comparative study is performed between the proposed rotor and conventional Savonius rotor. Turbulent flow features near the rotor blades are simulated with Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The torque coefficient of the proposed rotor is satisfactory in terms of its magnitude and variation through the rotational cycle. Along the height of the rotor, distinct spatial turbulent flow patterns vary with the upstream air velocity. Subsequent experiments involving a disk generator gives an in-depth understanding of the dynamic response of the proposed rotor under different operation conditions. The optimal tip-speed ratio of the spiral rotor is 0.4–0.5, as is shown in both simulation and experiment. Under normal and relative-motion flow conditions, and within the range of upstream air velocity from 1 to 12 m/s, the output voltage of the generator was monitored and statistically analyzed. It was found that normal air velocity fluctuations lead to a non-synchronous correspondence between upstream air velocity and output voltage. In contrast, the spiral rotor’s performance when operating from the back of a moving truck was significantly different to its performance under the natural conditions.
EFFECT OF ION ∇ B DRIFT DIRECTION ON TURBULENCE FLOW AND FLOW SHEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FENZI, C; McKEE, G.R; BURRELL, K.H; CARLSTROM, T.N; FONCK, R.J; GROEBNER, R.J
2003-01-01
The divertor magnetic geometry has a significant effect on the poloidal flow and resulting flow shear of turbulence in the outer region of L-mode tokamak plasmas, as determined via two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations with Beam Emission Spectroscopy on DIII-D. Plasmas with similar parameters, except that in one case the ion (del)B drift points towards the divertor X-point (lower single-null, LSN), and in the other case, the ion (del)B drift points away from the divertor X-point (upper single-null, USN), are compared. Inside of r/a=0.9, the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, flow direction, correlation lengths) are similar in both cases, while near r/a=0.92, a dramatic reversal of the poloidal flow of turbulence relative to the core flow direction is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. No such flow reversal is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the divertor X-point. This poloidal flow reversal results in a significantly larger local shear in the poloidal turbulence flow velocity in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. Additionally, these plasmas locally exhibit significant dispersion, with two distinct and counter-propagating turbulence modes. Likewise, the radial correlation length of the turbulence is reduced in these plasmas, consistent with biorthogonal decomposition measurements of dominant turbulence structures. The naturally occurring turbulence flow shear in these LSN plasmas may facilitate the LH transition that occurs at an input power of roughly one-half to one-third that of corresponding plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the X-point
Analysis of turbulence spectra in gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Besnard, D.C.; Serizawa, Akimi.
1993-01-01
An analysis was made on the turbulence spectra in bubbly flow. Basic equation for turbulence spectrum in bubbly flow was formulated considering the eddy disintegration induced by bubble. Based on the dimensional analysis and modeling of eddy disintegration by bubble, constitutive equations for eddy disintegration were derived. Using these equations, turbulence spectra in bubbly flow (showing -8/3 power) was successfully explained. (author)
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Onur YEMENİCİ
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights
Turbulence modulation in dilute particle-laden flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mandø, Matthias; Lightstone, M. F.; Rosendahl, Lasse
2009-01-01
augmentation of the carrier phase turbulence is expected, and small particles, for which attenuation is expected. The new model is derived directly from the balance equations of fluid flow and represents a combination of the so-called standard and consistent approaches. The performance of the new model......A new particle source term to account for the effect of particles on the turbulence equations based on the Euler/Lagrange approach is introduced and compared with existing models and experimental data. Three different sizes of particles are considered to cover the range of large particles, where...
Simulation of a Rotorcraft in Turbulent Flows
1991-09-01
Knot) Aircraft Parallel Aircraft Parallel Aircraft Parallel To Ship’s To Port-To-Star- To Starboard- Centerline board Landing To-Port Landing Lineup ...Line Lineup Line 345 to 015/35 340 to 005/45 345 to 005145 016 t,) 040/30 006 to 035!35 006 to 025/40 041 to 180/45 036 to 050/30 026 to 040/30 181 to...WIND /FRA3 LOW REYNOLD’S NUMBER AERODYNAMICS FOR NACA0012 AIRFOIL REQUIRES DS/DM NACA0012/AIRFOIL NO SEQUENTIAL FILES REQUIRED INPUT FOR FORCE FRA3
Direct Numerical Simulations of Particle-Laden Turbulent Channel Flow
Jebakumar, Anand Samuel; Premnath, Kannan; Abraham, John
2017-11-01
In a recent experimental study, Lau and Nathan (2014) reported that the distribution of particles in a turbulent pipe flow is strongly influenced by the Stokes number (St). At St lower than 1, particles migrate toward the wall and at St greater than 10 they tend to migrate toward the axis. It was suggested that this preferential migration of particles is due to two forces, the Saffman lift force and the turbophoretic force. Saffman lift force represents a force acting on the particle as a result of a velocity gradient across the particle when it leads or lags the fluid flow. Turbophoretic force is induced by turbulence which tends to move the particle in the direction of decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. In this study, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is employed to simulate a particle-laden turbulent channel flow through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). We find that the preferential migration is a function of particle size in addition to the St. We explain the effect of the particle size and St on the Saffman lift force and turbophoresis and present how this affects particle concentration at different conditions.
A finite-elements method for turbulent flow analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autret, A.
1986-03-01
The work discussed here covers turbulent flow calculations using GALERKIN's finite-element method. In our specific case, we have to deal with monophasic incompressible flow in Boussinesq approximation in the normal operating conditions of a primary circuit of nuclear power plant. Turbulence effects on the mean field are taken into account by the k-epsilon model with two evolution equations: one for the kinetic energy of the turbulence, and one for the energy dissipation rate. The wall zone is covered by wall laws, and by REICHARDT's law in particular. A Law is advanced for the epsilon input profile, and a numerical solution is proposed for the physically aberrant values of k and epsilon generated by the model. Single-equation models are reviewed comparatively with the k-epsilon model. A comparison between calculated and analytical solutions or calculated and experimental results is presented for decreasing turbulence behind a grid, for the flow between parallel flat plates with three REYNOLDS numbers, and for backward facing step [fr
Interaction of turbulent deflagrations with representative flow obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, B.; Ardey, N.; Mayinger, F.
1997-01-01
In the case of a gradual release of hydrogen in the course of an assumed, severe accident in a light water reactor, the combustion will normally start out as a slow deflagration. Acceleration of an initially slow flame due to interactions of chemical kinetics and turbulent heat and mass transfer can result in very high flame speeds. Therefore, in order to assess hydrogen mitigation techniques, detailed knowledge about flame acceleration and interaction of flames with obstacles is required. The reported investigations are aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for turbulent flame acceleration and improving present correlations for estimates and models for numerical simulations of hydrogen combustion processes. A medium-scale square cross-section setup is employed, using flow obstacles with shapes representative for reactor containments. The global flame speed is deduced from measurements using thermocouples, pressure transducers and photodiodes. Measurements using a two-component LDA-system are being carried through in order to correlate global flame spread and local turbulence parameters. Results indicate that low blockage-ratio obstacles only marginally influence the flame, as disturbances which are induced remain local to the vicinity of the obstacle and die out very quickly downstream thereof. Flow visualizations by means of a Schlieren setup indicate very complex flow structures in the vicinity of obstacles. The results are being used to validate turbulent reaction models. A model based on probability density functions (pdf) of assumed shape has been developed and initial calculations are presented. (author)
Spectral analysis of turbulence propagation mechanisms in solar wind and tokamaks plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Yue
2014-01-01
This thesis takes part in the study of spectral transfers in the turbulence of magnetized plasmas. We will be interested in turbulence in solar wind and tokamaks. Spacecraft measures, first principle simulations and simple dynamical systems will be used to understand the mechanisms behind spectral anisotropy and spectral transfers in these plasmas. The first part of this manuscript will introduce the common context of solar wind and tokamaks, what is specific to each of them and present some notions needed to understand the work presented here. The second part deals with turbulence in the solar wind. We will present first an observational study on the spectral variability of solar wind turbulence. Starting from the study of Grappin et al. (1990, 1991) on Helios mission data, we bring a new analysis taking into account a correct evaluation of large scale spectral break, provided by the higher frequency data of the Wind mission. This considerably modifies the result on the spectral index distribution of the magnetic and kinetic energy. A second observational study is presented on solar wind turbulence anisotropy using autocorrelation functions. Following the work of Matthaeus et al. (1990); Dasso et al. (2005), we bring a new insight on this statistical, in particular the question of normalisation choices used to build the autocorrelation function, and its consequence on the measured anisotropy. This allows us to bring a new element in the debate on the measured anisotropy depending on the choice of the referential either based on local or global mean magnetic field. Finally, we study for the first time in 3D the effects of the transverse expansion of solar wind on its turbulence. This work is based on a theoretical and numerical scheme developed by Grappin et al. (1993); Grappin and Velli (1996), but never used in 3D. Our main results deal with the evolution of spectral and polarization anisotropy due to the competition between non-linear and linear (Alfven coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Jensen, Leo E.
2012-01-01
unstable conditions, whereas northerly winds have fewer observations in the stable classes. Stable conditions also tend to be associated with lower levels of turbulence intensity, and this relationship persists as wind speeds increase. Power deficit is a function of ambient turbulence intensity. The level...
Computation of turbulent flow and heat transfer in subassemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slagter, W.
1979-01-01
This research is carried out in order to provide information on the thermohydraulic behaviour of fast reactor subassemblies. The research work involves the development of versatile computation methods and the evaluation of combined theoretical and experimental work on fluid flow and heat transfer in fuel rod bundles. The computation method described here rests on the application of the distributed parameter approach. The conditions considered cover steady, turbulent flow and heat transfer of incompressible fluids in bundles of bare rods. Throughout 1978 main efforts were given to the development of the VITESSE program and to the validation of the hydrodynamic part of the code. In its present version the VITESSE program is applicable to predict the fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in the subchannels of a bundle with bare rods. In this paper the main features of the code are described as well as the present status of development
Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serra, Sylvain; Toutant, Adrien; Bataille, Françoise; Zhou, Ye
2012-01-01
In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.
Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdier, Andre.
1977-11-01
It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr
The dimension of attractors underlying periodic turbulent Poiseuille flow
Keefe, Laurence; Moin, Parviz; Kim, John
1992-01-01
A lower bound on the Liapunov dimenison, D-lambda, of the attractor underlying turbulent, periodic Poiseuille flow at a pressure-gradient Reynolds number of 3200 is calculated, on the basis of a coarse-grained (16x33x8) numerical solution, to be approximately 352. Comparison of Liapunov exponent spectra from this and a higher-resolution (16x33x16) simulation on the same spatial domain shows these spectra to have a universal shape when properly scaled. On the basis of these scaling properties, and a partial exponent spectrum from a still higher-resolution (32x33x32) simulation, it is argued that the actual dimension of the attractor underlying motion of the given computational domain is approximately 780. It is suggested that this periodic turbulent shear flow is deterministic chaos, and that a strange attractor does underly solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in such flows.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent and stably-stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fallon, Benoit
1994-01-01
The unsteady turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is studied by mean of Large Eddy Simulations with structure function sub grid model, both in isothermal and stably-stratified configurations. Without stratification, the flow develops highly-distorted Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, undergoing to helical pairing, with A-shaped vortices shed downstream. We show that forcing injected by recirculation fluctuations governs this oblique mode instabilities development. The statistical results show good agreements with the experimental measurements. For stably-stratified configurations, the flow remains more bi-dimensional. We show with increasing stratification, how the shear layer growth is frozen by inhibition of pairing process then of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the development of gravity waves or stable density interfaces. Eddy structures of the flow present striking analogies with the stratified mixing layer. Additional computations show the development of secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities on the vorticity layers between two primary structures. This important mechanism based on baroclinic effects (horizontal density gradients) constitutes an additional part of the turbulent mixing process. Finally, the feasibility of Large Eddy Simulation is demonstrated for industrial flows, by studying a complex stratified cavity. Temperature fluctuations are compared to experimental measurements. We also develop three-dimensional un-stationary animations, in order to understand and visualize turbulent interactions. (author) [fr
Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows
Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2018-01-01
Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.
Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas
Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung
In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear
Density based topology optimization of turbulent flow heat transfer systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Sümer Bartug; Dilgen, Cetin Batur; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective and the con...... in the optimization process, while also demonstrating extension of the methodology to include coupling of heat transfer with turbulent flows.......The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective...
Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.
2004-01-01
A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
Strange attractors in weakly turbulent Couette-Taylor flow
Brandstater, A.; Swinney, Harry L.
1987-01-01
An experiment is conducted on the transition from quasi-periodic to weakly turbulent flow of a fluid contained between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and the outer cylinder at rest. Power spectra, phase-space portraits, and circle maps obtained from velocity time-series data indicate that the nonperiodic behavior observed is deterministic, that is, it is described by strange attractors. Various problems that arise in computing the dimension of strange attractors constructed from experimental data are discussed and it is shown that these problems impose severe requirements on the quantity and accuracy of data necessary for determining dimensions greater than about 5. In the present experiment the attractor dimension increases from 2 at the onset of turbulence to about 4 at a Reynolds number 50-percent above the onset of turbulence.
Large-Eddy-Simulation of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woelck Johannes
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A magnetohydrodynamic turbulent channel flow under the influence of a wallnormal magnetic field is investigated using the Large-Eddy-Simulation technique and k-equation subgrid-scale-model. Therefore, the new solver MHDpisoFoam is implemented in the OpenFOAM CFD-Code. The temporal decay of an initial turbulent field for different magnetic parameters is investigated. The rms values of the averaged velocity fluctuations show a similar, trend for each coordinate direction. 80% of the fluctuations are damped out in the range between 0 < Ha < < 75 at Re = 6675. The trend can be approximated via an exponential of the form exp(−a·Ha, where a is a scaling parameter. At higher Hartmann numbers the fluctuations decrease in an almost linear way. Therefore, the results of this study show that it may be possible to construct a general law for the turbulence damping due to action of magnetic fields.
Constrained dynamics of an inertial particle in a turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obligado, M; Baudet, C; Gagne, Y; Bourgoin, M
2011-01-01
Most of theoretical and numerical works for free advected particles in a turbulent flow, which only consider the drag force acting on the particles, fails to predict recent experimental results for the transport of finite size particles. These questions have motivated a series of experiments trying to emphasize the actual role of the drag force by imposing this one as an unambiguous leading forcing term acting on a particle in a turbulent background. This is achieved by considering the constrained dynamics of towed particles in a turbulent environment. In the present work, we focus on the influence of particles inertia on its velocity and acceleration Lagrangian statistics and energy spectral density. Our results are consistent with a filtering scenario resulting from the viscous response time of an inertial particle whose dynamics is coupled to the surrounding fluid via strong contribution of drag.
Fatigue reliability and effective turbulence models in wind farms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.
2007-01-01
behind wind turbines can imply a significant reduction in the fatigue lifetime of wind turbines placed in wakes. In this paper the design code model in the wind turbine code IEC 61400-1 (2005) is evaluated from a probabilistic point of view, including the importance of modeling the SN-curve by linear...
PDF modeling of turbulent flows on unstructured grids
Bakosi, Jozsef
In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. Because the technique solves a transport equation for the PDF of the velocity and scalars, a mathematically exact treatment of advection, viscous effects and arbitrarily complex chemical reactions is possible; these processes are treated without closure assumptions. A set of algorithms is proposed to provide an efficient solution of the PDF transport equation modeling the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and concentration of a passive scalar in geometrically complex configurations. An unstructured Eulerian grid is employed to extract Eulerian statistics, to solve for quantities represented at fixed locations of the domain and to track particles. All three aspects regarding the grid make use of the finite element method. Compared to hybrid methods, the current methodology is stand-alone, therefore it is consistent both numerically and at the level of turbulence closure without the use of consistency conditions. Since both the turbulent velocity and scalar concentration fields are represented in a stochastic way, the method allows for a direct and close interaction between these fields, which is beneficial in computing accurate scalar statistics. Boundary conditions implemented along solid bodies are of the free-slip and no-slip type without the need for ghost elements. Boundary layers at no-slip boundaries are either fully resolved down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly modeling the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the low-Reynolds-number wall region without damping or wall-functions or specified via logarithmic wall-functions. As in moment closures and large eddy simulation, these wall-treatments provide the usual trade-off between resolution and computational cost as required by the given application. Particular attention is focused on
Flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Hongsheng; Tan, Sichao; Zhuang, Nailiang; Lan, Shu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer experiment in transitional flow regime under rolling motion. • Increases of average friction factor and Nu were found. • Periodic breakdown of laminar flow contributes to the increase. • Nonlinear variation of pressure drop or Nu with Re also contributes to the increase. • Effect of critical Reynolds number shift was discussed. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer characteristics under rolling motion are extremely important to thermohydraulic analysis of offshore nuclear reactors. An experimental study was conducted in a heated rectangular channel to investigate flow and heat transfer in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime under rolling motion. The results showed that the average friction factor and Nusselt number are higher than that of the corresponding steady flow as the flow rate fluctuates in transitional flow regime. Larger relative flow rate fluctuation was observed under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. In the same manner, larger increases of average friction factor and Nusselt number were achieved under larger rolling amplitude or higher rolling frequency. The increases were mainly caused by the flow rate fluctuation through periodic breakdown of laminar flow and development of turbulence in laminar–turbulent transitional flow regime. First, turbulence, which enhances the rate of momentum and energy exchange, occurs near the crest of flow rate wave even the flow is still in laminar flow regime according to the average Reynolds number. Second, as a result of rapid increases of the friction and heat transfer with Reynolds number in transitional flow regime, the increases of the friction and the heat transfer near the crest of flow rate wave are larger than the decreases of them near the trough of flow rate wave, which also contributes to increases of average friction and heat transfer. Additionally, the effect of critical Reynolds number shift under unsteady flow and heating
Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing.
Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor
2015-08-01
We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Re turb c =Re TDR c ≃(4.8±0.2)×10(5) independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Re turb c and Re TDR c depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of C f and C p , by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993); and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005)] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.
SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER OVER A BACKWARD -FACING STEP WITH RIBS TURBULATORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khudheyer S Mushatet
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Simulation is presented for a backward facing step flow and heat transfer inside a channel with ribs turbulators. The problem was investigated for Reynolds numbers up to 32000. The effect of a step height, the number of ribs and the rib thickness on the flow and thermal field were investigated. The computed results are presented as streamlines counters, velocity vectors and graphs of Nusselt number and turbulent kinetic energy variation. A control volume method employing a staggered grid techniques was imposed to discretize the governing continuity, full Navier Stockes and energy equations. A computer program using a SIMPLE algorithm was developed to handle the considered problem. The effect of turbulence was modeled by using a k-є model with its wall function formulas. The obtained results show that the strength and size of the re-circulation zones behind the step are increased with the increase of contraction ratio(i.e. with the increase of a step height. The size of recirculation regions and the reattachment length after the ribs are decreased with increasing of the contraction ratio. Also the results show that the Reynolds number and contraction ratio have a significant effect on the variation of turbulent kinetic energy and Nusselt number
Modeling of 830 nm FSO Link Attenuation in Fog or Wind Turbulence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pešek, J.; Fišer, Ondřej; Svoboda, Jaroslav; Schejbal, V.
2010-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-241 ISSN 1210-2512 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0851; GA MŠk OC09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free space optics propagation * fog attenuation, * wind turbulence attenuation * turbulent energy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2010 http://www.radioeng.cz/fulltexts/2010/10_02_237_241.pdf
Tube bundle vibrations due to cross flow under the influence of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popp, K.; Romberg, O. [Institute of Mechanics, University of Hannover (Germany)
1998-10-01
Tube bundles are often used in heat exchangers and chemical reactors. Besides of large heat transfer capacities and small pressure drops in the apparatus a safe design against vibration damages is demanded. For many years extensive investigations concerning the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles subjected to cross-flow have been carried out in the wind tunnel of the Institute of Mechanics at the University of Hannover. In the last years the investigations were concentrated on the experimental investigations of different flow excitation mechanisms in a fully flexible bundle as well as in a bundle with one single flexibly mounted tube in an otherwise fixed array with variable geometry and changing equilibrium position. The aim of the studies was the determination of the stability boundaries, i.e. the critical reduced fluid velocity depending on the reduced damping coefficient in a wide parameter region. Theoretical investigations of the stability behaviour on the basis of an one dimensional flow model as well as experimental investigations of the influence of turbulence on the stability boundaries have been carried out. Here, for certain tube bundle configurations an increased turbulence has a stabilizing effect and leads to a shift of the stability boundaries to higher velocities. The change of the turbulence was realised by using turbulence grids at the inlet of the bundles or thin Prandtl-tripwires at the tube surfaces. Flow visualization studies at the original experimental set-up under relevant Reynolds numbers give an impression of the flow pattern. At this time an investigation of the exciting fluid forces is carried out using a flexibly mounted pressure test tube. A survey about some recent investigations is given. (orig.)
Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie
Wang, H; Barthelmie, R J; Crippa, P; Doubrawa, P; Pryor, S C
2014-01-01
Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve
Transition to turbulence for flows without linear criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Masato
2010-01-01
It is well known that plane Couette flow (PCF) and pipe flow (PF) are linearly stable against arbitrary three-dimensional perturbations at any finite Reynolds number, so that transitions from the basic laminar states, if they exist, must be abrupt. Due to this lack of linear criticality, weakly nonlinear analysis does not work in general and numerical approaches must be resorted to. It is only recently that non-trivial nonlinear states for these flows have been discovered numerically at finite Reynolds number as solutions bifurcating from infinity. The onset of turbulence in a subcritical transition is believed to be related to the appearance of steady/travelling wave states caused by disturbances of finite amplitude that take the flows out of the basin of attraction of the laminar state in phase space. In this paper, we introduce other flows that, in a similar way to PCF and PF, exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, namely flow in a square duct and sliding Couette flow in an annulus with a certain range of gap ratio. We shall show our recent numerical investigations on these flows where nonlinear travelling wave states are found for the first time by a homotopy approach. We believe that these states constitute the skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized and help in understanding non-equilibrium turbulent processes.
Modelling and simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in wall-bounded flows
Popovac, M.
2006-01-01
At present it is widely accepted that there is no universal turbulence model, i.e. no turbulence model can give acceptably good predictions for all turbulent flows that are found in nature or engineering. Every turbulence model is based on certain assumptions, and hence it is aimed at certain type
Boundary layer attenuation in turbulent sodium flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenchine, D.
1994-01-01
Temperature fluctuations are produced in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Reactors when flows at different temperatures are mixing. That occurs in various areas of the reactor plant, in the primary and the secondary circuits. This paper deals with secondary circuit pipings, specifically the Superphenix steam generator outlet. The possibility of thermal striping in this area is studied because of the mixing of a main 'hot' flow surrounded by a smaller 'cold' flow in the vertical pipe located below the steam generator. This work was developed in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME. The purpose of our study is to measure temperature fluctuations in the fluid and on the structures, on a sodium reduced scale model of the outlet region of the steam generator. We want to evidence the boundary layer attenuation by comparing wall and fluid measurements. From these experimental data, we shall propose a methodology to predict the boundary layer attenuation and the temperature fluctuations at the surface of the structure, for pipe flow configurations
Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10(5) for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreements between the computed and measured airfoil lift...
Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity
Coherent Structure Phenomena in Drift Wave-Zonal Flow Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyakov, A. I.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.
2000-01-01
Zonal flows are azimuthally symmetric plasma potential perturbations spontaneously generated from small-scale drift-wave fluctuations via the action of Reynolds stresses. We show that, after initial linear growth, zonal flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution leading to the formation of long-lived coherent structures which consist of self-bound wave packets supporting stationary shear layers. Such coherent zonal flow structures constitute dynamical paradigms for intermittency in drift-wave turbulence that manifests itself by the intermittent distribution of regions with a reduced level of anomalous transport. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Structure and statistics of turbulent flow over riblets
Henderson, R. D.; Crawford, C. H.; Karniadakis, G. E.
1993-01-01
In this paper we present comparisons of turbulence statistics obtained from direct numerical simulation of flow over streamwise aligned triangular riblets with experimental results. We also present visualizations of the instantaneous velocity field inside and around the riblet valleys. In light of the behavior of the statistics and flowfields inside the riblet valleys, we investigate previously reported physical mechanisms for the drag reducing effect of riblets; our results here support the hypothesis of flow anchoring by the riblet valleys and the corresponding inhibition of spanwise flow motions.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Flow separation on wind turbines blades
Corten, G. P.
2001-01-01
In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine blades could be controlled fully, the generation efficiency and thus the energy production would increase by 9%. Power Control To avoid damage to wind turbines, they are cut out above 10 Beaufort (25 m/s) on the wind speed scale. A turbine could be designed in such a way that it converts as much power as possible in all wind speeds, but then it would have to be to heavy. The high costs of such a design would not be compensated by the extra production in high winds, since such winds are rare. Therefore turbines usually reach maximum power at a much lower wind speed: the rated wind speed, which occurs at about 6 Beaufort (12.5 m/s). Above this rated speed, the power intake is kept constant by a control mechanism. Two different mechanisms are commonly used. Active pitch control, where the blades pitch to vane if the turbine maximum is exceeded or, passive stall control, where the power control is an implicit property of the rotor. Stall Control The flow over airfoils is called "attached" when it flows over the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge. However, when the angle of attack of the flow exceeds a certain critical angle, the flow does not reach the trailing edge, but leaves the surface at the separation line. Beyond this line the flow direction is reversed, i.e. it flows from the trailing edge backward to the separation line. A blade section extracts much less energy from the flow when it separates. This property is used for stall control. Stall controlled rotors always operate at a constant rotation speed. The angle of attack of the flow incident to the blades is determined by the blade speed and the wind speed. Since the latter is variable, it determines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun
2011-01-01
In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanghyeon Kim
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, cavitation flow of hydrofoils is numerically investigated to characterize the effects of turbulence models on cavitation-flow patterns and the corresponding radiated sound waves. The two distinct flow conditions are considered by varying the mean flow velocity and angle of attack, which are categorized under the experimentally observed unstable or stable cavitation flows. To consider the phase interchanges between the vapor and the liquid, the flow fields around the hydrofoil are analyzed by solving the unsteady compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a mass-transfer model, also referred to as the cavitation model. In the numerical solver, a preconditioning algorithm with dual-time stepping techniques is employed in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The following three types of turbulence models are employed: the laminar-flow model, standard k − ε turbulent model, and filter-based model. Hydro-acoustic field formed by the cavitation flow of the hydrofoil is predicted by applying the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation to the predicted flow field. From the predicted results, the effects of the turbulences on the cavitation flow pattern and radiated flow noise are quantitatively assessed in terms of the void fraction, sound-pressure-propagation directivities, and spectrum.
Wang, Chi R.; Yeh, Frederick C.
1987-01-01
A theoretical analysis and numerical calculations for the turbulent flow field and for the effect of free-stream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate of a stagnation flow are presented. The emphasis is on the modeling of turbulence and its augmentation of surface heat transfer rate. The flow field considered is the region near the forward stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a uniform turbulent mean flow. The free stream is steady and incompressible with a Reynolds number of the order of 10 to the 5th power and turbulence intensity of less than 5 percent. For this analysis, the flow field is divided into three regions: (1) a uniform free-stream region where the turbulence is homogeneous and isotropic; (2) an external viscid flow region where the turbulence is distorted by the variation of the mean flow velocity; and, (3) an anisotropic turbulent boundary layer region over the cylinder surface. The turbulence modeling techniques used are the kappa-epsilon two-equation model in the external flow region and the time-averaged turbulence transport equation in the boundary layer region. The turbulence double correlations, the mean velocity, and the mean temperature within the boundary layer are solved numerically from the transport equations. The surface heat transfer rate is calculated as functions of the free-stream turbulence longitudinal microlength scale, the turbulence intensity, and the Reynolds number.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Lei [Sate Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D., E-mail: jshept@gmail.com [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-11-10
Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. As opposed to the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfvén waves (AWs), anti-sunward AWs are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond, respectively, to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Elsässer variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orthogonality between the possible oscillation direction of one wave and the possible propagation direction of the other. The associated protons are revealed to exhibit bi-directional asymmetric beams in their velocity distributions: sunward beams appear in short, narrow patterns and anti-sunward in broad extended tails. It is suggested that multiple types of wave–particle interactions, i.e., cyclotron and Landau resonances with AWs and SMWs at kinetic scales, are taking place to jointly heat the protons perpendicular and in parallel.
Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.
Kadum, Hawwa; Rockel, Stanislav; Holling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim; Cal, Raul Bayon
2017-11-01
The wake behind a floating model horizontal axis wind turbine during pitch motion is investigated and compared to a fixed wind turbine wake. An experiment is conducted in an acoustic wind tunnel where hot-wire data are acquired at five downstream locations. At each downstream location, a rake of 16 hot-wires was used with placement of the probes increasing radially in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonally at 45 deg. In addition, the effect of turbulence intensity on the floating wake is examined by subjecting the wind turbine to different inflow conditions controlled through three settings in the wind tunnel grid, a passive and two active protocols, thus varying in intensity. The wakes are inspected by statistics of the point measurements, where the various length/time scales are considered. The wake characteristics for a floating wind turbine are compared to a fixed turbine, and uncovering its features; relevant as the demand for exploiting deep waters in wind energy is increasing.
Anomalous Chained Turbulence in Actively Driven Flows on Spheres
Mickelin, Oscar; Słomka, Jonasz; Burns, Keaton J.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Faria, Luiz M.; Dunkel, Jörn
2018-04-01
Recent experiments demonstrate the importance of substrate curvature for actively forced fluid dynamics. Yet, the covariant formulation and analysis of continuum models for nonequilibrium flows on curved surfaces still poses theoretical challenges. Here, we introduce and study a generalized covariant Navier-Stokes model for fluid flows driven by active stresses in nonplanar geometries. The analytical tractability of the theory is demonstrated through exact stationary solutions for the case of a spherical bubble geometry. Direct numerical simulations reveal a curvature-induced transition from a burst phase to an anomalous turbulent phase that differs distinctly from externally forced classical 2D Kolmogorov turbulence. This new type of active turbulence is characterized by the self-assembly of finite-size vortices into linked chains of antiferromagnetic order, which percolate through the entire fluid domain, forming an active dynamic network. The coherent motion of the vortex chain network provides an efficient mechanism for upward energy transfer from smaller to larger scales, presenting an alternative to the conventional energy cascade in classical 2D turbulence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gögmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor
2016-01-01
varies over the extent of the wind farm. This paper describes a method to estimate the TI at individual turbine locations by using the rotor effective wind speed calculated via high frequency turbine data. The method is applied to Lillgrund and Horns Rev-I offshore wind farms and the results are compared...... with TI derived from the meteorological mast, nacelle mounted anemometer on the turbines and estimation based on the standard deviation of power. The results show that the proposed TI estimation method is in the best agreement with the meteorological mast. Therefore, the rotor effective wind speed...... is shown to be applicable for the TI assessment in real-time wind farm calculations under different operational conditions. Furthermore, the TI in the wake is seen to follow the same trend with the estimated wake deficit which enables to quantify the turbulence in terms of the wake loss locally inside...
Large-scale structures in turbulent Couette flow
Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa
2016-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of fully developed turbulent Couette flow is performed with a large computational domain in the streamwise and spanwise directions (40 πh and 6 πh) to investigate streamwise-scale growth mechanism of the streamwise velocity fluctuating structures in the core region, where h is the channel half height. It is shown that long streamwise-scale structures (> 3 h) are highly energetic and they contribute to more than 80% of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress, compared to previous studies in canonical Poiseuille flows. Instantaneous and statistical analysis show that negative-u' structures on the bottom wall in the Couette flow continuously grow in the streamwise direction due to mean shear, and they penetrate to the opposite moving wall. The geometric center of the log layer is observed in the centerline with a dominant outer peak in streamwise spectrum, and the maximum streamwise extent for structure is found in the centerline, similar to previous observation in turbulent Poiseuille flows at high Reynolds number. Further inspection of time-evolving instantaneous fields clearly exhibits that adjacent long structures combine to form a longer structure in the centerline. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).
The pdf approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric
2001-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a probabilistic approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows. The two-phase flows considered are composed of a continuous phase, which is a turbulent fluid, and a dispersed phase, which represents an ensemble of discrete particles (solid particles, droplets or bubbles). Gathering the difficulties of turbulent flows and of particle motion, the challenge is to work out a general modelling approach that meets three requirements: to treat accurately the physically relevant phenomena, to provide enough information to address issues of complex physics (combustion, polydispersed particle flows, …) and to remain tractable for general non-homogeneous flows. The present probabilistic approach models the statistical dynamics of the system and consists in simulating the joint probability density function (pdf) of a number of fluid and discrete particle properties. A new point is that both the fluid and the particles are included in the pdf description. The derivation of the joint pdf model for the fluid and for the discrete particles is worked out in several steps. The mathematical properties of stochastic processes are first recalled. The various hierarchies of pdf descriptions are detailed and the physical principles that are used in the construction of the models are explained. The Lagrangian one-particle probabilistic description is developed first for the fluid alone, then for the discrete particles and finally for the joint fluid and particle turbulent systems. In the case of the probabilistic description for the fluid alone or for the discrete particles alone, numerical computations are presented and discussed to illustrate how the method works in practice and the kind of information that can be extracted from it. Comments on the current modelling state and propositions for future investigations which try to link the present work with other ideas in physics are made at the end of the paper.
Numerical vs. turbulent diffusion in geophysical flow modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Isidoro, M.; Maurizi, A.; Tampieri, F.
2008-01-01
Numerical advection schemes induce the spreading of passive tracers from localized sources. The effects of changing resolution and Courant number are investigated using the WAF advection scheme, which leads to a sub-diffusive process. The spreading rate from an instantaneous source is compared with the physical diffusion necessary to simulate unresolved turbulent motions. The time at which the physical diffusion process overpowers the numerical spreading is estimated, and is shown to reduce as the resolution increases, and to increase as the wind velocity increases.
Local measurements in turbulent bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzanne, C.; Ellingsen, K.; Risso, F.; Roig, V.
1998-01-01
Local measurements methods in bubbly flows are discussed. Concerning liquid velocity measurement, problems linked to HFA and LDA are first analysed. Then simultaneously recorded velocity signals obtained by both anemometers are compared. New signal processing are developed for the two techniques. Bubble sizes and velocities measurements methods using intrusive double optical sensor probe are presented. Plane bubbly mixing layer has been investigated. Local measurements using the described methods are presented as examples. (author)
Turbulence induced lift experienced by large particles in a turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, Robert; Gasteuil, Yoann; Volk, Romain; Pumir, Alain; Pinton, Jean-François; Bourgoin, Mickaël
2011-01-01
The translation and rotation of a large, neutrally buoyant, particle, freely advected by a turbulent flow is determined experimentally. We observe that, both, the orientation the angular velocity with respect to the trajectory and the translational acceleration conditioned on the spinning velocity provides evidence of a lift force, F lift ∝ ω × ν rel , acting on the particle. New results of the dynamics of the coupling between the particle's rotation and its translation are presented.
MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph Katz and Omar Knio
2007-01-10
The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro L. Fernández-Cabán
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental design and subsequent findings from a series of experiments in a large boundary layer wind tunnel to investigate the variation of surface pressures with increasing upwind terrain roughness on low-rise buildings. Geometrically scaled models of the Wind Engineering Research Field Laboratory experimental building were subjected to a wide range of turbulent boundary layer flows, through precise adjustment of a computer control terrain generator called the Terraformer. The study offers an in-depth examination of the effects of freestream turbulence on extreme pressures under the separation “bubble” for the case of the wind traveling perpendicular to wall surfaces, independently confirming previous findings that the spatial distribution of the peaks is heavily influenced by the mean reattachment length. Further, the study shows that the observed peak pressures collapse if data are normalized by the mean reattachment length and a non-Gaussian estimator for peak velocity pressure.
Direct numerical simulation of laminar-turbulent flow over a flat plate at hypersonic flow speeds
Egorov, I. V.; Novikov, A. V.
2016-06-01
A method for direct numerical simulation of a laminar-turbulent flow around bodies at hypersonic flow speeds is proposed. The simulation is performed by solving the full three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The method of calculation is oriented to application of supercomputers and is based on implicit monotonic approximation schemes and a modified Newton-Raphson method for solving nonlinear difference equations. By this method, the development of three-dimensional perturbations in the boundary layer over a flat plate and in a near-wall flow in a compression corner is studied at the Mach numbers of the free-stream of M = 5.37. In addition to pulsation characteristic, distributions of the mean coefficients of the viscous flow in the transient section of the streamlined surface are obtained, which enables one to determine the beginning of the laminar-turbulent transition and estimate the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
A time-localized response of wave growth process under turbulent winds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ge
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Very short time series (with lengths of approximately 40 s or 5~7 wave periods of wind velocity fluctuations and wave elevation were recorded simultaneously and investigated using the wavelet bispectral analysis. Rapid changes in the wave and wind spectra were detected, which were found to be intimately related to significant energy transfers through transient quadratic wind-wave and wave-wave interactions. A possible pattern of energy exchange between the wind and wave fields was further deduced. In particular, the generation and variation of the strong wave-induced perturbation velocity in the wind can be explained by the strengthening and diminishing of the associated quadratic interactions, which cannot be unveiled by linear theories. On small time scales, the wave-wave quadratic interactions were as active and effective in transferring energy as the wind-wave interactions. The results also showed that the wind turbulence was occasionally effective in transferring energy between the wind and the wave fields, so that the background turbulence in the wind cannot be completely neglected. Although these effects are all possibly significant over short times, the time-localized growth of the wave spectrum may not considerably affect the long-term process of wave development.
Flow around turbulence promoters in parallel channel, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Takakazu; Okamoto, Yoshizo
1982-01-01
Flow characteristics in relation to heat transfer characteristics in parallel channel with turbulence promoters were studied experimentally. Flow visualization experiments were made in paralle channel with one or two turbulence promoters for Reynolds number region of 100 lt = Resub(w) lt = 3,600. The vortex patterns behind one promoter were that a steady vortex was formed for low Reynolds number and vortex was shed for high Reynolds number,. For higher Reynolds number, it was observed that shedding vortex caused other vortices or disappeared itself randomly. The results indicate that the shedding vortices will augment heat transfer, whereas the steady vortex will give rise to deterioration in heat transfer. This inference agrees with the experimental results of Hishida et al. The results of two promoters experiment showed that the maximum performance of promoter would be attained at p/d -- 7. This agrees with the results formerly studied by other investigators. (author)
Neural network modeling for near wall turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milano, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2002-01-01
A neural network methodology is developed in order to reconstruct the near wall field in a turbulent flow by exploiting flow fields provided by direct numerical simulations. The results obtained from the neural network methodology are compared with the results obtained from prediction and reconstruction using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Using the property that the POD is equivalent to a specific linear neural network, a nonlinear neural network extension is presented. It is shown that for a relatively small additional computational cost nonlinear neural networks provide us with improved reconstruction and prediction capabilities for the near wall velocity fields. Based on these results advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed with an outlook toward the development of near wall models for turbulence modeling and control
Production of oscillatory flow in wind tunnels
Al-Asmi, K.; Castro, I. P.
1993-06-01
A method for producing oscillatory flow in open-circuit wind tunnels driven by centrifugal fans is described. Performance characteristics of a new device installed on two such tunnels of greatly differing size are presented. It is shown that sinusoidal variations of the working section flow, having peak-to-peak amplitudes up to at least 30 percent of the mean flow speed and frequencies up to, typically, that corresponding to the acoustic quarter-wave-length frequency determined by the tunnel size, can be obtained with negligible harmonic distortion or acoustic noise difficulties. A brief review of the various methods that have been used previously is included, and the advantages and disadvantages of these different techniques are highlighted. The present technique seems to represent a significant improvement over many of them.
Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.
2018-04-01
Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out on fully-rough boundary layers with large roughness (δ /h ≈ 10, where h is the height of the roughness elements and δ is the boundary-layer thickness). Twelve different surface conditions were created by using LEGO™ bricks of uniform height. Six cases are tested for a fixed plan solidity (λ _P) with variations in frontal density (λ _F), while the other six cases have varying λ _P for fixed λ _F. Particle image velocimetry and floating-element drag-balance measurements were performed. The current results complement those contained in Placidi and Ganapathisubramani (J Fluid Mech 782:541-566, 2015), extending the previous analysis to the turbulence statistics and spatial structure. Results indicate that mean velocity profiles in defect form agree with Townsend's similarity hypothesis with varying λ _F, however, the agreement is worse for cases with varying λ _P. The streamwise and wall-normal turbulent stresses, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show a lack of similarity across most examined cases. This suggests that the critical height of the roughness for which outer-layer similarity holds depends not only on the height of the roughness, but also on the local wall morphology. A new criterion based on shelter solidity, defined as the sheltered plan area per unit wall-parallel area, which is similar to the `effective shelter area' in Raupach and Shaw (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 22:79-90, 1982), is found to capture the departure of the turbulence statistics from outer-layer similarity. Despite this lack of similarity reported in the turbulence statistics, proper orthogonal decomposition analysis, as well as two-point spatial correlations, show that some form of universal flow structure is present, as all cases exhibit virtually identical proper orthogonal decomposition mode shapes and correlation fields. Finally, reduced models based on proper orthogonal decomposition reveal that the small scales of the turbulence
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is investigated experimentally by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, analysis of the instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) vortical structures shows the existence of a vortex core along the central axis which breaks up into a double helix downstream. The winding sense of this double helix is opposite to the swirl direction (m =-2 ) and it is wrapped around a central vortex breakdown bubble. This structure is quite different from double helix breakdown found in laminar flows where the helix is formed in the wake of the bubble and not upstream. The double helix precesses around the central axis of the jet with a precessing frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.
2009-01-01
A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.
Framework for simulating droplet vaporization in turbulent flows
Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier
2017-11-01
A framework for performing direct numerical simulations of droplet vaporization is presented. The work is motivated by spray combustion in engines wherein fuel droplets vaporize in a turbulent gas flow. The framework is built into a conservative finite volume code for simulating low Mach number turbulent multiphase flows. Phase tracking is performed using a discretely conservative geometric volume of fluid method, while the transport of mass fraction and temperature is performed using the BQUICK scheme. Special attention is given to the implementation of transport equations near the interface to ensure the consistency between fluxes of mass, momentum, and scalars. The effect of evaporation on the flow appears as a system of coupled source terms which depend on the local thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The sources are implemented implicitly using an unconditionally stable, monotone scheme. Two methodologies for resolving the system's thermodynamic equilibrium are compared for their accuracy, robustness, and computational expense. Verification is performed by comparing results to known solutions in one and three dimensions. Finally, simulations of droplets vaporizing in turbulence are demonstrated, and trends for mass fraction and temperature fields are discussed.
PIV measurement of turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X
2009-01-01
Turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives was experimentally investigated by PIV in present paper. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number for pure water case based on the velocity differences of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges from 14667∼73333. Flow field and turbulent quantities of turbulent mixing layer with 200ppm polymer additives were measured and compared with pure water mixing layer flow. It is shown that the dynamic development of mixing layer is greatly influenced by polymer addictives. The smaller vortices are eliminated and the coherent structure is much clearer. Similar with pure water case, Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central part of mixing layer and the width will increase with the Reynolds number increasing. However, compared with pure water case, the coniform width of polymer additives case is larger, which means the polymer additives will lead to the diffusion of coherent structure. The peak value of vorticity in different cross section will decrease with the development of mixing layer. Compared with pure water case, the vorticity is larger at the beginning of the mixing layer but decreases faster in the case with polymer additives.
Jiang, Ping; Wen, Zhiping; Sha, Weiming; Chen, Guixing
2017-05-01
Turbulent flow and its interaction with a sea breeze front (SBF) over an urban-like coast with a regular block array were investigated using a building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. It was found that during daytime with an offshore ambient flow, streaky turbulent structures tended to grow within the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a warm urban surface ahead of the SBF. The structures were organized as streamwise streaks at an interval of a few hundred meters, which initiated at the rooftop level with strong wind shear and strengthens in the CBL with moderate buoyancy. The streaks then interacted with the onshore-propagating SBF as it made landfall. The SBF, which was initially characterized as a shallow and quasi-linear feature over the sea, developed three-dimensional structures with intensified updrafts at an elevated frontal head after landfall. Frontal updrafts were locally enhanced at intersections where the streaks merged with the SBF, which greatly increased turbulent fluxes at the front. The frontal line was irregular because of merging, tilting, and transformation effects of vorticity associated with streaky structures. Inland penetration of the SBF was slowed by the frictional effect of urban-like surfaces and turbulent flow on land. The overall SBF intensity weakened after the interaction with turbulent flow. These findings aid understanding of local weather over coastal cities during typical sea breeze conditions.
Turbulent subcooled boiling flow visualization experiments through a rectangular channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada-Perez, Carlos E.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis E.; Hassan, Yassin A.
2008-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Proper characterization of subcooled boiling flow is of importance in many applications. It is of exceptional significance in the development of empirical models for the design of nuclear reactors, steam generators, and refrigeration systems. Most of these models are based on experimental studies that share the characteristics of utilizing point measurement probes with high temporal resolution, e.g. Hot Film Anemometry (HFA), Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and Fiber Optic Probes (FOP). However there appears to be a scarcity of experimental studies that can capture instantaneous whole-field measurements with a fast time response. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) may be used to overcome the limitations associated with point measurement techniques. PTV is a whole-flow-field technique providing instantaneous velocity vectors capable of high spatial and temporal resolution. PTV is also an exceptional tool for the analysis of boiling flow due to its ability to differentiate between the gas and liquid phases and subsequently deliver independent velocity fields associated with each phase. In this work, using PTV, liquid velocity fields of a turbulent subcooled boiling flow in a rectangular channel were successfully obtained. The present results agree with similar studies that used point measurement probes. However, the present study provides additional information; not only averaged profiles of the velocity components were obtained, instantaneous 2-D velocity fields were also readily available with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis of fluctuating velocities, Reynolds stresses, and higher order statistics of the flow are presented. This work is an attempt to enrich the database already collected on turbulent subcooled boiling flow, with the hope that it will be useful in turbulence modeling efforts. (authors)
On soft stability loss in rotating turbulent MHD flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapusta, Arkady; Mikhailovich, Boris
2014-01-01
The problem of the stability of turbulent flows of liquid metal in a cylindrical cavity against small velocity disturbances under the action of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) has been studied. The flow is considered in the induction-free approximation using the ‘external’ friction model. A system of dimensionless equations is examined in cylindrical coordinates. The results of computations performed on the basis of this mathematical model using the exchange of stabilities principle have shown a good consistency between the critical values of computed and experimental Reynolds numbers. (paper)
Characterization of zonal flow generation in weak electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Weyssow, B
2008-01-01
The influence of the diamagnetic Kubo number, which is proportional to the diamagnetic drift velocity, on the zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential is considered from a semi-analytic point of view. The analysis is performed in the weak turbulence limit and as an analytical tool the decorrelation trajectory method is used. It is shown that the fragmentation of the drift wave structures (a signature of the zonal flow generation) is influenced not only by the anisotropy parameter and the electrostatic Kubo number as expected, but also by the diamagnetic Kubo number. Global Lagrangian averages of characteristic quantities are calculated and interpreted
Off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent flows obtained from buffer-layer minimal flow units
Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Pierce, Brian; Wallace, James
2012-11-01
There is strong evidence that the transport processes in the buffer region of wall-bounded turbulence are common across various flow configurations, even in the embryonic turbulence in transition (Park et al., Phys. Fl. 24). We use this premise to develop off-wall boundary conditions for turbulent simulations. Boundary conditions are constructed from DNS databases using periodic minimal flow units and reduced order modeling. The DNS data was taken from a channel at Reτ = 400 and a zero-pressure gradient transitional boundary layer (Sayadi et al., submitted to J . FluidMech .) . Both types of boundary conditions were first tested on a DNS of the core of the channel flow with the aim of extending their application to LES and to spatially evolving flows. 2012 CTR Summer Program.
Flow and wakes in large wind farms: Final report for UpWind WP8
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole
This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore...
DNS of droplet motion in a turbulent flow
Rosso, Michele; Elghobashi, S.
2013-11-01
The objective of our research is to study the multi-way interactions between turbulence and vaporizing liquid droplets by performing direct numerical simulations (DNS). The freely-moving droplets are fully resolved in 3D space and time and all the relevant scales of the turbulent motion are simultaneously resolved down to the smallest length- and time-scales. Our DNS solve the unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and continuity equations throughout the whole computational domain, including the interior of the liquid droplets. The droplet surface motion and deformation are captured accurately by using the Level Set method. The pressure jump condition, density and viscosity discontinuities across the interface as well as surface tension are accounted for. Here, we present only the results of the first stage of our research which considers the effects of turbulence on the shape change of an initially spherical liquid droplet, at density ratio (of liquid to carrier fluid) of 1000, moving in isotropic turbulent flow. We validate our results via comparison with available expe. This research has been supported by NSF-CBET Award 0933085 and NSF PRAC (Petascale Computing Resource Allocation) Award.
Creating Turbulent Flow Realizations with Generative Adversarial Networks
King, Ryan; Graf, Peter; Chertkov, Michael
2017-11-01
Generating valid inflow conditions is a crucial, yet computationally expensive, step in unsteady turbulent flow simulations. We demonstrate a new technique for rapid generation of turbulent inflow realizations that leverages recent advances in machine learning for image generation using a deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN). The DCGAN is an unsupervised machine learning technique consisting of two competing neural networks that are trained against each other using backpropagation. One network, the generator, tries to produce samples from the true distribution of states, while the discriminator tries to distinguish between true and synthetic samples. We present results from a fully-trained DCGAN that is able to rapidly draw random samples from the full distribution of possible inflow states without needing to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, eliminating the costly process of spinning up inflow turbulence. This suggests a new paradigm in physics informed machine learning where the turbulence physics can be encoded in either the discriminator or generator. Finally, we also propose additional applications such as feature identification and subgrid scale modeling.
Description and detection of burst events in turbulent flows
Schmid, P. J.; García-Gutierrez, A.; Jiménez, J.
2018-04-01
A mathematical and computational framework is developed for the detection and identification of coherent structures in turbulent wall-bounded shear flows. In a first step, this data-based technique will use an embedding methodology to formulate the fluid motion as a phase-space trajectory, from which state-transition probabilities can be computed. Within this formalism, a second step then applies repeated clustering and graph-community techniques to determine a hierarchy of coherent structures ranked by their persistencies. This latter information will be used to detect highly transitory states that act as precursors to violent and intermittent events in turbulent fluid motion (e.g., bursts). Used as an analysis tool, this technique allows the objective identification of intermittent (but important) events in turbulent fluid motion; however, it also lays the foundation for advanced control strategies for their manipulation. The techniques are applied to low-dimensional model equations for turbulent transport, such as the self-sustaining process (SSP), for varying levels of complexity.
On turbulence models for rod bundle flow computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazi, Gabor
2005-01-01
In commercial computational fluid dynamics codes there is more than one turbulence model built in. It is the user responsibility to choose one of those models, suitable for the problem studied. In the last decade, several computations were presented using computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of various problems of the nuclear industry. A common feature in a number of those simulations is that they were performed using the standard k-ε turbulence model without justifying the choice of the model. The simulation results were rarely satisfactory. In this paper, we shall consider the flow in a fuel rod bundle as a case study and discuss why the application of the standard k-ε model fails to give reasonable results in this situation. We also show that a turbulence model based on the Reynolds stress transport equations can provide qualitatively correct results. Generally, our aim is pedagogical, we would like to call the readers attention to the fact that turbulence models have to be selected based on theoretical considerations and/or adequate information obtained from measurements
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.
Multi-Spacecraft Study of Kinetic scale Turbulence Using MMS Observations in the Solar Wind
Chasapis, A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Maruca, B.; Burch, J.; Moore, T. E.; Phan, T.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.
2017-12-01
We present a study investigating kinetic scale turbulence in the solar wind. Most previous studies relied on single spacecraft measurements, employing the Taylor hypothesis in order to probe different scales. The small separation of MMS spacecraft, well below the ion inertial scale, allow us for the first time to directly probe turbulent fluctuations at the kinetic range. Using multi-spacecraft measurements, we are able to measure the spatial characteristics of turbulent fluctuations and compare with the traditional Taylor-based single spacecraft approach. Meanwhile, combining observations from Cluster and MMS data we were able to cover a wide range of scales from the inertial range where the turbulent cascade takes place, down to the kinetic range where the energy is eventually dissipated. These observations present an important step in understanding the nature of solar wind turbulence and the processes through which turbulent energy is dissipated into particle heating and acceleration. We compute statistical quantities such as the second order structure function and the scale-dependent kurtosis, along with their dependence on the parameters such as the mean magnetic field direction. Overall, we observe an overall agreement between the single spacecraft and the multi-spacecraft approach. However, a small but significant deviation is observed at the smaller scales near the electron inertial scale. The high values of the scale dependent kurtosis at very small scales, observed via two-point measurements, open up a compelling avenue of investigation for theory and numerical modelling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiran Bhaganagar
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the atmosphere under stable stratification subjected to two different cooling rates. Wind turbine simulations have revealed that, in addition to wind shear and ABL turbulence, height-varying wind angle and low-level jets are ABL metrics that influence the structure of the turbine wake. Increasing stability results in shallower boundary layers with stronger wind shear, steeper vertical wind angle gradients, lower turbulence, and suppressed vertical motions. A turbulent mixing layer forms downstream of the wind turbines, the strength and size of which decreases with increasing stability. Height dependent wind angle and turbulence are the ABL metrics influencing the lateral wake expansion. Further, ABL metrics strongly impact the evolution of tip and root vortices formed behind the rotor. Two factors play an important role in wake meandering: tip vortex merging due to the mutual inductance form of instability and the corresponding instability of the turbulent mixing layer.
A Comparison of Wind Flow Models for Wind Resource Assessment in Wind Energy Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathieu Landry
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the accuracy of various coupled mesoscale-microscale wind flow modeling methodologies for wind energy applications. This is achieved by examining and comparing mean wind speeds from several wind flow modeling methodologies with observational measurements from several 50 m met towers distributed across the study area. At the mesoscale level, with a 5 km resolution, two scenarios are examined based on the Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 model: the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas (CWEA scenario, which is based on standard input data, and the CWEA High Definition (CWEAHD scenario where high resolution land cover input data is used. A downscaling of the obtained mesoscale wind climate to the microscale level is then performed, where two linear microscale models, i.e., MsMicro and the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP, are evaluated following three downscaling scenarios: CWEA-WAsP, CWEA-MsMicro and CWEAHD-MsMicro. Results show that, for the territory studied, with a modeling approach based on the MC2 and MsMicro models, also known as Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit (WEST, the use of high resolution land cover and topography data at the mesoscale level helps reduce modeling errors for both the mesoscale and microscale models, albeit only marginally. At the microscale level, results show that the MC2-WAsP modeling approach gave substantially better results than both MC2 and MsMicro modeling approaches due to tweaked meso-micro coupling.
Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.
2017-01-01
Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.
Plasma turbulence and kinetic instabilities at ion scales in the expanding solar wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 811, č. 2 (2015), L32/1-L32/6 ISSN 2041-8205 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.487, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L32/pdf
Plasma Turbulence and Kinetic Instabilities at Ion Scales in the Expanding Solar Wind
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Franci, L.; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 812, č. 2 (2015), L32/1-L32/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Grant - others:European Commission(XE) 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.487, year: 2015
Energy Cascade Rate in Compressible Fast and Slow Solar Wind Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S., E-mail: lina.hadid@lpp.polytechnique.fr [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Sud, Observatoire de Paris, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, PSL Research University, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)
2017-03-20
Estimation of the energy cascade rate in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence has been done so far mostly within incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory. Here, we go beyond that approximation to include plasma compressibility using a reduced form of a recently derived exact law for compressible, isothermal MHD turbulence. Using in situ data from the THEMIS / ARTEMIS spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind, we investigate in detail the role of the compressible fluctuations in modifying the energy cascade rate with respect to the prediction of the incompressible MHD model. In particular, we found that the energy cascade rate (1) is amplified particularly in the slow solar wind; (2) exhibits weaker fluctuations in spatial scales, which leads to a broader inertial range than the previous reported ones; (3) has a power-law scaling with the turbulent Mach number; (4) has a lower level of spatial anisotropy. Other features of solar wind turbulence are discussed along with their comparison with previous studies that used incompressible or heuristic (nonexact) compressible MHD models.
Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Dierksheide, U.
2007-01-01
In this feasibility study the tomographic PIV technique has been applied to time resolved PIV recordings for the study of the growth of a turbulent spot in a laminar flat plate boundary layer and to visualize the topology of coherent flow structures within a tripped turbulent flat plate boundary
Instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow
Izumi, Norihiro; Naito, Kensuke; Yokokawa, Miwa
2015-04-01
It is known that plane water-ice interface becomes unstable to evolve into a train of waves. The underside of ice formed on the water surface of rivers are often observed to be covered with ice ripples. Relatively steep channels which discharge melting water from glaciers are characterized by beds covered with a series of steps. Though the flowing agent inducing instability is not water but gas including water vapor, a similar train of steps have been recently observed on the Polar Ice Caps on Mars (Spiral Troughs). They are expected to be caused by the instability of water-ice interface induced by flowing fluid on ice. There have been some studies on this instability in terms of linear stability analysis. Recently, Caporeale and Ridolfi (2012) have proposed a complete linear stability analysis in the case of laminar flow, and found that plane water-ice interface is unstable in the range of sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, and that the important parameters are the Reynolds number, the slope angle, and the water surface temperature. However, the flow inducing instability on water-ice interface in the field should be in the turbulent regime. Extension of the analysis to the case of fully developed turbulent flow with larger Reynolds numbers is needed. We have performed a linear stability analysis on the instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow conditions with the use of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the mixing length turbulent model, the continuity equation of flow, the diffusion/dispersion equation of heat, and the Stefan equation. In order to reproduce the accurate velocity distribution and the heat transfer in the vicinity of smooth walls with the use of the mixing length model, it is important to take into account of the rapid decrease in the mixing length in the viscous sublayer. We employ the Driest model (1956) to the formulation. In addition, as the thermal boundary condition at the water surface, we describe the
Randomness Representation of Turbulence in Canopy Flows Using Kolmogorov Complexity Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragutin Mihailović
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Turbulence is often expressed in terms of either irregular or random fluid flows, without quantification. In this paper, a methodology to evaluate the randomness of the turbulence using measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity (KC is proposed. This methodology is applied to experimental data from a turbulent flow developing in a laboratory channel with canopy of three different densities. The methodology is even compared with the traditional approach based on classical turbulence statistics.
Characterization of turbulent coherent structures in square duct flow
Atzori, Marco; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Schlatter, Philipp
2018-04-01
This work is aimed at a first characterization of coherent structures in turbulent square duct flows. Coherent structures are defined as connected components in the domain identified as places where a quantity of interest (such as Reynolds stress or vorticity) is larger than a prescribed non-uniform threshold. Firstly, we qualitatively discuss how a percolation analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the threshold function, and how it can be affected by statistical uncertainty. Secondly, various physical quantities that are expected to play an important role in the dynamics of the secondary flow of Prandtl’s second kind are studied. Furthermore, a characterization of intense Reynolds-stress events in square duct flow, together with a comparison of their shape for analogous events in channel flow at the same Reynolds number, is presented.
Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2015-01-01
LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting...... speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared...... with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes....
Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows
Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad
2015-04-01
Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.
Measurement of turbulent flow in a narrow open channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarkar Sankar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of turbulent flow over hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Experiments were conducted in a rectangular flume under the aspect ratio b/h = 2 (b = width of the channel 0.5 m, and h = flow depth 0.25 m for both the bed conditions. For the hydraulically rough bed, the roughness was created by using 3/8″ commercially available angular crushed stone chips; whereas sand of a median diameter d50 = 1.9 mm was used as the bed material for hydraulically smooth bed. The three-dimensional velocity components were captured by using a Vectrino (an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The study focuses mainly on the turbulent characteristics within the dip that were observed towards the sidewall (corner of the channel where the maximum velocity occurs below the free-surface. It was also observed that the nondimensional Reynolds shear stress changes its sign from positive to negative within the dip. The quadrant plots for the turbulent bursting shows that the signs of all the bursting events change within the dip. Below the dip, the probability of the occurrence of sweeps and ejections are more than that of inward and outward interactions. On the other hand, within the dip, the probability of the occurrence of the outward and inward interactions is more than that of sweeps and ejections.
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace
2018-02-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engels, W P; Subhani, S; Zafar, H; Savenije, F
2014-01-01
Extreme wind conditions can cause excessive loading on the turbine. This not only results in higher design loads, but when these conditions occur in practice, will also result in higher maintenance cost. Although there are already effective methods of dealing with gusts, other extreme conditions should also be examined. More specifically, extreme turbulence conditions (e.g. those specified by design load case 1.3 in IEC61400-1 ed. 3) require special attention as they can lead to design-driving extreme loads on blades, tower and other wind turbine components. This paper examines two methods to deal with extreme loads in a case of extreme turbulent wind. One method is derating the turbine, the other method is an individual pitch control (IPC) algorithm. Derating of the turbine can be achieved in two ways, one is changing the rated torque, the other is changing the rated rotor speed. The effect of these methods on fatigue loads and extreme loads is examined. Non-linear aero-elastic simulations using Phatas, show that reducing the rated rotor speed is far more effective at reducing the loads than reducing torque. Then, the IPC algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller based on a time invariant model, defined in the fixed reference frame that includes the first tower and blade modes. Because this method takes the dynamics of the system into account more than conventional IPC control, it is expected that these loads dealt with more effectively, when they are particularly relevant. It is expected that in extreme turbulent the blade and tower dynamics are indeed more relevant. The effect of this algorithm on fatigue loads and pitch effort is examined and compared with the fatigue loads and pitch effort of reference IPC. Finally, the methods are compared in non-linear aero-elastic simulations with extreme turbulent wind
Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Mostafa; Fer, Ilker; Reuder, Joachim
2018-01-01
We report concurrent measurements of ocean currents and turbulence at two sites in the North Sea, one site at upwind of the FINO1 platform and the other 200-m downwind of the Alpha Ventus wind farm. At each site, mean currents, Reynolds stresses, turbulence intensity and production of turbulent kinetic energy are obtained from two bottom-mounted 5-beam Nortek Signature1000s, high-frequency Doppler current profiler, at a water depth of approximately 30 m. Measurements from the two sites are compared to statistically identify the effects of wind farm and waves on ocean current variability and the turbulent structure in the water column. Profiles of Reynolds stresses are found to be sensible to both environmental forcing and the wind farm wake-induced distortions in both boundary layers near the surface and the seabed. Production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity exhibit approximately similar, but less pronounced, patterns in the presence of farm wake effects.
Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as ... Wind erosion is the Aeolian process by which soil particles are detached from ..... the stabilizing role of vegetation on wind erosion. And therefore, for ...
Large Eddy Simulations of turbulent flows at supercritical pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunik, C.; Otic, I.; Schulenberg, T., E-mail: claus.kunik@kit.edu, E-mail: ivan.otic@kit.edu, E-mail: thomas.schulenberg@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)
2011-07-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method is used to investigate turbulent heat transfer to CO{sub 2} at supercritical pressure for upward flows. At those pressure conditions the fluid undergoes strong variations of fluid properties in a certain temperature range, which can lead to a deterioration of heat transfer (DHT). In this analysis, the LES method is applied on turbulent forced convection conditions to investigate the influence of several subgrid scale models (SGS-model). At first, only velocity profiles of the so-called inflow generator are considered, whereas in the second part temperature profiles of the heated section are investigated in detail. The results are statistically analyzed and compared with DNS data from the literature. (author)
Large eddy simulations of turbulent flows with heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, Alexandre
2004-01-01
LES of turbulent flows with heat transfer was used within the framework of conjugate heat transfer problems. The objective of this work lies not only in identifying the various elements likely to impair temperature fluctuations estimations at the fluid/solid interface but also to introduce adequate wall modeling. The choice of a proper convection scheme for the transport of passive scalars led to the adoption of a high order upwind scheme with slope limiter. The use of classical wall models having shown some weaknesses as for the estimation of parietal temperature fluctuations, two new approaches are proposed and tested. The first one relies on a complete resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a refined grid close to the wall making it possible to rebuild the temperature fluctuations near the wall. The second one relies on the simultaneous and one dimensional resolution of a turbulent boundary layer equation and a variance transport equation near the wall. (author) [fr
A Method for Measuring Sludge Settling Characteristics in Turbulent Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben
1996-01-01
A method for the determination of the settlilng velocity for sludge as a funktion of turbulence intensity and sludge concentration has been developed. The principle of the method is to continuously feed the top of a settling column with sludge so that a steady state and uniform concentration...... distribution occurs in the middle of the column. This eliminates time scale effects such as flocculation from the measurements, as the resulting settling velocity only can be found at steady state and uniform conditions. The method assumes that flocculated sludge settles faster than disintegratedsludge to make...... a mass balance involving concentration at the top and the middle of the column as well as the inlet sludge flow. The resulting mass balance is used to calculate a lokal settling velocity. The turbulence is introduced by an oscillating grid in the whole depth of the settling column. Settling velocities...
Effect of mean flow on the interaction between turbulence and zonal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzawa, Ken; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li Jiquan
2006-01-01
The effects of an external mean flow on the generation of zonal flow in drift wave turbulence are theoretically studied in terms of a modulational instability analysis. A dispersion relation for the zonal flow instability having complex frequency ω q =Ω q +iγ q is derived, which depends on the external mean flow's amplitude |φ f | and radial wave number k f . As an example, we chose an ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence-driven zonal flow as the mean flow acting on an electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence-zonal flow system. The growth rate of the zonal flow γ q is found to be suppressed, showing a relation γ q =γ q0 (1 - α|φ f | 2 k f 2 ), where γ q0 is the growth rate in the absence of mean flow and α is a positive numerical constant. This formula is applicable to a strong shearing regime where the zonal flow instability is stabilized at α|φ f 2 |k f 2 ≅ 1. Meanwhile, the suppression is accompanied by an increase of the real frequency |Ω q |. The underlying physical mechanism of the suppression is discussed. (author)
A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.
Bechtel, Tom B
2005-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented.
Observations of micro-turbulence in the solar wind near the sun with interplanetary scintillation
Yamauchi, Y.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, M.; Mori, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takaba, H.; Kondo, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Manoharan, P. K.
1995-01-01
Velocity and density turbulence of solar wind were inferred from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at 2.3 GHz and 8.5 GHz using a single-antenna. The observations were made during September and October in 1992 - 1994. They covered the distance range between 5 and 76 solar radii (Rs). We applied the spectrum fitting method to obtain a velocity, an axial ratio, an inner scale and a power-law spectrum index. We examined the difference of the turbulence properties near the Sun between low-speed solar wind and high-speed solar wind. Both of solar winds showed acceleration at the distance range of 10 - 30 Rs. The radial dependence of anisotropy and spectrum index did not have significant difference between low-speed and high-speed solar winds. Near the sun, the radial dependence of the inner scale showed the separation from the linear relation as reported by previous works. We found that the inner scale of high-speed solar wind is larger than that of low-speed wind.
Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall
Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.
2017-11-01
Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.
Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
Numerical simulation of secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeno, Tsutomu; Kataoka, Isao
2009-01-01
Secondary flow in bubbly turbulent flow in sub-channel was simulated by using an algebraic turbulence stress model. The mass, momentum, turbulence energy and bubble diffusion equations were used as fundamental equation. The basis for these equations was the two-fluid model: the equation of liquid phase was picked up from the equation system theoretically derived for the gas-liquid two-fluid turbulent flow. The fundamental equation was transformed onto a generalized coordinate system fitted to the computational domain in sub-channel. It was discretized for the SIMPLE algorism using the finite-volume method. The shape of sub-channel causes a distortion of the computational mesh, and orthogonal nature of the mesh is sometimes broken. An iterative method to satisfy a requirement for the contra-variant velocity was introduced to represent accurate symmetric boundary condition. Two-phase flow at a steady state was simulated for different magnitude of secondary flow and void fraction. The secondary flow enhanced the momentum transport in sub-channel and accelerated the liquid phase in the rod gap. This effect was slightly mitigated when the void fraction increased. The acceleration can contribute to effective cooling in the rod gap. The numerical result implied a phenomenon of industrial interest. This suggested that experimental approach is necessary to validate the numerical model and to identify the phenomenon. (author)
Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density
Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian
2016-04-01
Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C tank, but the head velocities gradually reduced along the tank. Bagnold (1954, 1963) estimated that, for sand flows, grain-to-grain interactions start to become important in modulating turbulence at C > 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just
An error reduction algorithm to improve lidar turbulence estimates for wind energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. Newman
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Remote-sensing devices such as lidars are currently being investigated as alternatives to cup anemometers on meteorological towers for the measurement of wind speed and direction. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds at heights spanning an entire turbine rotor disk and can be easily moved from one location to another, they measure different values of turbulence than an instrument on a tower. Current methods for improving lidar turbulence estimates include the use of analytical turbulence models and expensive scanning lidars. While these methods provide accurate results in a research setting, they cannot be easily applied to smaller, vertically profiling lidars in locations where high-resolution sonic anemometer data are not available. Thus, there is clearly a need for a turbulence error reduction model that is simpler and more easily applicable to lidars that are used in the wind energy industry. In this work, a new turbulence error reduction algorithm for lidars is described. The Lidar Turbulence Error Reduction Algorithm, L-TERRA, can be applied using only data from a stand-alone vertically profiling lidar and requires minimal training with meteorological tower data. The basis of L-TERRA is a series of physics-based corrections that are applied to the lidar data to mitigate errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. These corrections are applied in conjunction with a trained machine-learning model to improve turbulence estimates from a vertically profiling WINDCUBE v2 lidar. The lessons learned from creating the L-TERRA model for a WINDCUBE v2 lidar can also be applied to other lidar devices. L-TERRA was tested on data from two sites in the Southern Plains region of the United States. The physics-based corrections in L-TERRA brought regression line slopes much closer to 1 at both sites and significantly reduced the sensitivity of lidar turbulence errors to atmospheric stability. The accuracy of machine
Stereoscopic measurements of particle dispersion in microgravity turbulent flow
Groszmann, Daniel Eduardo
2001-08-01
The presence of particles in turbulent flows adds complexity to an already difficult subject. The work described in this research dissertation was intended to characterize the effects of inertia, isolated from gravity, on the dispersion of solid particles in a turbulent air flow. The experiment consisted of releasing particles of various sizes in an enclosed box of fan- generated, homogenous, isotropic, and stationary turbulent airflow and examining the particle behavior in a microgravity environment. The turbulence box was characterized in ground-based experiments using laser Doppler velocimetry techniques. Microgravity was established by free-floating the experiment apparatus during the parabolic trajectory of NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The microgravity generally lasted about 20 seconds, with about fifty parabolas per flight and one flight per day over a testing period of four days. To cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest, particles with Stokes numbers (St) of 1 to 300 were released in the turbulence box. The three- dimensional measurements of particle motion were made using a three-camera stereo imaging system with a particle-tracking algorithm. Digital photogrammetric techniques were used to determine the particle locations in three-dimensional space from the calibrated camera images. The epipolar geometry constraint was used to identify matching particles from the three different views and a direct spatial intersection scheme determined the coordinates of particles in three-dimensional space. Using velocity and acceleration constraints, particles in a sequence of frames were matched resulting in particle tracks and dispersion measurements. The goal was to compare the dispersion of different Stokes number particles in zero gravity and decouple the effects of inertia and gravity on the dispersion. Results show that higher inertia particles disperse less in zero gravity, in agreement with current models. Particles with St ~ 200
Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes
Chin, C.; Vinuesa, R.; Örlü, R.; Cardesa, J. I.; Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.; Chong, M. S.
2018-04-01
A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re τ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Re τ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.
Ronda, R.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Pino, D.
2012-01-01
Goal of this study is to quantify the effect of wind shear on the turbulent transport in the dry Convective Boundary Layer (CBL). Questions addressed include the effect of wind shear on the depth of the mixed layer, the effect of wind shear on the depth and structure of the capping inversion, and
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris
2012-01-01
A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.
Chang, Ouliang
The objective of this dissertation is to study the physics of whistler turbulence evolution and its role in energy transport and dissipation in the solar wind plasmas through computational and theoretical investigations. This dissertation presents the first fully three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of whistler turbulence forward cascade in a homogeneous, collisionless plasma with a uniform background magnetic field B o, and the first 3D PIC simulation of whistler turbulence with both forward and inverse cascades. Such computationally demanding research is made possible through the use of massively parallel, high performance electromagnetic PIC simulations on state-of-the-art supercomputers. Simulations are carried out to study characteristic properties of whistler turbulence under variable solar wind fluctuation amplitude (epsilon e) and electron beta (betae), relative contributions to energy dissipation and electron heating in whistler turbulence from the quasilinear scenario and the intermittency scenario, and whistler turbulence preferential cascading direction and wavevector anisotropy. The 3D simulations of whistler turbulence exhibit a forward cascade of fluctuations into broadband, anisotropic, turbulent spectrum at shorter wavelengths with wavevectors preferentially quasi-perpendicular to B o. The overall electron heating yields T ∥ > T⊥ for all epsilone and betae values, indicating the primary linear wave-particle interaction is Landau damping. But linear wave-particle interactions play a minor role in shaping the wavevector spectrum, whereas nonlinear wave-wave interactions are overall stronger and faster processes, and ultimately determine the wavevector anisotropy. Simulated magnetic energy spectra as function of wavenumber show a spectral break to steeper slopes, which scales as k⊥lambda e ≃ 1 independent of betae values, where lambdae is electron inertial length, qualitatively similar to solar wind observations. Specific
Correcting for particle counting bias error in turbulent flow
Edwards, R. V.; Baratuci, W.
1985-01-01
An ideal seeding device is proposed generating particles that exactly follow the flow out are still a major source of error, i.e., with a particle counting bias wherein the probability of measuring velocity is a function of velocity. The error in the measured mean can be as much as 25%. Many schemes have been put forward to correct for this error, but there is not universal agreement as to the acceptability of any one method. In particular it is sometimes difficult to know if the assumptions required in the analysis are fulfilled by any particular flow measurement system. To check various correction mechanisms in an ideal way and to gain some insight into how to correct with the fewest initial assumptions, a computer simulation is constructed to simulate laser anemometer measurements in a turbulent flow. That simulator and the results of its use are discussed.
Stability of model flocks in turbulent-like flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khurana, Nidhi; Ouellette, Nicholas T
2013-01-01
We report numerical simulations of a simple model of flocking particles in the presence of an uncertain background environment. We consider two types of environmental perturbations: random noise applied separately to each particle, and spatiotemporally correlated ‘noise’ provided by a turbulent-like flow field. The effects of these two types of noise are very different; surprisingly, the applied flow field tends to destroy the global order of the flocking model even for vanishingly small flow amplitudes. Local order, however, is preserved in smaller sub-flocks, although their composition changes dynamically. Our results suggest that realistic perturbations must be considered in assessing the stability of models of collective animal behavior, and that random noise is not a sufficient proxy. (paper)
Transition and Turbulence Modeling for Blunt-Body Wake Flows
Nance, Robert P.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hassan, H. A.
1997-01-01
This study attempts t o improve the modeling and computational prediction of high- speed transitional wake flows. The recently developed kappa - zeta (Enstrophy) turbulence model is coupled with a newly developed transition prediction method and implemented in an implicit flow solver well-suited to hypersonic flows. In this model, transition onset is determined as part of the solution. Results obtained using the new model for a 70- deg blunted cone/sting geometry demonstrate better agreement with experimental heat- transfer measurements when compared to laminar calculations as well as solutions using the kappa - omega model. Results are also presented for the situation where transition onset is preselected. It is shown that, in this case, results are quite sensitive to location of the transition point.
Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard
2017-11-01
Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.
Apparatus and method for using radar to evaluate wind flow fields for wind energy applications
Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry
2017-02-21
The present invention provides an apparatus and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind flow field using one or more radars. Data is collected from the one or more radars, and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind flow field. The one or more radars are positioned to have a portion of the wind flow field within a scanning sector of the one or more radars.
Dufresne, Nathaniel P.
An experimental investigation of the axial and azimuthal (swirl) velocity field in the wake of a single 3-bladed wind turbine with rotor diameter of 0.91m was conducted, up to 20 diameters downstream. The turbine was positioned in the free stream, near the entrance of the 6m x 2.7m cross section of the University of New Hampshire (UNH) Flow Physics Facility. Velocity measurements were conducted at different rotor loading conditions with blade tip-speed ratios from 2.0 to 2.8. A Pitot-static tube and constant temperature hot-wire anemometer with a multi-wire sensor were used to measure velocity fields. An equilibrium similarity theory for the turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation was outlined, and first evidence for a new scaling function for the mean swirling velocity component, Wmax ∝ x-1 ∝ U3/2o a was found; where W represents swirl, x represents downstream distance, and Uo, represents the centerline velocity deficit in the wake.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
This paper investigates gear tooth fatigue damage in a 500 kW wind turbine using FLEX5 and own multibody code. FLEX5 provides the physical wind eld, rotor and generator torque and the multibody code is used for obtaining gear tooth reaction forces in the planetary gearbox. Dierent turbulence levels...... and therefore increased fatigue damage levels. This article contributes to a better understanding of gear fatigue damage when turbulence is increased (e.g. in the center of large wind farms or at places where turbulence is pronounced)....
Yu, Kai; Dong, Changming; King, Gregory P.
2017-06-01
We investigate mesoscale turbulence (10-1000 km) in the ocean winds over the Kuroshio Extension (28°N-40°N, 140°E-180°E) using the QuikSCAT data set (November 1999 to October 2009). We calculate the second (Djj) and third-order structure functions (Djjj) and the spatial variance (Vj) as a function of scale r (j=L,T denotes, respectively, the longitudinal (divergent) and transverse (vortical) component). The most interesting results of the analysis follow. Although both Vj>(r>) and Djj>(r>) measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), we find that Vj>(r>) is the more robust measure. The spatial variance density (dVj/dr) has a broad peak near 450 km (close to the midlatitude Rossby radius of deformation). On interannual time scales, TKE correlates well with the El Niño 3.4 index. According to turbulence theory, the kinetic energy cascades downscale (upscale) if DLLL>(r>) (also skewness SL=DLLL/DLL3/2) is negative (positive). Our results for the Kuroshio Extension are consistent with a downscale cascade (indicating convergence dominates). Furthermore, classical turbulence theory predicts that SL=-0.3 and independent of r; however, we find SL varies strongly with r, from -4 at small scales to -0.3 at large scales. This nonclassical behavior implies strong-scale interaction, which we attribute to the rapid, and sometimes explosive, growth of storms in the region through baroclinic instability. Finally, we find that ST (a measure of cyclonic/anticyclonic asymmetry) is positive (cyclonic) and also varies strongly with r, from 4 at small scales to 0.5 at large scales. New turbulence models are needed to explain these results, and that will benefit Weather Prediction and climate modeling.Plain Language SummaryThe turbulent winds near the ocean surface give rise to air-sea heat and momentum exchange. The turbulence is caused by convective processes - processes generated at weather fronts, in squalls, tropical disturbances and extra-tropical cyclones. In order to improve
Entropic multirelaxation lattice Boltzmann models for turbulent flows
Bösch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya V.
2015-10-01
We present three-dimensional realizations of a class of lattice Boltzmann models introduced recently by the authors [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302] and review the role of the entropic stabilizer. Both coarse- and fine-grid simulations are addressed for the Kida vortex flow benchmark. We show that the outstanding numerical stability and performance is independent of a particular choice of the moment representation for high-Reynolds-number flows. We report accurate results for low-order moments for homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence and second-order grid convergence for most assessed statistical quantities. It is demonstrated that all the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann realizations considered herein converge to the familiar lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model when the resolution is increased. Moreover, thanks to the dynamic nature of the entropic stabilizer, the present model features less compressibility effects and maintains correct energy and enstrophy dissipation. The explicit and efficient nature of the present lattice Boltzmann method renders it a promising candidate for both engineering and scientific purposes for highly turbulent flows.
Efficient Parallel Algorithm For Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows
Moitra, Stuti; Gatski, Thomas B.
1997-01-01
A distributed algorithm for a high-order-accurate finite-difference approach to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of transition and turbulence in compressible flows is described. This work has two major objectives. The first objective is to demonstrate that parallel and distributed-memory machines can be successfully and efficiently used to solve computationally intensive and input/output intensive algorithms of the DNS class. The second objective is to show that the computational complexity involved in solving the tridiagonal systems inherent in the DNS algorithm can be reduced by algorithm innovations that obviate the need to use a parallelized tridiagonal solver.
Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.
De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken
2014-09-26
Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 μm tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 μm. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going
Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Gas Flow in Microtube with Constant Heat Flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Chungpyo; Matsushita, Shinichi; Ueno, Ichiro; Asako, Yutaka
2012-01-01
Local friction factors for turbulent gas flows in circular microtubes with constant wall heat flux were obtained numerically. The numerical methodology is based on arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method to solve two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations. The Lam-Bremhorst's Low-Reynolds number turbulence model was employed to calculate eddy viscosity coefficient and turbulence energy. The simulations were performed for a wide flow range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers with different constant wall heat fluxes. The stagnation pressure was chosen in such a way that the outlet Mach number ranged from 0.07 to 1.0. Both Darcy friction factor and Fanning friction factor were locally obtained. The result shows that the obtained both friction factors were evaluated as a function of Reynolds number on the Moody chart. The values of Darcy friction factor differ from Blasius correlation due to the compressibility effects but the values of Fanning friction factor almost coincide with Blasius correlation. The wall heat flux varied from 100 to 10000 W/m 2 . The wall and bulk temperatures with positive heat flux are compared with those of incompressible flow. The result shows that the Nusselt number of turbulent gas flow is different from that of incompressible flow.
Koga, D; Chian, A C-L; Hada, T; Rempel, E L
2008-02-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is commonly observed in the solar wind. Nonlinear interactions among MHD waves are likely to produce finite correlation of the wave phases. For discussions of various transport processes of energetic particles, it is fundamentally important to determine whether the wave phases are randomly distributed (as assumed in the quasi-linear theory) or have a finite coherence. Using a method based on the surrogate data technique, we analysed the GEOTAIL magnetic field data to evaluate the phase coherence in MHD turbulence in the Earth's foreshock region. The results demonstrate the existence of finite phase correlation, indicating that nonlinear wave-wave interactions are in progress.
Water circulation in non-isothermal droplet-laden turbulent channel flow
Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Simos, T.; Psihoyios, G.; Tsitouras, Ch.
2013-01-01
We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapor. An incompressible flow formulation is applied for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow with a warm and a cold wall. Compared
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is
Befrui, Bizhan A.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2016-03-25
Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Nandi, Tarak Nath
Relevant to utility scale wind turbine functioning and reliability, the present work focuses on enhancing our understanding of wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique data set from a GE field experiment and computer simulations at two levels of fidelity. Previous studies have shown that the stability state of the lower troposphere has a major impact on the coherent structure of the turbulence eddies, with corresponding differences in wind turbine loading response. In this study, time-resolved aerodynamic data measured locally at the leading edge and trailing edge of three outer blade sections on a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine blade and high-frequency SCADA generator power data from a daytime field campaign are combined with computer simulations that mimic the GE wind turbine within a numerically generated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow field which is a close approximation of the atmospheric turbulence experienced by the wind turbine in the field campaign. By combining the experimental and numerical data sets, this study describes the time-response characteristics of the local loadings on the blade sections in response to nonsteady nonuniform energetic atmospheric turbulence eddies within a daytime ABL which have spatial scale commensurate with that of the turbine blade length. This study is the first of its kind where actuator line and blade boundary layer resolved CFD studies of a wind turbine field campaign are performed with the motivation to validate the numerical predictions with the experimental data set, and emphasis is given on understanding the influence of the laminar to turbulent transition process on the blade loadings. The experimental and actuator line method data sets identify three important response time scales quantified at the blade location: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25 - 50 s), blade rotation (1P
Numerical simulation of turbulent buoyant flows in horizontal channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiter, C.
1995-09-01
A numerical method is presented, to calculate the three-dimensional, time-dependent large scale structure of turbulent buoyant flows. The subject of the study is the Rayleigh-Benard-convection with air (Pr=0.71, Ra=2.5 10 6 , 10 7 ) and sodium (Pr=0.006, Ra=8.4 10 4 , 2.5 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 ) and a fluid layer with water and an internal heat source (Pr=7.0, Ra I =1.5 10 10 ) at moderate and high Rayleigh-numbers. The goal of the work is both, the analysis of structures of instantaneous as well as the statistical analysis of spatially and/or time averaged data, to give a contribution to the investigation of the characteristics of turbulent natural convection mainly in fluids with small Prandtl-numbers. The large eddy simulation of natural convection requires the development of appropriate momentum and heat subgrid scale models and the formulation of new boundary conditions. The used energy-length-models in the computer code TURBIT are extended methodically by modification of the characteristic length scales of the sub scale turbulence. The reduction or the increase of the sub scale turbulence correlations, caused by the influence of solid boundaries or the stratification, is considered. In the same way the new boundary conditions for the diffusive terms of the conservation equations are seen to be necessary, when the thermal or in the case of liquid metals the more critical hydrodynamic boundary layer is resolved insufficiently or not at all. The extended and new methods, models and boundary conditions, which enabled the realization of the planned simulations, are presented. (orig.)
Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows
Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya
2015-11-01
Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Pedersen
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can be performed from a few hours or days of measurements.In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation with the actual power production as well as the flap-wise loads as it is measured close to the blade where the aerodynamic forces are acting.Conventional power curves are based on at least 180 h of 10 min mean values, but using the blade-mounted flow sensor both the observation average time and the overall assessment time can potentially be shortened. The basis for this hypothesis is that the sensor is able to provide more observations with higher accuracy, as the sensor follows the rotation of the rotor and because of the high correlation between the flow at the blades and the power production. This is the research question addressed in this paper.The method is first tested using aeroelastic simulations where the dependence of the radial position and effect of multiple blade-mounted flow sensors are also investigated. Next the method is evaluated on the basis of full-scale measurements on a pitch-regulated, variable-speed 3.6 MW wind turbine.It is concluded that the wind speed derived from the blade-mounted flow sensor is highly correlated with the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, B.; Parishani, H.; Ayala, O.; Wang, L.-P.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study systematically the effects of forcing time scale in the large-scale stochastic forcing scheme of Eswaran and Pope [“An examination of forcing in direct numerical simulations of turbulence,” Comput. Fluids 16, 257 (1988)] on the simulated flow structures and statistics of forced turbulence. Using direct numerical simulations, we find that the forcing time scale affects the flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number. Other flow statistics can be predicted using the altered flow dissipation rate and flow Reynolds number, except when the forcing time scale is made unrealistically large to yield a Taylor microscale flow Reynolds number of 30 and less. We then study the effects of forcing time scale on the kinematic collision statistics of inertial particles. We show that the radial distribution function and the radial relative velocity may depend on the forcing time scale when it becomes comparable to the eddy turnover time. This dependence, however, can be largely explained in terms of altered flow Reynolds number and the changing range of flow length scales present in the turbulent flow. We argue that removing this dependence is important when studying the Reynolds number dependence of the turbulent collision statistics. The results are also compared to those based on a deterministic forcing scheme to better understand the role of large-scale forcing, relative to that of the small-scale turbulence, on turbulent collision of inertial particles. To further elucidate the correlation between the altered flow structures and dynamics of inertial particles, a conditional analysis has been performed, showing that the regions of higher collision rate of inertial particles are well correlated with the regions of lower vorticity. Regions of higher concentration of pairs at contact are found to be highly correlated with the region of high energy dissipation rate
Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.
1983-01-01
Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments
Experimental study of circle grid fractal pattern on turbulent intensity in pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manshoor, B; Zaman, I; Othman, M F; Khalid, Amir
2013-01-01
Fractal turbulence is deemed much more efficient than grid turbulence in terms of a turbulence generation. In this paper, the hotwire experimental results for the circle grids fractal pattern as a turbulent generator will be presented. The self-similar edge characteristic of the circle grid fractal pattern is thought to play a vital role in the enhancement of turbulent intensity. Three different beta ratios of perforated plates based on circle grids fractal pattern were used in the experimental work and each paired with standard circle grids with similar porosity. The objectives were to study the fractal scaling influence on the flow and also to explore the potential of the circle grids fractal pattern in enhancing the turbulent intensity. The results provided an excellent insight of the fractal generated turbulence and the fractal flow physics. Across the circle grids fractal pattern, the pressure drop was lower but the turbulent intensity was higher than those across the paired standard circle grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingtuan Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the anisotropic characteristics of turbulent energy dissipation rate in a rotating jet flow via direct numerical simulation. The turbulent energy dissipation tensor, including its eigenvalues in the swirling flows with different rotating velocities, is analyzed to investigate the anisotropic characteristics of turbulence and dissipation. In addition, the probability density function of the eigenvalues of turbulence dissipation tensor is presented. The isotropic subrange of PDF always exists in swirling flows relevant to small-scale vortex structure. Thus, with remarkable large-scale vortex breakdown, the isotropic subrange of PDF is reduced in strongly swirling flows, and anisotropic energy dissipation is proven to exist in the core region of the vortex breakdown. More specifically, strong anisotropic turbulence dissipation occurs concentratively in the vortex breakdown region, whereas nearly isotropic turbulence dissipation occurs dispersively in the peripheral region of the strong swirling flows.