WorldWideScience

Sample records for flown on-board sts-115

  1. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson, using ground-based analog systems demonstrate important changes in the genotypic, phenotypic, and virulence characteristics of this pathogen resulting from exposure to a flight-like environment (i.e. modeled microgravity).

  2. Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper During STS-115 Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Wearing a training version of the shuttle launch and entry suit, STS-115 astronaut and mission specialist, Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, puts the final touches on her suit donning process prior to the start of a water survival training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near Johnson Space Center. Launched on September 9, 2006, the STS-115 mission continued assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) with the installation of the truss segments P3 and P4.

  3. Flown The Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Sebbane, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Lorsque le quotidien régional, The Champion, commence à publier Flown The Nest en 1972 sous forme d’épisodes, Bird’s Nest Soup est déjà en vente, et la troisième partie de l’autobiographie d’Hanna, Housekeeper At Large, est sous presse. L’édition de 2009 contient Flown The Nest et Housekeeper at Large. Dans Bird’s Nest Soup, Hanna Greally racontait les dix-huit années de sa vie passées au sein d’un hôpital psychiatrique. Les raisons pour lesquelles elle y avait été enfermée, à la demande de s...

  4. The Engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest Laboratory ever flown in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenkel, Christian; Wealthy, Dave; Dunbar, Neil; Warren, Carl; Schleicher, Alexander; Ziegler, Tobias; Brandt, Nico; Gerndt, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    We review the engineering approach adopted to ensure the required gravitational, magnetic, thermal and residual acceleration stability on-board LISA Pathfinder, and present the in-flight results that have been achieved. Arguably, this stability makes LISA Pathfinder the quietest laboratory ever flown in space. The implications for LISA are also discussed. (paper)

  5. Magnetic field on board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Radio, H.; Fernandez Arenal, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Here, the calculation of the magnetic field on board ships is performed, using matrix calculus, in a similar way as when the magnetic field in matter is studied. Thus the final formulas are written in a more compact form and they are obtained through a simpler way, more suitable for the university education. (Author)

  6. Dominant lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster natural populations flown on board ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    The resistance to mutagenic impacts represents an important issue of manned space missions. However the reasons of its individual variability as well as the factors which could induce mutations in space flight are not fully understood. Drosophila studies accomplished by several research teams at real space flights, revealed pronounced increase of mutations in somatic and reproductive cells, nonetheless, quite an opposite spaceflight effects also occurred, i.e., mei-41 laboratory strain showed postflight mutation rates lower than that in ground control. In order to monitor the influence of space flight on the mutational process, 4 series of space experiment with D. melanogaster wild type populations were performed at International Space Station (ISS). The appliance “Drosophila-2” used for breeding of drosophila in spaceflight conditions, enabled to conduct synchronous studies with two samples of fly populations. First instar drosophila larvae were placed into the experimental appliance 12 hours before the start of transport spacecraft. The duration of experiments was 7.9 through 19.7 days. In 19.7-day experiment, two generations of the flies were raised during the space flight, and then delivered to the earth. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) was evaluated as the percentage of embryonic death in the progeny of experimental drosophila samples. DLM tests in VV-09 and Chas-09 natural populations, performed after the exposure to 10.9-day flight, showed the increase of DLM rate in Chas-09 (0.077 in flight series vs. 0.43 in earth-based control) while post-flight DLM value in VV-09 did not diverge from on-earth sample (0.025 and 0.027 correspondingly). The same results for VV-09 were obtained after the 14.7-day and 7.9-day flights with the only exception: 7.9-day flight experiment employed DLM measurements in two VV-09 spaceflight samples, differing by the age of the flies, and the above DLM rates were detected in “younger” VV-09 sample only. DLM in the “elder” sample which returned to the earth at the late pupae stage (0.049) was 2 times higher than in both “young” flight and ground control series. To elucidate the factors underlying these discrepancies, DLM evaluation after the subsequent, 19.6-day flight experiment, was performed in three fractions of second in-flight VV-09 generation, each of them comprised imagoes with definite hatching date (postflight days 2, 3, and 5). The results revealed a gradual decrease of the proportion of embryonic death in the progeny of the second in-flight generation from 0.113 to 0.032 (which is close to baseline values). The ionizing radiation at low Earth orbits alone could not produce considerable impact on mutational frequency. By the return to the earth the flies of the first fractions had attained the pre-imaginal ontogenetic stages which display decreased tolerance to unfavourable environmental conditions, which could probably affect the mutation rate. The results obtained show that native D. melanogaster populations display different susceptibility to mutagenic impacts of space flight. Mutation rate depends on the stage of ontogenetic development and thus could present the source of discrepancies in the results of space experiments.

  7. Employee on Boarding Process Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Khushboo Nalband; Priyanka Jadhav; Geetanjali Salunke

    2017-01-01

    On boarding, also known as organizational socialization, plays a vital role in building the initial relationship between an organization and an employee. It also contributes to an employees’ satisfaction, better performance and greater organizational commitment thus increasing an employees’ effectiveness and productivity in his/her role. Therefore, it is essential that on boarding process of an organization is efficient and effective to improve new employees’ retention. Generally this on boar...

  8. On-board attitude determination for the Explorer Platform satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, C.; Class, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude determination algorithm for the Explorer Platform satellite. The algorithm, which is baselined on the Landsat code, is a six-element linear quadratic state estimation processor, in the form of a Kalman filter augmented by an adaptive filter process. Improvements to the original Landsat algorithm were required to meet mission pointing requirements. These consisted of a more efficient sensor processing algorithm and the addition of an adaptive filter which acts as a check on the Kalman filter during satellite slew maneuvers. A 1750A processor will be flown on board the satellite for the first time as a coprocessor (COP) in addition to the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer. The attitude determination algorithm, which will be resident in the COP's memory, will make full use of its improved processing capabilities to meet mission requirements. Additional benefits were gained by writing the attitude determination code in Ada.

  9. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  10. On-board Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  11. Gender Quotas on Board of Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Beside arguments of fairness and equal opportunities, it is often argued that gender diversity on boards of directors may improve firm performance, but the empirical results are mixed and often negative. Based on the available research, gender quotas on boards of directors cannot be justified...

  12. The on-board data handling system of the AFIS-P mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisbauer, Dominic; Greenwald, Daniel; Hahn, Alexander; Hauptmann, Philipp; Konorov, Igor; Meng, Lingxin; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Renker, Dieter [Physics Department E17, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Antiproton Flux in Space experiment (AFIS) is a novel particle detector comprised of silicon photomultipliers and scintillating plastic fibers. Its purpose is to measure the trapped antiproton flux in low Earth orbit. To test the detector and the data acquisition system, a prototype detector will be flown aboard a high altitude research balloon as part of the REXUS/BEXUS program by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This talk presents the on-board data handling system and the ground support equipment of AFIS-P. It will also highlight the data handling algorithms developed and used for the mission.

  13. New Rationales for Women on Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, B.

    2014-01-01

    Should measures promoting women to corporate boards be solely justified in terms of economic arguments? Traditionally, such measures have tended to rely on utilitarian arguments, despite the fact that the most prominent of these arguments—the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firm financial performance—is equivocal. Conversely, this article argues that rationales for increasing women on boards should be based on both equality and economics grounds. An equality rationale is n...

  14. Genetic and Proteomics Analyses of Space Flown Mice Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Masaya, Seki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    Many astronauts stay in the International Space Station (ISS) for a long period of time. Therefore, the development of astronaut health care technologies is very important. Especially, an understanding of the effects of the space environment, such as microgravity and radiation, on protein, gene, and mineral metabolism is important for developing countermeasures against the adverse effects experienced by astronauts who are in space for long periods of time. Since December 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples from ISS crew members who have been in space (experiment nicknamed “HAIR”). As animal control experiments, we could have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples by participating the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice organized by Italian Space Agency (AGI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It will reasonably complement human hair experiment because we able to conduct more detailed skin analysis which is enable in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment. In this experiment, we analyzed mice skin contained hair roots. The samples were taken from space-flown (3-month and 2-week) and 3-month hindlimb suspensioned and 3-month 2G exposed mice, and ground-control mice. For the skin contained hair roots, the extracted and amplified RNA was used to DNA microarray analysis, and was further analyzed with expression on the interesting genes by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. And the extracted protein was used to Mass Spectrometer analysis. Data analysis on the specimen are in progress.

  15. AMIE Camera System on board SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Amie Team

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment AMIE on board ESA SMART-1 the first European mission to the Moon launched on 27th September 2003 is an imaging system with scientific technical and public outreach oriented objectives The science objectives are to image the Lunar Poles permanent shadow areas ice deposit eternal light crater rims ancient Lunar Non-mare volcanism local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar sur-face and to map high latitudes regions south mainly at far side South Pole Aitken basin The technical objectives are to perform a laserlink experiment detec-tion of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station flight demonstration of new technologies and on-board autonomy navigation The public outreach and educational objectives are to promote planetary exploration We present the AMIE instrument and perfomances with respect to the first results

  16. On-boarding the Middle Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnor, Mary

    The trend of promoting clinical experts into management roles continues. New middle managers need a transitional plan that includes support, mentoring, and direction from senior leaders, including the chief nursing officer (CNO). This case study demonstrates how the CNO of one organization collaborated with a faculty member colleague to develop and implement a yearlong personalized on-boarding program for a group of new nurse middle managers.

  17. The AGILE on-board Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Cocco, V.; Mereghetti, S.; Pittori, C.; Tavani, M.

    2006-01-01

    On-board reduction of particle background is one of the main challenges of space instruments dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics. We present in this paper a discussion of the method and main simulation results of the on-board background filter of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) of the AGILE mission. The GRID is capable of detecting and imaging with optimal point spread function gamma-ray photons in the range 30MeV-30GeV. The AGILE planned orbit is equatorial, with an altitude of 550km. This is an optimal orbit from the point of view of the expected particle background. For this orbit, electrons and positrons of kinetic energies between 20MeV and hundreds of MeV dominate the particle background, with significant contributions from high-energy (primary) and low-energy protons, and gamma-ray albedo-photons. We present here the main results obtained by extensive simulations of the on-board AGILE-GRID particle/photon background rejection algorithms based on a special application of Kalman filter techniques. This filter is applied (Level-2) sequentially after other data processing techniques characterizing the Level-1 processing. We show that, in conjunction with the Level-1 processing, the adopted Kalman filtering is expected to reduce the total particle/albedo-photon background rate to a value (=<10-30Hz) that is compatible with the AGILE telemetry. The AGILE on-board Kalman filter is also effective in reducing the Earth-albedo-photon background rate, and therefore contributes to substantially increase the AGILE exposure for celestial gamma-ray sources

  18. Women on boards and corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gennari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data by EU Commission show a low representation of women on boards. The scope of this article is to read contemporary and according to a managerial approach the possible causes of this situation: the availability of skills possessed by women to cover top positions, the presence of binding or self-regulatory rules and the corporate culture towards CSR approach. Our research is focused on EU countries, where the gender equality on board is currently matter of attention and regulatory interventions. We conclude that the scarce presence of women in the boardrooms is not ascribable to a scarcity of expertise, but it is associated with a social background and a corporate culture not inspired by corporate global responsibility values. Regulatory interventions may accelerate the consciousness of gender balance on boards, but without companies’ commitment in CSR matters and without a clear vision of corporate global responsibility (including economic, social and environmental aspects, they tend to become additional tasks in the management of corporate compliance risk.

  19. A Feminist Framework for Nurses on Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundean, Lisa J; Polifroni, E Carol

    Nurses' knowledge, skills, and expertise uniquely situate them to contribute to health care transformation as equal partners in organizational board governance. The Institute of Medicine, the 10,000 Nurses on Boards Coalition, and a growing number of nurse and health care scholars advocate nurse board leadership; however, nurses are rarely appointed as voting board members. When no room is made for nurses to take a seat at the table, the opportunity is lost to harness the power of nursing knowledge for health care transformation and social justice. No philosophical framework underpins the emerging focus on nurse board leadership. The purpose of this article is to add to the extant nursing literature by suggesting feminism as a philosophical framework for nurses on boards. Feminism contributes to the knowledge base of nursing as it relates to the expanding roles of nurses in health care transformation, policy, and social justice. Furthermore, a feminist philosophical framework for nurses on boards sets the foundation for new theory development and validates ongoing advancement of the nursing profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    the ISS flight trajectory including variations in altitude due to decay of the vehicle orbit and periodic reboosts to higher altitudes. In addition, an estimate of the AE-8 model to predict low Earth orbit electron flux (because the radiation dose for thin materials is dominated by the electron component of the radiation environment) is presented based on comparisons of the AE-8 model to measurements of electron integral flux at approximately 850 km from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on board the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.

  1. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle SL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.D.; Andrews, R.B.; Gibson, L.A.; Congdon, C.C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C.D.R.; Jones, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays performed by radioimmunoassay and clonal studies were performed for the first time

  2. On-Board Rendezvous Targeting for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Michael W.; DSouza, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion On-board GNC system is among the most complex ever developed for a space mission. It is designed to operate autonomously (independent of the ground). The rendezvous system in particular was designed to operate on the far side of the moon, and in the case of loss-of-communications with the ground. The vehicle GNC system is designed to retarget the rendezvous maneuvers, given a mission plan. As such, all the maneuvers which will be performed by Orion, have been designed and are being incorporated into the flight code.

  3. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  4. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  5. [Is there a physician on board?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H T

    1998-11-01

    Physicians responding to emergency calls on board airliners in intercontinental traffic may not be aware of certain legal complications which may arise. For instance, the medical practitioner may hold a license valid in one country, the air carrier may be registered in another, and the patient may be a third state national. Legislation varies between nations, as do court decisions. Physicians may be aware neither of the laws and regulations which apply nor the subtle differences between terms and interpretations used in formal language. This article contains a scenario description from a commercial air liner in intercontinental transit carrying a patient unknown to the physician who responds to a call for medical assistance. The main considerations to be made, the more likely diagnoses and various strategies for immediate interventions are reviewed. Likewise, appraisal and use of medical equipment on board are discussed, as are issues concerning responsibility and liability when equipment is used in supposedly "trained hands". Main themes in the current international medico-legal debate are considered with emphasis on the "Good Samaritan Principle", the responsibility of commercial air carriers, and telemedicine with insurance against law suits. The article concludes with some practical advice to the travelling medical community.

  6. Studies on the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems in the Biostack experiments I and II flown on board of Apollo 16 and 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1975-01-01

    The Biostack experiments are described and the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems are discussed. The biological systems contained in the experimental packages include spores of Bacillus subtilis, cysts of Colpoda cucullus, seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, radiculae of Vicia faba, and eggs of Artemia solina, Tribolium castaneum, and Carausius moresus. The physical characteristics of the particles are given and the implications for manned spaceflight are discussed

  7. IBIS: the imager on-board integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Lebrun, F.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Mirabel, I.F.; Vigroux, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Labanti, C.; Bird, A.J.; Broenstad, K.; La Rosa, G.; Sacco, B.; Quadrini, E.M.; Ramsey, B.; Weisskopf, M.C.; Reglero, V.; Sabau, L.; Staubert, R.; Zdziarski, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The IBIS telescope is the high angular resolution gamma-ray imager on-board the INTEGRAL Observatory, successfully launched from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on October 2002. This medium size ESA project, planned for a 2 year mission with possible extension to 5, is devoted to the observation of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range from 3 keV to 10 MeV (Winkler 2001). The IBIS imaging system is based on two independent solid state detector arrays optimised for low (15-1000 keV) and high (0.175-10.0 MeV) energies surrounded by an active VETO System. This high efficiency shield is essential to minimise the background induced by high energy particles in the highly ex-centric out of van Allen belt orbit. A Tungsten Coded Aperture Mask, 16 mm thick and ∼ 1 squared meter in dimension is the imaging device. The IBIS telescope will serve the scientific community at large providing a unique combination of unprecedented high energy wide field imaging capability coupled with broad band spectroscopy and high resolution timing over the energy range from X to gamma rays. To date the IBIS telescope is working nominally in orbit since more than 9 month. (authors)

  8. Outgassing of Flown and Unflown MIR Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Wilson, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    A solar panel array with more than ten years space exposure was removed from the Mir core module in November 1997, and an eight panel section was returned to Earth in January 1998. Several solar cells were removed from panel eight of the returned array and placed in a high vacuum system with a residual gas analyzer (200 amu mass spectrometer) and a cold finger. Similar unflown solar cells of the same vintage were later obtained from Energia. Several of the unflown cells were also placed in the vacuum system and outgassed residues were collected on the LN2 cold finger. Almost 3 mg of outgassed residue was collected -from a string of three unflown solar cells over a period of 94 hours under vacuum. The collected residue was weighed with a microbalance, and then the residue was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, and by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. About 25 outgassed constituents were separated by the gas chromatograph, and a high-resolution mass spectrum was obtained of each constituent. Molecular identifications have been made for the constituents. The constituents are primarily cyclic siloxanes, and several of the constituents are isomers of the same molecule. Most of the outgassed constituents have a molecular mass of about 500 amu. Almost one mg of residue was extracted from one sq cm of coverglass/adhesive from a flown solar cell by soaking in isopropyl alcohol for 30 minutes. The gas chromatograph separated about 20 constituents. The constituents are mostly cyclic siloxanes with linear branches, hydrocarbons, and phthalates. The typical molecular mass is about 600 amu. These identifications of specific outgassing molecules have resulted in a more complete understanding of the SiO(x) contamination on the Mir solar cell coverglasses, and on the MEEP experiment trays and optical specimens during the Shuttle-Mir Phase One flight experiment program. Adjusted outgassing rates based on the data reported here, and/or measured outgassing rates and specific molecular

  9. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  10. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans...

  11. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...

  12. ON-BOARD COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR KITSAT-1 AND 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available KITSAT-1 and 2 are microsatellites weighting 50kg and all the on-board data are processed by the on-board computer system. Hence, these on-board computers require to be highly reliable and be designed with tight power consumption, mass and size constraints. On-board computer(OBC systems for KITSAT-1 and 2 are also designed with a simple flexible hardware for reliability and software takes more responsibility than hardware. KITSAT-1 and 2 on-board computer system consist of OBC 186 as the primary OBC and OBC80 as its backup. OBC186 runs spacecraft operating system (SCOS which has real-time multi-tasking capability. Since their launch, OBC186 and OBC80 have been operating successfully until today. In this paper, we describe the development of OBC186 hardware and software and analyze its in-orbit operation performance.

  13. Advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System (OBBIGS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valcor Engineering Corporation proposes to develop an advanced On Board Inert Gas Generation System, OBIGGS, for aircraft fuel tank inerting to prevent hazardous...

  14. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  15. On-board system for physical and microphysical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaut, M.; Allet, C.; Dole, B.; Gribkoff, A.; Schibler, P.; Charpentier, C.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the system of physical and microphysical measurement instrumentation on board the HUREL-DUBOIS HD 34 aircraft, built in cooperation with the Institut National d'Astronomie et de Geophysique (I.N.A.G.) and the Institut Geographique National (I.G.N.). The feasibility study of the system was carried out in the first half of 1978 and took shape in an on-site proving campaign in November 1979. As a result, the on-board system was able to participate in the BUGEY experimental campaign of March 1980, a glimpse of which is given in this report [fr

  16. Dust analysis on board the Destiny+ mission to 3200 Phaethon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Arai, T.; Srama, R.; Sarli, B. V.; Kimura, H.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Soja, R.; Altobelli, N.; Grün, E.

    2017-09-01

    The Japanese Destiny+ spacecraft will be launched to the active asteroid 3200 Phaethon in 2022. Among the proposed core payload is an in-situ dust instrument based on the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer. We use the ESA Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM), to study detection conditions and fluences of interplanetary and interstellar dust with a dust analyzer on board Destiny+.

  17. Digital tomosynthesis with an on-board kilovoltage imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Yin, F.-F.; Oldham, Mark; Yoo, Sua; Willett, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To generate on-board digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and reference DTS images for three-dimensional image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as an alternative to conventional portal imaging or on-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Three clinical cases (prostate, head-and-neck, and liver) were selected to illustrate the capabilities of on-board DTS for IGRT. Corresponding reference DTS images were reconstructed from digitally reconstructed radiographs computed from planning CT image sets. The effect of scan angle on DTS slice thickness was examined by computing the mutual information between coincident CBCT and DTS images, as the DTS scan angle was varied from 0 o to 165 o . A breath-hold DTS acquisition strategy was implemented to remove respiratory motion artifacts. Results: Digital tomosynthesis slices appeared similar to coincident CBCT planes and yielded substantially more anatomic information than either kilovoltage or megavoltage radiographs. Breath-hold DTS acquisition improved soft-tissue visibility by suppressing respiratory motion. Conclusions: Improved bony and soft-tissue visibility in DTS images is likely to improve target localization compared with radiographic verification techniques and might allow for daily localization of a soft-tissue target. Breath-hold DTS is a potential alternative to on-board CBCT for sites prone to respiratory motion

  18. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  19. Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, M; Galeotta, S; Frailis, M; Zacchei, A; Fogliani, S; Gasparo, F [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Hildebrandt, S; Chulani, H; Gomez, F [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/o Via Lactea, s/n E38205 - La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rohlfs, R; Morisset, N; Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: maris@oats.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (N{sub aver}, r{sub 1}, r{sub 2}, q, O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate C{sub r} and the processing noise epsilon{sub Q}. For Planck/LFI it is required that C{sub r} = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilon{sub Q} would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal

  20. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  1. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  2. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  3. Results from the high efficiency solar panel experiment flown on CRRES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, K.P.; Mullen, E.G.; Trumble, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Efficiency Solar Panel Experiment (HESP) flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The on-orbit solar cell degradation is correlated with the proton and electron environments. Comparisons between gallium arsenide germanium (GaAs/Ge) and silicon (Si) solar cells are presented, and results from three different annealing methods of like GaAs solar cells are compared

  4. Reverse osmosis seawater test facility on board NS Otto Hahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Hilgendorff, W.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of reverse osmosis membranes and prototype modules for the desalination of sea water under near technical conditions, a test station has been installed on board the nuclear research vessel NS Otto Hahn. A newly designed plate module with variable membrane area and favorable membrane exchange properties is being used as a test instrument for membranes and operating conditions. (orig./HK) [de

  5. Female Institutional Directors on Boards and Firm Value

    OpenAIRE

    Pucheta Martínez, María Consuelo; Bel Oms, Inmaculada; Olcina Sempere, Gustau

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine what impact female institutional directors on boards have on corporate performance. Previous research shows that institutional female directors cannot be considered as a homogeneous group since they represent investors who may or may not maintain business relations with the companies on whose corporate boards they sit. Thus, it is not only the effect of female institutional directors as a whole on firm value that has been analysed, but also the impact of...

  6. Thermoluminescent dose measurements on board Salyut type orbital stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Arkhangelskij, V.V.; Aleksandrov, A.P.

    1984-06-01

    A small, vibration- and shock-resistant thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system - named PILLE - was developed for orbital stations at the Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungary, to measure the cosmic radiation dose on-board. The first on-board measurements with this system were performed by B. Farkas, the Hungarian astronaut, on the Salyut-6 space station in 1980. The same instrument was used by other crews in the following years. Doses measured at different sites in Salyut-6 are presented. The dose rates varied from 0.7 to 0.11 mGy.day -1 . After the first cosmic measurements, the system was further developed. The minimum detectable dose of the new TLD system is 1 μGy, i.e. less by one order of magnitude than that of the former system. The self-irradiation dose rate of the TLD bulbs is also reduced by more than an order of magnitude to 10 nGy.h -1 , by use of potassium-free glass for the bulb envelope. This new type of PILLE TLD system is currently on-board Salyut-7. The dose rates (0.12-0.23 mGy.day -1 ) measured in 1983 are presented in detail. (author)

  7. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldus, S A.W.; Kneuer, R; Stephan, A

    1975-02-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets was developed and manufactured with an on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. Processes and components are discussed, and a brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given.

  8. Fish radurization on board of mediterranean fishing boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.; Tata, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a feasibility-study carrie out by ENEA with the technical support of ICRAP. Owing to its conclusions, the authors can locate some areas of possible application of fish-radurization both for the inner and for the foreign market. The former may offer in particular the opportunity of the on-board radurization, because of its peculiar characteristics. The latter may be particularly receptive in the case of those countries where refrigerating line is lacking and where the distribution of fresh fish-products seems rather difficult

  9. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  10. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, St.; Baldus, W.; Kneuer, R.; Stephan, A.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets has been developed and manufactured by AEG, BBC, Siemens and other partners, together with Linde AG as the firm responsible for the on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotatable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. This paper reports on processes and components. A brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given. (author)

  11. Applying CASE Tools for On-Board Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, U.; Hönle, A.

    For many space projects the software development is facing great pressure with respect to quality, costs and schedule. One way to cope with these challenges is the application of CASE tools for automatic generation of code and documentation. This paper describes two CASE tools: Rhapsody (I-Logix) featuring UML and ISG (BSSE) that provides modeling of finite state machines. Both tools have been used at Kayser-Threde in different space projects for the development of on-board software. The tools are discussed with regard to the full software development cycle.

  12. On-board data management study for EOPAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davisson, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements, implementation techniques, and mission analysis associated with on-board data management for EOPAP were studied. SEASAT-A was used as a baseline, and the storage requirements, data rates, and information extraction requirements were investigated for each of the following proposed SEASAT sensors: a short pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a long pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a synthetic aperture radar, a multispectral passive microwave radiometer facility, and an infrared/visible very high resolution radiometer (VHRR). Rate distortion theory was applied to determine theoretical minimum data rates and compared with the rates required by practical techniques. It was concluded that practical techniques can be used which approach the theoretically optimum based upon an empirically determined source random process model. The results of the preceding investigations were used to recommend an on-board data management system for (1) data compression through information extraction, optimal noiseless coding, source coding with distortion, data buffering, and data selection under command or as a function of data activity, (2) for command handling, (3) for spacecraft operation and control, and (4) for experiment operation and monitoring.

  13. On-board aircrew dosimetry using a semiconductor spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise these fields. The spectrometer has been in use since spring 2000 on more than 130 return flights to monitor and characterise the on-board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level event, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (7 refs).

  14. Data Products From Particle Detectors On-Board NOAA's Newest Space Weather Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Onsager, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-16, was launched on 19 November 2016. Instrumentation on-board GOES-16 includes the new Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS), which has been collecting data since 8 January 2017. SEISS is composed of five magnetospheric particle sensor units: an electrostatic analyzer for measuring 30 eV - 30 keV ions and electrons (MPS-LO), a high energy particle sensor (MPS-HI) that measures keV to MeV electrons and protons, east and west facing Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) units with 13 differential channels between 1-500 MeV, and an Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) that measures 30 species of heavy ions (He-Ni) in five energy bands in the 10-200 MeV/nuc range. Measurement of low energy magnetospheric particles by MPS-LO and heavy ions by EHIS are new capabilities not previously flown on the GOES system. Real-time data from GOES-16 will support space weather monitoring and first-principles space weather modeling by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Space weather level 2+ data products under development at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) include the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Event Detection algorithm. Legacy components of the SEP event detection algorithm (currently produced by SWPC) include the Solar Radiation Storm Scales. New components will include, e.g., event fluences. New level 2+ data products also include the SEP event Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Algorithm, for transforming energy spectra from EHIS into LET spectra, and the Density and Temperature Moments and Spacecraft Charging algorithm. The moments and charging algorithm identifies electron and ion signatures of spacecraft surface (frame) charging in the MPS-LO fluxes. Densities and temperatures from MPS-LO will also be used to support a magnetopause crossing detection algorithm. The new data products will provide real-time indicators of potential radiation hazards for the satellite

  15. Why so few Women on Boards of Directors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of women’s representation on boards of directors based on a panel of all privately owned or listed Danish firms with at least 50 employees observed during the period 1998–2010. We focus on the directors who are not elected by the employees and test three...... nonemployee-elected female board members. We also find clear evidence of a tokenism behavior in Danish companies. The likelihood of enlarging the share of non-employee-elected female board members is significantly smaller if one, two, or more women have sat on the board of directors. Finally, the pipeline...... suggests that an important way to increase the female proportion of non-employee-elected board members is that more women reach top executive positions....

  16. Monitoring on board spacecraft by means of passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozova, I.; Brabcova, K.; Spurny, F.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Kartsev, I. S.; Tolochek, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the radiation risk of astronauts during space missions, it is necessary to measure dose characteristics in various compartments of the spacecraft; this knowledge can be further used for estimating the health hazard in planned missions. This contribution presents results obtained during several missions on board the International Space Station (ISS) during 2005-09. A combination of thermoluminescent and plastic nuclear track detectors was used to measure the absorbed dose and dose equivalent. These passive detectors have several advantages, especially small dimensions, which enabled their placement at various locations in different compartments inside the ISS or inside the phantom. Variation of dosimetric quantities with the phase of the solar cycle and the position inside the ISS is discussed. (authors)

  17. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Archibald

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  18. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fife WadeS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  19. On board fuel processing for using in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Daniel E.; Marquez, Marco A.

    1999-01-01

    The increase in vehicle population, the emission effects upon the environment, and the growing concern of industrialized nations to reduce oil dependency, are the arguments for the new developments that may change the automobile revolution within the next decades. However, the electricity to move the future vehicles must come from the processing of liquid fuels on board. Liquid fuels such as gasoline have the advantage of having good on-site system for distribution and supply directly to the vehicle and will compete for staying as the energy source of the future. What are the opportunities in R and D and how to take advantage of them are analyzed in this document. Liquid fuel processing technologies and fuel options are also described by PDVSA-INTEVEP

  20. Automatic maintenance payload on board of a Mexican LEO microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Vivas, Esaú; García-Nocetti, Fabián; Mendieta-Jiménez, Francisco

    2006-02-01

    Few research institutions from Mexico work together to finalize the integration of a technological demonstration microsatellite called Satex, aiming the launching of the first ever fully designed and manufactured domestic space vehicle. The project is based on technical knowledge gained in previous space experiences, particularly in developing GASCAN automatic experiments for NASA's space shuttle, and in some support obtained from the local team which assembled the México-OSCAR-30 microsatellites. Satex includes three autonomous payloads and a power subsystem, each one with a local microcomputer to provide intelligent and dedicated control. It also contains a flight computer (FC) with a pair of full redundancies. This enables the remote maintenance of processing boards from the ground station. A fourth communications payload depends on the flight computer for control purposes. A fifth payload was decided to be developed for the satellite. It adds value to the available on-board computers and extends the opportunity for a developing country to learn and to generate domestic space technology. Its aim is to provide automatic maintenance capabilities for the most critical on-board computer in order to achieve continuous satellite operations. This paper presents the virtual computer architecture specially developed to provide maintenance capabilities to the flight computer. The architecture is periodically implemented by software with a small amount of physical processors (FC processors) and virtual redundancies (payload processors) to emulate a hybrid redundancy computer. Communications among processors are accomplished over a fault-tolerant LAN. This allows a versatile operating behavior in terms of data communication as well as in terms of distributed fault tolerance. Obtained results, payload validation and reliability results are also presented.

  1. Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS On-board Blackbody Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jack; Butler, Jim; Wu, Aisheng; Chiang, Vincent; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    MODIS has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 microns. MODIS TEBs are calibrated on-orbit by a v-grooved blackbody (BB) on a scan-by-scan basis. The BB temperatures are measured by a set of 12 thennistors. As expected, the BB temperature uncertainty and stability have direct impact on the quality of TEB calibration and, therefore, the quality of the science products derived from TEB observations. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 12 and 10 years, respectively. Their on-board BB performance has been satisfactory in meeting the TEB calibration requirements. The first VIIRS, launched on-board the Suomi NPP spacecraft on October 28, 2011, has successfully completed its initial Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) phase. VIIRS has 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 12.4 microns. Designed with strong MODIS heritage, VIIRS uses a similar BB for its TEB calibration. Like MODIS, VIIRS BB is nominally controlled at a pre-determined temperature (set point). Periodically, a BB Warm-Up and Cool-Down (WUCD) operation is performed, during which the BB temperatures vary from instrument ambient (temperature) to 315K. This paper examines NPP VIIRS BB on-orbit performance. It focuses on its BB temperature scan-to-scan variations at nominally controlled temperature as well as during its WUCD operation and their impact on TEB calibration uncertainty. Comparisons of VIIRS (NPP) and MODIS (Terra and Aqua) BB on-orbit performance and lessons learned for future improvements are also presented in this paper.

  2. Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.; Andreasson, K.

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x±38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr-1. The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x, CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships.

  3. Predictive NOx emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.A.; Andreasson, K.

    1999-01-01

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x ± 38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr -1 . The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x , CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships. (author)

  4. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  5. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  6. Radiation environment measurements with the cosmic ray experiments on-board the KITSAT-1 and PoSAT-1 micro-satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, C.I.; Brock, D.J.; Williams, P.S.; Kim, S.; Dilao, R.; Santos, P.R.; Brito, M.C.; Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The success of the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry (CREDO) experiment carried on-board the UoSAT-3 micro-satellite (launched in 1990) has lead to the development of a new instrument called the Cosmic-Ray Experiment (CRE) which has flown on-board the KITSAT-1 and PoSAT-1 micro-satellites, launched in 1992 and 1993 respectively. The results from both CRE instruments show excellent agreement with those of CREDO for the galactic cosmic-ray environment. However, there are some differences in the CRE and CREDO response to the trapped proton environment of the South Atlantic Anomaly which can be explained by the differences in the detector response time. The fit between the flight results and predictions from the standard models is generally good, but some differences are noted. The CRE and CREDO instruments should provide continuous coverage of the near-Earth radiation environment across a complete solar cycle. This is important in view of the dynamic nature of the radiation environment - as amply demonstrated by the results from the CRRES spacecraft

  7. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    As our experience grows, space missions and systems are expected to address ever more complex and demanding requirements with fewer resources (e.g., mass, power, budget). One approach to accommodating these higher expectations is to increase the level of autonomy to improve the capabilities and robustness of on- board systems and to simplify operations. The goal decomposition hierarchies described here provide a simple but powerful form of goal-directed behavior that is relatively easy to implement for space systems. A goal corresponds to a state or condition that an operator of the space system would like to bring about. In the system described here goals are decomposed into simpler subgoals until the subgoals are simple enough to execute directly. For each goal there is an activation condition and a set of decompositions. The decompositions correspond to different ways of achieving the higher level goal. Each decomposition contains a gating condition and a set of subgoals to be "executed" sequentially or in parallel. The gating conditions are evaluated in order and for the first one that is true, the corresponding decomposition is executed in order to achieve the higher level goal. The activation condition specifies global conditions (i.e., for all decompositions of the goal) that need to hold in order for the goal to be achieved. In real-time, parameters and state information are passed between goals and subgoals in the decomposition; a termination indication (success, failure, degree) is passed up when a decomposition finishes executing. The lowest level decompositions include servo control loops and finite state machines for generating control signals and sequencing i/o. Semaphores and shared memory are used to synchronize and coordinate decompositions that execute in parallel. The goal decomposition hierarchy is reactive in that the generated behavior is sensitive to the real-time state of the system and the environment. That is, the system is able to react

  8. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium transcription profiles in space flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Salmonella transcription profiles were obtained from samples flown on space shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to profiles from Salmonella grown under identical...

  10. Innovative on board payload optical architecture for high throughput satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, D.; Braux, B.; Prieur, O.; Hughes, R.; Wilkinson, M.; Latunde-Dada, K.; Jahns, J.; Lohmann, U.; Fey, D.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    For the next generation of HighThroughPut (HTP) Telecommunications Satellites, space end users' needs will result in higher link speeds and an increase in the number of channels; up to 512 channels running at 10Gbits/s. By keeping electrical interconnections based on copper, the constraints in term of power dissipation, number of electrical wires and signal integrity will become too demanding. The replacement of the electrical links by optical links is the most adapted solution as it provides high speed links with low power consumption and no EMC/EMI. But replacing all electrical links by optical links of an On Board Payload (OBP) is challenging. It is not simply a matter of replacing electrical components with optical but rather the whole concept and architecture have to be rethought to achieve a high reliability and high performance optical solution. In this context, this paper will present the concept of an Innovative OBP Optical Architecture. The optical architecture was defined to meet the critical requirements of the application: signal speed, number of channels, space reliability, power dissipation, optical signals crossing and components availability. The resulting architecture is challenging and the need for new developments is highlighted. But this innovative optically interconnected architecture will substantially outperform standard electrical ones.

  11. Fuel saving performances of marine diesel engine oils on board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yasunori; Henmi, Takashi; Minamitani, Hiromu; Akizawa, Hayao; Hamada, Minoru; Ashida, Jiro

    1988-05-01

    After the second oil crisis, the percentage of the fuel cost against the operational cost of a ship has been showing the rising tendency, engine manufacturers have placed the top priority on the improvement of fuel consumption, operators have been conducting various energy saving measures and refiners have been paying efforts to improve lubricating oil. This article reports the study on the lubricating oil characteristics affecting the fuel consumption per power output, particularly the viscosity and the adding effect of friction modifier additives by using dynamo-generator diesel engines on board the ships already in commission. The investigation was conducted by comparing the cases of using several sample oils with the cases of using the reference oils. According to the results, the viscous property of engine oil was most effective on fuel consumption and the lower the viscosity of oil, the more the fuel consumption effect was. However, the addition of friction modifier additives did hardly show any improvement of the above effect. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  12. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  13. Possibilities of reduction of the on-board energy for an innovative subway

    OpenAIRE

    Allègre, A-L.; Barrade, P.; Delarue, P.; Bouscayrol, A.; Chattot, E.; El-Fassi, S.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as energy source. In this paper, are presented different possibilities to reduce on-board stored energy in order to downsize the on-board energy storage subsystem. Special attention is paid to the influence of a feeding rail extension or a downward slope at the beginning of the interstation on the on-board stored energy. A map is built to facilitate the selection of the solution which leads to reduce the on-board energy.

  14. Fatigue stress detection of VIRTIS cryocoolers on board Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuppi, Stefano; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Piccioni, Giuseppe; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Erard, Stéphane; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico

    Rosetta is a planetary cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is devoted to the study of minor bodies of our solar system and it will be the first mission ever to land on a comet (the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko). VIRTIS-M is a sophisticated imaging spectrometer that combines two data channels in one compact instrument, respectively for the visible and the infrared range (0.25-5.0 μm). VIRTIS-H is devoted to infrared spectroscopy (2.5-5.0 μm) with high spectral resolution. Since the satellite will be inside the tail of the comet during one of the most important phases of the mission, it would not be appropriate to use a passive cooling system, due to the high flux of contaminants on the radiator. Therefore the IR sensors are cooled by two Stirling cycle cryocoolers produced by RICOR. Since RICOR operated life tests only on ground, it was decided to conduct an analysis on VIRTIS onboard Rosetta telemetries with the purpose of study possible differences in the cryocooler performancies. The analysis led to the conclusion that cryocoolers, when operating on board, are subject to a fatigue stress not present in the on ground life tests. The telemetries analysis shows a cyclic variation in cryocooler rotor angular velocity when -M or -H or both channel are operating (it has been also noted an influence of -M channel operations in -H cryocooler rotor angular velocity and vice versa) with frequencies mostly linked to operational parameters values. The frequencies have been calculated for each mission observation applying the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In order to evaluate possible hedge effects it has been also applied the Hanning window to compare the results. For a more complete evaluation of cryocoolers fatigue stress, for each mission observation the angular acceleration and the angular jerk have been calculated.

  15. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  16. 49 CFR 395.15 - Automatic on-board recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information concerning on-board system sensor failures and identification of edited data. Such support systems... driving today; (iv) Total hours on duty for the 7 consecutive day period, including today; (v) Total hours...-driver operation; (7) The on-board recording device/system identifies sensor failures and edited data...

  17. An overview of CAFE credits and incorporation of the benefits of on-board carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the application of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) : credits that are currently available to vehicle manufacturers in the U.S., and the implications of : on-board carbon capture and sequestration (on-board CCS) on fu...

  18. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  19. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  20. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  1. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  2. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klatt, Nathan D

    2008-01-01

    The use of on-board high-energy devices such as megawatt lasers and microwave emitters requires aircraft system integration of thermal devices to either get rid of waste heat or utilize it in other areas of the aircraft...

  3. In the Hot Seat: STS-115 Lightning Strike Stand Down Debate - NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Lizette; Stevens, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is no way the PIC's could have seen any current' was the gist of Mike Griffin's assessment. Griffin was the NASA Administrator at the time. The buck stopped at his desk. Holding a napkin out to Pat Lampton, Griffin showed Lampton the calculations he'd made over dinner that predicted that the Pyrotechnic Initiator Controllers (PIC's) at the base of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were fine. A lightning strike the day before, the worst ever experienced with a Space Shuttle on the launch pad, caused a halt to the launch count down as technicians, engineers, and managers scrambled identify any damage to the launch system. SRB technicians and engineers assessed the data against their Lightning Strike Re-Test Requirements, determining that all but one of the requirements could be checked if they resumed the countdown. For the one remaining requirement, testing the integrity of the PIC's would require 96 hours to set up, test, and reassemble. The engineers were convinced that there was no way to do calculations to show the PIC's were okay. The only option was to stand down. It was SRB Deputy Project Manager (PM) Pat Lampton's responsibility to decide what the SRB project position needed to be to certify that their hardware was safe to fly. He had to communicate that decision to the Mission Management Team (MMT) as a Go or No Go position to resume the count down. If the answer was Go they could still meet a delayed, but acceptable launch schedule. If the answer was No Go, rescheduling the launch would be a grueling shuffling of hardware, personnel, and mission timelines to accommodate Russian missions to the Space Station, supplies for the launch, and personnel manning launch operations. On top of that, Hurricane Ernesto was spinning off the coast of Florida, threatening the need for the Shuttle to roll back to the hangar if they waited too long.

  4. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  5. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  6. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  7. New control method of on-board ATP system of Shinkansen trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Watanabe, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We studied a new control method of the on-board automatic train protection (ATP) system for Shinkansen trains to shorten the operation time and not to degrade ride comfort at changes in deceleration of the train, while maintaining the safety and reliability of the present ATP signal system. We propose a new on-board pattern brake control system based on the present ATP data without changing the wayside equipment. By simulating the ATP braking of the proposed control method, we succeeded in shortening the operation time by 48 seconds per one station in comparison with the present ATP brake control system. This paper reports the concept of the system and simulation results of the on-board pattern. (orig.)

  8. TECHNICAL MAINTENANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE-FREE ON-BOARD SYSTEM BETWEEN SCHEDULED MAINTENANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bronnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The avionics concept of the maintenance-free on-board equipment implies the absence of necessity to maintain onboard systems between scheduled maintenance, preserving the required operational and technical characteristics; it should be achieved by automatic diagnosis of the technical condition and the application of active means of ensuring a failsafe design, allowing to change the structure of the system to maintain its functions in case of failure. It is supposed that such equipment will reduce substantially and in the limit eliminate traditional maintenance of aircraft between scheduled maintenance, ensuring maximum readiness for use, along with improving safety. The paper proposes a methodology for evaluating the efficiency of maintenance-free between scheduled maintenance aircraft system with homogeneous redundancy. The excessive redundant elements allow the system to accumulate failures which are repaired during the routine maintenance. If the number of failures of any reserve is approaching a critical value, the recovery of the on-board system (elimination of all failures is carried out between scheduled maintenance by conducting rescue and recovery operations. It is believed that service work leads to the elimination of all failures and completely updates the on-board system. The process of system operational status changes is described with the discrete-continuous model in the flight time. The average losses in the sorties and the average cost of operation are used as integrated efficiency indicators of system operation. For example, the evaluation of the operation efficiency of formalized on-board system with homogeneous redundancy demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology and the possibility of its use while analyzing the efficiency of the maintenance-free operation equipment between scheduled periods. As well as a comparative analysis of maintenance-free operation efficiency of the on-board system with excessive

  9. The EGSE science software of the IBIS instrument on-board INTEGRAL satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rosa, Giovanni; Fazio, Giacomo; Segreto, Alberto; Gianotti, Fulvio; Stephen, John; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    IBIS (Imager on Board INTEGRAL Satellite) is one of the key instrument on-board the INTEGRAL satellite, the follow up mission of the high energy missions CGRO and Granat. The EGSE of IBIS is composed by a Satellite Interface Simulator, a Control Station and a Science Station. Here are described the solutions adopted for the architectural design of the software running on the Science Station. Some preliminary results are used to show the science functionality, that allowed to understand the instrument behavior, all along the test and calibration campaigns of the Engineering Model of IBIS

  10. Geographical influence on the radiation exposure of an air crew on board a subsonic aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation fields on board a subsonic aircraft have been studied on board an Airbus A310-300 during the flights Prague - Abu Dhabi - Bangkok and Bangkok - Abu Dhabi - Prague, during February 1995. A complex set of measuring instruments has been used for these studies: tissue equivalent proportional counter, moderator-type neutron rem-meter, environmental radiation dose rate meter, thermoluminescent and track etch detectors and bubble detectors. The results obtained are presented and analyzed; they are compared with the results obtained in the flights Prague - Montreal - Prague. Conclusions concerning the influence of geographical parameters on the aircrew exposure levels are formulated. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Air crew exposure on board a subsonic aircraft studied with complex dosimetric sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation fields on board a subsonic aircraft have been studied using a complex set of measuring instruments i.e. tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), neutron rem-meter, environmental radiation dose rate meter, thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), track etch detectors (TEDs) and bubble damage neutron detectors (BDNDs). The measurements have been realised on board the Airbus A310-300 during the flights Prague-Montreal and Montreal-Prague, in February 1995. The results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed both from the point of view of the detector responses and the general exposure levels. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Development and application of an emitter for research of an on-board ultraviolet polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Geraimchuk, M. D.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    In carrying out of the work a layout of on-board small-sized ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) was created. UVP is the device, which provides an implementation of passive remote studies of stratospheric aerosol from the board of the microsatellite of the Earth by the method of polarimetry. For carrying out of tests and the research of polarimetric equipment, a special stand was created at MAO of NAS of Ukraine. In its composition is an ultraviolet emitter. Emitter is one of the main components of a special stand for the study of on-board ultraviolet polarimeters.

  13. Development of an on-board H2 storage and recovery system based on lithium borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Alkali metal borohydrides based on sodium and lithium, NaBH4 and LiBH4, have been evaluated as a potential hydrogen storage and recovery system for on-board vehicle use. The borohydride salts could be dissolved in water, followed by a hydrolytic reac...

  14. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H; Heinzelmann, G; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  15. Lifestyle factors in Croatian seafarers as relating to health and stress on board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2017-01-01

    Seafaring is characterized by specific stressors and health risks. The purpose of this article was to compare the prevalence of various lifestyle factors between the shipping and home environments, and in addition to test the relations between lifestyle factors, perceived stress on board, and health in seafarers. A total of 530 Croatian seafarers participated in an on-line survey. The questionnaire contained requests for demographic data and a set of questions relating to lifestyle, stress on board, physical health symptoms, and mental health. The data showed higher sleep deprivation, higher levels of smoking and unhealthier diet at sea than at home, with prevalence of alcohol consumption and physical exercise being more favourable for the shipping environment. Sleep deprivation, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking are shown as negative correlates of various measures of health. Stress on board was associated with sleep deprivation and unhealthy diet, and with more unfavourable physical and mental health. The results give practical implications for promoting health in seafarers. Some of the lifestyle factors tested, such as alcohol use, smoking and physical exercise, fall rather under individual control, but others, such as a healthy, balanced diet on board and sleeping hygiene at sea, should be improved by shipping management.

  16. 40 CFR 85.2222 - On-board diagnostic test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on-board diagnostic systems on 1996 and newer light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall consist... the unset readiness code(s) in question may be issued a passing certificate without being required to... lit malfunction indicator light (MIL) must be failed, though setting the unset readiness flags in...

  17. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Shi, Hao; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-04-25

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited.

  18. Influence of on-board irradiation on the shelflife of redfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, E.; Ehlermann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Continuing former investigations during two voyages of the RV 'Anton Dohrn' redfish (Sebastes marinus) was irradiated on board and stored under different conditions, wrapped and unwrapped under melting ice. A part of the irradiated, unwrapped samples was stored under irradiated ice. As in the former investigations the irradiation treatment effected no prolongation of shelflife in the range of marketable quality. (orig.) [de

  19. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD AND ON-BOARD DEVICES FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE WHEN OVERTAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podryhalo, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving the safety of overtaking maneuver by using the on-board collision avoidance system, which has an increased assessment reliability of safety of vehicles overtaking that move in the same direction is offered. The proposed system takes into account the main factors that affect the overtaking maneuver.

  1. New technologies for fire suppression on board naval craft, FiST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahm, M.; Hiltz, J.; Wal, R. van der; Hertzberg, T.; Lindström, J.

    2014-01-01

    For three years Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands have been investigating new technologies for fire suppression on board naval crafts within the FiST project. The project has focused on a number of technologies. These included the evaluation of water based fire suppression systems and in particular

  2. Accidents on board merchant ships. Suggestions based on Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This statistical study was performed to find out the occurrence of accidents on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) during the years 2010-2015, with the aim of providing suggestions in accident prevention, based on such a wide experience. The case histories of CIRM in the years 2010-2015 were examined. The total number of accidents per year was calculated and compared as a percentage with the total number of cases assisted by CIRM per year. The incidence of accidents on board in these years ranged between 14.4% and 18.4% of total cases assisted per year, which is constantly increasing. The most common injuries on board among cases treated by CIRM were contusions and wounds. Also burns and eye injuries were significantly represented. Multiple injuries and head injuries were found to be the most frequent cause of death on board due to an accident. More information on the occurrence and type of accidents and on the body injured areas should represent the basis for developing strategies and campaigns for their prevention.

  3. CALIBRATION OF MODIFIED LIULIN DETECTOR FOR COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselová, Dagmar; Ambrožová, Iva; Krist, Pavel; Kubančák, Ján; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Liulin detector * on-board aircraft * cosmic radiation measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  4. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited. PMID:29693585

  5. Validation of multi-channel scanning microwave radiometer on-board Oceansat-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Harikrishnan, M.

    Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind speed (WS) and columnar water vapour (WV) derived from Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) sensor on-board IRS-P4 (Oceansat-1) were validated against the in situ measurements from ship...

  6. AGB Statement on Board Responsibility for the Oversight of Educational Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Statement on Board Responsibility for the Oversight of Educational Quality," approved by the Board of Directors of the Association of Governing Boards (AGB) in March 2011, urges institutional administrators and governing boards to engage fully in this area of board responsibility. The seven principles in this statement offer suggestions to…

  7. Spacecube: A Family of Reconfigurable Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    SpaceCube is a family of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based on-board science data processing systems developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. SpaceCube is based on the Xilinx Virtex family of FPGAs, which include processor, FPGA logic and digital signal processing (DSP) resources. These processing elements are leveraged to produce a hybrid science data processing platform that accelerates the execution of algorithms by distributing computational functions to the most suitable elements. This approach enables the implementation of complex on-board functions that were previously limited to ground based systems, such as on-board product generation, data reduction, calibration, classification, eventfeature detection, data mining and real-time autonomous operations. The system is fully reconfigurable in flight, including data parameters, software and FPGA logic, through either ground commanding or autonomously in response to detected eventsfeatures in the instrument data stream.

  8. On-Board File Management and Its Application in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the minimum functions required for an on-board file management system. We explore file manipulation processes and demonstrate how the file transfer along with the file management system will be utilized to support flight operations and data delivery.

  9. Towards human-oriented norms : Considering the effects of noise and vibration exposure on board ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, R.E.; Khalid, H.; Turan, O.; Houben, M.M.J.; Bos, J.E.; Helvacioglu, I.H.

    2016-01-01

    With modern trends of decrease in crew numbers on board ships together with increased operational demands and paperwork, crew fatigue and comfort have become more critical and are being given more importance. It is well known that environmental factors affect crew comfort and performance. The two

  10. Survivability of chilled water networks on board ships when using dincs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fast reaction is required when a chilled water distribution network on board a naval ship is damaged. Without immediate isolation of the leakage area, all water supply is lost soon, with immense consequences for the ship’s operational state. The only solution for that is using an automated recovery

  11. Towards human-oriented norms: Considering the effects of noise exposure on board ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, R.E.; Khalid, H.; Turan, O.; Houben, M.; Bos, J.; Helvacioglu, I.H.

    2016-01-01

    With modern trends of decrease in crew numbers on board ships together with increased operational demands and paperwork, crew fatigue and comfort have become more critical and are being given more importance. It is well known that environmental factors affect crew comfort and performance. The two

  12. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this

  13. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references

  14. An Examination of Radiation Induced Tensile Failure of Stressed and Unstressed Polymer Films Flown on MISSE-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film polymers are used in many spacecraft applications for thermal control (multilayer insulation and sunshields), as lightweight structural members (solar array blankets, inflatable/deployable structures) and have been proposed for propulsion (solar sails). Polymers in these applications are often under a tensile load and are directly exposed to the space environment, therefore it is important to understand the effect of stress in combination with the environment on the durability of these polymer films. The purpose of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment, flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6), was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. This paper describes the results of post flight tensile testing of these samples.

  15. Overall comparative analysis of management and outcomes of cardiac cases reported on board merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolatos, Charalampos; Andria, Vivian; Licari, Julie

    Telemedical assistance has always been the cornerstone of medical care on board. Significant technological progress has provided improved scientific tools and equipment for high-quality communication and prompt management of either minor incidents or major emergencies on board. Med Solutions International is a medical management company, offering services exclusively to the maritime industry. Registered vessels contact the medical team and healthcare professionals provide immediate guidelines for onboard management as well as necessary action thereafter, i.e. examination ashore or urgent medical evacuation. Since cardiac conditions or diseases are potentially the most dangerous when traveling at sea, it is of major importance to analyse and evaluate the overall management and outcomes of cases reporting symptoms of possible heart disease so as to improve telemedical assistance services in future. The study included cases reporting cardiac symptoms from 5 major shipping companies during the year 2016. Data was collected from telecommunication, emails and seafarers' final medical reports. A descriptive analysis of overall management and outcomes was performed. The study showed that the number of confirmed cardiovascular cases on board was very low. Among 551 total cases and 44 cases with reported cardiac symptoms there was only one heart attack, one pulmonary oedema and one suspected myocarditis. In the majority of cases, chest pain was musculoskeletal or due to respiratory infection. Symptoms resulting from issues such as stress or anxiety often present as potential cardiac conditions. Stress may also amplify the severity of symptoms. Language barriers between the seafarer, the master and the doctor often make communication very difficult. According to our findings there are grounds to intensify the prevention process through more efficient pre-employment medical examinations and improve management on board through more intensive training. Communication problems

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ON-BOARD FISHING VESSEL HANDLING IN MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Serratore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of different manipulation techniques applied on board fishing vessel, on the microbiological quality of the flesh of European hake (Merluccius merluccius during storage at +3°C ± 1°C for a time (T of 10 days after landing (T1-T10. Samples of fish were taken from a fishing vessel of the Adriatic Sea and from one of the Tyrrhenian Sea, treated on-board under different icing conditions: 1 a low ice/product weight ratio and 2 an optimal ice/product weight ratio, up to 1:3 (3. Spoilage bacteria as Total Bacterial Count (TBC and specific spoilage bacteria as Sulphide Producing Bacteria (SPB were enumerated in fish flesh as Colony Forming Units (CFU/g on Plate Count Agar and Lyngby Agar at 20°C for 3-5 days. TBC of the Adriatic fishes (gutted on-board resulted 103 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 104-105 at T10, whereas TBC of the Tyrrhenian fishes (not gutted on-board resulted 10-102 UFC/g at T2- T3, 103 at T6, and 104-105 at T10. SPB resulted 10- 102 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 103- 104 at T10, with absolute values higher in the Adriatic fishes, in respect with the Tyrrhenian fishes, and in the low icing conditions in respect with the optimal icing condition. At the experimented condition, the lowering of the microbiological quality of fish flesh during storage, seems to be more dependent on the gutting versus not gutting on-board practice rather than on the low versus optimal icing treatment.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  18. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  19. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  20. USING THE INFORMATION OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of increase of efficiency of information processing by оn-board systems of diagnostics of locomotives are considered. The examples of information processing by the on-board system of diagnostics of electric locomotives DE1 are presented. The suggestions on improvement of systematization and processing of information by on-board systems of diagnostics are given.

  1. A study on the real-time reliability of on-board equipment of train control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    Real-time reliability evaluation is conducive to establishing a condition based maintenance system for the purpose of guaranteeing continuous train operation. According to the inherent characteristics of the on-board equipment, the connotation of reliability evaluation of on-board equipment is defined and the evaluation index of real-time reliability is provided in this paper. From the perspective of methodology and practical application, the real-time reliability of the on-board equipment is discussed in detail, and the method of evaluating the realtime reliability of on-board equipment at component level based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. In this method the performance degradation data is used directly to realize the accurate perception of the hidden state transition process of on-board equipment, which can achieve a better description of the real-time reliability of the equipment.

  2. Characteristics from Recycled of Zinc Anode used as a Corrosion Preventing Material on Board Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barokah, B.; Semin, S.; Kaligis, D. D.; Huwae, J.; Fanani, M. Z.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain the values of chemical composition, electrochemical potential and electrochemical efficiency. Methods used were experiment with physical tests conducted in metallurgical laboratory and DNV-RP-B401 cathode protection design DNV (Det Norske Veritas) standard. The results showed that the composition of chemical as Zinc (Zn), Aluminium, Cadmium, Plumbumb, Copper and Indium is suitable of standard. The values of electrochemical potential and electrochemical efficiency were respectively. However it can be concluded that the normal meaning of recycled zinc anode with increasing melting temperature can produce zinc anode better than original zinc anode and can be used as cathode protection on board ships. This research can assist in the management of used zinc anode waste, the supply of zinc anodes for consumers at relatively low prices, and recommendations of using zinc anodes for the prevention of corrosion on board ship.

  3. QMX3.3 module-based on-board vehicle charger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S. [Delta-Q Technologies, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Delta-Q is a tier one supplier to industrial electric vehicle manufacturers offering in-house product design and development as well as sales, marketing and customer service. This presentation discussed on-board chargers for use in electric vehicles. Electric vehicle chargers are needed due to their lower cost, lack of time for generational change, and long lifetime and safety requirements. The presentation discussed universal on-board charger requirements as well as final design requirements. Other topics that were addressed included common control; QMX prototypes; steps from prototype to production; and Delta-Q and tier one partnering. It was concluded that there is a complicated array of diverse requirements with multiple stakeholders and standards. figs.

  4. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  5. [Assessment of adaptation to on-board conditions on "The Ship for World Youth"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, H; Kurabayashi, L; Yamato, H; Inamura, H

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation process of youth from 13 countries on board "The 3rd Ship for World Youth" cruise which was held from January 18 to March 20 in 1991 was analyzed. The age of almost all of the participants was in the 20's (average age was 24.9 yrs), and there were 103 participants (47 males, 56 females) from Japan, 171 participants (86 males, 85 females) from North, Middle and South America, and Oceanian countries for total of 274 participants (133 males, 141 females). The living environment on board differed significantly from daily living conditions of the participants, particularly due to the need to communicate in a foreign language, and to live in harmony with different cultures in a confinement situation, such that they were inevitably susceptible to various stressors. Among the participants there were some who needed psychiatric care and treatment. In order to assess quantitatively psychosomatic reactions to those stressors, a 28-item scaled GHQ (= General Health Questionnaire) assessment was performed four times on board with the following findings: 1. Highest scores were seen shortly after embarkment and decreased as the participants got accustomed to the living conditions on board. 2. The scores of the Japanese participants were higher than those of foreign participants, possibly indicating awkward adaptational skill on the part of Japanese participants especially during the first stage. 3. Japanese females scored slightly higher than Japanese males throughout the course of the program. 4. No clear difference in scores between Japanese participants aged under 25 y and over 26 y was observed. 5. A large proportion (77.3%) of Japanese participants had Y-G personality test results classifying them in the 'stable positive' group (D group). These participants had significantly lower scaled GHQ scores than those in the non-D group, indicating a high adaptational ability of D group participants.

  6. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  7. Risk Mitigation for the Development of the New Ariane 5 On-Board Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Arnaud; Chevalier, Laurent; Dubuc, Francois; Conde-Reis, Alain; Ledoux, Alain; Miramont, Philippe; Johansson, Leif

    2010-08-01

    In the frame of the Ariane 5 production, some equipment will become obsolete and need to be redesigned and redeveloped. This is the case for the On-Board Computer, which has to be completely redesigned and re-qualified by RUAG Space, as well as all its on-board software and associated development tools by ASTRIUM ST. This paper presents this obsolescence treatment, which has started in 2007 under an ESA contract, in the frame of ACEP and ARTA accompaniment programmes, and is very critical in technical term but also from schedule point of view: it gives the context and overall development plan, and details the risk mitigation actions agreed with ESA, especially those related to the development of the input/output ASIC, and also the on-board software porting and revalidation strategy. The efficiency of these risk mitigation actions has been proven by the outcome schedule; this development constitutes an up-to-date case for good practices, including some experience report and feedback for future other developments.

  8. Fuel cell power on board a yacht - the gat option for boating and yachting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohland, B.; Schuldzig, H.G.; Adolf, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Technik mbH Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Today the electric power on board of a yacht is provided by 12 V / 60-150 Ah batteries. The storage capacity of 0.7 - 1.8 kWh is too low for long term cruising without loading by the alternator. A higher storage of more than 5 kWh has Fuel Cells, powered by hydrogen or better by methanol. At first we construct a stand alone PEMFC-facility for on board production of 12 V DC power of 250 W{sub e1}, which was let operated by Hydrogen from a Ni-Hydridcylinder of 2.3 l volume. GAT has constructed a facility for on board application of a methanol-powered PEM-Fuel Cell with a storage capacity of more than 5 kWh and a peak power of 200 W{sub e1}. Some technical data of the GAT-PEMFC-apparatus and the schedule of the first field tests would be presents. (orig.)

  9. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  10. Comparison between measured and design dose rate equivalents on board of Nuclear Ship Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Sakamoto, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    The power-up test of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu was restarted in March 1990 and completed successfully in February 1991. The experimental voyages were carried out for about one year and all experiments were completed in February 1992. A comparison between the measured and design dose rate equivalents on board is described with showing a modified method in the shielding design. The measured values were obtained extensively in the cavity between the primary and secondary shields, in the double bottom, outside the secondary shield, and on the surface of the main coolant loop. The shielding design calculations were made with the most conservative geometries and material compositions within the allowed tolerance. In addition, a conservative model was adopted in case of performing the approximation due to the geometrical restriction of calculation code. The computational accuracies were evaluated based on various experimental analyses. The evaluated value was used as the design value. The shield structures were determined with a judgement that the real value does not exceed the design value. The adequacy of the judgement was confirmed by measurements on board. The measured dose rate equivalents in all positions on board satisfied the design criteria. (author)

  11. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  12. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  13. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  14. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  15. The end-to-end testbed of the optical metrology system on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, F; Cervantes, F Guzman; Marin, A F GarcIa; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D, E-mail: frank.steier@aei.mpg.d [EADS Astrium Satellites GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3 x 10{sup -14} ms{sup -2} Hz{sup -1/2} between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the optical metrology system (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper, we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer backend which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, three-axes piezo-actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterization of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbed includes all parts of the LTP that can reasonably be tested on earth without free-falling test masses. At its present status it consists mainly of breadboard components. Some of those have already been replaced by engineering models of the LTP experiment. In the next steps, further engineering and flight models will also be inserted in this testbed and tested against well-characterized breadboard components. The presented testbed is an important reference for the unit tests and can also be used for validation of the on-board experiment during the mission.

  16. Acute phosphine poisoning on board a bulk carrier: analysis of factors leading to a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddé, Brice; Lucas, David; Letort, Jean-Marie; Jegaden, Dominique; Pougnet, Richard; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    To determine accidental factors, clinical presentation and medical care in cases of seafarers presenting phosphine poisoning symptoms on board a bulk carrier. To consider primary prevention of this pathology, which can have extremely severe consequences. To analyse circumstances resulting in toxic exposure to phosphine in the sea transport sector. To obtain information from medical reports regarding the seafarer's rescue. To identify the causes of this accidental poisoning and how to establish an early, appropriate diagnosis thus avoiding other cases. In February 2008, on board a bulk carrier with a cargo of peas, a 56-year-old seafarer with intense abdominal and chest pains, associated with dizziness, was rescued by helicopter 80 miles away from the coast. Despite being admitted rapidly to hospital, his heart rate decreased associated with respiratory distress. He lost consciousness and convulsed. He finally died of pulmonary oedema, major metabolic acidosis and acute multi organ failure. The following day, the captain issued a rescue call from the same vessel for a 41-year-old man also with abdominal pain, vomiting and dizziness. The ECG only revealed type 1 Brugada syndrome. Then 11 other seafarers were evacuated for observation. 3 showed clinical abnormalities. Collective poisoning was suspected. Medical team found out that aluminium phosphide pellets had been put in the ship's hold for pest control before the vessel's departure. Seafarers were poisoned by phosphine gas spreading through cabins above the hold. It was found that the compartments and ducts were not airtight. Unfortunately, a seafarer on board a bulk carrier died in 2008 because of acute phosphine poisoning. Fumigation performed using this gas needs to be done with extreme care. Systematic checks need to be carried out before sailing to ensure that the vessel's compartments are airtight.

  17. Non-compliance with Australian stock exchange recommendations on board independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia O’Keefe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An agency theory perspective is adopted to explain the high levels of non-compliance with recommendations concerning board structure of the Australian Stock Exchange’s (ASX Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations. The study compares groups of compliers and non-compliers drawn from members of the ASX All Ordinaries Index. The results indicate that, in the presence of mitigating factors such as less complexity, higher levels of managerial ownership of equity and higher ownership concentration, entities are less likely to comply with the recommendations on board independence. The results suggest that the compliance decision might be influenced by mitigating factors that reduce the need for board independence.

  18. Findings of the Work Improvement on Board (WIB) programme by the Fishery Agency in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamune, Shuji; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Concerns are growing about the safety and health of seamen exposed to high risks while working on vessels. Their accident rate in 2013 was 9.9 per 1000 workers, 5 times higher than that in industry. In order to mitigate the risks of seamen, we developed the Work Improvement on Board (WIB) programme by applying participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) methods that have proven effective for reducing work-related risks in small enterprises, construction sites, and agriculture. We analysed which features of the WIB programme would be most effective for facilitating the planning and implementation of practical improvements on vessels. We examined action -oriented tools used, including a WIB action checklist and good examples, and practical improvements proposed by the participants in 1-day or half-day WIB workshops. To study the effectiveness of the WIB programme, we analysed 1121 replies of a questionnaire distributed to 1459 participants of the programme. We compared the types of improvements achieved and the improvement costs in the WIB programme with those in other PAOT programmes. The impact of the WIB programme on promoting primary prevention by seamen and fishermen was discussed. The action checklist listing practical improvements on board and good example photos apparently facilitated the planning and implementation of improvements feasible on board. The participating crews could propose readily applicable improvements of their vessels within short time. In the case of workshops held in 10 harbours between August and October 2014, participants coming from 110 vessels presented 228 improvement proposals which were mostly feasible at low cost. Among the 1121 questionnaire replies from participants of the WIB programme, over 75% evaluated the programme as necessary, practical and easy-to-understand. These positive results led to the adoption of the WIB programme for training fishermen and seamen on commercial vessels by the Fishery Agency and the Ministry of

  19. Power supply and stabilization of the supply system on board using decentralized voltage rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueb, W; Wegerer, K

    1987-04-01

    The functionally redundant power supply system of the Transrapid 06 II maglev train is described; it comprises four independent, battery-buffered networks and 30 linear generators per train section. Voltage rectifiers adapt the velocity- and load-dependent linear generator voltage to the 440 V d.c. networks and assure dynamic stabilisation as well as buffer battery loading. The result is a high-reliability power supply system on board with optimum utilisation of the power supplied by the linear generators while the train is running.

  20. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  1. On-board power supply system of a magnetically levitated vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, M.; Maki, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a possible on-board power supply system for a magnetically levitated train is presented and its obtainable electrical power is estimated. The system uses special superconducting magnets. These magnets are used only for generating electrical power. Some induction coils to pick up high frequency components are set in front of the magnets. The special superconducting magnets and the induction coils will be mounted only at the head car and the tail car out of 14 cars in a train. The estimation shows that is possible to obtain more than 630kW of electrical power

  2. Influence of addition of hydrogen produced on board in the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Matienzo, Jorge M.; Domínguez Valdés, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    A commercial electrolytic cell is assessed for supplying HHO produced on board as additional fuel for a stationary diesel IC engine. The cell uses KOH as electrolytic and is fed by the own battery of the engine. First, different concentrations of KOH used as electrolytic were tested in order to obtain the adequate value for the performance of the cell regarding its temperature and HHO production. The cell plates were connected in different combinations looking for a good productivity. The engine was tested in several load regimes, measuring fuel consumption and others parameters. Results show variable fuel savings, depending on engine load and speed. (author)

  3. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Joseph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H 2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  4. Processor breadboard for on-board RFI detection and mitigation in MetOp-SG radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen S.; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasing threat to proper operation of space-borne Earth viewing microwave radiometer systems. There is a steady growth in active services, and tougher requirements to sensitivity and fidelity of future radiometer systems. Thus it has been decided...... that the next generation MetOp satellites must include some kind of RFI detection and mitigation system at Ku band. This paper describes a breadboard processor that detects and mitigates RFI on-board the satellite. Thus cleaned data can be generated in real time, and following suitable integration, downloaded...... to ground at the modest data rate usually associated with radiometer systems....

  5. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, van, C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this survey. Numbers of mackerel eggs in the samples were low, lower compared to previous surveys. Most mackerel eggs were found along the 200m depth contour of the continental slope. Most of the adult mack...

  6. The on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system (TOTEMS) : proof\\0x2010 of\\0x2010concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-03

    An on-board tailpipe emissions instrumentation system was designed, assembled and tested as proof-of-concept : for the University of Vermonts Transportation Research Center (TRC) Signature Project #2 real-world vehicle : emissions data colle...

  7. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina Pachnerová; Jakůbek, Jan; Kyselová, Dagmar; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, Július; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The operational cloud retrieval algorithms from TROPOMI on board Sentinel-5 Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Diego G.; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Lutz, Ronny; Argyrouli, Athina; Romahn, Fabian; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Pedergnana, Mattia; Doicu, Adrian; Molina García, Víctor; Schüssler, Olena

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the operational cloud retrieval algorithms for the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the European Space Agency Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) mission scheduled for launch in 2017. Two algorithms working in tandem are used for retrieving cloud properties: OCRA (Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm) and ROCINN (Retrieval of Cloud Information using Neural Networks). OCRA retrieves the cloud fraction using TROPOMI measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) spectral regions, and ROCINN retrieves the cloud top height (pressure) and optical thickness (albedo) using TROPOMI measurements in and around the oxygen A-band in the near infrared (NIR). Cloud parameters from TROPOMI/S5P will be used not only for enhancing the accuracy of trace gas retrievals but also for extending the satellite data record of cloud information derived from oxygen A-band measurements, a record initiated with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board the second European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) over 20 years ago. The OCRA and ROCINN algorithms are integrated in the S5P operational processor UPAS (Universal Processor for UV/VIS/NIR Atmospheric Spectrometers), and we present here UPAS cloud results using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and GOME-2 measurements. In addition, we examine anticipated challenges for the TROPOMI/S5P cloud retrieval algorithms, and we discuss the future validation needs for OCRA and ROCINN.

  9. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  10. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Xing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can’t be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  11. Random On-Board Pixel Sampling (ROPS) X-Ray Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos; Iaroshenko, O. [Los Alamos; Li, S. [Los Alamos; Liu, T. [Fermilab; Parab, N. [Argonne (main); Chen, W. W. [Purdue U.; Chu, P. [Los Alamos; Kenyon, G. [Los Alamos; Lipton, R. [Fermilab; Sun, K.-X. [Nevada U., Las Vegas

    2017-09-25

    Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. Here we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

  12. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A. The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD, and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A and 77.1-85.2 dB(A compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A.

  13. The operational cloud retrieval algorithms from TROPOMI on board Sentinel-5 Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Loyola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the operational cloud retrieval algorithms for the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI on board the European Space Agency Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P mission scheduled for launch in 2017. Two algorithms working in tandem are used for retrieving cloud properties: OCRA (Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm and ROCINN (Retrieval of Cloud Information using Neural Networks. OCRA retrieves the cloud fraction using TROPOMI measurements in the ultraviolet (UV and visible (VIS spectral regions, and ROCINN retrieves the cloud top height (pressure and optical thickness (albedo using TROPOMI measurements in and around the oxygen A-band in the near infrared (NIR. Cloud parameters from TROPOMI/S5P will be used not only for enhancing the accuracy of trace gas retrievals but also for extending the satellite data record of cloud information derived from oxygen A-band measurements, a record initiated with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME on board the second European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS-2 over 20 years ago. The OCRA and ROCINN algorithms are integrated in the S5P operational processor UPAS (Universal Processor for UV/VIS/NIR Atmospheric Spectrometers, and we present here UPAS cloud results using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and GOME-2 measurements. In addition, we examine anticipated challenges for the TROPOMI/S5P cloud retrieval algorithms, and we discuss the future validation needs for OCRA and ROCINN.

  14. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  15. Fluxes of energetic protons and electrons measured on board the Oersted satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cabrera

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Charged Particle Detector (CPD on board the Oersted satellite (649 km perigee, 865 km apogee and 96.48° inclination currently measures energetic protons and electrons. The measured peak fluxes of E>1 MeV electrons are found to confirm the predictions of AE8-MAX, though they occur at a geographical position relatively shifted in the SAA. The fluxes of protons are one order of magnitude higher than the predictions of AP8-MAX in the energy range 20-500 MeV. This huge discrepancy between AP8 and recent measurements in LEO was already noticed and modelled in SAMPEX/PSB97 and TPM-1 models. Nevertheless some other LEO measurements such as PROBA and CORONA-F result in flux values in good agreement with AP8 within a factor 2. The anisotropy of the low-altitude proton flux, combined with measurement performed on board three-axis stabilised satellites, has been suspected to be one possible source of the important discrepancies observed by different missions. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of anisotropy on flux measurements conducted using the CPD instruments. On the basis of the available data, we confirm the inaccuracy of AP8 at LEO and suggest methods to improve the analysis of data in future flux measurements of energetic protons at low altitudes.

  16. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  17. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  18. Equivalent dose measurements on board an Armenian Airline flight and Concord (9-17 km)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Capdevielle, J-N.

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of the neutron component (E=1-10 MeV) of cosmic radiation on board the 'Armenian Airlines' aircrafts using nuclear photoemulsion are presented. The emulsions were exposed on the flights from Yerevan to Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Beirut, Athens, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Paris and Sofia, and on Concord supersonic flights from Paris to New York. The dependence of the neutron fluxes, and on absorbed and equivalent doses on the flight parameters were investigated. On the flights of the supersonic Concord, with an altitude of 17 km, the neutron fluxes were essentially higher in comparison to those measured on Armenian airliners. It is interesting to note, that the neutron flux and equivalent dose rate decrease with altitude up to 470 km in space, for example, on board the STS-57. The shape of the differential energy spectrum for fast neutrons is the same on all Armenian airlines flights, but significantly different at 17 km altitude, where the flux in the energy region above 3 MeV is increasing

  19. Equivalent dose measurements on board an Armenian Airline flight and Concord (9-17 km)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akopova, A.B. E-mail: akopova@lx2.yerphi.am; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Capdevielle, J-N

    2002-12-01

    The results of investigations of the neutron component (E=1-10 MeV) of cosmic radiation on board the 'Armenian Airlines' aircrafts using nuclear photoemulsion are presented. The emulsions were exposed on the flights from Yerevan to Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Beirut, Athens, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Paris and Sofia, and on Concord supersonic flights from Paris to New York. The dependence of the neutron fluxes, and on absorbed and equivalent doses on the flight parameters were investigated. On the flights of the supersonic Concord, with an altitude of 17 km, the neutron fluxes were essentially higher in comparison to those measured on Armenian airliners. It is interesting to note, that the neutron flux and equivalent dose rate decrease with altitude up to 470 km in space, for example, on board the STS-57. The shape of the differential energy spectrum for fast neutrons is the same on all Armenian airlines flights, but significantly different at 17 km altitude, where the flux in the energy region above 3 MeV is increasing.

  20. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development

  1. Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target

  2. Four dimensional digital tomosynthesis using on-board imager for the verification of respiratory motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Park

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate respiratory motion of a patient by generating four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D DTS, extracting respiratory signal from patients' on-board projection data, and ensuring the feasibility of 4D DTS as a localization tool for the targets which have respiratory movement. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four patients with lung and liver cancer were included to verify the feasibility of 4D-DTS with an on-board imager. CBCT acquisition (650-670 projections was used to reconstruct 4D DTS images and the breath signal of the patients was generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm during data acquisition. Based on the extracted signal, the projection data was divided into four phases: peak-exhale phase, mid-inhale phase, peak-inhale phase, and mid-exhale phase. The binned projection data was then used to generate 4D DTS, where the total scan angle was assigned as ±22.5° from rotation center, centered on 0° and 180° for coronal "half-fan" 4D DTS, and 90° and 270° for sagittal "half-fan" 4D DTS. The result was then compared with 4D CBCT which we have also generated with the same phase distribution. RESULTS: The motion of the diaphragm was evident from the 4D DTS results for peak-exhale, mid-inhale, peak-inhale and mid-exhale phase assignment which was absent in 3D DTS. Compared to the result of 4D CBCT, the view aliasing effect due to arbitrary angle reconstruction was less severe. In addition, the severity of metal artifacts, the image distortion due to presence of metal, was less than that of the 4D CBCT results. CONCLUSION: We have implemented on-board 4D DTS on patients data to visualize the movement of anatomy due to respiratory motion. The results indicate that 4D-DTS could be a promising alternative to 4D CBCT for acquiring the respiratory motion of internal organs just prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  3. Design Through Integration of On-Board Calibration Device with Imaging Spectroscopy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy instruments that use On-Board Calibration devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging instrument records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous calibration data to track spectral response changes in the instrument. The spectral data has the calibration applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.

  4. Radiation effects on the proportional counter X-ray detectors on board the NEAR spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, S.R.; Trombka, J.I.; Leidecker, H.W.; Clark, P.E.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.O.; Roth, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray proportional counters on board the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft have exhibited a resolution degradation and recovery phenomenon several times during the long cruise phase of the mission. The resolution is checked periodically by commanding an 55 Fe source into the window area. The degradation is seen as a low energy tailing of the 5.9 keV photopeak. Two events have occurred which provided good spectral data for better understanding the degradation phenomenon. In November 1997 a large solar particle event occurred that degraded the resolution and excited copper in the collimator. Eventually the detectors returned to normal. In January 1998 the spacecraft performed an Earth swingby gravity assist maneuver. The near Earth environment excited the magnesium and aluminum in the filter elements. The copper line was also produced. The NEAR spacecraft was launched in February 1996 and will rendezvous and orbit the asteroid 433 Eros in early 1999

  5. ASPI experiment: measurements of fields and waves on board the INTERBALL-1 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Klimov

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-wave experiment ASPI (analysis of spectra of plasma waves and instabilities on board the INTERBALL spacecraft is a combined wave diagnostics experiment. It performs measurements of the DC and AC magnetic field vector by flux-gate and search-coil sensors, the DC and AC electric field vector by Langmuir double probes and the plasma current by Langmuir split probe. Preliminary data analysis shows the low noise levels of the sensors and the compatibility of new data with the results of previous missions. During several months of in-orbit operation a rich collection of data was acquired, examples of which at the magnetopause and plasma sheet are presented in second part of the paper.

  6. White LEDs and modules in chip-on-board technology for general lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Paul; Wenzl, Franz P.; Sommer, Christian; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Schweighart, Marko; Hartmann, Martin; Kuna, Ladislav; Jakopic, Georg; Leising, Guenther; Tasch, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    At present, light-emitting diode (LED) modules in various shapes are developed and designed for the general lighting, advertisement, emergency lighting, design and architectural markets. To compete with and to surpass the performance of traditional lighting systems, enhancement of Lumen output and the white light quality as well as the thermal management and the luminary integration are key factors for success. Regarding these issues, white LEDs based on the chip-on-board (COB) technology show pronounced advantages. State-of-the-art LEDs exploiting this technology are now ready to enter the general lighting segments. We introduce and discuss the specific properties of the Tridonic COB technology dedicated for general lighting. This technology, in combination with a comprehensive set of tools to improve and to enhance the Lumen output and the white light quality, including optical simulation, is the scaffolding for the application of white LEDs in emerging areas, for which an outlook will be given.

  7. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  8. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  9. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  10. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  12. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  13. Design of on-board Bluetooth wireless network system based on fault-tolerant technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng; Zhang, Xiangqi; Yu, Shijie; Tian, Hexiang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the Bluetooth wireless data transmission technology is applied in on-board computer system, to realize wireless data transmission between peripherals of the micro-satellite integrating electronic system, and in view of the high demand of reliability of a micro-satellite, a design of Bluetooth wireless network based on fault-tolerant technology is introduced. The reliability of two fault-tolerant systems is estimated firstly using Markov model, then the structural design of this fault-tolerant system is introduced; several protocols are established to make the system operate correctly, some related problems are listed and analyzed, with emphasis on Fault Auto-diagnosis System, Active-standby switch design and Data-Integrity process.

  14. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...... the vehicular tank within the frame of a complete refueling system. The two technologies that are integrated in the platform are solid-state hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides and compressed gas systems. In this work the computational platform is used to compare the storage performance of two tank...... to a storage capacity four times larger than a tube-in-tube solution of the same size. The volumetric and gravimetric densities of the shell and tube are 2.46% and 1.25% respectively. The dehydriding ability of this solution is proven to withstand intense discharging conditions....

  15. Time Synchronization Strategy Between On-Board Computer and FIMS on STSAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Woo Kwak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available STSAT-1 was launched on sep. 2003 with the main payload of Far Ultra-violet Imaging Spectrograph(FIMS. The mission of FIMS is to observe universe and aurora. In this paper, we suggest a simple and reliable strategy adopted in STSAT-1 to synchronize time between On-board Computer(OBC and FIMS. For the characteristics of STSAT-1, this strategy is devised to maintain reliability of satellite system and to reduce implementation cost by using minimized electronic circuits. We suggested two methods with different synchronization resolutions to cope with unexpected faults in space. The backup method with low resolution can be activated when the main has some problems.

  16. New technologies for supporting real-time on-board software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, D.

    1995-03-01

    The next generation of on-board data management systems will be significantly more complex than current designs, and will be required to perform more complex and demanding tasks in software. Improved hardware technology, in the form of the MA31750 radiation hard processor, is one key component in addressing the needs of future embedded systems. However, to complement these hardware advances, improved support for the design and implementation of real-time data management software is now needed. This will help to control the cost and risk assoicated with developing data management software development as it becomes an increasingly significant element within embedded systems. One particular problem with developing embedded software is managing the non-functional requirements in a systematic way. This paper identifies how Logica has exploited recent developments in hard real-time theory to address this problem through the use of new hard real-time analysis and design methods which can be supported by specialized tools. The first stage in transferring this technology from the research domain to industrial application has already been completed. The MA37150 Hard Real-Time Embedded Software Support Environment (HESSE) is a loosely integrated set of hardware and software tools which directly support the process of hard real-time analysis for software targeting the MA31750 processor. With further development, this HESSE promises to provide embedded system developers with software tools which can reduce the risks associated with developing complex hard real-time software. Supported in this way by more sophisticated software methods and tools, it is foreseen that MA31750 based embedded systems can meet the processing needs for the next generation of on-board data management systems.

  17. Surveillance of maritime deaths on board Danish merchant ships, 1986-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Daniel F; Hansen, Henrik L; Burr, Hermann; Jepsen, Jørgen R

    2012-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated a high death rate among seafarers signed on Danish ships during the years 1986-1993. This study aimed to examine and analyse the subsequent development until 2009. A total of 356 fatalities were identified from data supplied from the Danish Maritime Authority, an insurance company, and other sources. Maritime deaths among seafarers signed on Danish ships comprise deaths from 1) accidents, suicides and homicides; and 2) disease on board. Deaths due to 2) occurring ashore within 30 days after signing off were included. The overall and mode-specific death rates were calculated for three eight-year observation periods. The rates for work-related fatal accidents were compared with the rates for land-based trades. All categories of maritime deaths were significantly reduced from 1986 to 2009 - in particular during the last eight-year period (Accidents 1986-1993: 66.6 per 100,000 person years, 2002-2009: 27.0 per 100,000 person years, diseases 49.5-26.1, suicides 14.4-7.8). In spite of the remarkable improvement since 1986, seafarers remain in 2002-2009 more than six times more likely to die from occupational accidents (including shipwrecks) than do workers ashore. The favourable trend of maritime deaths in the Danish merchant fleet may be due to 1) preventive measures - e.g. interventions relating to vessel safety, work environment, and improved medical care on board - and to 2) technological and organizational changes - e.g. newer and larger vessels in the Danish merchant fleet, changed composition of the workforce, and reduced shore leaves. The persisting excess risk warrants further preventive actions.

  18. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  19. A New Algorithm for the On-Board Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guerra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral sensors are able to provide information that is useful for many different applications. However, the huge amounts of data collected by these sensors are not exempt of drawbacks, especially in remote sensing environments where the hyperspectral images are collected on-board satellites and need to be transferred to the earth’s surface. In this situation, an efficient compression of the hyperspectral images is mandatory in order to save bandwidth and storage space. Lossless compression algorithms have been traditionally preferred, in order to preserve all the information present in the hyperspectral cube for scientific purposes, despite their limited compression ratio. Nevertheless, the increment in the data-rate of the new-generation sensors is making more critical the necessity of obtaining higher compression ratios, making it necessary to use lossy compression techniques. A new transform-based lossy compression algorithm, namely Lossy Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Image Systems (HyperLCA, is proposed in this manuscript. This compressor has been developed for achieving high compression ratios with a good compression performance at a reasonable computational burden. An extensive amount of experiments have been performed in order to evaluate the goodness of the proposed HyperLCA compressor using different calibrated and uncalibrated hyperspectral images from the AVIRIS and Hyperion sensors. The results provided by the proposed HyperLCA compressor have been evaluated and compared against those produced by the most relevant state-of-the-art compression solutions. The theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that the proposed algorithm represents an excellent option for lossy compressing hyperspectral images, especially for applications where the available computational resources are limited, such as on-board scenarios.

  20. The influence of vessel movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen in relation to activities and occupational tasks on board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    the activities carried out on board. This continuation of the study goes further by exploring the relation between the exposure to the ship’s movements and the fishermen’s energy expenditure during various physical activities on board. Materials and methods: Four fishermen on 2 contemporary steel trawlers...... demonstrated that vessel’s movements in calm weather increase the energy expenditure during navigation, fishing, and machine handling and that the relation differs in between these activities on board and rest.......Background: Previous studies of professional fishing activities have indicated that vessel movements correlate to fishermen’s energy expenditure. We have previously demonstrated that even in calm weather, the heel and pitch significantly increase the fishermen’s energy expenditure, ignoring...

  1. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  2. An integrated development framework for rapid development of platform-independent and reusable satellite on-board software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Claas; Kuwahara, Toshinori; Kossev, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Even in the field of small satellites, the on-board data handling subsystem has become complex and powerful. With the introduction of powerful CPUs and the availability of considerable amounts of memory on-board a small satellite it has become possible to utilize the flexibility and power of contemporary platform-independent real-time operating systems. Especially the non-commercial sector such like university institutes and community projects such as AMSAT or SSETI are characterized by the inherent lack of financial as well as manpower resources. The opportunity to utilize such real-time operating systems will contribute significantly to achieve a successful mission. Nevertheless the on-board software of a satellite is much more than just an operating system. It has to fulfill a multitude of functional requirements such as: Telecommand interpretation and execution, execution of control loops, generation of telemetry data and frames, failure detection isolation and recovery, the communication with peripherals and so on. Most of the aforementioned tasks are of generic nature and have to be conducted on any satellite with only minor modifications. A general set of functional requirements as well as a protocol for communication is defined in the SA ECSS-E-70-41A standard "Telemetry and telecommand packet utilization". This standard not only defines the communication protocol of the satellite-ground link but also defines a set of so called services which have to be available on-board of every compliant satellite and which are of generic nature. In this paper, a platform-independent and reusable framework is described which is implementing not only the ECSS-E-70-41A standard but also functionalities for interprocess communication, scheduling and a multitude of tasks commonly performed on-board of a satellite. By making use of the capabilities of the high-level programming language C/C++, the powerful open source library BOOST, the real-time operating system RTEMS and

  3. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarelli, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  4. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) on board the TARANIS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.

    2017-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNing and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched in 2019 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) design, to show its performances after its recent characterization and at last to discuss the scientific objectives and how we want to answer it with the MCP observations. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. After calibration and tests, the MicroCameras are now delivered to the CNES for integration on the payload. The Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. There are key instrument because of their capability to detect on-board TLEs and then switch all the instruments of the scientific payload in their high resolution acquisition mode. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters have been tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. After calibration, the Photometers are now going through the environmental tests. They will be delivered to the CNES for integration on the

  5. On-Board Video Recording Unravels Bird Behavior and Mortality Produced by High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio L. García de la Morena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large high-speed railway (HSR networks are planned for the near future to accomplish increased transport demand with low energy consumption. However, high-speed trains produce unknown avian mortality due to birds using the railway and being unable to avoid approaching trains. Safety and logistic difficulties have precluded until now mortality estimation in railways through carcass removal, but information technologies can overcome such problems. We present the results obtained with an experimental on-board system to record bird-train collisions composed by a frontal recording camera, a GPS navigation system and a data storage unit. An observer standing in the cabin behind the driver controlled the system and filled out a form with data of collisions and bird observations in front of the train. Photographs of the train front taken before and after each journey were used to improve the record of killed birds. Trains running the 321.7 km line between Madrid and Albacete (Spain at speeds up to 250–300 km/h were equipped with the system during 66 journeys along a year, totaling approximately 14,700 km of effective recording. The review of videos produced 1,090 bird observations, 29.4% of them corresponding to birds crossing the infrastructure under the catenary and thus facing collision risk. Recordings also showed that 37.7% bird crossings were of animals resting on some element of the infrastructure moments before the train arrival, and that the flight initiation distance of birds (mean ± SD was between 60 ± 33 m (passerines and 136 ± 49 m (raptors. Mortality in the railway was estimated to be 60.5 birds/km year on a line section with 53 runs per day and 26.1 birds/km year in a section with 25 runs per day. Our results are the first published estimation of bird mortality in a HSR and show the potential of information technologies to yield useful data for monitoring the impact of trains on birds via on-board recording systems. Moreover

  6. A quality assurance program for the on-board imager[reg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sua; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hammoud, Rabih

    2006-01-01

    To develop a quality assurance (QA) program for the On-Board Imager (OBI) system and to summarize the results of these QA tests over extended periods from multiple institutions. Both the radiographic and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) mode of operation have been evaluated. The QA programs from four institutions have been combined to generate a series of tests for evaluating the performance of the On-Board Imager. The combined QA program consists of three parts: (1) safety and functionality (2) geometry, and (3) image quality. Safety and functionality tests evaluate the functionality of safety features and the clinical operation of the entire system during the tube warm-up. Geometry QA verifies the geometric accuracy and stability of the OBI/CBCT hardware/software. Image quality QA monitors spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of the radiographic images. Image quality QA for CBCT includes tests for Hounsfield Unit (HU) linearity, HU uniformity, spatial linearity, and scan slice geometry, in addition. All safety and functionality tests passed on a daily basis. The average accuracy of the OBI isocenter was better than 1.5 mm with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. The average accuracy of arm positions in the mechanical geometry QA was better than 1 mm, with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. Measurements of other geometry QA tests showed stable results within tolerance throughout the test periods. Radiographic contrast sensitivity ranged between 2.2% and 3.2% and spatial resolution ranged between 1.25 and 1.6 lp/mm. Over four months the CBCT images showed stable spatial linearity, scan slice geometry, contrast resolution (1%; 6 lp/cm). The HU linearity was within ±40 HU for all measurements. By combining test methods from multiple institutions, we have developed a comprehensive, yet practical, set of QA tests for the OBI system. Use of the tests over extended periods show that the OBI system has reliable mechanical

  7. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment; Puesta en marcha del programa de control de calidad del sistema on-board imager de varian: evaluacion inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  8. A technician monitors the CHeX, a USMP-4 experiment which will be flown on STS-87, in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    United States Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) experiments are prepared to be flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-87 in the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Here, a technician is monitoring the Confined Helium Experiment, or CHeX, that will use microgravity to study one of the basic influences on the behavior and properties of materials by using liquid helium confined between silicon disks. CHeX and several other experiments are scheduled for launch aboard STS-87 on Nov. 19 from KSC.

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot resolution, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, York County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2005. Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot...

  10. A basic component for ISGRI, the CdTe gamma camera on board the INTEGRAL satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arques, M.; Baffert, N.; Lattard, D.

    1999-01-01

    A basic component, called Polycell, has been developed for the ISGRI (INTEGRAL Soft Gamma Ray Imager) CdTe camera on board the INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite. Operating at room temperature, it covers the 20 keV--1 MeV energy range. It features a sub-ensemble of 16 CdTe detectors and their associated front end electronics. This electronics is based on 4-channel analog-digital ASICs. Their analog part features a low noise preamplifier, allowing a threshold below 20 keV and a pulse rise-time measurement which permits a charge loss correction. The digital part ensures the internal acquisition timing sequence as well as the dialogue with external electronics. Two versions of the ISGRI ASIC have been developed in a collaboration of two CEA microelectronics teams from CEA/DTA/LETI/DSYS and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/SEI, respectively on a standard CMOS AMS process hardened against radiation by lay-out, and on a Silicon On Insulator process (DMILL MHS), the latter being latch-up free. This paper presents the ASIC and polycell architecture as well as experimental results obtained with polycells equipped with AMS ASICs

  11. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  12. New particle formation events measured on board the ATR-42 aircraft during the EUCAARI campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Crumeyrolle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol properties were studied during an intensive airborne measurement campaign that took place at Rotterdam in Netherlands in May 2008 within the framework of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. The objective of this study is to illustrate seven events of new particle formation (NPF observed with two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated on board the ATR-42 research aircraft in airsectors around Rotterdam, and to provide information on the spatial extent of the new particle formation phenomenon based on 1-s resolution measurements of ultra-fine particle (in the size range 3–10 nm diameter, denoted N3-10 hereafter concentrations. The results show that particle production occurred under the influence of different air mass origins, at different day times and over the North Sea as well as over the continent. The number concentration of freshly nucleated particles (N3-10 varied between 5000 and 100 000 cm−3 within the boundary layer (BL. Furthermore the vertical extension for all nucleation events observed on the ATR-42 never exceeded the upper limit of the BL. The horizontal extent of N3-10 could not be delimited due to inflexible flight plans which could not be modified to accommodate real-time results. However, the NPF events were observed over geographically large areas; typically the horizontal extension was about 100 km and larger.

  13. First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilken

    Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath

  14. First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilken

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath

  15. Diagnostics monitor of the braking efficiency in the on board diagnostics system for the motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The article presents diagnostics monitor for control of the efficiency of brakes in various road conditions in cars equipped with pressure sensor in brake (ESP) system. Now the brake efficiency of the vehicles is estimated periodically in the stand conditions on the base of brake forces measurement or in the road conditions on the base of the brake deceleration. The presented method allows to complete the stand - periodical tests of the brakes by current on board diagnostics system OBD for brakes. First part of the article presents theoretical dependences between deceleration of the vehicle and brake pressure. The influence of the vehicle mass, initial speed of braking, temperature of brakes, aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, engine resistance, state of the road surface, angle of the road sloping on the deceleration have been analysed. The manner of the appointed of these parameters has been analysed. The results of the initial investigation have been presented. At the end of the article the strategy of the estimation and signalization of the irregular value of the deceleration are presented.

  16. Measurement of dose equivalent distribution on-board commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubancak, J.; Ambrozova, I.; Ploc, O.; Pachnerova Brabcova, K.; Stepan, V.; Uchihori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them [International Commission on Radiation Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21(1-3), (1991)]. According to the Monte Carlo simulations [Battistoni, G., Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members taking into consideration the aircraft structures. Adv. Space Res. 36, 1645-1652 (2005) and Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 108(2), 91-105 (2004)], the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) depends on the location in the aircraft. The aim of this article is to experimentally evaluate H*(10) on-board selected types of aircraft. The authors found that H*(10) values are higher in the front and the back of the cabin and lesser in the middle of the cabin. Moreover, total dosimetry characteristics obtained in this way are in a reasonable agreement with other data, in particular with the above-mentioned simulations. (authors)

  17. Fiber-Optic Communication Links Suitable for On-Board Use in Modern Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Ngo, Duc; Alam, Mohammad F.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Sluse, James; Slaveski, Filip

    2004-01-01

    The role of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Centers has been focused mainly on the improvement of air transportation safety, with particular emphasis on air transportation communication systems in on-board aircraft. The conventional solutions for digital optical communications systems specifically designed for local/metro area networks are, unfortunately, not capable of transporting the microwave and millimeter RF signals used in avionics systems. Optical networks capable of transporting RF signals are substantially different from the standard digital optical communications systems. The objective of this paper is to identify a number of different communication link architectures for RF/fiber optic transmission using a single backbone fiber for carrying VHF and UHF RF signals in the aircraft. To support these architectures, two approaches derived from both hybrid RF-optical and all-optical processing methodologies are discussed with single and multiple antennas for explicitly transporting VHF and UHF signals, while the relative merits and demerits of each architecture are also addressed. Furthermore, the experimental results of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) link architecture from our test-bed platform, configured for aircraft environment to support simultaneous transmission of multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber, exhibit no appreciable signal degradation at wavelengths of both 1330 and 1550 nm, respectively. Our measurements of signal to noise ratio carried out for the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals at these wavelengths indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology which is potentially suitable for avionics applications.

  18. Multi-gigabit optical interconnects for next-generation on-board digital equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Norbert; Favaro, Henri; Sotom, Michel; Maignan, Michel; Berthon, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    Parallel optical interconnects are experimentally assessed as a technology that may offer the high-throughput data communication capabilities required to the next-generation on-board digital processing units. An optical backplane interconnect was breadboarded, on the basis of a digital transparent processor that provides flexible connectivity and variable bandwidth in telecom missions with multi-beam antenna coverage. The unit selected for the demonstration required that more than tens of Gbit/s be supported by the backplane. The demonstration made use of commercial parallel optical link modules at 850 nm wavelength, with 12 channels running at up to 2.5 Gbit/s. A flexible optical fibre circuit was developed so as to route board-to-board connections. It was plugged to the optical transmitter and receiver modules through 12-fibre MPO connectors. BER below 10-14 and optical link budgets in excess of 12 dB were measured, which would enable to integrate broadcasting. Integration of the optical backplane interconnect was successfully demonstrated by validating the overall digital processor functionality.

  19. Designing on-Board Data Handling for EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, A.; Faiz, L. A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) rocket to launch requires a system of monitoring, tracking and controlling to allow the rocket to glide properly. One of the important components in the rocket is OBDH (On-Board Data Handling) which serves as a medium to perform commands and data processing. However, TTC (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) are required to communicate between GCS (Ground Control Station) and OBDH on EDF rockets. So the design control system of EDF rockets and GCS for telemetry and telecommand needs to be made. In the design of integrated OBDH controller uses a lot of electronics modules, to know the behavior of rocket used IMU sensor (Inertial Measurement Unit) in which consist of 3-axis gyroscope sensor and Accelerometer 3-axis. To do tracking using GPS, compass sensor as a determinant of the direction of the rocket as well as a reference point on the z-axis of gyroscope sensor processing and used barometer sensors to measure the height of the rocket at the time of glide. The data can be known in real-time by sending data through radio modules at 2.4 GHz frequency using XBee-Pro S2B to GCS. By using windows filter, noises can be reduced, and it used to guarantee monitoring and controlling system can work properly.

  20. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Herman, Andrew [CTS Corporation; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filter diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.

  1. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  2. Development strategies for the satellite flight software on-board Meteosat Third Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Legendre, Cedric; Koopmann, Olliver; Ferraguto, Massimo; Wenker, Ralf; D'Angelo, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, satellites are becoming increasingly software dependent. Satellite Flight Software (FSW), that is to say, the application software running on the satellite main On-Board Computer (OBC), plays a relevant role in implementing complex space mission requirements. In this paper, we examine relevant technical approaches and programmatic strategies adopted for the development of the Meteosat Third Generation Satellite (MTG) FSW. To begin with, we present its layered model-based architecture, and the means for ensuring a robust and reliable interaction among the FSW components. Then, we focus on the selection of an effective software development life cycle model. In particular, by combining plan-driven and agile approaches, we can fulfill the need of having preliminary SW versions. They can be used for the elicitation of complex system-level requirements as well as for the initial satellite integration and testing activities. Another important aspect can be identified in the testing activities. Indeed, very demanding quality requirements have to be fulfilled in satellite SW applications. This manuscript proposes a test automation framework, which uses an XML-based test procedure language independent of the underlying test environment. Finally, a short overview of the MTG FSW sizing and timing budgets concludes the paper.

  3. DREAMS-SIS: The Solar Irradiance Sensor on-board the ExoMars 2016 lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruego, I.; Apéstigue, V.; Jiménez-Martín, J.; Martínez-Oter, J.; Álvarez-Ríos, F. J.; González-Guerrero, M.; Rivas, J.; Azcue, J.; Martín, I.; Toledo, D.; Gómez, L.; Jiménez-Michavila, M.; Yela, M.

    2017-07-01

    The Solar Irradiance Sensor (SIS) was part of the DREAMS (Dust characterization, Risk assessment, and Environment Analyzer on the Martian Surface) payload package on board the ExoMars 2016 Entry and Descent Module (EDM), "Schiaparelli". DREAMS was a meteorological station aimed at the measurement of several atmospheric parameters, as well as the presence of electric fields, during the surface operations of EDM. DREAMS-SIS is a highly miniaturized lightweight sensor designed for small meteorological stations, capable of estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) several times per sol, as well as performing a direct measurement of the global (direct plus scattered) irradiance on the Martian surface in the spectral range between 200 and 1100 nm. AOD is estimated from the irradiance measurements at two different spectral bands - Ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) - which also enables color index (CI) analysis for the detection of clouds. Despite the failure in the landing of Schiaparelli, DREAMS-SIS is a valuable precursor for new developments being carried-on at present. The concept and design of DREAMS-SIS are here presented and its operating principles, supported by preliminary results from a short validation test, are described. Lessons learnt and future work towards a new generation of Sun irradiance sensors is also outlined.

  4. On-board emission measurement of high-loaded light-duty vehicles in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A sample of eight private gasoline and diesel conventional light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in use with various ages, carrying a load of 460 kg, were tested on a representative trip in the traffic flow of the city of Blida to obtain emission factors representing the actual use conditions of Algerian LDVs. The gas sampling system (mini-constant volume sampling) as well as the analyzers are carried on-board the vehicle. Around 55 tests were conducted during 3 months covering more than 480 km under various real driving conditions. The mean speed downtown is about 16.1 km/hr with a rather low acceleration, an average of 0.60 m/sec2. For each test, kinematics are recorded as well as the analysis of the four emitted pollutants carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbons. Emission factors were evaluated according to speed for each category of gasoline and diesel engines. The influence of some parameters such as cold/hot start, age of vehicle and its state of maintenance are discussed. Results are compared with the European database ARTEMIS for comparable vehicles. These measurements contribute to the development of unit emission of the vehicles used in Algeria, which are necessary for the calculation of emission inventory of pollutants and greenhouse gases from the road transportation sector. The unit emissions constitute a tool of decisionmaking aid regarding the conception of new regulations of vehicle control and inspection in Algeria and even in similar developing countries.

  5. Active landslide monitoring using remote sensing data, GPS measurements and cameras on board UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Depountis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulos, Nikolaos; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    An active landslide can be monitored using many different methods: Classical geotechnical measurements like inclinometer, topographical survey measurements with total stations or GPS and photogrammetric techniques using airphotos or high resolution satellite images. As the cost of the aerial photo campaign and the acquisition of very high resolution satellite data is quite expensive the use of cameras on board UAV could be an identical solution. Small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have started their development as expensive toys but they currently became a very valuable tool in remote sensing monitoring of small areas. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a cheap but effective solution for an active landslide monitoring. We present the first experimental results of the synergistic use of UAV, GPS measurements and remote sensing data. A six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 6 kg carrying two small cameras has been used. Very accurate digital airphotos, high accuracy DSM, DGPS measurements and the data captured from the UAV are combined and the results are presented in the current study.

  6. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the LET spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (∼ 20 g cm -2 shielding) and outside (1 g cm -2 ) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d -1 , respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d -1 . The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from, the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of the CR flux is discussed. (author)

  7. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  8. Li-Al-borohydride as a potential candidate for on-board hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Inge; Domenech Ferrer, Roger; Dunsch, Lothar; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, PO Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Hagemann, Hans; Cerny, Radovan [University of Geneva, Crystallography and Physical Chemistry Department, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Recently, double-cation borohydride systems have attracted great interest. It was found that the desorption temperature of the borohydrides decreases with increasing electronegativity of the cation. Consequently, it is possible to tailor a feasible on-board hydrogen storage material by combination of appropriate cations. Li-Al-borohydride shows a desorption temperature suitable for applications ({approx} 70 C) combined with an high hydrogen density (17.2 wt.%). It was synthesised via high energy ball milling of AlCl{sub 3} and LiBH{sub 4}. The structure of the compound was obtained from high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and shows a unique complex structure within the borohydrides. The material was characterized by means of in-situ-Raman, DSC, TG and thermal desorption measurements to study its decomposition pathway. The desorption at {approx} 70 C results in the formation of LiBH{sub 4} while the high mass loss of about 20% points to the release of not only hydrogen but also diborane. This is right now the main drawback for applications because it hinders reversibility.

  9. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  10. 19 CFR 4.39 - Stores and equipment of vessels and crews' effects; unlading or lading and retention on board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act of 1930, port directors may permit narcotic drugs, except smoking opium, in reasonable quantities and properly listed as medical stores to remain on board vessels if satisfied that such drugs are... for consumption in the United States shall be treated in the same manner as other imported articles. A...

  11. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  12. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  13. Energy management systems on board of electric vehicles, based on power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Giuseppe

    2009-03-15

    The core of any electric vehicle (EV) is the electric drive train, intended as the energy conversion chain from the energy tank (typically some kind of rechargeable battery) to the electric motor that converts the electrical energy into the mechanical energy needed for the vehicle motion. The need for on-board electrical energy storage is the factor that has so far prevented pure electric vehicles from conquering significant market share. In fact electrochemical batteries, which are currently the most suitable device for electrical energy storage, have serious limitations in terms of energy and/or power density, cost and safety. All those characteristics reflect in pure electric vehicles being outperformed by standard internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles in terms of driving range, time needed to refuel and purchase cost. Electric vehicles do have their distinctive advantages, being intrinsically much more efficient, operating at zero emissions at the pipe, and offering a higher degree of controllability that can potentially enhance driving safety. No wonder then, that electric energy storage technology has attracted considerable R&D investments, resulting in new traction battery packs that are getting closer and closer to the industrial targets. In this scenario of EV technology gaining momentum, power electronics engineers have to come up with newer solutions allowing for more efficient and more reliable utilization of the precious on-board energy that comes in a form that cannot be directly utilized by the motor. At present, most of the research in the area of power electronics for automotive is focused in volume and cost reduction techniques. The increase in power density is pursued by developing components that can be operated at higher temperature, thus relieving the requirements on cooling. In this thesis, the focus is on the development of alternative topologies for the power electronics converters that make use of some peculiarities of the energy

  14. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.

    2017-11-01

    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  15. Intermediate layer observed by the impedance probe on board the S-310-3 sounding rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y; Obayashi, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Space and Aeronautical Science

    1977-08-01

    The intermediate layer (or M layer) was detected at the height of 150-170 km in the nighttime ionospheric electron density profile measured by impedance probe on board the S-310-3 sounding rocket. This M layer was interpreted to be generated by the convergence effect of the ionization due to the west-east component of the solar tidal wind as suggested by K.Fujitaka. The altitude variation of the M layer during the course of a night is studied at three other locations with different latitudes. At Boulder (40/sup 0/N, 105/sup 0/W) and Wallops Island (38/sup 0/N, 75/sup 0/W) which have higher latitude than that of KSC(31/sup 0/N, 131/sup 0/E), the altitude of the observed M layers seems to be determined by the north-south component of the wind above about 150 km, by the west-east component of the wind below about 130 km in agreement with the drift theory. The altitude of the observed M layers at Arecibo (19/sup 0/N, 67/sup 0/W) located at lower latitude than that of KSC also coincides with the theoretical estimate when the direction of the north-south wind is assumed to be opposite to that prevailing in middle latitudes. Thus, M layer observations at these stations are consistent with the view that around the latitude range of KSC the north-south wind reverses direction and the west-east component of the wind has the dominant effect on the formation of the M layer.

  16. The TUS Detector of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays on Board the Lomonosov Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, P. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Khrenov, B. A.; Garipov, G. K.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Petrov, V. L.; Sharakin, S. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Y.; Biktemerova, S. V.; Grinyuk, A. A.; Grebenyuk, V. M.; Lavrova, M. V.; Tkachev, L. G.; Tkachenko, A. V.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, E.; Saprykin, O. A.; Botvinko, A. A.; Senkovsky, A. N.; Puchkov, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    The origin and nature of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), which have energies above the 5\\cdot10^{19} eV—the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) energy limit, is one of the most interesting and complicated problems in modern cosmic-ray physics. Existing ground-based detectors have helped to obtain remarkable results in studying cosmic rays before and after the GZK limit, but have also produced some contradictions in our understanding of cosmic ray mass composition. Moreover, each of these detectors covers only a part of the celestial sphere, which poses problems for studying the arrival directions of EECRs and identifying their sources. As a new generation of EECR space detectors, TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up), KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO, are intended to study the most energetic cosmic-ray particles, providing larger, uniform exposures of the entire celestial sphere. The TUS detector, launched on board the Lomonosov satellite on April 28, 2016 from Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia, is the first of these. It employs a single-mirror optical system and a photomultiplier tube matrix as a photo-detector and will test the fluorescent method of measuring EECRs from space. Utilizing the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter, it is expected to detect EECRs with energies above 10^{20} eV. It will also be able to register slower atmospheric transient events: atmospheric fluorescence in electrical discharges of various types including precipitating electrons escaping the magnetosphere and from the radiation of meteors passing through the atmosphere. We describe the design of the TUS detector and present results of different ground-based tests and simulations.

  17. Lightning x-rays inside thunderclouds, in-flight measurements on-board an A350

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces x-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. The In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS was developed in an EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It is intended to localize the lightning attachment points in order to reduce maintenance time and to build statics on lightning current. The system consists of 2 E-field sensors and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been enhanced by two LaBr3 scintillation detectors inside the aircraft. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on-board of an A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100Msamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the x-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The x-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization better than 40 ns with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with very limited time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That channel would allow x-rays from cosmic ray background, TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside the 1 s time window. In the EGU2014 we presented the ILDAS system and showed that the x-ray detection works as intended. Fast x-ray bursts have been detected during stepped/dart stepped leaders and during interception of lightning. Data analysis of continuous channel recordings will be presented as well.

  18. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soo Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  19. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Man

    2008-01-01

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  20. Design optimization of ORC systems for waste heat recovery on board a LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiato, Marco; Frangopoulos, Christos A.; Manente, Giovanni; Rech, Sergio; Lazzaretto, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ORC systems are one of the most promising options to recover low temperature heat. • Design of ORC systems on board a LNG carrier is optimized using the Heatsep method. • Simple, regenerative and two-stage, subcritical and supercritical ORCs are considered. • Three engine cooling systems layouts are found to supply heat to the ORCs. • The highest net power output is achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology may represent an interesting way to exploit the low grade waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. This option is investigated here to recover the heat available from three of the four engines of a real electrically driven Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. A detailed analysis of the engines operation is first performed to evaluate all thermal streams released by the engines. Heat associated with the jacket water, lubricating oil and charge air cooling of the engines is found to be available for the ORC, while the heat from the exhaust gases is already used to generate low pressure steam for ship internal use. Simple, regenerative and two-stage ORC configurations are compared using six different organic fluids that are selected as the most suitable for this application. The thermal matching that maximizes the net power output of the total system composed by engine cooling circuits and ORC cycle is then found by searching for the optimum heat transfer between thermal streams independently of the structure/number of the heat exchangers. Three layouts of the engine cooling systems are compared. Results show that the maximum net power output (820 kW) achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration almost doubles the simple cycle and regenerative ones (430–580 kW), but structure complexity and reliability issues may give different indications in terms of economic feasibility

  1. Preparing for Science at Sea - a Chief Scientists Training Cruise on Board the RV Sikuliaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Pockalny, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of their education, marine geology and geophysics students spend time at sea, collecting, processing and interpreting data to earn their degrees. While this is a critical component of their preparation, it is an incomplete introduction to the process of doing science at sea. Most students are unfamiliar with the proposal process. Many students spend their time at sea performing assigned tasks without responsibility or participation in cruise planning and execution. In December 2016, we conducted a two-week-long, NSF-funded "Chief Scientist Training Cruise" aboard the R/V Sikuliaq designed to complete their introduction to seagoing science by giving the students the opportunity to plan and execute surveys based hypotheses they formulated. The educational process began with applicants responding to a request for proposals (RFP), which provided a framework for the scientific potential of the cruise. This process continued training through two days of workshops and presentations at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics. The students used existing data to define hypotheses, plan surveys, and collect/analyze data to test their hypothesis. The survey design was subject to the time constraints imposed by the ship schedule and the physical constraints imposed by the ship's equipment. The training and sea time made it possible to address all of steps of the scientific process, including proposal writing. Once underway, the combination of conducting the planned surveys and attending daily presentations helped familiarize the students with at-sea operations, the equipment on board the RV Sikuliaq, and the process of writing proposals to NSF for sea-going science. Questionnaires conducted prior to the cruise and in the final days before arriving in port document the success of this training program for developing the abilities and confidence in identifying significant scientific problems, preparing proposals to secure funding, and planning and directing ship surveys.

  2. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height ¡_ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 ¡_ 2.1 km usually lying within ¡_10¢X latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  3. Tomographic reconstruction of storm time RC ion distribution from ENA images on board multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ying; Yan, Wei-Nan; Xu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    A quantitative retrieval of 3-D distribution of energetic ions as energetic neutral atoms (ENA) sources is a challenging task. In this paper the voxel computerized tomography (CT) method is initially applied to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of energetic ions in the magnetospheric ring current (RC) region from ENA emission images on board multiple spacecraft. To weaken the influence of low-altitude emission (LAE) on the reconstruction, the LAE-associated ENA intensities are corrected by invoking the thick-target approximation. To overcome the divergence in iteration due to discordant instrument biases, a differential ENA voxel CT method is developed. The method is proved reliable and advantageous by numerical simulation for the case of constant bias independent of viewing angle. Then this method is implemented with ENA data measured by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers mission which performs stereoscopic ENA imaging. The 3-D spatial distributions and energy spectra of RC ion flux intensity are reconstructed for energies of 4-50 keV during the main phase of a major magnetic storm. The retrieved ion flux distributions seem to correspond to an asymmetric partial RC, located mainly around midnight favoring the postmidnight with L = 3.5-7.0 in the equatorial plane. The RC ion distributions with magnetic local time depend on energy, with major equatorial flux peak for lower energy located east of that for higher energy. In comparison with the ion energy spectra measured by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms-D satellite flying in the RC region, the retrieved spectrum from remotely sensed ENA images are well matched with the in situ measurements.

  4. Fast and Adaptive Lossless On-Board Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Bakhshi, Alireza; Keymeulen, Didier; Klimesh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces the data volume necessary to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The techniques also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware, which makes it practical for flight implementations of pushbroom instruments. A prototype of the compressor (and decompressor) of the algorithm is available in software, but this implementation may not meet speed and real-time requirements of some space applications. Hardware acceleration provides performance improvements of 10x-100x vs. the software implementation (about 1M samples/sec on a Pentium IV machine). This paper describes a hardware implementation of the JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA implementation targets the current state of the art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for Space applications.

  5. Fatigue crack growth spectrum simplification: Facilitation of on-board damage prognosis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Matthew Adam

    2009-12-01

    Better lifetime predictions of systems subjected to fatigue loading are needed in support of the optimization of the costs of life-cycle engineering. In particular, the climate is especially encouraging for the development of safer aircraft. One issue is that aircraft experience complex fatigue loading and current methods for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation rely on intensive computational tools that are not currently carried onboard during flight. These tools rely on complex models that are made more difficult by the complicated load spectra themselves. This presents an overhead burden as offline analysis must be performed at an offsite facility. This architecture is thus unable to provide online, timely information for on-board use. The direct objective of this research was to facilitate the real-time fatigue damage assessments of on-board systems with a particular emphasis on aging aircraft. To achieve the objective, the goal of this research was to simplify flight spectra. Variable-amplitude spectra, in which the load changes on a cycle-by-cycle basis, cannot readily be supported by an onboard system because the models required to predict fatigue crack growth during variable-amplitude loading are too complicated. They are too complicated because variable-amplitude fatigue crack growth analysis must be performed on a cycle-by-cycle basis as no closed-form solution exists. This makes these calculations too time-consuming and requires impractical, heavy onboard systems or offsite facilities. The hypothesis is to replace a variable-amplitude spectrum with an equivalent constant-amplitude spectrum. The advantage is a dramatic reduction in the complexity of the problem so that damage predictions can be made onboard by simple, fast calculations in real-time without the need to add additional weight to the aircraft. The intent is to reduce the computational burden and facilitate on-board projection of damage evolution and prediction for the accurate

  6. Testing the associations between different aspects of seafarers' employment contract and on-board internet access and their job and life satisfaction and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test for associations between different aspects of contract and on-board internet access and seafarers' satisfaction and health. Altogether 298 Croatian seafarers, all officers, employed on cargo ships, with a minimum work experience of two years with their current shipping company, participated in an online survey. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, questions relating to their employment contract and internet access, and measures of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, mental health, and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Their job- and lifesatisfaction levels were higher for shorter duration on board, favourable ratio of work to non-work days, and compliance with the employment contract regarding the changes to work and non-work days. Mental health differed likewise but only in relation to two aspects of the contract: on-board duration and compliance with the contract. The level of gastrointestinal symptoms was lower in cases of shorter on-board duration and compliance with the contract, and in seafarers who have free, unlimited internet access on board. Lower level of cardiovascular symptoms was found in seafarers with free, unlimited internet access on board. Our findings suggest that in promoting satisfaction and health in seafaring, attention should be given to reducing on-board duration, compliance with the contract, and internet accessibility on board.

  7. The Evolution of On-Board Emergency Training for the International Space Station Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBuff, Skyler

    2015-01-01

    The crew of the International Space Station (ISS) receives extensive ground-training in order to safely and effectively respond to any potential emergency event while on-orbit, but few people realize that their training is not concluded when they launch into space. The evolution of the emergency On- Board Training events (OBTs) has recently moved from paper "scripts" to an intranet-based software simulation that allows for the crew, as well as the flight control teams in Mission Control Centers across the world, to share in an improved and more realistic training event. This emergency OBT simulator ensures that the participants experience the training event as it unfolds, completely unaware of the type, location, or severity of the simulated emergency until the scenario begins. The crew interfaces with the simulation software via iPads that they keep with them as they translate through the ISS modules, receiving prompts and information as they proceed through the response. Personnel in the control centers bring up the simulation via an intranet browser at their console workstations, and can view additional telemetry signatures in simulated ground displays in order to assist the crew and communicate vital information to them as applicable. The Chief Training Officers and emergency instructors set the simulation in motion, choosing the type of emergency (rapid depressurization, fire, or toxic atmosphere) and specific initial conditions to emphasize the desired training objectives. Project development, testing, and implementation was a collaborative effort between ISS emergency instructors, Chief Training Officers, Flight Directors, and the Crew Office using commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware along with simulation software created in-house. Due to the success of the Emergency OBT simulator, the already-developed software has been leveraged and repurposed to develop a new emulator used during fire response ground-training to deliver data that the crew receives

  8. Monitoring sleepiness with on-board electrophysiological recordings for preventing sleep-deprived traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Chen, Zhe; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Maglaveras, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study is the development and evaluation of efficient neurophysiological signal statistics, which may assess the driver's alertness level and serve as potential indicators of sleepiness in the design of an on-board countermeasure system. Multichannel EEG, EOG, EMG, and ECG were recorded from sleep-deprived subjects exposed to real field driving conditions. A number of severe driving errors occurred during the experiments. The analysis was performed in two main dimensions: the macroscopic analysis that estimates the on-going temporal evolution of physiological measurements during the driving task, and the microscopic event analysis that focuses on the physiological measurements' alterations just before, during, and after the driving errors. Two independent neurophysiologists visually interpreted the measurements. The EEG data were analyzed by using both linear and non-linear analysis tools. We observed the occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of alpha activity and an increased synchrony among EEG channels before the driving errors. The alpha relative band ratio (RBR) significantly increased, and the Cross Approximate Entropy that quantifies the synchrony among channels also significantly decreased before the driving errors. Quantitative EEG analysis revealed significant variations of RBR by driving time in the frequency bands of delta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Most of the estimated EEG statistics, such as the Shannon Entropy, Kullback-Leibler Entropy, Coherence, and Cross-Approximate Entropy, were significantly affected by driving time. We also observed an alteration of eyes blinking duration by increased driving time and a significant increase of eye blinks' number and duration before driving errors. EEG and EOG are promising neurophysiological indicators of driver sleepiness and have the potential of monitoring sleepiness in occupational settings incorporated in a sleepiness countermeasure device. The occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of

  9. Accurate calibration of waveform data measured by the Plasma Wave Experiment on board the ARASE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hikishima, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is installed on board the ARASE satellite to measure the electric field in the frequency range from DC to 10 MHz, and the magnetic field in the frequency range from a few Hz to 100 kHz using two dipole wire-probe antennas (WPT) and three magnetic search coils (MSC), respectively. In particular, the Waveform Capture (WFC), one of the receivers of the PWE, can detect electromagnetic field waveform in the frequency range from a few Hz to 20 kHz. The Software-type Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (S-WPIA) is installed on the ARASE satellite to measure the energy exchange between plasma waves and particles. Since S-WPIA uses the waveform data measured by WFC to calculate the relative phase angle between the wave magnetic field and velocity of energetic electrons, the high-accuracy is required to calibration of both amplitude and phase of the waveform data. Generally, the calibration procedure of the signal passed through a receiver consists of three steps; the transformation into spectra, the calibration by the transfer function of a receiver, and the inverse transformation of the calibrated spectra into the time domain. Practically, in order to reduce the side robe effect, a raw data is filtered by a window function in the time domain before applying Fourier transform. However, for the case that a first order differential coefficient of the phase transfer function of the system is not negligible, the phase of the window function convoluted into the calibrated spectra is shifted differently at each frequency, resulting in a discontinuity in the time domain of the calibrated waveform data. To eliminate the effect of the phase shift of a window function, we suggest several methods to calibrate a waveform data accurately and carry out simulations assuming simple sinusoidal waves as an input signal and using transfer functions of WPT, MSC, and WFC obtained in pre-flight tests. In consequence, we conclude that the following two methods can

  10. Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer on board the Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuto; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Takashima, Takeshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsuda, Shoya; Kitahara, Masahiro; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-01-01

    We describe the principles of the Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA) and the implementation of the Software-type WPIA (S-WPIA) on the Arase satellite. The WPIA is a new type of instrument for the direct and quantitative measurement of wave-particle interactions. The S-WPIA is installed on the Arase satellite as a software function running on the mission data processor. The S-WPIA on board the Arase satellite uses an electromagnetic field waveform that is measured by the waveform capture receiver of the plasma wave experiment (PWE), and the velocity vectors of electrons detected by the medium-energy particle experiment-electron analyzer (MEP-e), the high-energy electron experiment (HEP), and the extremely high-energy electron experiment (XEP). The prime objective of the S-WPIA is to measure the energy exchange between whistler-mode chorus emissions and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere. It is essential for the S-WPIA to synchronize instruments to a relative time accuracy better than the time period of the plasma wave oscillations. Since the typical frequency of chorus emissions in the inner magnetosphere is a few kHz, a relative time accuracy of better than 10 μs is required in order to measure the relative phase angle between the wave and velocity vectors. In the Arase satellite, a dedicated system has been developed to realize the time resolution required for inter-instrument communication. Here, both the time index distributed over all instruments through the satellite system and an S-WPIA clock signal are used, that are distributed from the PWE to the MEP-e, HEP, and XEP through a direct line, for the synchronization of instruments within a relative time accuracy of a few μs. We also estimate the number of particles required to obtain statistically significant results with the S-WPIA and the expected accumulation time by referring to the specifications of the MEP-e and assuming a count rate for each detector.

  11. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Shoya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Katoh, Yuto; Ota, Mamoru; Shoji, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-05-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) project aims to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons around the Earth. The Arase (ERG) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, to explore in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt. In the present paper, we introduce the specifications of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase satellite. In the inner magnetosphere, plasma waves, such as the whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave, and magnetosonic wave, are expected to interact with particles over a wide energy range and contribute to high-energy particle loss and/or acceleration processes. Thermal plasma density is another key parameter because it controls the dispersion relation of plasma waves, which affects wave-particle interaction conditions and wave propagation characteristics. The DC electric field also plays an important role in controlling the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The PWE, which consists of an orthogonal electric field sensor (WPT; wire probe antenna), a triaxial magnetic sensor (MSC; magnetic search coil), and receivers named electric field detector (EFD), waveform capture and onboard frequency analyzer (WFC/OFA), and high-frequency analyzer (HFA), was developed to measure the DC electric field and plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere. Using these sensors and receivers, the PWE covers a wide frequency range from DC to 10 MHz for electric fields and from a few Hz to 100 kHz for magnetic fields. We produce continuous ELF/VLF/HF range wave spectra and ELF range waveforms for 24 h each day. We also produce spectral matrices as continuous data for wave direction finding. In addition, we intermittently produce two types of waveform burst data, "chorus burst" and "EMIC burst." We also input raw waveform data into the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA), which derives direct correlation between waves and particles. Finally, we introduce our

  12. Measurements of VLF-particle interactions at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly on board a Brazilian geophysical satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Pinto Junior, O.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Takahashi, H.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the proposal for measurements of VLF wave-particle interactions, expected to occur at the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, to be carried out on board a Brazilian geophysical satellite, will be presented. The expected domain of such interactions refers to electromagnetic VLF waves and to energetic-relativistic inner belt electrons, pitch angle diffusing into the atmosphere via cyclotron resonances. The detectors involve a tri-axial search coil magnetometer and a surface barrier silicon telescope. A modified and preliminary version of this proposed experiment will be carried out on board long duration balloon flights, well before the beginning of the intended satellite measurements. For the ballon flights the particle detector will be replaced by an x-ray detector, which can also monitor parameters related to the electron precipitation. (author) [pt

  13. On-board event processing algorithms for a CCD-based space borne X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, H.J.; Bowles, J.A.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Gowen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two alternative algorithms which are applied to reduce the telemetry requirements for a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based, space-borne, X-ray spectrometer by on-board reconstruction of the X-ray events split over two or more adjacent pixels. The algorithms have been developed for the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on the X-ray multi-mirror (XMM) mission, the second cornerstone project in the European Space Agency's Horizon 2000 programme. The overall instrument and some criteria which provide the background of the development of the algorithms, implemented in Tartan ADA on an MA31750 microprocessor, are described. The on-board processing constraints and requirements are discussed, and the performances of the algorithms are compared. Test results are presented which show that the recursive implementation is faster and has a smaller executable file although it uses more memory because of its stack requirements. (orig.)

  14. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds: results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubin, Y; Pianezzi, B; Gasset, G; Planel, H [Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse (France); Delpoux, M [Laboratoire de Biogeographie, Faculte des Sciences, Toulouse (France); Heilmann, C [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments. (author).

  15. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chikhi , Saâdane; Boughedaoui , Ménouèr; Kerbachi , Rabah; Joumard , Robert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO 2 were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-LPG, gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most eff...

  16. On-Boarding a New Chief Nursing Officer to Lead a Magnet Redesignation Visit: The Value of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Kathy; Batcheller, Joyce A

    2016-01-01

    The chief nursing officer (CNO) is a critical senior executive in a hospital and serves as the architect of patient care. Recruiting, hiring, and on-boarding a new CNO present a challenge for any facility. Stakes are higher when the facility is replacing a CNO in the midst of its Magnet redesignation. How does a facility ensure success under these circumstances? This case study demonstrates how one organization was successful in meeting this challenge.

  17. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  18. On Resource Description Capabilities of On-Board Tools for Resource Management in Cloud Networking and NFV Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Tutschku, Kurt; Ahmadi Mehri, Vida; Carlsson, Anders; Chivukula, Krishna Varaynya; Johan, Christenson

    2016-01-01

    The rapid adoption of networks that are based on "cloudification" and Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) comes from the anticipated high cost savings of up to 70% in their build and operation. The high savings are founded in the use of general standard servers, instead of single-purpose hardware, and by efficiency resource sharing through virtualisation concepts. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of resource description of "on-board" tools, i.e. using standard Linux commands, to e...

  19. An empirical investigation of the work environment on board industrial- and cruise ships and the associations with safety

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenstrøm, Øyvind Teige

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the work environment and the associations with safety, and see the relations with occupational accidents and undesired events on board industrial and cruise ships. 215 seafarers participated in this quantitative survey study, with a response rate of 35%. When conducting the hierarchical block regression analysis separately on superiors/officers and subordinates/ratings, the work environment emerged as a predictor for safety status (compliance, atti...

  20. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Sailing for Science: on board experiences for transferring knowledge on Historical Oceanography for Future Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvani, Sara; Carmisciano, Cosmo; Locritani, Marina; Grossi, Luigi; Mori, Anna; Stroobant, Mascha; Schierano, Erika; De Strobel, Federico; Manzella, Giuseppe; Muzi, Enrico; Leccese, Dario; Sinapi, Luigi; Morellato, Claudio; La Tassa, Hebert; Talamoni, Roberta; Coelho, Emanuel; Nacini, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    culture witnesses, related to the naval history of seamanship from the origins up to nowadays), allowed the creation of a special educational format based on Historical Oceanography, for university and high school students as an integration for their curriculum. The Historical Oceanography Society has provided the major knowledges included in the ancient volumes of its archive, thanks to the availability of its members that also held theoretical and practical lessons during the course. The present paper will describe the one-week special course (about 60 hours of theory and practice with technical visits to Research centres and Museums) that has been planned to be carried out on board of the Italian Training Navy Ship (A. Vespucci) and has been organized in order to give the hints about on board life, as well as theoretical lessons on modern and historical oceanography, hands-on labs on oceanographic instruments from public and private collections, physiology of diving techniques and astronomy. The general aim of this course has been, hence, to give to excellent students all those technological but also creative and imaginative features of our past. References M. Locritani, I. Batzu, C. Carmisciano, F. Muccini, R. Talamoni, H.L. Tassa, M. Stroobant, G. Guccinelli, L. Benvenuti, M. Abbate, S. Furia, A. Benedetti, M.I. Bernardini, R. Centi, L. Casale, C. Vannucci, F. Giacomazzi, C. Marini, D. Tosi, S. Merlino, E. Mioni, F. Nacini, Feeling the pulse of public perception of science: Does research make our hearts beat faster?, in: MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2015 - Genova: Discovering Sustainable Ocean Energy for a New World, 2015. National Science Foundation, 50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000. Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council ISBN: 0-309-51744-3, 276 pages, 8.5 x 11, 2000. E.L. Mills, The Historian of Science and Oceanography After Twenty Years, Earth Sciences History. 12 (1993) 5-18. J.A. Bennett, History of Technology - McConnell Anita

  2. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  3. Catalytic on-board hydrogen production from methanol and ammonia for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerijanto, H.

    2008-08-15

    This PhD thesis deals with the catalytic hydrogen production for mobile application, for example for the use in fuel cells for electric cars. Electric powered buses with fuel cells as driving system are well known, but the secure hydrogen storage in adequate amounts for long distance drive is still a topic of discussion. Methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier. First of all it has a high H:C ratio and therefore a high energy density. Secondly the operating temperature of steam reforming of methanol is comparatively low (250 C) and there is no risk of coking since methanol has no C-C bond. Thirdly methanol is a liquid, which means that the present gasoline infrastructure can be used. For the further development of catalysts and for the construction of a reformer it is very important to characterize the catalysts very well. For the dimensioning and the control of an on-board production of hydrogen it is essential to draw accurately on the thermodynamic, chemical and kinetic data of the reaction. At the first part of this work the mesoporous Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}-catalysts with various copper contents were characterized and their long-term stability and selectivity were investigated, and the kinetic data were determined. Carbon monoxide is generated by reforming of carbon containing material. This process is undesired since CO poisons the Pt electrode of the fuel cell. The separation of hydrogen by metal membranes is technically feasible and a high purity of hydrogen can be obtained. However, due to their high density this procedure is not favourable because of its energy loss. In this study a concept is presented, which enables an autothermal mode by application of ceramic membrane and simultaneously could help to deal with the CO problem. The search for an absolutely selective catalyst is uncertain. The production of CO can be neither chemically nor thermodynamically excluded, if carbon is present in the hydrogen carrier. Since enrichment or separation are

  4. Session 4: On-board exhaust gas reforming for improved performance of natural gas HCCI engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amieiro, A.; Golunski, S.; James, D. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common, Reading (United Kingdom); Miroslaw, Wyszynski; Athanasios, Megaritis; Peucheret, S. [Birmingham Univ., School of Engineering, Future Power Systems Research Group (United Kingdom); Hongming, Xu [Jaguar Cars Ltd, W/2/021 Engineering Centre, Whitley, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Although natural gas (NG) is a non-renewable energy source, it is still a very attractive alternative fuel for transportation - it is inexpensive, abundant, and easier to refine than petroleum. Unfortunately the minimum spark energy required for NG ignition is higher than for liquid fuels, and engine performance is reduced since the higher volume of NG limits the air breathing capacity of the cylinders. On the other hand, the flammability range of NG is wider than for other hydrocarbons, so the engine can operate under leaner conditions. Environmentally, the use of NG is particularly attractive since it has a low flame temperature (resulting in reduced NO{sub x} emissions) and a low carbon content compared to diesel or gasoline (resulting in less CO, CO{sub 2} and particulate). In addition, NG is easily made sulphur-free, and has a high octane rating (RON = 110-130) which makes it suitable for high compression engine applications. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) into an engine is known to reduce both flame temperature and speed, and therefore produce lower NO{sub x} emissions. In general, a given volume of exhaust gas has a greater effect on flame speed and NO{sub x} emissions than the same quantity of excess air, although there is a limit to the amount of exhaust gas recirculation that can be used without inhibiting combustion. However, hydrogen addition to exhaust gas recirculation has been proved to reduce emissions while increasing flame speed, so improving both the emissions and the thermal efficiency of the engine. On-board reforming of some of the fuel, by reaction with exhaust gas during EGR, is a novel way of adding hydrogen to an engine. We have carried out reforming tests on mixtures of natural gas and exhaust gas at relatively low temperatures (400-600 C), to mimic the low availability of external heat within the integrated system. The reforming catalyst is a nickel-free formulation, containing precious metals promoted by metal oxides. The roles of

  5. Catalytic on-board hydrogen production from methanol and ammonia for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerijanto, H

    2008-08-15

    This PhD thesis deals with the catalytic hydrogen production for mobile application, for example for the use in fuel cells for electric cars. Electric powered buses with fuel cells as driving system are well known, but the secure hydrogen storage in adequate amounts for long distance drive is still a topic of discussion. Methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier. First of all it has a high H:C ratio and therefore a high energy density. Secondly the operating temperature of steam reforming of methanol is comparatively low (250 C) and there is no risk of coking since methanol has no C-C bond. Thirdly methanol is a liquid, which means that the present gasoline infrastructure can be used. For the further development of catalysts and for the construction of a reformer it is very important to characterize the catalysts very well. For the dimensioning and the control of an on-board production of hydrogen it is essential to draw accurately on the thermodynamic, chemical and kinetic data of the reaction. At the first part of this work the mesoporous Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}-catalysts with various copper contents were characterized and their long-term stability and selectivity were investigated, and the kinetic data were determined. Carbon monoxide is generated by reforming of carbon containing material. This process is undesired since CO poisons the Pt electrode of the fuel cell. The separation of hydrogen by metal membranes is technically feasible and a high purity of hydrogen can be obtained. However, due to their high density this procedure is not favourable because of its energy loss. In this study a concept is presented, which enables an autothermal mode by application of ceramic membrane and simultaneously could help to deal with the CO problem. The search for an absolutely selective catalyst is uncertain. The production of CO can be neither chemically nor thermodynamically excluded, if carbon is present in the hydrogen carrier. Since enrichment or separation are

  6. Fiducial-Based Translational Localization Accuracy of Electromagnetic Tracking System and On-Board Kilovoltage Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Malinowski, Kathleen; Hubenshmidt, James; Dimmer, Steve; Mayse, Martin L.; Bradley, Jeffrey; Chaudhari, Amir; Lechleiter, Kirsten; Goddu, Sree Krishna Murty; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Calypso medical four-dimensional localization system uses AC electromagnetics, which do not require ionizing radiation, for accurate, real-time tumor tracking. This investigation compared the static and dynamic tracking accuracy of this system to that of an on-board imaging kilovoltage X-ray system for concurrent use of the two systems. Methods and Materials: The localization accuracies of a kilovoltage imaging system and a continuous electromagnetic tracking system were compared. Using an in-house developed four-dimensional stage, quality-assurance fixture containing three radiofrequency transponders was positioned at a series of static locations and then moved through the ellipsoidal and nonuniform continuous paths. The transponder positions were tracked concurrently by the Calypso system. For static localization, the transponders were localized using portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs by commercial matching software. For dynamic localization, the transponders were fluoroscopically imaged, and their positions were determined retrospectively using custom-written image processing programs. The localization data sets were synchronized with and compared to the known quality assurance fixture positions. The experiment was repeated to retrospectively track three transponders implanted in a canine lung. Results: The root mean square error of the on-board imaging and Calypso systems was 0.1 cm and 0.0 cm, respectively, for static localization, 0.22 mm and 0.33 mm for dynamic phantom positioning, and 0.42 mm for the canine study. Conclusion: The results showed that both localization systems provide submillimeter accuracy. The Calypso and on-board imaging tracking systems offer distinct sets of advantages and, given their compatibility, patients could benefit from the complementary nature of the two systems when used concurrently

  7. The HIA instrument on board the Tan Ce 1 Double Star near-equatorial spacecraft and its first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rème

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available On 29 December 2003, the Chinese spacecraft Tan Ce 1 (TC-1, the first component of the Double Star mission, was successfully launched within a low-latitude eccentric orbit. In the framework of the scientific cooperation between the Academy of Sciences of China and ESA, several European instruments, identical to those developed for the Cluster spacecraft, were installed on board this spacecraft. The HIA (Hot Ion Analyzer instrument on board the TC-1 spacecraft is an ion spectrometer nearly identical to the HIA sensor of the CIS instrument on board the 4 Cluster spacecraft. This instrument has been specially adapted for TC-1. It measures the 3-D distribution functions of the ions between 5 eV/q and 32 keV/q without mass discrimination. TC-1 is like a fifth Cluster spacecraft to study the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and to study geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms in the near equatorial plane. HIA was commissioned in February 2004. Due to the 2 RE higher apogee than expected, some in-flight improvements were needed in order to use HIA in the solar wind in the initial phase of the mission. Since this period HIA has obtained very good measurements in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the dayside and nightside plasma sheet, the ring current and the radiation belts. We present here the first results in the different regions of the magnetosphere and in the solar wind. Some of them are very new and include, for example, ion dispersion structures in the bow shock and ion beams close to the magnetopause. The huge interest in the orbit of TC-1 is strongly demonstrated.

  8. The HIA instrument on board the Tan Ce 1 Double Star near-equatorial spacecraft and its first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rème

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available On 29 December 2003, the Chinese spacecraft Tan Ce 1 (TC-1, the first component of the Double Star mission, was successfully launched within a low-latitude eccentric orbit. In the framework of the scientific cooperation between the Academy of Sciences of China and ESA, several European instruments, identical to those developed for the Cluster spacecraft, were installed on board this spacecraft.

    The HIA (Hot Ion Analyzer instrument on board the TC-1 spacecraft is an ion spectrometer nearly identical to the HIA sensor of the CIS instrument on board the 4 Cluster spacecraft. This instrument has been specially adapted for TC-1. It measures the 3-D distribution functions of the ions between 5 eV/q and 32 keV/q without mass discrimination.

    TC-1 is like a fifth Cluster spacecraft to study the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and to study geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms in the near equatorial plane.

    HIA was commissioned in February 2004. Due to the 2 RE higher apogee than expected, some in-flight improvements were needed in order to use HIA in the solar wind in the initial phase of the mission. Since this period HIA has obtained very good measurements in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the dayside and nightside plasma sheet, the ring current and the radiation belts. We present here the first results in the different regions of the magnetosphere and in the solar wind. Some of them are very new and include, for example, ion dispersion structures in the bow shock and ion beams close to the magnetopause. The huge interest in the orbit of TC-1 is strongly demonstrated.

  9. Radiochemical analysis of Bikini ashes fallen on board the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K

    1954-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis was done in order to find the proper method of medical treatment for the victim fishermen on board. Analysis was started on March 18, and ash was found to consist mostly of Ca(OH)/sub 2/, activity of which was 0.37 mc/g on April 23. Cations of the 3rd group (especially rare-earth metals) and 5th group were found to have strong activity by chemical separation. Fractions of each group, anions, Zr and Nb fraction, and U fraction were separated by an ion-exchange method.

  10. Monitoring Of The Middle Atmosphere: Grille Spectrometer Experiment Results On Board SPACELAB 1 And Scientific Program Of ATLAS 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, N.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Ackerman, Marcel E.

    1989-10-01

    Measurements of atmospheric trace gases have been performed during the first Spacelab mission on board the Space Shuttle. The principle of the observations is infrared absorption spectroscopy using the solar occultation technique. Infrared absorption spectra of NO, CO, CO2, NO2, N20, CH4 and H2O have been recorded using the Grille spectrometer developped by ONERA and IASB. From the observed spectra, vertical profiles for these molecules have been derived. The present paper summarizes the main results and compares them with computed vertical profiles from a zonally averaged model of the middle atmosphere. The scientific objectives of the second mission, Atlas 1, planned for 1990 are also presented.

  11. Dosimetric control on board the MIR space station during the solar proton events of September-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghin, V.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Chernykh, I.V.; Teltsov, M.V.; Shumshurov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of dosimetric units for the control of radiation doses to cosmonauts on board the MIR space station contains an active dosimeter R-16 and a personal display dosimeter IPD-2. During the powerful solar proton events (SPE) in September-October 1989, the readings of these devices were used for the control of the crew's radiation damage. Results of the dose measurements and analysis of the dynamics caused by some heliogeophysical factors are given. It is shown that the total doses from SPE registered by the dosimeters R-16 and IPD-2 were 3.6 x 10 -2 and 0.9 x 10 -2 Gy, respectively. (author)

  12. Dosimetric verification of lung cancer treatment using the CBCTs estimated from limited-angle on-board projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer treatment is susceptible to treatment errors caused by interfractional anatomical and respirational variations of the patient. On-board treatment dose verification is especially critical for the lung stereotactic body radiation therapy due to its high fractional dose. This study investigates the feasibility of using cone-beam (CB)CT images estimated by a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique for on-board dose verification. Both digital and physical phantom studies were performed. Various interfractional variations featuring patient motion pattern change, tumor size change, and tumor average position change were simulated from planning CT to on-board images. The doses calculated on the planning CT (planned doses), the on-board CBCT estimated by MM-FD (MM-FD doses), and the on-board CBCT reconstructed by the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm (FDK doses) were compared to the on-board dose calculated on the "gold-standard" on-board images (gold-standard doses). The absolute deviations of minimum dose (ΔDmin), maximum dose (ΔDmax), and mean dose (ΔDmean), and the absolute deviations of prescription dose coverage (ΔV100%) were evaluated for the planning target volume (PTV). In addition, 4D on-board treatment dose accumulations were performed using 4D-CBCT images estimated by MM-FD in the physical phantom study. The accumulated doses were compared to those measured using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors and radiochromic films. Compared with the planned doses and the FDK doses, the MM-FD doses matched much better with the gold-standard doses. For the digital phantom study, the average (± standard deviation) ΔDmin, ΔDmax, ΔDmean, and ΔV100% (values normalized by the prescription dose or the total PTV) between the planned and the gold-standard PTV doses were 32.9% (±28.6%), 3.0% (±2.9%), 3.8% (±4.0%), and 15.4% (±12.4%), respectively. The corresponding values of FDK PTV doses were 1.6% (±1

  13. Dosimetric characteristics of radiation fields on board Czechoslovak Airlines' aircraft as measured with different active and passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurney, F.; Obraz, O.; Pernicka, F.; Votockova, I.; Turek, K.; Vojtisek, O.; Starostova, V.

    1993-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics on board Czechoslovak Airlines' aircraft (TU 154M; A310-300) were studied with different active and passive detectors (ionisation chamber RSS 112; scintillator based rate meter; GM counter based rate meter; neutron remmeter based on neutron moderation; thermoluminescence detectors, CR 39 track detectors and bubble-damage neutron detectors). Results obtained are analysed and discussed. It is estimated that the dose equivalent rates at altitudes of about 10 km are at least 3-4 μSv.h-1. Conclusions and recommendations for further studies and for radiation protection are given. (author)

  14. INTEGRATED ON-BOARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS: PRESENT SITUATION REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ANALYSIS IN THE AVIATION INSTRUMENT-MAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paramonov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with present situation review and analysis of development prospects for integrated on-board computing systems, used in the aviation instrument-making industry. The main attention is paid to the projects carried out in the framework of an integrated modular avionics. Hierarchical levels of module design, crates (onboard systems and aviation complexes are considered in detail. Examples of the existing products of our country and from abroad and their brief technical characteristics are given and voluminous bibliography on the subject matter as well.

  15. Functions and technology of digital tachographs systems with contemporary telematic system in road transport, on board informatics net and GPS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin RYCHTER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tachograph belong to On Board Recording Devices. Their development begun before The Second World War. The first on board recording devices is an analog tachograph which was obligatory to use and was introduce in USA in 1939. This paper include main rules of functions of the analog tachograph and digital tachographs system using in road transport. Paper presents also possibility of future requirements of digital tachograph and authorize workshops.

  16. Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Rebischung, Paul; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2018-04-01

    The realization of the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) is currently based on the data provided by four space geodetic techniques. The accuracy of the different technique-dependent materializations of the frame physical parameters (origin and scale) varies according to the nature of the relevant observables and to the impact of technique-specific errors. A reliable computation of the ITRF requires combining the different inputs, so that the strengths of each technique can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This combination, however, can only be performed providing some additional information which allows tying together the independent technique networks. At present, the links used for that purpose are topometric surveys (local/terrestrial ties) available at ITRF sites hosting instruments of different techniques. In principle, a possible alternative could be offered by spacecrafts accommodating the positioning payloads of multiple geodetic techniques realizing their co-location in orbit (space ties). In this paper, the GNSS-SLR space ties on-board GPS and GLONASS satellites are thoroughly examined in the framework of global reference frame computations. The investigation focuses on the quality of the realized physical frame parameters. According to the achieved results, the space ties on-board GNSS satellites cannot, at present, substitute terrestrial ties in the computation of the ITRF. The study is completed by a series of synthetic simulations investigating the impact that substantial improvements in the volume and quality of SLR observations to GNSS satellites would have on the precision of the GNSS frame parameters.

  17. Adaptive approach for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Robust algorithms using reduced order equivalent circuit model (ECM) for an accurate and reliable estimation of battery states in various applications become more popular. In this study, a novel adaptive, self-learning heuristic algorithm for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles is introduced. The presented approach is verified using LIBs with different composition of chemistries (NMC/C, NMC/LTO, LFP/C) at different aging states. An impedance-based reduced order ECM incorporating ohmic resistance and a combination of a constant phase element and a resistance (so-called ZARC-element) is employed. Existing algorithms in vehicles are much more limited in the complexity of the ECMs. The algorithm is validated using seven day real vehicle data with high temperature variation including very low temperatures (from -20 °C to +30 °C) at different Depth-of-Discharges (DoDs). Two possibilities to approximate both ZARC-elements with finite number of RC-elements on-board are shown and the results of the voltage estimation are compared. Moreover, the current dependence of the charge-transfer resistance is considered by employing Butler-Volmer equation. Achieved results indicate that both models yield almost the same grade of accuracy.

  18. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  19. Agile deployment and code coverage testing metrics of the boot software on-board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Pablo; da Silva, Antonio; Polo, Óscar R.; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2018-02-01

    In this day and age, successful embedded critical software needs agile and continuous development and testing procedures. This paper presents the overall testing and code coverage metrics obtained during the unit testing procedure carried out to verify the correctness of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. The ICU boot software is a critical part of the project so its verification should be addressed at an early development stage, so any test case missed in this process may affect the quality of the overall on-board software. According to the European Cooperation for Space Standardization ESA standards, testing this kind of critical software must cover 100% of the source code statement and decision paths. This leads to the complete testing of fault tolerance and recovery mechanisms that have to resolve every possible memory corruption or communication error brought about by the space environment. The introduced procedure enables fault injection from the beginning of the development process and enables to fulfill the exigent code coverage demands on the boot software.

  20. Analysis of On-Board Photovoltaics for a Battery Electric Bus and Their Impact on Battery Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Mallon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the battery with on-board photovoltaic modules. In this paper, a bus model is created to analyze the impact of on-board photovoltaics on electric bus range and battery lifespan. Photovoltaic systems that cover the bus roof and bus sides are considered. The bus model is simulated on a suburban bus drive cycle on a bus route in Davis, CA, USA for a representative sample of yearly weather conditions. Roof-mounted panels increased vehicle driving range by 4.7% on average annually, while roof and side modules together increased driving range by 8.9%. However, variations in weather conditions meant that this additional range was not reliably available. For constant vehicle range, rooftop photovoltaic modules extended battery cycle life by up to 10% while modules on both the roof and sides extended battery cycle life by up to 19%. Although side-mounted photovoltaics increased cycle life and range, they were less weight- and cost-effective compared to the roof-mounted panels.

  1. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X; Pitsianis, N; Yin, FF; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  2. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  3. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Polansky, Stepan

    2016-07-07

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  4. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  5. GPS and Galileo Developments on Board the International Space Station With the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, Oscar; Fantinato, Samuele; Dalla Chiara, Andrea; Gamba, Giovanni; Crisci, Massimo; Giordana, Pietro; Enderle, Werner; Chelmins, David; Sands, Obed S.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) is a facility developed by NASA and hosted on board the International Space Station (ISS) on an external truss since 2013.It has the objective of testing navigation and communication experimentations with a Software Defined Radio (SDR) approach, which permits software updates for testing new experimentations.NASA has developed the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard for SDRs used in space and ground-based platforms to provide commonality among radio developments to provide enhanced capability. The hardware is equipped with both L band front-end radios and the NASA space network communicates with it using S-band, Ku-band and Ka-band links.In May 2016 Qascom started GARISS (GPS and Galileo Receiver for the ISS), an activity of experimentation in collaboration with ESA and NASA that has the objective to develop and validate the acquisition and processing of combined GPS and Galileo signals on board the ISS SCaN testbed. This paper has the objective to present the mission, and provide preliminary details about the challenges in the design, development and verification of the waveform that will be installed on equipment with limited resources. GARISS is also the first attempt to develop a waveform for the ISS as part of an international collaboration between US and Europe. Although the final mission objective is to target dual frequency processing, initial operations will foresee a single frequency processing. Initial results and trade-off between the two options, as well as the final decision will be presented and discussed. The limited resources on board the SCaN with respect to the challenging requirements to acquire and track contemporaneously two satellite navigation systems, with different modulations and data structure, led to the need to assess the possibility of aiding from ground through the S-band. This option would allow assistance to the space receiver in order to provide

  6. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  7. An Improved PID Algorithm Based on Insulin-on-Board Estimate for Blood Glucose Control with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqiang; Li, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Automated closed-loop insulin infusion therapy has been studied for many years. In closed-loop system, the control algorithm is the key technique of precise insulin infusion. The control algorithm needs to be designed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID algorithm based on insulin-on-board estimate is proposed and computer simulations are done using a combinational mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucose-insulin regulation in the blood system. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved PID algorithm can perform well in different carbohydrate ingestion and different insulin sensitivity situations. Compared with the traditional PID algorithm, the control performance is improved obviously and hypoglycemia can be avoided. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, in silico testing is done using the UVa/Padova virtual patient software.

  8. On-board Data Processing to Lower Bandwidth Requirements on an Infrared Astronomy Satellite: Case of Herschel-PACS Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reimers

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new data compression concept, “on-board processing,” for infrared astronomy, where space observatories have limited processing resources. The proposed approach has been developed and tested for the PACS camera from the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Herschel. Using lossy and lossless compression, the presented method offers high compression ratio with a minimal loss of potentially useful scientific data. It also provides higher signal-to-noise ratio than that for standard compression techniques. Furthermore, the proposed approach presents low algorithmic complexity such that it is implementable on the resource-limited hardware. The various modules of the data compression concept are discussed in detail.

  9. New type of chromosomal aberrations in microspores of Tradescancia Paludosa in flight experiments on board of space satelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delone, N L; Antipov, V V; Parfenov, G P

    1986-01-01

    A new type of chromosomal aberrations - complex nonreciprocal translocations accompanied by spherical fragments, is opened. The results of 30 variants of tests are investigated to establish what factor particularly causes new type of chromosomal aberrations. The experiments have been carried out on boards the space satelites: ''Vostok 3, 4, 5, 6'', ''Voskhod'', ''Kosmos 110'', ''Zond 6, 7'', ''Kosmos 368''. All type of aberrations have been recorded. It is supposed that a new type of aberrations depends on the effect of the sum of dynamic factors. At the same time these aberrations are not the background and escape it by separate bright bursts being independent on the effect of take-off, landing and time of an object staying in weightlessness. There is a type of irradiation causing a special type of aberrations.

  10. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittelle, Mack S; Simms, Jean M; Sanders, Scott T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H 2 O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320–1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ∼0.43%. (paper)

  11. Measuring Algorithm for the Distance to a Preceding Vehicle on Curve Road Using On-Board Monocular Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guizhen; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yunpeng; Wun, Xinkai; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-12-01

    Due to more severe challenges of traffic safety problems, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) has received widespread attention. Measuring the distance to a preceding vehicle is important for ADAS. However, the existing algorithm focuses more on straight road sections than on curve measurements. In this paper, we present a novel measuring algorithm for the distance to a preceding vehicle on a curve road using on-board monocular camera. Firstly, the characteristics of driving on the curve road is analyzed and the recognition of the preceding vehicle road area is proposed. Then, the vehicle detection and distance measuring algorithms are investigated. We have verified these algorithms on real road driving. The experimental results show that this method proposed in the paper can detect the preceding vehicle on curve roads and accurately calculate the longitudinal distance and horizontal distance to the preceding vehicle.

  12. New type of chromosomal aberrations in microspores of Tradescancia Paludosa in flight experiments on board of space satelites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delone, N.L.; Antipov, V.V.; Parfenov, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    A new type of chromosomal aberrations - complex nonreciprocal translocations accompanied by spherical fragments, is opened. The results of 30 variants of tests are investigated to establish what factor particularly causes new type of chromosomal aberrations. The experiments have been carried out on boards the space satelites: ''Vostok 3, 4, 5, 6'', ''Voskhod'', ''Kosmos 110'', ''Zond 6, 7'', ''Kosmos 368''. All type of aberrations have been recorded. It is supposed that a new type of aberrations depends on the effect of the sum of dynamic factors. At the same time these aberrations are not the background and escape it by separate bright bursts being independent on the effect of take-off, landing and time of an object staying in weightlessness. There is a type of irradiation causing a special type of aberrations

  13. Calibration of the Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on board AstroSat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antia, H. M.; Yadav, J. S.; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Chitnis, Varsha; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Shah, Parag; Gujar, V. M.; Katoch, Tilak; Kurhade, V. N.; Madhwani, Pankaj; Manojkumar, T. K.; Nikam, V. A.; Pandya, A. S.; Parmar, J. V.; Pawar, D. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Agrawal, P. C. [UM-DAE Centre of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Manchanda, R. K. [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Paul, Biswajit [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080 (India); Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); and others

    2017-07-01

    We present the calibration and background model for the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) detectors on board AstroSat . The LAXPC instrument has three nominally identical detectors to achieve a large collecting area. These detectors are independent of each other, and in the event analysis mode they record the arrival time and energy of each photon that is detected. The detectors have a time resolution of 10 μ s and a dead-time of about 42 μ s. This makes LAXPC ideal for timing studies. The energy resolution and peak channel-to-energy mapping were obtained from calibration on the ground using radioactive sources coupled with GEANT4 simulations of the detectors. The response matrix was further refined from observations of the Crab after launch. At around 20 keV the energy resolution of the detectors is 10%–15%, while the combined effective area of the three detectors is about 6000 cm{sup 2}.

  14. CNES studies for on-board implementation via HLS tools of a cloud-detection module for selective compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, R.; Thiebaut, C.; Dejean, Ph.; Speciel, A.

    2010-08-01

    Future CNES high resolution instruments for remote sensing missions will lead to higher data-rates because of the increase in resolution and dynamic range. For example, the ground resolution improvement has induced a data-rate multiplied by 8 from SPOT4 to SPOT5 [1] and by 28 to PLEIADES-HR [2]. Innovative "smart" compression techniques will be then required, performing different types of compression inside a scene, in order to reach higher global compression ratios while complying with image quality requirements. This socalled "selective compression", allows important compression gains by detecting and then differently compressing the regions-of-interest (ROI) and non-interest in the image (e.g. higher compression ratios are assigned to the non-interesting data). Given that most of CNES high resolution images are cloudy [1], significant mass-memory and transmission gain could be reached by just detecting and suppressing (or compressing significantly) the areas covered by clouds. Since 2007, CNES works on a cloud detection module [3] as a simplification for on-board implementation of an already existing module used on-ground for PLEIADES-HR album images [4]. The different steps of this Support Vector Machine classifier have already been analyzed, for simplification and optimization, during this on-board implementation study: reflectance computation, characteristics vector computation (based on multispectral criteria) and computation of the SVM output. In order to speed up the hardware design phase, a new approach based on HLS [5] tools is being tested for the VHDL description stage. The aim is to obtain a bit-true VDHL design directly from a high level description language as C or Matlab/Simulink [6].

  15. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing Platform for LIDAR Projects at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, J.; Ng, T. K.; Davis, M. J.; Adams, J. K.; Lin, B.

    2015-12-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 - April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  16. A technique for on-board CT reconstruction using both kilovoltage and megavoltage beam projections for 3D treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Lu Wenkai

    2005-01-01

    The technologies with kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging in the treatment room are now available for image-guided radiation therapy to improve patient setup and target localization accuracy. However, development of strategies to efficiently and effectively implement these technologies for patient treatment remains challenging. This study proposed an aggregated technique for on-board CT reconstruction using combination of kV and MV beam projections to improve the data acquisition efficiency and image quality. These projections were acquired in the treatment room at the patient treatment position with a new kV imaging device installed on the accelerator gantry, orthogonal to the existing MV portal imaging device. The projection images for a head phantom and a contrast phantom were acquired using both the On-Board Imager TM kV imaging device and the MV portal imager mounted orthogonally on the gantry of a Varian Clinac TM 21EX linear accelerator. MV projections were converted into kV information prior to the aggregated CT reconstruction. The multilevel scheme algebraic-reconstruction technique was used to reconstruct CT images involving either full, truncated, or a combination of both full and truncated projections. An adaptive reconstruction method was also applied, based on the limited numbers of kV projections and truncated MV projections, to enhance the anatomical information around the treatment volume and to minimize the radiation dose. The effects of the total number of projections, the combination of kV and MV projections, and the beam truncation of MV projections on the details of reconstructed kV/MV CT images were also investigated

  17. Sample-Data Modeling of a Zero Voltage Transition DC-DC Converter for On-Board Battery Charger in EV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Granados-Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery charger is a key device in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. On-board and off-board topologies are available in the market. Lightweight, small, high performance, and simple control are desired characteristics for on-board chargers. Moreover, isolated single-phase topologies are the most common system in Level 1 battery charger topologies. Following this trend, this paper proposes a sampled-data modelling strategy of a zero voltage transition (ZVT DC-DC converter for an on-board battery charger. A piece-wise linear analysis of the converter is the basis of the technique presented such that a large-signal model and, therefore, a small-signal model of the converter are derived. Numerical and simulation results of a 250 W test rig validate the model.

  18. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on-board

  19. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on-board

  20. CONTROL ENGINEERING ON BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei RADU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering embraces instrumentation, alarm systems, control of machinery and plant previously known under the misnomer of automation. Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions, e.g. cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance. Automation can carry out some tasks far more effectively than men. In other areas it is less effective. For example, the monitoring of machinery operating conditions such as the temperatures and pressures can be carried out by a solid state alarm scanning system at the rate of 400 channels/sec., giving a degree of surveillance which would be impossible by human observation. Conversely, the detection of noisy bearing, a leaky gland or cracked pipe is scarcely possible by automatic means. The balance between the possible and the necessary would be achieved in this case by combining automatic monitoring of all the likely fault conditions, with routine machinery space inspection say twice a day.

  1. "Welcome on board"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuysen, Nancy T.E.; Vrijhof, Milou N.; Wijk, de René A.; Kremer, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contexts on overall liking and just-about-right (JAR) ratings of airplane meals. A rice dish (meal type A) and a pasta dish (meal type B) were assessed. Per meal type, two variants were produced (variant 1 and 2). Two hundred

  2. The DREAMS experiment flown on the ExoMars 2016 mission for the study of Martian environment during the dust storm season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettanini, C.; Esposito, F.; Debei, S.; Molfese, C.; Colombatti, G.; Aboudan, A.; Brucato, J. R.; Cortecchia, F.; di Achille, G.; Guizzo, G. P.; Friso, E.; Ferri, F.; Marty, L.; Mennella, V.; Molinaro, R.; Schipani, P.; Silvestro, S.; Mugnuolo, R.; Pirrotta, S.; Marchetti, E.; International Dreams Team

    2018-07-01

    The DREAMS (Dust characterization, Risk assessment and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) instrument on Schiaparelli lander of ExoMars 2016 mission was an autonomous meteorological station designed to completely characterize the Martian atmosphere on surface, acquiring data not only on temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and its direction, but also on solar irradiance, dust opacity and atmospheric electrification; this comprehensive set of parameters would assist the quantification of risks and hazards for future manned exploration missions mainly related to the presence of airborne dust. Schiaparelli landing on Mars was in fact scheduled during the foreseen dust storm season (October 2016 in Meridiani Planum) allowing DREAMS to directly measure the characteristics of such extremely harsh environment. DREAMS instrument’s architecture was based on a modular design developing custom boards for analog and digital channel conditioning, power distribution, on board data handling and communication with the lander. The boards, connected through a common backbone, were hosted in a central electronic unit assembly and connected to the external sensors with dedicated harness. Designed with very limited mass and an optimized energy consumption, DREAMS was successfully tested to operate autonomously, relying on its own power supply, for at least two Martian days (sols) after landing on the planet. A total of three flight models were fully qualified before launch through an extensive test campaign comprising electrical and functional testing, EMC verification and mechanical and thermal vacuum cycling; furthermore following the requirements for planetary protection, contamination control activities and assay sampling were conducted before model delivery for final integration on spacecraft. During the six months cruise to Mars following the successful launch of ExoMars on 14th March 2016, periodic check outs were conducted to verify instrument health check and

  3. On-board measurements of emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in three mega-cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Yan; He, Kebin

    2012-03-01

    This paper is the second in a series of three papers aimed at understanding the emissions of vehicles in China by conducting on-board emission measurements. This paper focuses on light-duty gasoline vehicles. In this study, we measured 57 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) in three Chinese mega-cites (Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen), covering Euro 0 through Euro IV technologies, and generated CO, HC, and NOx emission factors and deterioration rates for each vehicle technology. The results show that the vehicle emission standards have played a significant role in reducing vehicle emission levels in China. The vehicle emission factors are reduced by 47-81%, 53-64%, 46-71%, and 78-82% for each phase from Euro I to Euro IV. Euro 0 vehicles have a considerably high emission level, which is hundreds of times larger than that of Euro IV vehicles. Three old taxis and four other Euro I and Euro II LDGVs are also identified as super emitters with equivalent emission levels to Euro 0 vehicles. Of the measured fleet, 23% super emitters were estimated to contribute 50-80% to total emissions. Besides vehicle emission standards, measures for restricting super emitters are equally important to reduce vehicle emissions. This study is intended to improve the understanding of the vehicle emission levels in China, but some key issues such as emission deterioration rates are yet to be addressed with the presence of a sufficient amount of vehicle emission measurements.

  4. On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-health (SOH estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs is presented with three main advantages: (1 it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2 it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3 it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability.

  5. U-PHOS Project: Development of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe Experiment on board REXUS 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannipieri, P; Anichini, M; Barsocchi, L; Becatti, G; Buoni, L; Celi, F; Catarsi, A; Di Giorgio, P; Fattibene, P; Ferrato, E; Guardati, P; Mancini, E; Meoni, G; Nesti, F; Piacquadio, S; Pratelli, E; Quadrelli, L; Viglione, A S; Zanaboni, F; Mameli, M

    2017-01-01

    U-PHOS Project aims at analysing and characterising the behaviour of a large diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) on board REXUS 22 sounding rocket. A PHP is a passive thermal control device where the heat is efficiently transported by means of the self-sustained oscillatory fluid motion driven by the phase change phenomena. Since, in milli-gravity conditions, buoyancy forces become less intense, the PHP diameter may be increased still maintaining the slug/plug typical flow pattern. Consequently, the PHP heat power capability may be increased too. U-PHOS aims at proving that a large diameter PHP effectively works in milli-g conditions by characterizing its thermal response during a sounding rocket flight. The actual PHP tube is made of aluminum (3 mm inner diameter, filled with FC-72), heated at the evaporator by a compact electrical resistance, cooled at the condenser by a Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded in a metallic foam. The tube wall temperatures are recorded by means of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; the local fluid pressure is acquired by means of a pressure transducer. The present work intends to report the actual status of the project, focusing in particular on the experiment improvements with respect to the previous campaign. (paper)

  6. Preliminary Study on a Reduced Scaled Model Regarding the Air Diffusion inside a Crew Quarter on Board of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Mihnea; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin; Croitoru, CristianaVerona; Tacutu, Laurentiu

    2018-02-01

    The paper focus on the air quality inside the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station. Several issues to improve were recorded by NASA and ESA and most important of them are the following: noise level reduction, CO2 accumulation reduction and dust accumulation reduction. The study in this paper is centred on a reduced scaled model used to provide simulations related to the air diffusion inside the CQ. It is obvious that a new ventilation system is required to achieve the three issues mentioned above, and the solutions obtained by means of numerical simulation need to be validated by experimental approach. First of all we have built a reduced scaled physical model to simulate the flow pattern inside the CQ and the equipment inside the CQ has been reproduced using a geometrical scale ratio. The flow pattern was considered isothermal and incompressible. The similarity criteria used was the Reynolds number to characterize the flow pattern and the length scale was set at value 1/4. Water has been used inside the model to simulate air. Velocity magnitude vectors have been obtained using PIV measurement techniques.

  7. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  8. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  9. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  10. Analytical calculation of electrolyte water content of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for on-board modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Alessandro; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Pianese, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes an analytical model of the water content of the electrolyte of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. The model is designed by accounting for several simplifying assumptions, which make the model suitable for on-board/online water management applications, while ensuring a good accuracy of the considered phenomena, with respect to advanced numerical solutions. The achieved analytical solution, expressing electrolyte water content, is compared with that obtained by means of a complex numerical approach, used to solve the same mathematical problem. The achieved results show that the mean error is below 5% for electrodes water content values ranging from 2 to 15 (given as boundary conditions), and it does not overcome 0.26% for electrodes water content above 5. These results prove the capability of the solution to correctly model electrolyte water content at any operating condition, aiming at embodiment into more complex frameworks (e.g., cell or stack models), related to fuel cell simulation, monitoring, control, diagnosis and prognosis.

  11. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  12. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  13. On board short-time high temperature heat treatment of ballast water: a field trial under operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez-Badia, Gemma; McCollin, Tracy; Josefsen, Kjell D; Vourdachas, Anthony; Gill, Margaret E; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Frid, Chris L J

    2008-01-01

    A ballast water short-time high temperature heat treatment technique was applied on board a car-carrier during a voyage from Egypt to Belgium. Ballast water from three tanks was subjected for a few seconds to temperatures ranging from 55 degrees C to 80 degrees C. The water was heated using the vessel's heat exchanger steam and a second heat exchanger was used to pre-heat and cool down the water. The treatment was effective at causing mortality of bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) standard was not agreed before this study was carried out, but comparing our results gives a broad indication that the IMO standard would have been met in some of the tests for the zooplankton, in all the tests for the phytoplankton; and probably on most occasions for the bacteria. Passing the water through the pump increased the kill rate but increasing the temperature above 55 degrees C did not improve the heat treatment's efficacy.

  14. Extra Dose Due to Extravehicular Activity During the NASA4 Mission, Measured by an On-Board TLD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I. [Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-07-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 {mu}Gy.h{sup -1} at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. (author)

  15. Protein crystal growth on board Shenzhou 3: a concerted effort improves crystal diffraction quality and facilitates structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.; Cang, H.-X.; Zhou, J.-X.; Wang, Y.-P.; Bi, R.-C.; Colelesage, J.; Delbaere, L.T.J.; Nahoum, V.; Shi, R.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, D.-W.; Lin, S.-X.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization of 16 proteins was carried out using 60 wells on board Shenzhou 3 in 2002. Although the mission was only 7 days, careful and concerted planning at all stages made it possible to obtain crystals of improved quality compared to their ground controls for some of the proteins. Significantly improved resolutions were obtained from diffracted crystals of 4 proteins. A complete data set from a space crystal of the PEP carboxykinase yielded significantly higher resolution (1.46 A vs. 1.87 A), I/sigma (22.4 vs. 15.5), and a lower average temperature factor (29.2 A 2 vs. 42.9 A 2 ) than the best ground-based control crystal. The 3-D structure of the enzyme is well improved with significant ligand density. It has been postulated that the reduced convection and absence of macromolecule sedimentation under microgravity have advantages/benefits for protein crystal growth. Improvements in experimental design for protein crystal growth in microgravity are ongoing

  16. Latest Results on Complex Plasmas with the PK-3 Plus Laboratory on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, M.; Du, C.-R.; Huber, P.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Naumkin, V. N.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Zhukhovitskii, D. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Thomas, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Complex plasmas are low temperature plasmas that contain microparticles in addition to ions, electrons, and neutral particles. The microparticles acquire high charges, interact with each other and can be considered as model particles for effects in classical condensed matter systems, such as crystallization and fluid dynamics. In contrast to atoms in ordinary systems, their movement can be traced on the most basic level, that of individual particles. In order to avoid disturbances caused by gravity, experiments on complex plasmas are often performed under microgravity conditions. The PK-3 Plus Laboratory was operated on board the International Space Station from 2006 - 2013. Its heart consisted of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasma chamber. Microparticles were inserted into the low-temperature plasma, forming large, homogeneous complex plasma clouds. Here, we review the results obtained with recent analyzes of PK-3 Plus data: We study the formation of crystallization fronts, as well as the microparticle motion in, and structure of crystalline complex plasmas. We investigate fluid effects such as wave transmission across an interface, and the development of the energy spectra during the onset of turbulent microparticle movement. We explore how abnormal particles move through, and how macroscopic spheres interact with the microparticle cloud. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the PK-3 Plus Laboratory.

  17. The on-ground acquisition and data analysis system for the PDS detector on board the SAX satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Fiume, D.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.; Trifoglio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Phoswich Detection System (PDS) is the high-energy (15-300 keV) instrument on board the Italian-Dutch X-ray astronomy satellite SAX. Functional tests were carried out at BICRON (Newbury, Ohio USA) and at LABEN (Vimodrone Italy). Full ground calibrations have been performed between the end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995. The authors describe in the following the system that they used to acquire and analyse the data coming from the PDS experiment during the ground tests and calibration. It will be used to store and maintain data during both the pre-operational and the operational phases. In a previous report (Dal Fiume D., Frontera F., Orlandini M., and Trifoglio M., AIP Conf. Proc., 61 (1994) 395) they described the general architecture of the data analysis system. In this report they give a detailed description of the entire system, including the hardware and software developed by LABEN to acquire data during on-ground tests. A complete description of the different modules, user interface, inter-process communications, analysis and display tools are presented. Current status of the project is discussed

  18. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  20. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  1. Damage localization using a power-efficient distributed on-board signal processing algorithm in a wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Shuntao; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2012-01-01

    A distributed on-board algorithm that is embedded and executed within a group of wireless sensors to locate structural damages in isotropic plates is presented. The algorithm is based on an energy-decay model of Lamb waves and singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine damage locations. A sensor group consists of a small number of sensors, each of which independently collects wave signals and evaluates wave energy upon an external triggering signal sent from a base station. The energy values, usually a few bytes in length, are then sent to the base station to determine the presence and location of damages. In comparison with traditional centralized approaches in which whole datasets are required to be transmitted, the proposed algorithm yields much less wireless communication traffic, yet with a modest amount of computation required within sensors. Experiments have shown that the algorithm is robust to locate damage for isotropic plate structures and is very power efficient, with more than an order-of-magnitude power saving

  2. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  3. Preliminary Study on a Reduced Scaled Model Regarding the Air Diffusion inside a Crew Quarter on Board of the ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Mihnea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on the air quality inside the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station. Several issues to improve were recorded by NASA and ESA and most important of them are the following: noise level reduction, CO2 accumulation reduction and dust accumulation reduction. The study in this paper is centred on a reduced scaled model used to provide simulations related to the air diffusion inside the CQ. It is obvious that a new ventilation system is required to achieve the three issues mentioned above, and the solutions obtained by means of numerical simulation need to be validated by experimental approach. First of all we have built a reduced scaled physical model to simulate the flow pattern inside the CQ and the equipment inside the CQ has been reproduced using a geometrical scale ratio. The flow pattern was considered isothermal and incompressible. The similarity criteria used was the Reynolds number to characterize the flow pattern and the length scale was set at value 1/4. Water has been used inside the model to simulate air. Velocity magnitude vectors have been obtained using PIV measurement techniques.

  4. A pressure core ultrasonic test system for on-board analysis of gas hydrate-bearing sediments under in situ pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Weihua; Xue, Kaihua; Wei, Rupeng; Ling, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    The enormous potential as an alternative energy resource has made natural gas hydrates a material of intense research interest. Their exploration and sample characterization require a quick and effective analysis of the hydrate-bearing cores recovered under in situ pressures. Here a novel Pressure Core Ultrasonic Test System (PCUTS) for on-board analysis of sediment cores containing gas hydrates at in situ pressures is presented. The PCUTS is designed to be compatible with an on-board pressure core transfer device and a long gravity-piston pressure-retained corer. It provides several advantages over laboratory core analysis including quick and non-destructive detection, in situ and successive acoustic property acquisition, and remission of sample storage and transportation. The design of the unique assembly units to ensure the in situ detection is demonstrated, involving the U-type protecting jackets, transducer precession device, and pressure stabilization system. The in situ P-wave velocity measurements make the detection of gas hydrate existence in the sediments possible on-board. Performance tests have verified the feasibility and sensitivity of the ultrasonic test unit, showing the dependence of P-wave velocity on gas hydrate saturation. The PCUTS has been successfully applied for analysis of natural samples containing gas hydrates recovered from the South China Sea. It is indicated that on-board P-wave measurements could provide a quick and effective understanding of the hydrate occurrence in natural samples, which can assist further resource exploration, assessment, and subsequent detailed core analysis.

  5. A pressure core ultrasonic test system for on-board analysis of gas hydrate-bearing sediments under in situ pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Weihua; Xue, Kaihua; Wei, Rupeng; Ling, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    The enormous potential as an alternative energy resource has made natural gas hydrates a material of intense research interest. Their exploration and sample characterization require a quick and effective analysis of the hydrate-bearing cores recovered under in situ pressures. Here a novel Pressure Core Ultrasonic Test System (PCUTS) for on-board analysis of sediment cores containing gas hydrates at in situ pressures is presented. The PCUTS is designed to be compatible with an on-board pressure core transfer device and a long gravity-piston pressure-retained corer. It provides several advantages over laboratory core analysis including quick and non-destructive detection, in situ and successive acoustic property acquisition, and remission of sample storage and transportation. The design of the unique assembly units to ensure the in situ detection is demonstrated, involving the U-type protecting jackets, transducer precession device, and pressure stabilization system. The in situ P-wave velocity measurements make the detection of gas hydrate existence in the sediments possible on-board. Performance tests have verified the feasibility and sensitivity of the ultrasonic test unit, showing the dependence of P-wave velocity on gas hydrate saturation. The PCUTS has been successfully applied for analysis of natural samples containing gas hydrates recovered from the South China Sea. It is indicated that on-board P-wave measurements could provide a quick and effective understanding of the hydrate occurrence in natural samples, which can assist further resource exploration, assessment, and subsequent detailed core analysis.

  6. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  7. Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Aursand, I.G.; Grimso, L.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For

  8. High spatio-temporal resolution pollutant measurements of on-board vehicle emissions using ultra-fast response gas analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing ultra-fast response engine exhaust emissions analyzers have been adapted for on-board vehicle use combined with GPS data. We present, for the first time, how high spatio-temporal resolution data products allow transient features associated with internal combustion engines to be examined in detail during on-road driving. Such data are both useful to examine the circumstances leading to high emissions, and reveals the accurate position of urban air quality hot spots as deposited by the candidate vehicle, useful for source attribution and dispersion modelling. The fast response time of the analyzers, which results in 100 Hz data, makes accurate time-alignment with the vehicle's engine control unit (ECU signals possible. This enables correlation with transient air fuel ratio, engine speed, load, and other engine parameters, which helps to explain the causes of the emissions spikes that portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS and conventional slow response analyzers would miss or smooth out due to mixing within their sampling systems. The data presented is from NO and NOx analyzers, but other fast analyzers (e.g. total hydrocarbons (THC, CO and CO2 can be used similarly. The high levels of NOx pollution associated with accelerating on entry ramps to motorways, driving over speed bumps, accelerating away from traffic lights, are explored in detail. The time-aligned ultra-fast analyzers offer unique insight allowing more accurate quantification and better interpretation of engine and driver activity and the associated emissions impact on local air quality.

  9. The impact of the board's strategy-setting role on board-management relations and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Schreyögg, Jonas; Schultz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate governance of hospitals largely depends on effective cooperation between governing boards and hospital management. Governing boards play an important role in strategy-setting as part of their support for hospital management. However, in certain situations, this active strategic role may also generate discord within this relationship. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the roles, attributes, and processes of governing boards on hospital performance. We examine the impact of the governing board's strategy-setting role on board-management collaboration quality and on financial performance while also analyzing the interaction effects of board diversity and board activity level. The data are derived from a survey that was sent simultaneously to German hospitals and their associated governing board, combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements and quality reports. We use a structural equation modeling approach to test the model. The results indicate that different board characteristics have a significant impact on hospital performance (R = .37). The strategy-setting role and board-management collaboration quality have a positive effect on hospital performance, whereas the impact of strategy-setting on collaboration quality is negative. We find that the positive effect of strategy-setting on performance increases with decreasing board diversity. When board members have more homogeneous backgrounds and exhibit higher board activity levels, the negative effect of the strategy-setting on collaboration quality also increases. Active strategy-setting by a governing board may generally improve hospital performance. Diverse members of governing boards should be involved in strategy-setting for hospitals. However, high board-management collaboration quality may be compromised if managerial autonomy is too highly restricted. Consequently, hospitals should support board-management collaboration about

  10. Band-to-Band Misregistration of the Images of MODIS On-Board Calibrators and Its Impact to Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-01-01

    The MODIS instruments aboard Terra and Aqua satellites are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with a set of onboard calibrators (OBC) including a solar diffuser (SD), a blackbody (BB) and a space view (SV) port through which the detectors can view the dark space. As a whisk-broom scanning spectroradiometer, thirty-six MODIS spectral bands are assembled in the along-scan direction on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). These bands capture images of the same target sequentially with the motion of a scan mirror. Then the images are co-registered on board by delaying appropriate band dependent amount of time depending on the band locations on the FPA. While this co-registration mechanism is functioning well for the "far field" remote targets such as Earth view (EV) scenes or the Moon, noticeable band-to-band misregistration in the along-scan direction has been observed for near field targets, in particular the OBCs. In this paper, the misregistration phenomenon is presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the root cause of the misregistration is that the rotating element of the instrument, the scan mirror, is displaced from the focus of the telescope primary mirror. The amount of the misregistration is proportional to the band location on the FPA and is inversely proportional to the distance between the target and the scan mirror. The impact of this misregistration to the calibration of MODIS bands is discussed. In particular, the calculation of the detector gain coefficient m1 of bands 8-16 (412 nm 870 nm) is improved by up to 1.5% for Aqua MODIS.

  11. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  12. Development of the science instrument CLUPI: the close-up imager on board the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cessa, V.; Martin, P.

    2017-11-01

    First mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme of ESA, ExoMars will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies, and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Planned for launch in 2013, ExoMars will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The Close-UP Imager (CLUPI) instrument is part of the Pasteur Payload of the rover fixed on the robotic arm. It is a robotic replacement of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits at high resolution is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the Pasteur rover may be active on Mars. At the resolution provided by CLUPI (approx. 15 micrometer/pixel), rocks show a plethora of surface and internal structures, to name just a few: crystals in igneous rocks, sedimentary structures such as bedding, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sedimentary bedding, sediment components, surface marks in sediments, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be visualized, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes, potentially present in sediments and in palaeocavitites in any rock type. CLUPI is a complete imaging system, consisting of an APS (Active Pixel Sensor) camera with 27° FOV optics. The sensor is sensitive to light between 400 and 900 nm with 12 bits digitization. The fixed focus optics provides well focused images of 4 cm x 2.4 cm rock area at a distance of about 10 cm. This challenging camera system, less than 200g, is an independent scientific instrument linked to the rover on board computer via a SpaceWire interface. After the science goals and specifications presentation, the development of this complex high performance miniaturized imaging system will be described.

  13. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  14. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH 4 . Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm 2 ) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH 4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours

  15. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in October 2010., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in...

  16. Hydrography, Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a two-dimensional AutoCAD drawing file. In 2006 Polk County converted the AutoCAD hydrography file into and shapefile creating the h, Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 1996. Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a...

  17. Predicting adult pulmonary ventilation volume and wearing complianceby on-board accelerometry during personal level exposure assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, C. E.; Chillrud, S. N.; Haskell, W. L.; Intille, S. S.; Albinali, F.; Rosenberger, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    BackgroundMetabolic functions typically increase with human activity, but optimal methods to characterize activity levels for real-time predictions of ventilation volume (l min-1) during exposure assessments have not been available. Could tiny, triaxial accelerometers be incorporated into personal level monitors to define periods of acceptable wearing compliance, and allow the exposures (μg m-3) to be extended to potential doses in μg min-1 kg-1 of body weight? ObjectivesIn a pilot effort, we tested: 1) whether appropriately-processed accelerometer data could be utilized to predict compliance and in linear regressions to predict ventilation volumes in real-time as an on-board component of personal level exposure sensor systems, and 2) whether locating the exposure monitors on the chest in the breathing zone, provided comparable accelerometric data to other locations more typically utilized (waist, thigh, wrist, etc.). MethodsPrototype exposure monitors from RTI International and Columbia University were worn on the chest by a pilot cohort of adults while conducting an array of scripted activities (all volumes in-situ. For the subset of participants with complete data (n = 22), linear regressions were constructed (processed accelerometric variable versus ventilation rate) for each participant and exposure monitor type, and Pearson correlations computed to compare across scenarios. ResultsTriaxial accelerometer data were demonstrated to be adequately sensitive indicators for predicting exposure monitor wearing compliance. Strong linear correlations (R values from 0.77 to 0.99) were observed for all participants for both exposure sensor accelerometer variables against ventilation volume for recumbent, sedentary, and ambulatory activities with MET values ˜volume data. Computing accelerometric standard deviations allowed good sensitivity for compliance assessments even for sedentary activities. These pilot findings supported the hypothesis that a common linear

  18. Effects of a dedicated regional psychiatric emergency service on boarding of psychiatric patients in area emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Scott; Calma, Nicole; Stone, Ashley

    2014-02-01

    Mental health patients boarding for long hours, even days, in United States emergency departments (EDs) awaiting transfer for psychiatric services has become a considerable and widespread problem. Past studies have shown average boarding times ranging from 6.8 hours to 34 hours. Most proposed solutions to this issue have focused solely on increasing available inpatient psychiatric hospital beds, rather than considering alternative emergency care designs that could provide prompt access to treatment and might reduce the need for many hospitalizations. One suggested option has been the "regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility," which serves to evaluate and treat all mental health patients for a given area, and can accept direct transfers from other EDs. This study sought to assess the effects of a regional dedicated emergency psychiatric facility design known at the "Alameda Model" on boarding times and hospitalization rates for psychiatric patients in area EDs. Over a 30-day period beginning in January 2013, 5 community hospitals in Alameda County, California, tracked all ED patients on involuntary mental health holds to determine boarding time, defined as the difference between when they were deemed stable for psychiatric disposition and the time they were discharged from the ED for transfer to the regional psychiatric emergency service. Patients were also followed to determine the percentage admitted to inpatient psychiatric units after evaluation and treatment in the psychiatric emergency service. In a total sample of 144 patients, the average boarding time was approximately 1 hour and 48 minutes. Only 24.8% were admitted for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization from the psychiatric emergency service. The results of this study indicate that the Alameda Model of transferring patients from general hospital EDs to a regional psychiatric emergency service reduced the length of boarding times for patients awaiting psychiatric care by over 80% versus

  19. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    The realization of Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRFs) must be periodically updated in order to account for newly acquired observations and for upgrades in data analysis procedures and/or combination techniques. Any innovative computation strategy should ameliorate the definition of the frame physical parameters, upon which a number of scientific applications critically rely. On the basis of the requirements of scientific cutting edge studies, the geodetic community has estimated that the present day challenge in the determination of TRFs is to provide a frame that is accurate and long-term stable at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y respectively. This work aims at characterizing the frame realized by a combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations via their co-location on board GNSS spacecrafts. In particular, it is established how such a frame compares to the traditional ITRF computation and what is the impact on the realization of the frame origin and scale. Four years of data from a global network encompassing about one hundred GNSS stations and all SLR sites have been analyzed. In order to ensure the highest possible consistency, the raw data of both techniques are treated with the same analysis Software (Bernese GNSS Software 5.2) following IERS2010 Conventions. Both weekly and long term solutions are carried out exploiting either the Bernese or the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frames (CATREF) Software packages. We present the results of a combination study involving GNSS data and SLR observations to the two LAGEOS and to the GNSS satellites equipped with retroreflector arrays. The latter type of measurements is currently not included in the computation of the official ITRF solutions. The assessment of the benefit that they could provide to the definition of the origin and scale of the ITRF is however worth investigating, as such data provide the potential for linking the GNSS and

  20. Development and Flight Results of a PC104/QNX-Based On-Board Computer and Software for the YES2 Tether Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulos, I.; Mirmont, M.; Kruijff, M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper highlights the flight preparation and mission performance of a PC104-based On-Board Computer for ESA's second Young Engineer's Satellite (YES2), with additional attention to the flight software design and experience of QNX as multi-process real-time operating system. This combination of Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies is an accessible option for small satellites with high computational demands.

  1. Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Raphael; Weinlaender, Christof; Kienzl, Norbert; Bitschnau, Brigitte; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    On-board desulfurization is essential to operate fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APU) with commercial fuels. In this work, both (i) on-board desulfurization and (ii) on-board regeneration performance of Ag-Al2O3 adsorbent is investigated in a comprehensive manner. The herein investigated regeneration strategy uses hot APU off-gas as the regeneration medium and requires no additional reagents, tanks, nor heat exchangers and thus has remarkable advantages in comparison to state-of-the-art regeneration strategies. The results for (i) show high desulfurization performance of Ag-Al2O3 under all relevant operating conditions and specify the influence of individual operation parameters and the combination of them, which have not yet been quantified. The system integrated regeneration strategy (ii) shows excellent regeneration performance recovering 100% of the initial adsorption capacity for all investigated types of fuels and sulfur heterocycles. Even the adsorption capacity of the most challenging dibenzothiophene in terms of regeneration is restored to 100% over 14 cycles of operation. Subsequent material analyses proved the thermal and chemical stability of all relevant adsorption sites under APU off-gas conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time 100% regeneration after adsorption of dibenzothiophene is reported over 14 cycles of operation for thermal regeneration in oxidizing atmospheres.

  2. Investigations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems on Board the International Space Station: Experiments Puls and Pneumocard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. M.; Baevsky, R. M.; Drescher, J.; Tank, J.

    parameters describing the results of the function of these systems like heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or breathing frequency, concentration of O2 and CO2 , etc. Missing significant changes of these parameters during weightlessness supports the hypothesis that adaptational and compensatory mechanisms are sufficient and guarantee cardiovascular homeostasis under changing environmental conditions. characteristic changes of the vegetative balance and of the activity of different regulatory elements at the brainstem and subcortical level. This changes guaranteed the adaptation to long term weightlessness. However, it remains unclear to what extent the different levels are involved. Moreover, the criteria describing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory interaction for the different functional states are not defined yet. The investigation of this problems is highly relevant in order to improve the medical control, especially if considering that the disruption of regulatory systems mostly precedes dangerous destruction of homeostasis. cardiovascular and respiratory function on Board the International Space Station (ISS) aiming to obtain new insights into the interaction between different regulatory elements. "Puls" is measures ECG, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and the pneumotachogram (PTG). The ECG is used to measure time series of R-R intervals and to analyse HRV. PPG is used to define the pulse wave velocity, phases of the cardiac cycle, and an estimate of the filling of finger vessels. The variability of these parameters is also calculated and compared to HRV. The analysis of the PTG allows to describe the interaction of the regulatory parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Hence, an important feature of the experiment "Puls" is the investigation of regulatory mechanisms rather than of cardiovascular homeostasis. cardiography) and left ventricular contractility (seismocardiography) will be obtained. This expansion is of major importance

  3. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  4. On Gamma Ray Instrument On-Board Data Processing Real-Time Computational Algorithm for Cosmic Ray Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Hunter, Stanley D.; Hanu, Andrei R.; Sheets, Teresa B.

    2016-01-01

    gamma ray events and the problem is to detect and reject the much more voluminous cosmic ray projections, so that the remaining science data can be telemetered to the ground over the constrained communication link. The state-of-the-art in cosmic rays detection and rejection does not provide an adequate computational solution. This paper presents a novel approach to the AdEPT on-board data processing burdened with the CR detection top pole bottleneck problem. This paper is introducing the data processing object, demonstrates object segmentation and distribution for processing among many processing elements (PEs) and presents solution algorithm for the processing bottleneck - the CR-Algorithm. The algorithm is based on the a priori knowledge that a CR pierces the entire instrument pressure vessel. This phenomenon is also the basis for a straightforward CR simulator, allowing the CR-Algorithm performance testing. Parallel processing of the readout image's (2(N+M) - 4) peripheral voxels is detecting all CRs, resulting in O(n) computational complexity. This algorithm near real-time performance is making AdEPT class spaceflight instruments feasible.

  5. TH-C-17A-12: Integrated CBCT and Optical Tomography System On-Board a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K; Zhang, B; Eslami, S; Iordachita, I; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Patterson, M [Hamilton Regional Cancer Ctr., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We present a newly developed on-board optical tomography system for SARRP. Innovative features include the compact design and fast acquisition optical method to perform 3D soft tissue radiation guidance. Because of the on-board feature and the combination of the CBCT, diffusive optical tomography (DOT), bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography (BLT and FT), this integrated system is expected to provide more accurate soft tissue guidance than an off-line system as well as highly sensitive functional imaging in preclinical research. Methods: Images are acquired in the order of CBCT, DOT and then BLT/FT, where the SARRP CBCT and DOT are used to provide the anatomical and optical properties information to enhance the subsequent BLT/FT optical reconstruction. The SARRP stage is redesigned to include 9 imbedded optical fibers in contact with the animal's skin. These fibers, connected to a white light lamp or laser, serve as the light sources for the DOT or FT, respectively. A CCD camera with f/1.4 lens and multi-spectral filter set is used as the optical detector and is mounted on a portable cart ready to dock into the SARRP. No radiation is delivered during optical image acquisition. A 3-way mirror system capable of 180 degree rotation around the animal reflects the optical signal to the camera at multiple projection angles. A special black-painted dome covers the stage and provides the light shielding. Results: Spontaneous metastatic bioluminescent liver and lung tumor models will be used to validate the 3D BLT reconstruction. To demonstrate the capability of our FT system, GastroSense750 fluorescence agent will be used to imaging the mouse stomach and intestinal region in 3D. Conclusion: We expect that this integrated CBCT and optical tomography on-board a SARRP will present new research opportunities for pre-clinical radiation research. Supported by NCI RO1-CA 158100.

  6. TH-C-17A-12: Integrated CBCT and Optical Tomography System On-Board a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K; Zhang, B; Eslami, S; Iordachita, I; Wong, J; Patterson, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We present a newly developed on-board optical tomography system for SARRP. Innovative features include the compact design and fast acquisition optical method to perform 3D soft tissue radiation guidance. Because of the on-board feature and the combination of the CBCT, diffusive optical tomography (DOT), bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography (BLT and FT), this integrated system is expected to provide more accurate soft tissue guidance than an off-line system as well as highly sensitive functional imaging in preclinical research. Methods: Images are acquired in the order of CBCT, DOT and then BLT/FT, where the SARRP CBCT and DOT are used to provide the anatomical and optical properties information to enhance the subsequent BLT/FT optical reconstruction. The SARRP stage is redesigned to include 9 imbedded optical fibers in contact with the animal's skin. These fibers, connected to a white light lamp or laser, serve as the light sources for the DOT or FT, respectively. A CCD camera with f/1.4 lens and multi-spectral filter set is used as the optical detector and is mounted on a portable cart ready to dock into the SARRP. No radiation is delivered during optical image acquisition. A 3-way mirror system capable of 180 degree rotation around the animal reflects the optical signal to the camera at multiple projection angles. A special black-painted dome covers the stage and provides the light shielding. Results: Spontaneous metastatic bioluminescent liver and lung tumor models will be used to validate the 3D BLT reconstruction. To demonstrate the capability of our FT system, GastroSense750 fluorescence agent will be used to imaging the mouse stomach and intestinal region in 3D. Conclusion: We expect that this integrated CBCT and optical tomography on-board a SARRP will present new research opportunities for pre-clinical radiation research. Supported by NCI RO1-CA 158100

  7. High-flux MFI-alumina hollow fibres: a membrane-based process for on-board CO2 capture from internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the conception and development of a membrane-based process for an on-board CO 2 capture/storage application. In a first part, we simulate an on-board CO 2 capture unit based on a membrane process for the case study of a heavy vehicle (≥3500 kg). This study includes an energy analysis of the impact of gas separation and compression on the required membrane surface and module volume, as well the autonomy of the storage unit and the energy overconsumption involved in the process. In a second part, we study the influence of the hollow-fibre support quality on the final intergrowth level of nano-composite MFI-alumina membranes. Special attention is devoted to the influence of the isomorphic substitution of silica by boron and germanium, and replacement of the counter-cation (proton) by other elements, on the CO 2 /N 2 separation and permeance properties. Next, a complete chapter has been devoted to the evaluation of the thermodynamic (adsorption) and kinetic (diffusion) parameters in the CO 2 /N 2 separation. Finally, we analyze the influence of standard pollutants (water, NO x , hydrocarbons) on the CO 2 separation properties of the synthesized membranes. (author)

  8. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  9. PRINCIPLES OF INDICATION FOR EN-ROUTE FLIGHT PATHS OF THE AIRCRAFT ON THE SCREEN OF ON-BOARD DISPLAY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Markelov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the principles and algorithms for construction of en-route flight paths of an aircraft (airplane in a horizontal plane for their subsequent display on the navigation situation indicators in the cockpit. Navigation situation indicatorsaredisplay devices designed on the basis of flat liquid crystal panel. Methods. Flight trajectory display by on-board multifunction indicators is performed by successive drawing of graphic primitives available in the library and defined in accordance with an array of data to display the route. An array of data is generated by on-board software complex based on the information provided in the flight task and the corresponding «Jeppesen» database or analogous one. Formation of the array is carried out by bringing the set of trajectory paths to the format of three typical trajectories described. In addition, each of the types of trajectories has a standard description of the algorithm for calculating the parameters that make up an array of data to display.Main Results.The algorithms of forming and calculating the amounts of data of routing paths required for their construction and display on the multifunction indicators applied in avionics.Practical Relevance.These novel routing algorithms for constructing trajectory paths unify algorithms of generating information for display on the navigation situation indicators and optimize a set of calculated data for flight control at the trajectory in the horizontal plane.

  10. Space qualification of an automotive microcontroller for the DREAMS-P/H pressure and humidity instrument on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.

    2015-10-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has developed a novel kind of pressure and humidity instrument for the Schiaparelli Mars lander, which is a part of the ExoMars 2016 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]. The DREAMS-P pressure instrument and DREAMS-H humidity instrument are part of the DREAMS science package on board the lander. DREAMS-P (seen in Fig. 1 and DREAMS-H were evolved from earlier planetary pressure and humidity instrument designs by FMI with a completely redesigned control and data unit. Instead of using the conventional approach of utilizing a space grade processor component, a commercial off the shelf microcontroller was selected for handling the pressure and humidity measurements. The new controller is based on the Freescale MC9S12XEP100 16-bit automotive microcontroller. Coordinated by FMI, a batch of these microcontroller units (MCUs) went through a custom qualification process in order to accept the component for spaceflight on board a Mars lander.

  11. Amaro-autonomous real-time detection of moving maritime objects: introducing a flight experiment for an on-board ship detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Kurt; Willburger, Katharina; Pless, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by politics and economy, the monitoring of the world wide ship traffic is a field of high topicality. To detect illegal activities like piracy, illegal fishery, ocean dumping and refugee transportation is of great value. The analysis of satellite images on the ground delivers a great contribution to situation awareness. However, for many applications the up-to-dateness of the data is crucial. With ground based processing, the time between image acquisition and delivery of the data to the end user is in the range of several hours. The highest influence to the duration of ground based processing is the delay caused by the transmission of the large amount of image data from the satellite to the processing centre on the ground. One expensive solution to this issue is the usage of data relay satellites systems like EDRS. Another approach is to analyse the image data directly on-board of the satellite. Since the product data (e.g. ship position, heading, velocity, characteristics) is very small compared to the input image data, real-time connections provided by satellite telecommunication services like Iridium or Orbcomm can be used to send small packets of information directly to the end user without significant delay. The AMARO (Autonomous real-time detection of moving maritime objects) project at DLR is a feasibility study of an on-board ship detection system involving a real-time low bandwidth communication. The operation of a prototype on-board ship detection system will be demonstrated on an airborne platform. In this article, the scope, aim and design of a flight experiment for an on-board ship detection system scheduled for mid of 2018 is presented. First, the scope and the constraints of the experiment are explained in detail. The main goal is to demonstrate the operability of an automatic ship detection system on board of an airplane. For data acquisition the optical high resolution DLR MACS-MARE camera (VIS/NIR) is used. The system will be able to

  12. MEASUREMENT OF LARGE-SCALE SOLAR POWER PLANT BY USING IMAGES ACQUIRED BY NON-METRIC DIGITAL CAMERA ON BOARD UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Matsuoka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experiment conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of the deformation measurement of a large-scale solar power plant on reclaimed land by using images acquired by a non-metric digital camera on board a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. It is required that a root mean squares of errors (RMSE in height measurement should be less than 26 mm that is 1/3 of the critical limit of deformation of 78 mm off the plane of a solar panel. Images utilized in the experiment have been obtained by an Olympus PEN E-P2 digital camera on board a Microdrones md4-1000 quadrocopter. The planned forward and side overlap ratios of vertical image acquisition have been 60 % and 60 % respectively. The planned flying height of the UAV has been 20 m above the ground level and the ground resolution of an image is approximately 5.0 mm by 5.0 mm. 8 control points around the experiment area are utilized for orientation. Measurement results are evaluated by the space coordinates of 220 check points which are corner points of 55 solar panels selected from 1768 solar panels in the experiment area. Two teams engage in the experiment. One carries out orientation and measurement by using 171 images following the procedure of conventional aerial photogrammetry, and the other executes those by using 126 images in the manner of close range photogrammetry. The former fails to satisfy the required accuracy, while the RMSE in height measurement by the latter is 8.7 mm that satisfies the required accuracy. From the experiment results, we conclude that the deformation measurement of a large-scale solar power plant on reclaimed land by using images acquired by a nonmetric digital camera on board a micro UAV would be feasible if points utilized in orientation and measurement have a sufficient number of bundles in good geometry and self-calibration in orientation is carried out.

  13. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80–120 km deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fauliot

    Full Text Available The WINDII interferometer placed on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite measures temperature and wind from the O(1S green-line emission in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the horizontal wind components. In this study, the vertical winds are derived using the continuity equation. Mean wind annually averaged at equinoxes and solstices is shown. Ascendance and subsidence to the order of 1–2 cm s–1 present a seasonal occurrence at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated to the mean meridional and vertical circulations are evaluated. The line emission rate measured together with the horizontal wind shows structures in altitude and latitude correlated with the meridional and vertical wind patterns. The effect of wind advection is discussed.

  14. The European project Merlin on multi-gigabit, energy-efficient, ruggedized lightwave engines for advanced on-board digital processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Karppinen, M.; Tanskanen, A.; Heikkinen, V.; Westbergh, P.; Gustavsson, J.; Larsson, A.; Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Sotom, M.; Venet, N.; Ko, M.; Micusik, D.; Kissinger, D.; Ulusoy, A. C.; King, R.; Safaisini, R.

    2017-11-01

    Modern broadband communication networks rely on satellites to complement the terrestrial telecommunication infrastructure. Satellites accommodate global reach and enable world-wide direct broadcasting by facilitating wide access to the backbone network from remote sites or areas where the installation of ground segment infrastructure is not economically viable. At the same time the new broadband applications increase the bandwidth demands in every part of the network - and satellites are no exception. Modern telecom satellites incorporate On-Board Processors (OBP) having analogue-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analogue converters (DAC) at their inputs/outputs and making use of digital processing to handle hundreds of signals; as the amount of information exchanged increases, so do the physical size, mass and power consumption of the interconnects required to transfer massive amounts of data through bulk electric wires.

  15. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80–120 km deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fauliot

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The WINDII interferometer placed on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite measures temperature and wind from the O(1S green-line emission in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the horizontal wind components. In this study, the vertical winds are derived using the continuity equation. Mean wind annually averaged at equinoxes and solstices is shown. Ascendance and subsidence to the order of 1–2 cm s–1 present a seasonal occurrence at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated to the mean meridional and vertical circulations are evaluated. The line emission rate measured together with the horizontal wind shows structures in altitude and latitude correlated with the meridional and vertical wind patterns. The effect of wind advection is discussed.

  16. Observations of celestial X-ray sources above 20 keV with the high-energy scintillation spectrometer on board OSO-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crannell, C.J.; Dennis, B.R.; Dolan, J.F.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.; Maurer, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    High-energy x-ray spectra of the Crab Nebula, Cyg XR-1, and Cen A have been determined from observations with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite, launched in June, 1975. Each of these sources was observed over two periods of 8 days or more, enabling a search for day-to-day and year-to-year variations in the spectral and temporal characteristics of the x-ray emission. No variation in the light curve of the Crab pulsar has been found from observations which span a 15-day period in March 1976, with demonstrable phase stability. Transitions associated with the binary phase of Cyg XR-1 and a large change in the emission from Cen A are reported

  17. Seven Years of Permanent Running of MELFI-1 on Board the ISS and Utilisation of the Three MELFI Units Refrigeration Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegancas, Jean; Stephan, Hubertus; Jimenez, Jesus; Campana, Sharon; Hutchison, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The pool of three Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI) units continues providing the scientific community with robust and permanent freezer and refrigeration capabilities for life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in 2006, the first unit will complete, by summer 2013, seven years of continuous operations without intervention on the internal Nitrogen gas cycle, while all necessary hardware and operations were initially planned for preventive maintenance every two years. This unit has demonstrated outstanding performance on orbit and proved the technical decisions made during the development program. Current utilization of MELFI units in the ISS is taking full benefit of the initial specifications, which allows for wide adaptations to cope with the mission scenario imposed by the life extension in orbit. The two other MELFI units, launched respectively in 2008 and 2009, are supporting the first unit providing additional conditioned volume necessary for the science on board, and also for preparing thermal mass used to protect the samples on their way down to earth. The MELFI pool is outfitted with all supporting hardware to allow for extended operation on orbit including preventive and corrective maintenance. The internal components were designed to allow for easy on board maintenance. Spare equipment was installed in the MELFI rack on ISS and specific maintenance means were developed which required crew training before the cold gas cycle could be accessed. The paper will present first how the design choices made for the initial missions are identifying features necessary for extended duration missions, and will then give highlights on the utilization of the MELFI refrigeration pool during the recent years in ISS.

  18. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10 4 -10 6 . They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  19. EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF RADIONUCLIDE DETECTORS FOR CONDUCTING A MARITIME ON-BOARD SEARCH USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION IMPLEMENTED IN AVERT(regsign)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.; Dave Dunn, D.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation implemented in AVERT(reg s ign). AVERT(reg s ign), short for the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risk of Terrorism, is personal computer based vulnerability assessment software developed by the ARES Corporation. The sensitivity of two specific types of radionuclide detectors for conducting an on-board search in the maritime environment was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The detectors, a RadPack and also a Personal Radiation Detector (PRD), were chosen from the class of Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS). Human Portable Radiation Detection Systems (HPRDS) serve multiple purposes. In the maritime environment, there is a need to detect, localize, characterize, and identify radiological/nuclear (RN) material or weapons. The RadPack is a commercially available broad-area search device used for gamma and also for neutron detection. The PRD is chiefly used as a personal radiation protection device. It is also used to detect contraband radionuclides and to localize radionuclide sources. Neither device has the capacity to characterize or identify radionuclides. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of both the RadPack and the PRD while being used under controlled conditions in a simulated maritime environment for detecting hidden RN contraband. The detection distance varies by the source strength and the shielding present. The characterization parameters of the source are not indicated in this report so the results summarized are relative. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicate the probability of detection of the RN source at certain distances from the detector which is a function of transverse speed and instrument sensitivity for the specified RN source

  20. Does Plan B work? Home range estimations from stored on board and transmitted data sets produced by GPS-telemetry in the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Jaime A; Molina, Eduardo; González, Tania; Armenteras, Dolors

    2016-12-01

    Telemetry based on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) makes possible to gather large quantities of information in a very fine scale and work with species that were impossible to study in the past. When working with GPS telemetry, the option of storing data on board could be more desirable than the sole satellite transmitted data, due to the increase in the amount of locations available for analysis. Nonetheless, the uncertainty in the retrieving of the collar unit makes satellite-transmitted technologies something to take into account. Therefore, differences between store-on-board (SoB) and satellite-transmitted (IT) data sets need to be considered. Differences between SoB and IT data collected from two lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris), were explored by means of the calculation of home range areas by three different methods: the Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), the Fixed Kernel Density Estimator (KDE) and the Brownian Bridges (BB). Results showed that SoB and IT data sets for the same individual were similar, with fix ranging from 63 % to 85 % respectively, and 16 m to 17 m horizontal errors. Depending on the total number of locations available for each individual, the home ranges estimated showed differences between 2.7 % and 79.3 %, for the 50 % probability contour and between 9.9 % and 61.8 % for the 95 % probability contour. These differences imply variations in the spatial coincidence of the estimated home ranges. We concluded that the use of IT data is not a good option for the estimation of home range areas if the collar settings have not been designed specifically for this use. Nonetheless, geographical representations of the IT based estimators could be of great help to identify areas of use, besides its assistance to locate the collar for its retrieval at the end of the field season and as a proximate backup when collars disappear.

  1. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  2. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  3. TU-AB-303-10: KVCBCT, MVCBCT and MVCT On-Board Imaging Suitability for An Urgent Radiotherapy Treatment Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, M; Morin, O; Pouliot, J [UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A comparison of image quality and dose calculation accuracy to study the suitability of available on-board imaging systems for a new treatment workflow in emergency radiotherapy situations. Methods: Water and anthropomorphic phantom images were acquired on four different Linac on-board imaging systems, including kVCBCT (Varian TrueBeam and Elekta VersaHD), MVCBCT (Siemens Artiste) and MVCT (Accuray Tomotherapy). Simple treatments of single or opposed beams were planned on the respective kVCT images and copied to all CT images. Image suitability for dose planning was based on the overall mean dose differences and 3D gamma index with 3%/3mm criteria for a prescription of 100 monitor units (MU) and differences in calculated MUs per plan for dose prescriptions to mid-plane. Results: TrueBeam kVCBCT and Tomotherapy MVCT images produced most accurate dose calculation for all tested cases (γ-index >95%). MVCBCT and VersaHD kVCBCT images resulted in minimum γ-passing rates of 94% and 87%, respectively. MUs calculated from treatment plans prescribed to mid-plane were within differences of 5% relative to kVCT-based plans in all cases. However, VersaHD images showed considerable local image artifacts in the pelvis water and anthropomorphic neck phantom that complicated accurate Hounsfield unit (HU) to electron density conversion, thus causing local dose differences of more than 10% relative to kVCT-based dose distributions. Conclusion: TrueBeam kVCBCT, MVCBCT and MVCT systems provide image quality that allows for accurate simple treatment plan calculation. Prescription points should be placed away from areas found to cause local dose discrepancies, such as air cavities. Improved image filter settings and HU-to-electron density calibration adjustments may be required for the VersaHD system to obtain an overall accurate dose distribution. To evaluate a system’s overall suitability, its clinical features also require consideration, such as imaging field of view

  4. TU-C-BRE-04: 3D Gel Dosimetry Using ViewRay On-Board MR Scanner: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L; Du, D; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Wooten, H; Xiao, Z; Yang, D; Hu, Y; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: MR based 3D gel has been proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry. However, access to MR scanner has been one of the limiting factors for its wide acceptance. Recent commercialization of an on-board MR-IGRT device (ViewRay) may render the availability issue less of a concern. This work reports our attempts to simulate MR based dose measurement accuracy on ViewRay using three different gels. Methods: A spherical BANG gel dosimeter was purchased from MGS Research. Cylindrical MAGIC gel and Fricke gel were fabricated in-house according to published recipes. After irradiation, BANG and MAGIC were imaged using a dual-echo spin echo sequence for T2 measurement on a Philips 1.5T MR scanner, while Fricke gel was imaged using multiple spin echo sequences. Difference between MR measured and TPS calculated dose was defined as noise. The noise power spectrum was calculated and then simulated for the 0.35 T magnetic field associated with ViewRay. The estimated noise was then added to TG-119 test cases to simulate measured dose distributions. Simulated measurements were evaluated against TPS calculated doses using gamma analysis. Results: Given same gel, sequence and coil setup, with a FOV of 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 3×3×3 mm3, and scanning time of 30 minutes, the simulated measured dose distribution using BANG would have a gamma passing rate greater than 90% (3%/3mm and absolute). With a FOV 180×90×90 mm3, resolution of 4×4×5 mm3, and scanning time of 45 minutes, the simulated measuremened dose distribution would have a gamma passing rate greater than 97%. MAGIC exhibited similar performance while Fricke gel was inferior due to much higher noise. Conclusions: The simulation results demonstrated that it may be feasible to use MAGIC and BANG gels for 3D dose verification using ViewRay low-field on-board MRI scanner

  5. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  6. SU-E-P-41: Imaging Coordination of Cone Beam CT, On-Board Image Conjunction with Optical Image Guidance for SBRT Treatment with Respiratory Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Campbell, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To spare normal tissue for SBRT lung/liver patients, especially for patients with significant tumor motion, image guided respiratory motion management has been widely implemented in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging coordination of cone beam CT, on-board X-ray image conjunction with optical image guidance for SBRT treatment with motion management. Methods: Currently in our clinic a Varian Novlis Tx was utilized for treating SBRT patients implementing CBCT. A BrainLAB X-ray ExacTrac imaging system in conjunction with optical guidance was primarily used for SRS patients. CBCT and X-ray imaging system were independently calibrated with 1.0 mm tolerance. For SBRT lung/liver patients, the magnitude of tumor motion was measured based-on 4DCT and the measurement was analyzed to determine if patients would be beneficial with respiratory motion management. For patients eligible for motion management, an additional CT with breath holding would be scanned and used as primary planning CT and as reference images for Cone beam CT. During the SBRT treatment, a CBCT with pause and continuing technology would be performed with patients holding breath, which may require 3–4 partially scanned CBCT to combine as a whole CBCT depending on how long patients capable of holding breath. After patients being setup by CBCT images, the ExactTrac X-ray imaging system was implemented with patients’ on-board X-ray images compared to breath holding CT-based DRR. Results: For breath holding patients SBRT treatment, after initially localizing patients with CBCT, we then position patients with ExacTrac X-ray and optical imaging system. The observed deviations of real-time optical guided position average at 3.0, 2.5 and 1.5 mm in longitudinal, vertical and lateral respectively based on 35 treatments. Conclusion: The respiratory motion management clinical practice improved our physician confidence level to give tighter tumor margin for sparing normal

  7. THERMAL DIAGNOSTICS WITH THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY: A VALIDATED METHOD FOR DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE INVERSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Boerner, P.; Schrijver, C. J.; Malanushenko, A. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Testa, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chen, F.; Peter, H., E-mail: cheung@lmsal.com [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-07-10

    We present a new method for performing differential emission measure (DEM) inversions on narrow-band EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The method yields positive definite DEM solutions by solving a linear program. This method has been validated against a diverse set of thermal models of varying complexity and realism. These include (1) idealized Gaussian DEM distributions, (2) 3D models of NOAA Active Region 11158 comprising quasi-steady loop atmospheres in a nonlinear force-free field, and (3) thermodynamic models from a fully compressible, 3D MHD simulation of active region (AR) corona formation following magnetic flux emergence. We then present results from the application of the method to AIA observations of Active Region 11158, comparing the region's thermal structure on two successive solar rotations. Additionally, we show how the DEM inversion method can be adapted to simultaneously invert AIA and Hinode X-ray Telescope data, and how supplementing AIA data with the latter improves the inversion result. The speed of the method allows for routine production of DEM maps, thus facilitating science studies that require tracking of the thermal structure of the solar corona in time and space.

  8. On-board adaptive model for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on Kalman filter with proportional integral-based error adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of battery-powered electric vehicles, the lithium-ion battery plays a critical role in the reliability of vehicle system. In order to provide timely management and protection for battery systems, it is necessary to develop a reliable battery model and accurate battery parameters estimation to describe battery dynamic behaviors. Therefore, this paper focuses on an on-board adaptive model for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a first-order equivalent circuit battery model is employed to describe battery dynamic characteristics. Then, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide good initial values of model parameters to ensure filter stability and reduce the convergence time. Thirdly, an extended-Kalman-filter (EKF) is applied to on-line estimate battery SOC and model parameters. Considering that the EKF is essentially a first-order Taylor approximation of battery model, which contains inevitable model errors, thus, a proportional integral-based error adjustment technique is employed to improve the performance of EKF method and correct model parameters. Finally, the experimental results on lithium-ion batteries indicate that the proposed EKF with proportional integral-based error adjustment method can provide robust and accurate battery model and on-line parameter estimation.

  9. Energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter: simulation and results from the energetic particles detector on board the Galileo spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagg, A.

    1997-11-01

    The simulation of the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS) on board the GALILEO spacecraft and the analysis of data from the Jovian magnetosphere are the main topics of this work. The geometric factors obtained from this simulation can reproduce spectral electron fluxes measured in the Jovian magnetosphere without applying additional corrections. The depletion of particles at high pitch angles measured during the first encounter period with Io is used to calculate neutral number density and latitudinal extension of the neutral gas torus at the Io orbit. As the most likely interaction process the charge exchange between energetic charged particles and the neutral sulfur and oxygen atoms in the torus is discussed. A simple model for this region including this interaction mechanism is the basis for the first calculation of the neutral number density from in-situ measurements of charged particle fluxes. An additional topic of the data analysis is an energy dispersive enhancement of electron fluxes observed in the Io torus. The plasma transport as a consequence of the gradient-curvature drift motion is examined. The time and the origin of a possible injection process is estimated. (author)

  10. Artificial neural networks contribution to the operational security of embedded systems. Artificial neural networks contribution to fault tolerance of on-board functions in space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintenat, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    A good quality often attributed to artificial neural networks is fault tolerance. In general presentation works, this property is almost always introduced as 'natural', i.e. being obtained without any specific precaution during learning. Besides, space environment is known to be aggressive towards on-board hardware, inducing various abnormal operations. Particularly, digital components suffer from upset phenomenon, i.e. misplaced switches of memory flip-flops. These two observations lead to the question: would neural chips constitute an interesting and robust solution to implement some board functions of spacecrafts? First, the various aspects of the problem are detailed: artificial neural networks and their fault tolerance, neural chips, space environment and resulting failures. Further to this presentation, a particular technique to carry out neural chips is selected because of its simplicity, and especially because it requires few memory flip-flops: random pulse streams. An original method for star recognition inside a field-of-view is then proposed for the board function 'attitude computation'. This method relies on a winner-takes-all competition network, and on a Kohonen self-organized map. An hardware implementation of those two neural models is then proposed using random pulse streams. Thanks to this realization, on one hand difficulties related to that particular implementation technique can be highlighted, and on the other hand a first evaluation of its practical fault tolerance can be carried out. (author) [fr

  11. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Fengler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes, this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production.

  12. Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Schoener, W.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.; Kartashov, D.

    2002-01-01

    A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LET ( ) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. (author)

  13. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  14. [Desmin content and transversal stiffness of the left ventricle mouse cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibers after a 30-day space flight on board "BION-M1" biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I V; Maximova, M V; Larina, I M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton and the cytoskeletal protein desmin content in the left ventricle cardiomyocytes, fibers of the mouse soleus and tibialis anterior muscle after a 30-day space flight on board the "BION-M1" biosatellite (Russia, 2013). The dissection was made after 13-16.5 h after landing. The transversal stiffness was measured in relaxed and calcium activated state by, atomic force microscopy. The desmin content was estimated by western blotting, and the expression level of desmin-coding gene was detected using real-time PCR. The results indicate that, the transversal stiffness of the left ventricle cardiomyocytes and fibers of the soleus muscle in relaxed and activated states did not differ from the control. The transversal stiffness of the tibialis muscle fibers in relaxed and activated state was increased in the mice group after space flight. At the same time, in all types of studied tissues the desmin content and the expression level of desmin-coding gene did not differ from the control level.

  15. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable Wide-Band on Board Calibration Source for In-Flight Data Validation in Imaging Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.

  16. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, L., E-mail: l.gottardi@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M.P.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Jackson, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kiviranta, M. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kuur, J. van der; Weers, H. van [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3–12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  17. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: A Successful Validation of a Department of Defense (DoD) Funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Technology on Board the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Khodadad, Christina; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Pollack, Lawrence; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR EX (Registered Trademark) PCR unit was initially developed by the DoD as part of an SBIR project to detect and identify biothreats during field deployment. The system was evaluated by NASA as a commercial technology for future microbial monitoring requirements and has been successfully demonstrated in microgravity on-board the International Space Station.

  18. Detection of esophageal fiducial marker displacement during radiation therapy with a 2-dimensional on-board imager: analysis of internal margin for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right-left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (Pdisplacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (Pinternal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily Orthogonal Kilovoltage Imaging Using a Gantry-Mounted On-Board Imaging System Results in a Reduction in Radiation Therapy Delivery Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Gregory A., E-mail: gregory.russo@bmc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Truong, Minh-Tam; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Orlina, Lawrence; Bohrs, Harry; Clancy, Pauline; Willins, John; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the use of routine image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) using pretreatment on-board imaging (OBI) with orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays reduces treatment delivery errors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of documented treatment delivery errors from 2003 to 2009 was performed. Following implementation of IGRT in 2007, patients received daily OBI with orthogonal kV X-rays prior to treatment. The frequency of errors in the pre- and post-IGRT time frames was compared. Treatment errors (TEs) were classified as IGRT-preventable or non-IGRT-preventable. Results: A total of 71,260 treatment fractions were delivered to 2764 patients. A total of 135 (0.19%) TEs occurred in 39 (1.4%) patients (3.2% in 2003, 1.1% in 2004, 2.5% in 2005, 2% in 2006, 0.86% in 2007, 0.24% in 2008, and 0.22% in 2009). In 2007, the TE rate decreased by >50% and has remained low (P = .00007, compared to before 2007). Errors were classified as being potentially preventable with IGRT (e.g., incorrect site, patient, or isocenter) vs. not. No patients had any IGRT-preventable TEs from 2007 to 2009, whereas there were 9 from 2003 to 2006 (1 in 2003, 2 in 2004, 2 in 2005, and 4 in 2006; P = .0058) before the implementation of IGRT. Conclusions: IGRT implementation has a patient safety benefit with a significant reduction in treatment delivery errors. As such, we recommend the use of IGRT in routine practice to complement existing quality assurance measures.

  20. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed

  1. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, April Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  2. A sensitive flow-batch system for on board determination of ultra-trace ammonium in seawater: Method development and shipboard application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Yuan, Dongxing; Huang, Yongming; Ma, Jian; Feng, Sichao

    2013-09-10

    Combining fluorescence detection with flow analysis and solid phase extraction (SPE), a highly sensitive and automatic flow system for measurement of ultra-trace ammonium in open ocean water was established. Determination was based on fluorescence detection of a typical product of o-phthaldialdehyde and ammonium. In this study, the fluorescence reaction product could be efficiently extracted onto an SPE cartridge (HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance). The extracted fluorescence compounds were rapidly eluted with ethanol and directed into a flow cell for fluorescence detection. Compared with the common used fluorescence method, the proposed one offered the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced reagent consumption, negligible salinity effect and lower cost. Experimental parameters were optimized using a univariate experimental design. Calibration curves, ranging from 1.67 to 300nM, were obtained with different reaction times. The recoveries were between 89.5 and 96.5%, and the detection limits in land-based and shipboard laboratories were 0.7 and 1.2nM, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 3.5% (n=5) for an aged seawater sample spiked with 20nM ammonium. Compared with the analytical results obtained using the indophenol blue method coupled to a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell, the proposed method showed good agreement. The method had been applied on board during a South China Sea cruise in August 2012. A vertical profile of ammonium in the South East Asia Time-Series (SEATS, 18° N, 116° E) station was produced. The distribution of ammonium in the surface seawater of the Qiongdong upwelling in South China Sea is also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SU-E-I-72: First Experimental Study of On-Board CBCT Imaging Using 2.5MV Beam On a Radiotherapy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Institute of Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Li, R; Yang, Y; Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Varian TrueBeam version 2.0 comes with a new inline 2.5MV beam modality for image guided patient setup. In this work we develop an iterative volumetric image reconstruction technique specific to the beam and investigate the possibility of obtaining metal artifact free CBCT images using the new imaging modality. Methods: An iterative reconstruction algorithm with a sparse representation constraint based on dictionary learning is developed, in which both sparse projection and low dose rate (10 MU/min) are considered. Two CBCT experiments were conducted using the newly available 2.5MV beam on a Varian TrueBeam linac. First, a Rando anthropomorphic head phantom with and without a copper bar inserted in the center was scanned using both 2.5MV and kV (100kVp) beams. In a second experiment, an MRI phantom with many coils was scanned using 2.5MV, 6MV, and kV (100kVp) beams. Imaging dose and the resultant image quality is studied. Results: Qualitative assessment suggests that there were no visually detectable metal artifacts in MV CBCT images, compared with significant metal artifacts in kV CBCT images, especially in the MRI phantom. For a region near the metal object in the head phantom, the 2.5MV CBCT gave a more accurate quantification of the electron density compared with kV CBCT, with a ∼50% reduction in mean HU error. As expected, the contrast between bone and soft-tissue in 2.5MV CBCT decreased compared with kV CBCT. Conclusion: On-board CBCT imaging with the new 2.5MV beam can effectively reduce metal artifacts, although with a reduced softtissue contrast. Combination of kV and MV scanning may lead to metal artifact free CBCT images with uncompromised soft-tissue contrast.

  4. On-board measurements of gaseous pollutant emission characteristics under real driving conditions from light-duty diesel vehicles in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Li, Song; Tian, Liang

    2016-08-01

    A total of 15 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) were tested with the goal of understanding the emission factors of real-world vehicles by conducting on-board emission measurements. The emission characteristics of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at different speeds, chemical species profiles and ozone formation potential (OFP) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from diesel vehicles with different emission standards were analyzed. The results demonstrated that emission reductions of HC and NOx had been achieved as the control technology became more rigorous from Stage I to Stage IV. It was also found that the HC and NOx emissions and percentage of O2 dropped with the increase of speed, while the percentage of CO2 increased. The abundance of alkanes was significantly higher in diesel vehicle emissions, approximately accounting for 41.1%-45.2%, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The most abundant species were propene, ethane, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method was adopted to evaluate the contributions of individual VOCs to OFP. The results indicated that the largest contributors to O3 production were alkenes and aromatics, which accounted for 87.7%-91.5%. Propene, ethene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-butene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were the top five VOC species based on their OFP, and accounted for 54.0%-64.8% of the total OFP. The threshold dilution factor was applied to analyze the possibility of VOC stench pollution. The majority of stench components emitted from vehicle exhaust were aromatics, especially p-diethylbenzene, propylbenzene, m-ethyltoluene, and p-ethyltoluene. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. WE-E-18A-11: Fluoro-Tomographic Images From Projections of On-Board Imager (OBI) While Gantry Is Moving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Hu, E; Yu, C; Lasio, G [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A method to generate a series of fluoro-tomographic images (FTI) of the slice of interest (SOI) from the projection images of the On-board imager (OBI) while gantry is moving is developed and tested. Methods: Tomographic image via background subtraction, TIBS has been published by our group. TIBS uses a priori anatomical information from a previous CT scan to isolate a SOI from a planar kV image by factoring out the attenuations by tissues outside the SOI (background). We extended the idea to 4D TIBS, which enables to generate from the projection of different gantry angles. A set of background images for different angles are prepared. A background image at a given gantry angle is subtracted from the projection image at the same angle to generate a TIBS image. Then the TIBS image is converted to a reference angle. The 4D TIBS is the set of TIBS that originated from gantry angles other than the reference angle. Projection images of lung patients for CBCT acquisition are used to test the 4D TIBS. Results: Fluoroscopic images of a coronal plane of lung patients are acquired from the CBCT projections at different gantry angles and times. Change of morphology of hilar vessels due to breathing and heart beating are visible in the coronal plane, which are generated from the set of the projection images at gantry angles other than antero-posterior. Breathing surrogate or sorting process is not needed. Unlike tomosynthesis, FTI from 4D TIBS maintains the independence of each of the projections thereby reveals temporal variations within the SOI. Conclusion: FTI, fluoroscopic imaging of a SOI with x-ray projections, directly generated from the x-ray projection images at different gantry angles is tested with a lung case and proven feasible. This technique can be used for on-line imaging of moving targets. NIH Grant R01CA133539.

  6. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  7. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode Florin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  8. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Croitoru, Cristiana Verona; Sandu, Mihnea; Dogeanu, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS) has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ) have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  9. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  10. TU-AB-BRA-09: A Novel Method of Generating Ultrafast Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Using Prior 4D-MRI and On-Board Phase-Skipped Encoding Acquisition for Radiotherapy Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on-board

  11. TU-AB-BRA-09: A Novel Method of Generating Ultrafast Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Using Prior 4D-MRI and On-Board Phase-Skipped Encoding Acquisition for Radiotherapy Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on-board

  12. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  13. Direct observation of spatially isothermal equiaxed solidification of an Al-Cu alloy in microgravity on board the MASER 13 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. G.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Houltz, Y.; Li, J.; Lockowandt, C.; Henriksson, K.; Melville, N.; Browne, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    For the first time, isothermal equiaxed solidification of a metallic alloy has been observed in situ in space, providing unique benchmark experimental data. The experiment was completed on board the MASER 13 sounding rocket, launched in December 2015, using a newly developed isothermal solidification furnace. A grain-refined Al-20 wt%Cu sample was fully melted and solidified during 360 s of microgravity and the solidification sequence was recorded using time-resolved X-radiography. Equiaxed nucleation, dendritic growth, solutal impingement, and eutectic transformation were thus observed in a gravity-free environment. Equiaxed nucleation was promoted through application of a controlled cooling rate of -0.05 K/s producing a 1D grain density of 6.5 mm-1, uniformly distributed throughout the field of view (FOV). Primary growth slowed to a visually imperceptible level at an estimated undercooling of 7 K, after which the cooling rate was increased to -1.0 K/s for the remainder of solidification and eutectic transformation, ensuring the sample was fully solidified inside the microgravity time window. The eutectic transformation commenced at the centre of the FOV proceeding radially outwards covering the entire FOV in 3 s Microgravity-based solidification is compared to an identical pre-flight ground-based experiment using the same sample and experiment timeline. The ground experiment was designed to minimise gravity effects, by choice of a horizontal orientation for the sample, so that any differences would be subtle. The first equiaxed nucleation occurred at an apparent undercooling of 0.6 K less than the equivalent event during microgravity. During primary equiaxed solidification, as expected, no buoyant grain motion was observed during microgravity, compared to modest grain rotation and reorientation observed during terrestrial-based solidification. However, when the cooling rate was increased from -0.05 K/s to -1.0 K/s during the latter stages of solidification, in

  14. SU-D-18A-02: Towards Real-Time On-Board Volumetric Image Reconstruction for Intrafraction Target Verification in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X; Iliopoulos, A; Zhang, Y; Pitsianis, N; Sun, X; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To expedite on-board volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle kV—MV projections for intrafraction verification. Methods: A limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system has recently been developed for real-time volumetric verification of moving targets, using limited-angle kV—MV projections. Currently, it is challenged by the intensive computational load of the prior-knowledge-based reconstruction method. To accelerate LIVE, we restructure the software pipeline to make it adaptable to model and algorithm parameter changes, while enabling efficient utilization of rapidly advancing, modern computer architectures. In particular, an innovative two-level parallelization scheme has been designed: At the macroscopic level, data and operations are adaptively partitioned, taking into account algorithmic parameters and the processing capacity or constraints of underlying hardware. The control and data flows of the pipeline are scheduled in such a way as to maximize operation concurrency and minimize total processing time. At the microscopic level, the partitioned functions act as independent modules, operating on data partitions in parallel. Each module is pre-parallelized and optimized for multi-core processors (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs). Results: We present results from a parallel prototype, where most of the controls and module parallelization are carried out via Matlab and its Parallel Computing Toolbox. The reconstruction is 5 times faster on a data-set of twice the size, compared to recently reported results, without compromising on algorithmic optimization control. Conclusion: The prototype implementation and its results have served to assess the efficacy of our system concept. While a production implementation will yield much higher processing rates by approaching full-capacity utilization of CPUs and GPUs, some mutual constraints between algorithmic flow and architecture specifics remain. Based on a careful analysis

  15. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO 2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km -1 and 627 ± 54 g km -1 , respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO 2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO 2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km -1 . The OBD data suggested no improvement in NO X emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km -1 because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO 2 and NO X emissions were also constructed. The CO 2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h -1 to 10 km h -1 , the estimated CO 2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NO X emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  16. SU-C-18A-05: Registration Accuracy of MR-Based Images to On-Board Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT for Brain Patient Setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnaduwage, D S; Chen, J; Descovich, M; Pouliot, J; Hwang, Ken-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the difference in isocenter shifts when co-registering MR and MR-based pseudo CTs (pCT) with on-board megavoltage conebeam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: Fast Spoiled Gradient Echo MRs were used to generate pCTs (research version of Advantage Sim MD™, GE Healthcare) for ten patients who had prior brain radiotherapy. The planning CT (rCT) for each was co-registered with the MR, and the plan isocenter and two other reference points were transferred to the MR and pCT. CBCT images (with the machine isocenter) from a single treatment day were coregistered with the 3 test images (MR, pCT and rCT), by two observers and by an automated registration algorithm. The reference points were used to calculate patient shifts and rotations from the registrations. The shifts calculated from the test image registrations were compared to each other and to the shifts performed by the therapists who treated the patients on that day. Results: The average difference in absolute value between the isocenter shifts from the MR-, pCT- and rCT-CBCT registrations, and the therapist shifts, were 2.02, 3.01 and 0.89 mm (craniocaudal), 1.14, 1.34 and 0.46 mm (lateral), and 1.37, 3.43 and 1.43 mm (vertical), respectively. The MR- and pCT-CBCT registrations differed by 1.99, and 2.53 mm (craniocaudal), 1.36, and 1.37 mm (lateral), and 0.74 and 2.34 mm (vertical), respectively, from the average rCT-CBCT shifts. On average, differences of 2.39 (craniocaudal), 1.28 (lateral) and 2.84 mm (vertical) were seen between the MR and pCT shifts. Rotations relative to the CBCT coordinate system were on average <2° for the MR and rCT, and <6° for the pCT. Conclusion: In this study, FSPGR MR-CBCT registrations were more precise compared to the pCT-CBCT registrations. For improved accuracy, MR sequences that are optimal for bony anatomy visualization are necessary. GE healthcare has provided a research version of Advantage Sim MD to UCSF. No financial support was provided

  17. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the

  18. DREAMS: a payload on-board the ExoMars EDM Schiaparelli for the characterization of Martian environment during the statistical dust storm season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Cesare; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Bettanini, Carlo; Arruego Rodríguez, Ignacio; Colombatti, Giacomo; Harri, Ari-Matty.; Montmessin, Franck; Wilson, Colin; Aboudan, Alessio; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Marchetti, Ernesto; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    , the dust opacity, and the atmospheric electric properties close to the surface of Mars. It will fly in January 2016 on-board the Schiaparelli Entry, Descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars space mission. It is foreseen to land on Mars in late October 2016 during the statistical dust storm season. Therefore, DREAMS might have the unique chance to make scientific measurements to characterize the Martian environment in a dusty scenario also performing the first ever measurements of atmospheric electric field on Mars. The relationship between the process of dust entrainment in the atmosphere during dust events and the enhancement of atmospheric electric field has been widely studied in an intense field test campaign in the Sahara desert. In order to better characterize this physical process, we performed atmospheric and environmental measurements comparable to those that DREAMS will acquire on Mars. Preliminary results will be discussed. DREAMS is in a high development state. A first model has been delivered to ESA and has been integrated in the EDM Flight Model. Integration tests are on-going. The DREAMS Flight Model will be delivered at the end of March this year.

  19. WE-G-BRF-03: A Quasi-Cine CBCT Reconstruction Technique for Real-Time On- Board Target Tracking of Lung Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a quasi-cine CBCT reconstruction technique that uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) projections to generate real-time high-quality lung CBCT images. Method: 4D-CBCT is obtained at the beginning and used as prior images. This study uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) on-board projections acquired at a single respiratory phase to reconstruct the CBCT image at this phase. An adaptive constrained free-form deformation (ACFD) method is developed to deform the prior 4D-CBCT volume at the same phase to reconstruct the new CBCT. Quasi-cine CBCT images are obtained by continuously reconstructing CBCT images at subsequent phases every 3° angle (∼0.5s). Note that the prior 4D-CBCT images are dynamically updated using the latest CBCT images. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of ACFD. A lung patient was simulated with a tumor baseline shift of 2mm along superior-inferior (SI) direction after every respiratory cycle for 5 cycles. Limited-angle projections were simulated for each cycle. The 4D-CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate their geometric differences.The ACFD was also compared to a principal-component-analysis based motion-modeling (MM) method. Results: Using orthogonal-view 3° projections, the VPD/COMS values for tumor baseline shifts of 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm were 11.0%/0.3mm, 25.3%/2.7mm, 22.4%/2.9mm, 49.5%/5.4mm, 77.2%/8.1mm for the MM method, and 2.9%/0.7mm, 3.9%/0.8mm, 6.2%/1mm, 7.9%/1.2mm, 10.1%/1.1mm for the ACFD method. Using orthogonal-view 0° projections (1 projection only), the ACFD method yielded VPD/COMS results of 5.0%/0.9mm, 10.5%/1.2mm, 15.1%/1.4mm, 20.9%/1.6mm and 24.8%/1.6mm. Using single-view instead of orthogonal-view projections yielded less accurate results for ACFD

  20. Principal component analysis-based imaging angle determination for 3D motion monitoring using single-slice on-board imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Miao; Jabbour, Salma; Wang, Hesheng; Barbee, David; Das, Indra J; Yue, Ning

    2018-04-10

    Through-plane motion introduces uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) motion monitoring when using single-slice on-board imaging (OBI) modalities such as cine MRI. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA)-based framework to determine the optimal imaging plane to minimize the through-plane motion for single-slice imaging-based motion monitoring. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images of eight thoracic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. The target volumes were manually delineated at different respiratory phases of 4DCT. We performed automated image registration to establish the 4D respiratory target motion trajectories for all patients. PCA was conducted using the motion information to define the three principal components of the respiratory motion trajectories. Two imaging planes were determined perpendicular to the second and third principal component, respectively, to avoid imaging with the primary principal component of the through-plane motion. Single-slice images were reconstructed from 4DCT in the PCA-derived orthogonal imaging planes and were compared against the traditional AP/Lateral image pairs on through-plane motion, residual error in motion monitoring, absolute motion amplitude error and the similarity between target segmentations at different phases. We evaluated the significance of the proposed motion monitoring improvement using paired t test analysis. The PCA-determined imaging planes had overall less through-plane motion compared against the AP/Lateral image pairs. For all patients, the average through-plane motion was 3.6 mm (range: 1.6-5.6 mm) for the AP view and 1.7 mm (range: 0.6-2.7 mm) for the Lateral view. With PCA optimization, the average through-plane motion was 2.5 mm (range: 1.3-3.9 mm) and 0.6 mm (range: 0.2-1.5 mm) for the two imaging planes, respectively. The absolute residual error of the reconstructed max-exhale-to-inhale motion averaged 0.7 mm (range: 0.4-1.3 mm, 95% CI: 0.4-1.1 mm) using

  1. Contribution to the study of the dynamic behaviour of a on-board rotor; Contribution a l'etude du comportement dynamique d'un rotor embarque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchemin, M.

    2003-12-15

    The aim of this work was the development of a model allowing to simulate the dynamical behaviour on an on-board rotor. The calculations of the different energies and virtual works of the different parts of a rotor submitted to a random movement have been made taking into account the different possible asymmetries of the shaft and of the discs. A simple model has been defined using the Rayleigh-Ritz method in order to study the basic phenomena. For the processing of real systems, a finite-element modeling has been developed. The nonlinear equations of the movement have been obtained using the application of Lagrange equations. The basic phenomena relative to the rotors dynamics with a moving stand have been studied for the simple model. Various analytical studies have been performed on simple movements: simple translation, sinusoidal translation, constant rotation, accelerated rotation. For all these movements, the deformation equations remain linear. On the contrary, for a simple sinusoidal rotation movement, parametric terms have to be entered in the equations. An instability study has been performed on this movement using the multiple scales method. This method has permitted to determine the instability areas. A step-by-step resolution has been used to check these instability areas with the Rayleigh-Ritz model. An experimental device has been made to test the model developed with the finite-element method. The main movement analyzed is the sinusoidal rotation one which seems to be the most interesting with respect to the phenomena described with the simple model. The adjustment of the resonance frequencies of the system has been performed by the adjustment of the bearings stiffness. The study of an on-board rotor with a flexible stand is thus not a priority. The adjustment of the damping performed on an angular shock study has shown that the obtained modeling is very good when the structural damping is distributed over the bearings. After adjustment, the

  2. On-board power supply with fuel cells. Liquid gas fuelled system enables stand alone off-grid power supply; Bordstromversorgung mit Brennstoffzellen. Fluessiggas-betriebenes System ermoeglicht autarke, netzunabhaengige Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2011-07-01

    You reach your final destination for the day, switch off the engine of your motorhome, and sit back to enjoy the view. Cicadas chirping and the music of nature are the only sounds you can hear. And then, far away from the nearest mains outlet, you get your laptop out to check your emails and plan your route for the next day. Quietly, and with low emissions, the electrical power you need is produced by your own on-board fuel cell generator. You know that with the fuel cell, your vehicle battery will always be fully charged. Now that the funded research and testing work has been done, fuel cell hybrid systems are ready for the market. (orig.)

  3. Vultures have flown under radar Population boom inspires scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... Page 1 ... age structure is.” USDA researchers are fitting 16 vultures with satellite transmitters this month to document movements and behavioural patterns of vultures near the Marine Corps Air. Station in Beaufort, S.C. The project will ... emergency landing at Merritt Island. Airport. “You're always constantly ...

  4. Automation of On-Board Flightpath Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The status of concepts and techniques for the design of onboard flight path management systems is reviewed. Such systems are designed to increase flight efficiency and safety by automating the optimization of flight procedures onboard aircraft. After a brief review of the origins and functions of such systems, two complementary methods are described for attacking the key design problem, namely, the synthesis of efficient trajectories. One method optimizes en route, the other optimizes terminal area flight; both methods are rooted in optimal control theory. Simulation and flight test results are reviewed to illustrate the potential of these systems for fuel and cost savings.

  5. Women on Boards and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests that having more women in the boardroom leads to better corporate social responsibility (CSR performance. However, much of this work views the CSR-enhancing effect of women directors as largely driven by their moral orientations and rarely considers other underlying mechanisms. Moreover, less explored are the firm-specific conditions under which such CSR-promoting roles of female directors might be performed more (or less effectively. In this paper, we seek to bridge this gap in the literature by (1 proposing an additional account for the positive influence of female independent directors on the firm’s CSR and (2 illuminating the organizational context in which female directorship is likely to translate into good CSR performance. We argue that women independent directors might take CSR issues more seriously than their male counterparts not only because of their stronger moral orientations, but also because they have reputational reasons to do so. Further, we suggest that female directors’ concerns about CSR-relevant matters are more (less likely to gain support from other members of the organization when their company is doing more (less business in the product markets where reputation for CSR is more (less vital for success. Using a sample of Standard & Poor’s (S&P 1500 index firms (2000–2009 and the data on their board composition and CSR ratings, we find strong support for our argument. We find that the number (or proportion of women independent directors is positively associated with a firm’s CSR ratings and that the strength of this relationship depends on the level of the firm’s consumer market orientation.

  6. APXS on board Chandrayaan-2 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M.; Sripada, V. S. Murty; Acharya, Y. B.; Goyal, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a well proven instrument for quantitative in situ elemental analysis of the planetary surfaces and has been successfully employed for Mars surface exploration. Chandrayaan-2, ISRO's second lunar mission having an Orbiter, Lander and Rover has provided an opportunity to explore the lunar surface with superior detectors such as Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with energy resolution of about 150eV @ 5.9keV. The objective of the APXS instrument is to analyse several soil/rock samples along the rover traverse for the major elements with characteristic X-rays in 1 to 25keV range. The working principle of APXS involves measuring the intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample due to Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray florescence (XRF) processes using suitable radioactive sources, allowing the determination of elements from Na to Br, spanning the energy range of 0.9 to 16keV. For this experiment ^{244}Cm radioactive source has been chosen which emits both Alpha particles (5.8MeV) and X-rays (14.1keV, 18keV). APXS uses six Alpha sources, each about 5mCi activity. Unlike Mars, lunar environment poses additional challenges due to the regolith and extreme surface temperature changes, to operate the APXS. Our APXS instrument consists of two packages namely APXS sensor head and APXS signal electronics. The sensor head assembly contains SDD, six alpha sources and front end electronic circuits such as preamplifier and shaper circuits and will be mounted on a robotic arm which on command brings the sensor head close to the lunar surface at a height of 35±10mm. SDD module to be used in the experiment has 30mm ^{2} active detector area with in-built peltier cooler and heat sink to maintain the detector at about -35°C. The detector is covered with 8 micron thick Be window which results in the low energy threshold of about 1keV. The size of the APXS sensor head is 70x70x70mm ^{3} (approx). APXS signal electronics consists of a PCB having digital, power and rover interface electronics circuits, which are housed inside the Warm Electronics Box (WEB) mounted under the rover chassis where the temperature is maintained between -50°C to +70°C. Presently, we have completed the design verification model of the APXS payload and engineering model of the payload is in progress. The developed system has been tested using laboratory X-ray sources and observed an energy resolution of about 150eV at 5.9keV when the detector is cooled to -35°C. We also carried out the detection of X-ray fluorescence for some of the USGS standards for a fixed geometry of detector, source and sample, using ^{55}Fe and ^{241}Am X-ray sources. It is shown that the count rate of a given peak varies linearly with the concentration of the corresponding element. The detailed developments and results will be discussed at the conference.

  7. On-board target acquisition for CHEOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschl, P.; Ferstl, R.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.

    2016-07-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is the first ESA S-class and exoplanetary follow-up mission headed for launch in 2018. It will perform ultra-high-precision photometry of stars hosting confirmed exoplanets on a 3-axis stabilised sun-synchronous orbit that is optimised for uninterrupted observations at minimum stray light and thermal variations. Nevertheless, due to the satellites structural design, the alignment of the star trackers and the payload instrument telescope is affected by thermo-elastic deformations. This causes a high pointing uncertainty, which requires the payload instrument to provide an additional acquisition system for distinct target identification. Therefor a star extraction software and two star identification algorithms, originally designed for star trackers, were adapted and optimised for the special case of CHEOPS. In order to evaluate these algorithms reliability, thousands of random star configurations were analysed in Monte-Carlo simulations. We present the implemented identification methods and their performance as well as recommended parameters that guarantee a successful identification under all conditions.

  8. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  9. A train wreck on board the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senak, M

    1996-07-01

    Combination therapy has created a paradox for people with HIV. Although the drugs, after being discovered at a fast pace, are manufactured quickly, they are not available to many persons because of the high cost. Future policy regulations must allow government subsidies to give persons drug therapy early in the course of the disease.

  10. ON BOARD FACILITIES TO PREVENT EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Sukhikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Современные воздушные суда имеют множество ограничений по различным летно-техническим парамет- рам. Прежде всего следует выделить эксплуатационные ограничения для конкретного типа воздушного судна, ко- торые определяют предельные режимы полета как наиболее сложные эксплуатационные режимы. Выход воздуш- ного судна за предельные режимы приводит к попаданию в критические режимы, характеризующиеся возникнове- нием особых ситуаций.В статье рассматривается природа возникновения особых ситуаций ОС в полете, причины отказов авиаци- онной техники. Представлена классификация и состав бортовых технических средств предупреждения особых си- туаций, приводятся примеры существующих бортовых средств предупреждения особых ситуаций.

  11. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...... for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value...

  12. Women on board and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the research question of whether companies with female directors on the board have a higher average performance than companies with no female directors. The debate about the low representation of women in the top management of companies involves both moral arguments (equality

  13. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    methods involve potentiometric and colorimetric titrations , respectively. For both tests, a titration solvent is prepared and added to the oil. The...ASTM D 2896 and ASTM D 4739 [17]. Both methods involve potentiometric titrations . ASTM D 2896 uses a stronger acid and more polar solvent than ASTM D...Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration ASTM D 4739 Standard Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Titration Gas

  14. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuschino, F.; Baldazzi, G.; Rignanese, L. P.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Elmi, I.; Rachevski, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Vacchi, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated. (paper)

  15. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschino, F.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Frontera, F.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  17. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Crushing and volume reducing apparatus for combustible and non-combustible refuses; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Kanen funen gomi no hasai gen`yo shori sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, Y. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-07-25

    This paper introduces a refuse crushing apparatus to reduce for storage the volume of refuses produced on board a ship by crushing. Refuses to be crushed are solid wastes including solid combustible refuses such as paper, wood pieces, and cloths, non-combustible refuses such as empty cans, metals and glass, and refuses unsuitable for combustion, such as plastics and stylofoam. Crushing methods include impact system, compression system and shearing system. The shearing system shears and crushes refuses by using blades rotating at a low speed. The system has a wide range of crush ability and excellent versatility, generates low levels of dust, noise and vibration, and is suitable as a marine use refuse disposing apparatus. However, empty cans and PET bottles are more difficult of getting into cutting blades requiring a large amount of time for crushing. Therefore, it is more suitable to reduce volume of refuses by using a compressor or the like apparatuses, and then crush them by using a double-axial shearing crusher. Stylofoam causes its crushed pieces to be electrically charged and deposited onto the apparatus, hence it is more suitable to reduce the volume of refuses and make them brittle by heating, and then crush them by using the double-axial crusher. 2 figs.

  18. Development of waste and effluents management on board in the seismic ship operating in Brazilian seas; Desenvolvimento do programa de gestao de residuos solidos e efluentes a bordo de um navio de sismica operando em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Mauricio Duppre de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George Andre; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the results regarding CGG's Waste and Effluents Management Program between February 2003 and April 2004 on M/V CGG HARMATTAN. It main objective is to trace all waste and effluents since its generation until its final disposal. To implement this program CGG has two environmental technicians on board, whose are responsible for supervising the program, as well as educating, training, and optimizing waste and effluents segregation. Furthermore, the company also employs a consultant team to logistic management on shore; whose are responsible for executing, transferring, transporting and yours final disposing. Results show a monthly generation of 7.428 Kg and 97.3 m3 in average for waste and effluents respectively. Data indicates waste generation peaks during port calls. Waste tracing has improved along the year, allowing better control and resulting in value decreasing for port calls. Effluents are constantly generated in the same amount with monthly average of 50.2 m3 for bilge water, 41 m3 for sewage and 6.1 m3 for sludge. The percentage of non-recyclable waste sent to cleaner technology (co-processing and re-use) has been increasing along the year, replacing industrial landfill and incinerator use. Latest numbers already show the first results concerning it (2.2% re-used and 24,5% co-processed of total produced solid garbage). Re -used numbers are resulted from pioneer partnership between CGG and fishermen communities, for their original activity. The reached results and environmental indicators show that program efficiency has been evolving, considering logistic, economic, social and environmental aspects, constantly optimized with measures to increase control. (author)

  19. Development of waste and effluents management on board in the seismic ship operating in Brazilian seas; Desenvolvimento do programa de gestao de residuos solidos e efluentes a bordo de um navio de sismica operando em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Mauricio Duppre de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George Andre; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the results regarding CGG's Waste and Effluents Management Program between February 2003 and April 2004 on M/V CGG HARMATTAN. It main objective is to trace all waste and effluents since its generation until its final disposal. To implement this program CGG has two environmental technicians on board, whose are responsible for supervising the program, as well as educating, training, and optimizing waste and effluents segregation. Furthermore, the company also employs a consultant team to logistic management on shore; whose are responsible for executing, transferring, transporting and yours final disposing. Results show a monthly generation of 7.428 Kg and 97.3 m3 in average for waste and effluents respectively. Data indicates waste generation peaks during port calls. Waste tracing has improved along the year, allowing better control and resulting in value decreasing for port calls. Effluents are constantly generated in the same amount with monthly average of 50.2 m3 for bilge water, 41 m3 for sewage and 6.1 m3 for sludge. The percentage of non-recyclable waste sent to cleaner technology (co-processing and re-use) has been increasing along the year, replacing industrial landfill and incinerator use. Latest numbers already show the first results concerning it (2.2% re-used and 24,5% co-processed of total produced solid garbage). Re -used numbers are resulted from pioneer partnership between CGG and fishermen communities, for their original activity. The reached results and environmental indicators show that program efficiency has been evolving, considering logistic, economic, social and environmental aspects, constantly optimized with measures to increase control. (author)

  20. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Sharp, G; Winey, B [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: An unpredictable movement of a patient can occur during SBRT even when immobilization devices are applied. In the SBRT treatments using a conventional linear accelerator detection of such movements relies heavily on human interaction and monitoring. This study aims to detect such positional abnormalities in real-time by assessing intra-fractional gantry mounted kV projection images of a patient’s spine. Methods: We propose a self-CBCT image based spine tracking method consisting of the following steps: (1)Acquire a pre-treatment CBCT image; (2)Transform the CBCT volume according to the couch correction; (3)Acquire kV projections during treatment beam delivery; (4)Simultaneously with each acquisition generate a DRR from the CBCT volume based-on the current projection geometry; (5)Perform an intensity gradient-based 2D registration between spine ROI images of the projection and the DRR images; (6)Report an alarm if the detected 2D displacement is beyond a threshold value. To demonstrate the feasibility, retrospective simulations were performed on 1,896 projections from nine CBCT sessions of three patients who received lung SBRT. The unpredictable movements were simulated by applying random rotations and translations to the reference CBCT prior to each DRR generation. As the ground truth, the 3D translations and/or rotations causing >3 mm displacement of the midpoint of the thoracic spine were regarded as abnormal. In the measurements, different threshold values of 2D displacement were tested to investigate sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method. Results: A linear relationship between the ground truth 3D displacement and the detected 2D displacement was observed (R{sup 2} = 0.44). When the 2D displacement threshold was set to 3.6 mm the overall sensitivity and specificity were 77.7±5.7% and 77.9±3.5% respectively. Conclusion: In this simulation study, it was demonstrated that intrafractional kV projections from an on-board CBCT system have a

  1. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-03: Detection of Unpredictable Patient Movement During SBRT Using a Single KV Projection of An On-Board CBCT System: Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y; Sharp, G; Winey, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: An unpredictable movement of a patient can occur during SBRT even when immobilization devices are applied. In the SBRT treatments using a conventional linear accelerator detection of such movements relies heavily on human interaction and monitoring. This study aims to detect such positional abnormalities in real-time by assessing intra-fractional gantry mounted kV projection images of a patient’s spine. Methods: We propose a self-CBCT image based spine tracking method consisting of the following steps: (1)Acquire a pre-treatment CBCT image; (2)Transform the CBCT volume according to the couch correction; (3)Acquire kV projections during treatment beam delivery; (4)Simultaneously with each acquisition generate a DRR from the CBCT volume based-on the current projection geometry; (5)Perform an intensity gradient-based 2D registration between spine ROI images of the projection and the DRR images; (6)Report an alarm if the detected 2D displacement is beyond a threshold value. To demonstrate the feasibility, retrospective simulations were performed on 1,896 projections from nine CBCT sessions of three patients who received lung SBRT. The unpredictable movements were simulated by applying random rotations and translations to the reference CBCT prior to each DRR generation. As the ground truth, the 3D translations and/or rotations causing >3 mm displacement of the midpoint of the thoracic spine were regarded as abnormal. In the measurements, different threshold values of 2D displacement were tested to investigate sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method. Results: A linear relationship between the ground truth 3D displacement and the detected 2D displacement was observed (R 2 = 0.44). When the 2D displacement threshold was set to 3.6 mm the overall sensitivity and specificity were 77.7±5.7% and 77.9±3.5% respectively. Conclusion: In this simulation study, it was demonstrated that intrafractional kV projections from an on-board CBCT system have a

  2. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON-northeast (NE Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD from a Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04 in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May. After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT with the new aerosol model

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia Campaign, and Implications for a Single-Channel Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth in Spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) On-Board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Song, C.; Lee, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 +/- 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 +/- 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 +/- 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 +/- 0.40 to 2.14 +/- 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show

  4. Comparison of different strategies of use of on-board imagery (high energy [MV], low energy [kV], cone beam tomography) in radiotherapy; Comparaison des differentes strategies d'utilisation de l'imagerie embarquee (haute energie [MV], basse energie [kV], tomographie conique) en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serre, A.A.; Marchesi, V.; Beckendorf, V.; Peiffert, D. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [UMR 7039, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy, Nancy universite, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); UMR 7039, CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the determination of a strategy of use of different available imagery modalities on the Varian 3 On-Board-Imager (OBI): low energy (kV) and high energy (MV) plane imageries, and volume imagery (Kv-CBCT, cone beam computed tomography). The dose delivered by each device has been quantified on a humanoid phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters. A prospective clinical compared the three modalities in terms of patient positioning accuracy. It appears that low-energy imagery provides a good reproducibility, a negligible additional dose and a better image quality. Short communication

  5. Tunneling Accelerometer Multichip Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhyan, V. V.; Choma, J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reports a radiation hardened Spacecraft Integrated Sensor/Circut Technology that has been delivered for flight applications to be flown on board STRV-2 (Space Technology Research Vehicle-2).

  6. Regulations for the use of radioactive sources on board Norwegian drilling platforms and other mobile drilling units, laid down by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate on 13 January 1986 pursuant to the Act of 9 June 1903 No 7 relating to public control of the seaworthiness of ships etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under these Regulations, which entered into force on 15 February 1986, permits are required from the Maritime Directorate for the transport, storage and use of radioactive sources. When the radioactive source is carried by ship to the platforms, the operation is governed by the Regulations of 30 November 1979 on carriage by ships of special or dangerous cargo. The transport containers must comply with IAEA safety requirements. The storage room for the radioactive equipment must be marked with an appropriate warning sign and the distances between the room and other areas must comply with the relevant provisions of the IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Personnel must be trained for work with radioactive sources and must wear dosimeters during this work. In addition, protective measures must be taken to prevent any harmful effects from radiation to such personnel and to the general crew on board the platform. (NEA) [fr

  7. Efficient On-board Lamberts Solution for DSM, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSMs) such as constellations, formation-flying missions, and fractionated missions provide unique scientific and programmatic...

  8. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  9. Autonomous, On-board Processing for Sensor Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fuse high performance reconfigurable processors with emerging fault-tolerance & autonomous processing techniques for a 10-100x decrease in processing time. This...

  10. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms, including the International Space Station as well as LauncherOne, Virgin Galactic's dedicated launch vehicle for small (~500 lbs. / ~225 kg) satellites. Flights on SpaceShipTwo can be booked directly through Virgin Galactic. Various funding sources may be available for the research, including through NASA programs such as the Flight Opportunities Program, Game Changing Development Program, or Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES). More information about the SpaceShipTwo research platform, including a detailed Payload User's Guide, can be found at our website: http://www.virgingalactic.com/research.

  11. The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board? | Obembe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of plant biotechnologies has been very rapid in recent times, especially in the developed countries. The technologies have created a new branch of biotechnology known as molecular farming, where plants are engineered to produce pharmaceutical and technical proteins in large quantities. An evaluation ...

  12. The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... million Metric tons maize production was achieved with. Bt-maize in the US ... quality and low yield, the development of plant- ..... In his review article, published in ..... Evolution of a regulatory framework for pharmaceuticals derived from ... Tregoning JS, Clare S, Bowe F, Edwards L, Fairweather N, Qazi O,.

  13. Get Families on Board to Navigate Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Kathleen M.; Vickers, Harleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective family-school collaboration is essential for promoting students' success at school, but collaborative relationships must be proactively developed and intentionally nurtured. These relationships are particularly critical when children are struggling behaviorally or emotionally. Strategies for building effective relationships are…

  14. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  15. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  16. Low Energy Electron Gun on Board a Scientific Satellite GEOTAIL

    OpenAIRE

    TSUTSUI, Minoru; ONISHI, Yoshiaki; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; KIMURA, Iwane; 筒井, 稔; 大西, 嘉昭; 松本, 紘; 木村, 磐根

    1988-01-01

    A low energy electron gun to be used for beam-plasma interaction experiments by a scientific satellite GEOTAIL has been designed and manufactured. Electrodes of the gun have been modified from the Pierce type gun because of the use of a directly heated cathode. Spatial density distributions of beam electrons emitted from the new gun have been measured in a large vacuum chamber, and characteristic curves of emission currents for some beam energies and cathode powers have been checked repeatedl...

  17. The ART-XC Instrument on Board the SRG Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinksy, M.; Akimov, V.; Levin, V.; Lapshov, I.; Tkachenko, A.; Semena, N.; Buntov, M.; Glushenko, A.; Arefiev, V.; Yaskovish, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2014 from Baikonur, by a Zenit rocket with a Fregat booster and placed in a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The scientific payload consists of two independent telescopes . a soft-x-ray survey instrument, eROSITA, being provided by Germany and a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument ART-XC being developed by Russia. ART-XC will consist of seven independent, but co-aligned, telescope modules with seven corresponding cadmium-telluride focal plane detectors. Each will operate over the approximate energy range of 6- 30 keV, with an angular resolution of <1 ', a field of view of 30 ' and an energy resolution about 10% at 14 keV. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will fabricate some of the mirror modules, to complement others fabricated by VNIIEF in Russia.

  18. Magnetic field measurements on board of altitude-research rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theile, B.; Luehr, H.

    1976-01-01

    Electric currents within the Earth's magneto- and ionosphere can be probed by measuring their magnetic fields. Different payloads of the national sounding rocket programme will carry magnetometers of high resolution and dynamic range. Thorough test procedures are necessary to evaluate the instrument's properties and possible interference problems. (orig.) [de

  19. Mobile on-board vehicle event recorder: MOVER

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kingsley Bell, L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of smart-phone technology in recent years has lead to many smart-phone owners owning out-of-date devices, equipped with useful technologies, which are no longer in use. These devices are valuable resources that can be harnessed...

  20. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the feasibility of a dual frequency implementation (L1E1+L5E5a) in the same SDR platform.2)Qualification and test the GalileoGPS waveform using ground systems available at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Experimenters can have access to two SCaN Testbed ground based systems for development and verification: the Experimenter Development System (EDS) that is intended to provide initial opportunity for software testing and basic functional validation and the Ground Integration Unit (GIU) that is a high fidelity version of the SCaN Testbed flight system and is therefore used for more controlled final development testing and verification testing.3)Perform in-orbit validation and experimentation: The experimentation phase will consists on the collection of raw measurements (pseudorange, Carrier phase, CN0) in space, assessment on the quality of the measurements and the receiver performances in terms of signal acquisition, tracking, etc. Finally computation of positioning in space (Position, Velocity and time) and assessment of its performance.(Complete abstract in attached document).

  1. EAS experiment on board the Airbus A380

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevielle, J.N.; Cohen, F.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We consider taking the opportunity of about 10,000 hours of test flights of the Airbus A380, and to install in the passenger area detectors for high energy cosmic ray events. The altitude of 10 km (250 g/cm 2 ) presents the opportunity to measure EAS originating from heavy primaries to energies exceeding 10 7 GeV, and also the proton component beyond the energy of the knee arriving without interaction. At the flight altitude iron originated EAS are well developed and by registering their lateral distribution in the 70 meters long cabin it will be possible to distinguish them from proton originated EAS. The hadron component of EAS (registered as number of secondary hadrons produced in the detector) would help in discrimination and energy estimation. On the other hand, the detection of high energy protons (without EAS) would enable us to measure the high energy proton spectrum. The proton energy would be estimated via hadron multiplicity in single interactions inside the detector. We propose to use about 60 modules of 0.5 m 2 of active detectors with scintillators to detect E-M component and a carbon target with lead layer to detect the hadronic component via neutron registrations

  2. Detailed Design of On-Board and Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Image processing, attitude determination, quaternion estimation, and performance test of short range camera for rendez-vous and docking of spacecraft.......Image processing, attitude determination, quaternion estimation, and performance test of short range camera for rendez-vous and docking of spacecraft....

  3. On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) study : phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This is a continuation effort of previous research (Modeling of Quieter Pavement in Florida) : and as such is a sister report to the previous final report. Both research efforts pertain to the : noise created at the tire/pavement interface, which con...

  4. On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) study, phase 2 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To many people, environmental issues might : suggest air pollution, water pollution, or similar : ideas. But an environmental issue of growing : concern is noise pollution, which many cities : in Florida are encountering as they grow, and : nei...

  5. MODERN AND PERSPECTIVE ON-BOARD NTELLECTUAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Topalidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of systematization of modern and perspective intellectual transport sides systems (ITВS it is suggested their classification and planning of new ITВS for realization of safety control of vehicle technical condition.

  6. GENDER ISSUES – WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION ON BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Governance is seen as a set of systems, rules, regulations that are in place in order to keep the company on a straight path and to give assurance to the shareholders that their investment is well protected. One of the instruments that are at the choice of the shareholders is the Board of Directors (BoD. Debates go around its role of monitoring and supervising, on obtaining an adding value board or a competitive advantage, on the changes that it has suffered along the years. This paper is a literature review on the diversity in gender, age and experience of the members of the board that have in their hands the power to bring value or destruction to companies. The study shows that are many contradictory results and opinions on the matter and that company’s performance is determined by many factors combined together, like a good mix of culture, experience, professionalism. Discrimination shouldn’t be made on gender, age, background, all persons should be given equal chances and stereotype should be fought more.

  7. Autonomous & Adaptive Oceanographic Feature Tracking on Board Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    and in particular my parents , who have always encouraged me to follow my dreams and do what I want to do in life and school. Mom and Dad, you...leader style , while still zigzagging across the boundary, adapting to the front’s local position. Ideally, a separation distance constraint like that of...using a network of AUVs to prevent data aliasing. 202 Bibliography [1] M. R. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. M. Newman , and J. J. Leonard, “Nested autonomy

  8. 40 CFR 86.1806-01 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 86.1806-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... available on demand through the serial port on the standardized data link connector, if the information is... or components during malfunction conditions if such evaluation would result in a risk to safety or...

  9. 40 CFR 86.005-17 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 86.005-17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... the serial port on the standardized data link connector, if the information is available to the on... systems or components during malfunction conditions if such evaluation would result in a risk to safety or...

  10. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and size are reviewed.

  11. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other factors of space flight change direction of biological processes, and show a possibility to get special kinds of bioproducts with new properties.

  12. Overview of on-board measurements during solar storm periods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, P.; Dyer, C.; Fuller, N.; Hands, A.; Latocha, M.; Rollet, S.; Spurný, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2009), s. 297-303 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : solar storm * aircraft crew * cosmic radiation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.707, year: 2009

  13. Slang 'on board'. A moral analysis of medical jargon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S; Christensen, R C

    1993-01-01

    Medical jargon is commonly used by health-care professionals. The use of such jargon is sometimes criticized as insensitive or callous. Rather than generalize, we identify four basic types of medical jargon and discuss their relevant moral distinctions. Our characterizations of jargon include medical acronyms, euphemisms, and initiatory and derogatory language. Physicians should be aware of the ways in which they use medical slang. Jargon can serve useful purposes but its moral status is often dependent on the function it serves and the context in which it is used. Jargon that is clearly derogatory can reflect negatively on the moral character of the medical profession and should be avoided when possible.

  14. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  15. Intelligent agents for training on-board fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Harbers, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Doesburg, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key

  16. MARES: Navigation, Control and On-board Software

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    MARES, or Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling, is a 1.5m long AUV, designed and built by the Ocean Systems Group. The vehicle can be programmed to follow predefined trajectories, while collecting relevant data with the onboard sensors. MARES can dive up to 100m deep, and unlike similar-sized systems, has vertical thrusters to allow for purely vertical motion in the water column. Forward velocity can be independently defined, from 0 to 2 m/s. Major application areas include pollu...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1806-04 - On-board diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General... conform with the following Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and/or the following..., definitions and abbreviations shall be formatted according to SAE J1930 “Electrical/Electronic Systems...

  18. The radiation dosimeter on-board the FY-4 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.; Sun, Y.; Jing, T.

    2017-12-01

    The total radiation dose effect can lead to a decrease in the performance of satellite devices or materials. Accurately obtaining the total radiation dose during satellite operation could help to analyze the abnormality of payloads in orbit and optimize the design of radiation shielding. The radiation dosimeter is one of the space environmental monitoring devices on the "FY-4" satellite, which is a new generation of geostationary meteorological satellite. The dosimeter consists of 8 detectors, which are installed in different locations of the satellite, to obtain the total radiation dose with different shielding thickness and different orientations. To measure a total radiation dose up to 2000krad(Si), 100nm ion implantation RADFET was used. To improve the sensitivity of the dosimeter, the bias voltage of RADFET is set to 15V, and a 10V, 15-bit A/D is adopted to digitalize the RADFET's threshold voltage, which is increased as the total radiation dose grows. In addition, the temperature effect of RADFET is corrected from the measured temperature on orbit. The preliminary monitoring results show that the radiation dose is less than 35rad (Si) per day at 0.87 mm shielding thickness of equivalent aluminum in the geostationary orbit, and the dose in Y direction of the satellite is less than those in the X and Z directions. The radiation dose at the thickness of 3.87 mm equivalent aluminum is less than 1rad(Si)/day. It is found that the daily total dose measured by the dosimeter has a strong correlation with the flux of high energy electrons.

  19. Development of on-board vehicle measurements for emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollo, R.; Renier, S.; Testini, Y.; Sontag, M.

    1992-01-01

    In case of accident in a nuclear power plant, measurements must be carried out very quickly around the site, in order to control and limit the consequences for the population. Measurements which have the priority are the gamma dose rate, the total beta activity, the gamma activity due to I 131 (charcoal filter) and due to Cs 134/137 (paper filter). To fulfill the requirement, EDF has developed and selected necessary equipment, putting the emphasis on the reliability and on the ease of use. A computer-controlled system dedicated to dose rate measurement and gamma spectroscopy is described, as well as an autonomous programmable, air and water-sampling device. (author)

  20. On board a raft or boat in the retrovirus sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 15 (2016), s. 3927-3931 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22207S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell transformation * virus integration * virus rescue * nonpermissiveness to virus infection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  1. MOBS - A modular on-board switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, W.; Grassmann, W.; Piontek, M.

    The authors describe a multibeam satellite system that is designed for business services and for communications at a high bit rate. The repeater is regenerative with a modular onboard switching system. It acts not only as baseband switch but also as the central node of the network, performing network control and protocol evaluation. The hardware is based on a modular bus/memory architecture with associated processors.

  2. Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Make positive and immediate changes in your school with the support of your entire staff. New from acclaimed speaker and bestselling author Todd Whitaker ("What Great Teachers Do Differently, Dealing with Difficult Parents"), Leading School Change provides principals, assistant principals, district superintendents, and other educators with…

  3. Passivation Strategies on Board Airbus ds Leo Pcdus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapeña Emilio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the different strategies followed in the Airbus DS LEO PCDUs regarding the implementation of the passivation function in several LEO missions with different architectures (DET and MPPT solar array power conditioning. In the selection of the solution implemented in the frame of every mission, a key driver is the degree of advance in the test performed over flight representative battery modules regarding their safe behavior when deeply depleted after a long period in orbit with the passivation applied over the spacecraft.

  4. Robotics On-Board Trainer (ROBoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve; Alexander, Greg

    2013-01-01

    ROBoT is an on-orbit version of the ground-based Dynamics Skills Trainer (DST) that astronauts use for training on a frequent basis. This software consists of two primary software groups. The first series of components is responsible for displaying the graphical scenes. The remaining components are responsible for simulating the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS), and the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) Free Flyer Robotics Operations. The MSS simulation software includes: Robotic Workstation (RWS) simulation, a simulation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), a simulation of the ISS Command and Control System (CCS), and a portion of the Portable Computer System (PCS) software necessary for MSS operations. These components all run under the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. The JEMRMS simulation software includes real-time, HIL, dynamics, manipulator multi-body dynamics, and a moving object contact model with Tricks discrete time scheduling. The JEMRMS DST will be used as a functional proficiency and skills trainer for flight crews. The HTV Free Flyer Robotics Operations simulation software adds a functional simulation of HTV vehicle controllers, sensors, and data to the MSS simulation software. These components are intended to support HTV ISS visiting vehicle analysis and training. The scene generation software will use DOUG (Dynamic On-orbit Ubiquitous Graphics) to render the graphical scenes. DOUG runs on a laptop running the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. DOUG is an Open GL-based 3D computer graphics rendering package. It uses pre-built three-dimensional models of on-orbit ISS and space shuttle systems elements, and provides realtime views of various station and shuttle configurations.

  5. The plant biotechnology flight: Is Africa on board?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... plants, since the first plant-derived vaccine- relevant protein was ..... countries in Asia and Latin America, to drive this through and not to be .... Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in transgenic tobacco ...

  6. Thermal diagnostic of the optical window on board LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofrarias, M; MarIn, A F GarcIa; Lobo, A; Heinzel, G; Ramos-Castro, J; Sanjuan, J; Danzmann, K

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum conditions inside the LTP gravitational reference sensor must be under 10 -5 Pa, a rather demanding requirement. The optical window (OW) is an interface which seals the vacuum enclosure and, at the same time, lets the laser beam go through for interferometric metrology with the test masses. The OW is a plane-parallel plate clamped in a titanium flange, and is considerably sensitive to thermal and stress fluctuations. It is critical for the required precision measurements, hence its temperature will be carefully monitored in flight. This paper reports on the results of a series of OW characterization laboratory runs, intended to study its response to selected thermal signals, as well as their fit to numerical models, and the meaning of the latter. We find that a single-pole ARMA transfer function provides a consistent approximation to the OW response to thermal excitations, and derive a relationship with the physical processes taking place in the OW. We also show how the system noise reduction can be accomplished by means of that transfer function

  7. Analysis of Systems Hardware Flown on LDEF-Results of the Systems Special Investigation Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    EXPERIMENT TRAY Butyl O-ring P0004 F2 Butyl rubber seal A0138 B3 EP O-ring S0069 A9 EPDM rubber P0005 CENTER RING NBR rubber P0005 CENTER RING...and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ( NBR ) were tested in experiment P0005, Space Aging of Solid Rocket Materials. The elastomers were not exposed to...Parker Seal B-612-70 EECC P0004 Metal "V" Seal EECC EPDM rubber , 053A, Kirkhill P0005 NBR rubber , V-45, Kirkhill P0005 Silicon rubber gaskets

  8. Analysis Of Navy Hornet Squadron Mishap Costs With Regard To Previously Flown Flight Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Psychological Association ( APA ) manual guidelines for reporting statistics have recommended reporting exact p-values, and avoiding arbitrary...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. ANALYSIS OF NAVY...Advisor Kenneth Doerr THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden

  9. The effect of outer space environments on Lactuca sativa seeds flown on Cosmos biosatellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maksimova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Kaminskaya, E.V.; Marennyj, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm 3 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity

  10. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  11. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  12. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The airframe may be treated as a rigid body. (ii) The airframe may have a plane of symmetry coinciding with the vertical plane of reference. (iii) The vehicle may have aerodynamic symmetry in roll. (iv) The... identify whether or not it burns during free fall, and provide the consumption rate during free fall. The...

  13. Global gene expression analysis highlights microgravity sensitive key genes in soleus and EDL of 30 days space flown mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microgravity exposure as well as chronic muscle disuse are two of the main causes of physiological adaptive skeletal muscle atrophy in humans and murine animals in...

  14. Data reduction and analysis for the graphite crystal X-ray spectrometer and polarimeter experiment flown aboard OSO-8 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    The documentation and software programs developed for the reception, initial processing (quickbook), and production analysis of data obtained by solar X-ray spectroscopy, stellar spectroscopy, and X-ray polarimetry experiments on OSO-8 are listed. The effectiveness and sensitivity of the Bragg crystal scattering instruments used are assessed. The polarization data polarimetric data obtained shows that some X-ray sources are polarized and that a larger polarimeter of this type is required to perform the measurements necessary to fully understand the physics of X-ray sources. The scanning Bragg crystal spectrometer was ideally suited for studying rapidly changing solar conditions. Observations of the Crab Nebula and pulsar, Cyg X-1, Cyg X-2, Cyg X-3, Sco X-1, Cen X-3, and Her X-1 are discussed as well as of 4U1656-53 and 4U1820-30. Evidence was obtained for iron line emission from Cyg X-3.

  15. Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing (SCMIT): An experiment flown on STS-40 as part of GAS payload G-616

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    This experiment investigated the integrity of static computer memory (floppy disk media) when exposed to the environment of low earth orbit. The experiment attempted to record soft-event upsets (bit-flips) in static computer memory. Typical conditions that exist in low earth orbit that may cause soft-event upsets include: cosmic rays, low level background radiation, charged fields, static charges, and the earth's magnetic field. Over the years several spacecraft have been affected by soft-event upsets (bit-flips), and these events have caused a loss of data or affected spacecraft guidance and control. This paper describes a commercial spin-off that is being developed from the experiment.

  16. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  17. Alterations in TNF- and IL-related gene expression in space-flown WI38 human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semov, Alexandre; Semova, Nathalia; Lacelle, Chantale; Marcotte, Richard; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Proestou, Gregory; Wang, Eugenia

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight, just like aging, causes profound changes in musculoskeletal parameters, which result in decreased bone density and muscular weakness. As these conditions decrease our ability to conduct long-term manned space missions, and increase bone frailty in the elderly, the identification of genes responsible for the apparition of these physiological changes will be of great benefit. Thus, we developed and implemented a new microarray approach to investigate the changes in normal WI38 human fibroblast gene expression that arise as a consequence of space flight. Using our microarray, we identified changes in the level of expression of 10 genes, belonging to either the tumor necrosis factor- (TNF) or interleukin- (IL) related gene families in fibroblasts when WI38 cells exposed to microgravity during the STS-93 Space Shuttle mission were compared with ground controls. The genes included two ligands from the TNF superfamily, TWEAK and TNFSF15; two TNF receptor-associated proteins, NSMAF and PTPN13; three TNF-inducible genes, ABC50, PTX3, and SCYA13; TNF-alpha converting enzyme, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-15 receptor alpha chain. Most of these are involved in either the regulation of bone density, and as such the development of spaceflight osteopenia, or in the development of proinflammatory status.

  18. On-board digital RFI and polarimetry processor for future spaceborne radiometer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Ruokokoski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Man-made Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasingly threatening problem for passive microwave radiometry from space. The problem is presently very evident in L-band data from SMOS, but it is realized that it is already now a problem at other traditional radiometer bands at C, X, and Ku...

  19. Hybrid and dependent task scheduling algorithm for on-board system software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振华; 洪炳熔; 乔永强; 蔡则苏; 彭俊杰

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve the hybrid and dependent task scheduling and critical source allocation problems, atask scheduling algorithm has been developed by first presenting the tasks, and then describing the hybrid anddependent scheduling algorithm and deriving the predictable schedulability condition. The performance of thisagorithm was evaluated through simulation, and it is concluded from the evaluation results that the hybrid taskscheduling subalgorithm based on the comparison factor can be used to solve the problem of aperiodic task beingblocked by periodic task in the traditional operating system for a very long time, which results in poor schedu-ling predictability; and the resource allocation subalgorithm based on schedulability analysis can be used tosolve the problems of critical section conflict, ceiling blocking and priority inversion; and the scheduling algo-rithm is nearest optimal when the abortable critical section is 0.6.

  20. Further analysis of long-term measurements on board of Czech airlines aircraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ploc, Ondřej; Spurný, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 580, č. 1 (2007), s. 671-674 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation protection at flight altitudes * aircraft crew exposure * detection of cosmic radiation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2007

  1. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  2. Get on Board the Underground Railroad: A Sample Unit for Fifth-Grade History Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Phyllis M.; Young, Terrell A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the materials and procedures used in a fifth-grade history unit on the Underground Railroad. The unit integrated a variety of teaching methods and materials making extensive use of historical literature, K-W-L (what we Know, what we Want to find out, what we Learned) charts, and activities aimed at different learning styles. (MJP)

  3. First Li-Ion Battery On-Board A Russian Commercial Geo Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgrangeas, David; Lagattu, Benoit; Nesterishin, Michael; Krenko, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the first integration of a Li-ion battery from a western company aboard a Russian commercial GEO satellite. State of the art electrochemistry allied with innovative battery design lead to successful contract for development, manufacturing and delivery of flight hardware. After several months of joint technical work, two batteries were delivered for integration and tested inside a GEO spacecraft. Delivery conditions of a Li-ion battery were also part of the challenge and were successfully filled by both parties. This paper presents the first results of interfacing batteries and spacecraft. Mechanical, thermal and electrical aspects are discussed as well as learned lessons. Beyond cultural and technical habits and despite language barriers, this contract was a true success story between two major companies, each leading its own market share.

  4. 75 FR 55488 - Electronic On-Board Recorders for Hours-of-Service Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... class (08h) for software driverless operation. All petitioners requested that FMCSA reconsider the... featuring a Type A connector. The USB interface must implement the Mass Storage class (08h) for driverless...

  5. Status of the Instrument Control Unit for EPD on-board Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Da Silva, Antonio; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo; Gutierrez Molina, Oscar; Fernandez Salgado, Javier

    Solar Orbiter is the next heliospheric mission sponsored by ESA. The launch is planned for 2017 and it will be as close as 0.28 AU from the Sun. One of the instruments for Solar Orbiter is the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) responsible for measuring energies from 2 keV to 200 MeV/n. EPD consists of four detectors, Electron Proton Telescope (EPT), High Energy Telescope (HET), SupraThermal Electrons, Ions, & Neutrals (STEIN), and Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), plus the Instrument Control Unit called ICU. The Space Research Group of the University of Alcalá in Spain is the responsible for developing the ICU. In this work we present the development status of the ICU after the Critical Design Review. We also address the planned activities for the next year including the development of the Engineering and Qualification Model (EQM) and Flight Model (PM). Special focus is paid to the software and verification & validation activities.

  6. The mirror module design for the cryogenic x-ray imaging spectrometer on-board ORIGIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Basso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a medium size high-energy mission concept submitted to ESA in response to the Cosmic Vision call issued on July 2010. The mission will investigate the evolution of the Universe by performing soft X-ray high resolution spectroscopic measurements of metals formed in different astrophysica...

  7. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  8. a Photogrammetric Pipeline for the 3d Reconstruction of Cassis Images on Board Exomars Tgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, E.; Re, C.; Mudric, T.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-07-01

    CaSSIS (Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System) is the stereo imaging system onboard the European Space Agency and ROSCOSMOS ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) that has been launched on 14 March 2016 and entered a Mars elliptical orbit on 19 October 2016. During the first bounded orbits, CaSSIS returned its first multiband images taken on 22 and 26 November 2016. The telescope acquired 11 images, each composed by 30 framelets, of the Martian surface near Hebes Chasma and Noctis Labyrithus regions reaching at closest approach at a distance of 250 km from the surface. Despite of the eccentricity of this first orbit, CaSSIS has provided one stereo pair with a mean ground resolution of 6 m from a mean distance of 520 km. The team at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (OAPD-INAF) is involved into different stereo oriented missions and it is realizing a software for the generation of Digital Terrain Models from the CaSSIS images. The SW will be then adapted also for other projects involving stereo camera systems. To compute accurate 3D models, several sequential methods and tools have been developed. The preliminary pipeline provides: the generation of rectified images from the CaSSIS framelets, a matching core and post-processing methods. The software includes in particular: an automatic tie points detection by the Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator, an initial search for the correspondences through Normalize Cross Correlation (NCC) algorithm and the Adaptive Least Square Matching (LSM) algorithm in a hierarchical approach. This work will show a preliminary DTM generated by the first CaSSIS stereo images.

  9. The Emergence of Multi-Cellular Robot Organisms through On-line On-board Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, B.P.M.; Haasdijk, E.W.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a swarm of robots can evolve controllers that cause aggregation into 'multi-cellular' robot organisms without a specific reward to do so. To this end, we create a world where aggregated robots receive more energy than individual ones and enable robots to evolve their

  10. The LOFT Burst Alert System and its Burst On-board Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schanne, Stephane; Götz, Diego; Provost, Herve Le

    2014-01-01

    The ESA M3 candidate mission LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) has been designed to study strong gravitational fields by observing compact objects, such as black-hole binaries or neutron-star systems and supermassive black-holes, based on the temporal analysis of photons collected...

  11. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  12. Integration of passive driver-assistance systems with on-board vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V. V.; Poddubko, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation in OIAS such functions as driver’s state monitoring and high-precision calculation of the current navigation coordinates of the vehicle, modularity of the OIAS construction and the possible increase in the functionality through integration with other onboard systems has a promising development future. The development of intelligent transport systems and their components allows setting and solving fundamentally new tasks for the safety of human-to-machine transport systems, and the automatic analysis of heterogeneous information flows provides a synergistic effect. The analysis of cross-modal information exchange in human-machine transport systems, from uniform methodological points of view, will allow us, with an accuracy acceptable for solving applied problems, to form in real time an integrated assessment of the state of the basic components of the human-to-machine system and the dynamics in changing situation-centered environment, including the external environment, in their interrelations.

  13. Integration of functions within STUAS operator crew on board royal Netherlands Navy ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Holleman, B.; Kerbusch, P.; Kleij, R. van der; Smets, N.; Smit, S.; Rakhorst-Oudendijk, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many reasons exist for the military to favor unmanned systems and future missions are envisioned that require longer, more diverse and more frequent deployment of UAVs with increased mission precision. This will also result in a much higher demand on operator crews working with UAVs. With the

  14. Baby on board: pregnancy as a source of conflict for the psychiatry registrar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Laura

    2013-04-01

    A literature review explores the author's experience of conflict while working as a psychiatry registrar during her pregnancy. Conflicts may arise during a registrar's pregnancy, but can be mediated through effective supervision and peer support, and may benefit future clinical practice with the development of new insights and enhanced self-awareness.

  15. Factors in Decisions to Make, Purchase, and Use On-board Safety Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In support of its goal to reduce large truck-related fatalities and crashes, FMCSA plans to facilitate the deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) technologies that have shown a potential to improve the safety of commercial vehicle operati...

  16. 49 CFR 395.16 - Electronic on-board recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information interchange methods must comply with the “Universal Serial Bus Specification (Revision 2.0... part. The system must also be able to produce a copy of files on portable storage media (CD-RW, USB 2.0... the EOBR. (2) A supply of blank driver's records of duty status graph-grids sufficient to record the...

  17. Data Processing and Primary results of Lunar Penetrating Radar on Board the Chinese Yutu Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Feng, Jianqing; Dai, Shun; Ding, Chunyu; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Bin; Yao, Meijuan; Li, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Radar is an attractive and powerful technique to observe the Moon. Radar mapping of the Moon's topography was first done by the Arecibo telescope at a wave- length of 70 cm in 1964 (Thompson & Dyce 1966). Chang'e-3 (CE-3) was successfully launched on 2013 December 2, and the landing place is in Mare Imbrium, about 40km south of the 6km diameter Laplace F crater, at 44.1214ON, 19.5116OW. The Lunar ground-Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of scientific payloads of the Yutu rover, aiming to achieve the first direct measurements and explore the lunar subsurface structure. Compared with ALSE and LRS, LPR works at higher frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Thus it can probe regions with shallower depth including the regolith and lunar crust at higher range resolution. The LPR uses one transmitting and one receiving dipole antenna for 60 MHz which are installed at the back of the rover. For 500 MHz, one transmitting and two bow-tie receiving antennas are attached to the bottom of the rover. It transmits a pulsed signal and receives the radar echo signal along the path that the Yutu rover traverses. The free space range resolutions are ~ 50 cm and ~ 25 m for 60 MHz and 500 MHz respectively. The radar data stop being sampled and are sent back to Earth when Yutu is stationary. Observations are simultaneously carried out at frequencies of 60 MHz and 500 MHz. Since the Yutu rover had severe problems during its second lunar day, it is pity that the Yutu rover only transversed a limited distance of 114.8m. In total, 566 MB of data were obtained. The scientific data are archived and distributed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Data processing has been done in order to eliminate the effect of the instrument. To obtain clear radar images, more data processing need to be applied such as coordinate transformation, data editing, background removal, the operations of smoothing and gain resetting. The radar signal could detect hundreds of meters deep at 60MHz and tens of meters at 500MHz. Based on the previous lunar subsurface research and Apollo samples analysis, the dielectric constantɛr of the lunar rock is set to be 7 and the dielectric constantɛr of the lunar regolith is set to be 3.1 The LPR observations reveal that Mare Imbrium has subsurface stratifications. The regolith is not uniform and structures with multiple layers have been observed. The results indicate the thickness of the regolith is 4-6 m. The typical hyperbolic shapes that might be caused by rocks underneath the regolith have been found. Furthermore, several prominent reflective layers at depths of hundreds of meters have been clearly derived. The buried regolith layer might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts.

  18. A STUDY ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF FIRE HAZARDS ON BOARD: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Ozsoysal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The RoRo ship MS UND ADRIYATIK was wrecked in February 2008 by a catastrophic fire. The causes of the accident included a combination of human, technical and organizational factors. In this study, the authors describe the accident, its chronology, and the dependencies involved. They then examine some of the erroneous series of human’s operations, design and technical errors that led to the disaster and their organizational roots at the time of the accident. Risk-reduction measures can be costly, though; priorities must be set based on costs and benefits. This research suggests ways to support fire prevention efforts. Nine possible reasons were determined to perform a survey suitable for AHP technique. The purpose of this survey is to determine the order of possible explanations for this fire accident and possible provisions and precautions to be taken.

  19. On-board co2 capture and storage with metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama

    2016-01-01

    In general, this disclosure describes method of capturing and storing CO2 on a vehicle. The method includes contacting an vehicle exhaust gas with one or more of a first metal organic framework (MOF) composition sufficient to separate CO2 from

  20. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.

  1. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleanski, P.; Groebelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Fárník, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 732, December (2013), s. 295-298 ISSN 0168-9002. [Vienna Conference on Instrumentation /13./. Vienna, 11.02.2013-15.02.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Fourier optics * X-ray imaging * solar flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  2. Study of values and interpersonal perception in cosmonauts on board of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A. G.; Gushin, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    The increased heterogeneity of International Space Station (ISS) crews' composition (in terms of nationality, profession and gender) together with stressful situations, due to space flight, can have a significant impact on group interaction and cohesion, as well as on communications with Mission Control Center (MCC) and the success of the mission as a whole. Culturally related differences in values, goals, and behavioral norms could influence mutual perception and, thus, cohesive group formation. The purpose of onboard "Interaction-Attitudes" experiment is to study the patterns of small group (space crew) behavior in extended space flight. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions 19-30 with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers. Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. We used Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) software for analyzing subjects' attitudes toward social environment (crewmembers and MCC). It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight. Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity (motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline) and good social relationships (sociability, friendship, and tolerance), as well. Post-flight study of changes in perceptions, related to Real Self-image, did not reveal significant differences between the images of Russian crew-members and representatives from foreign space agencies. A certain difference in perceptions was found in cosmonauts with more integrated system of evaluations: after space flight they perceived foreign participants as "closer" to their Ideal, while Russian crew-members were perceived mostly as "distant" from Ideal Self of these subjects. Perceptions of people from Earth were also more critical. These differences are likely to be manifestations of interpersonal perception stereotypes. Described patterns of changes in perceptions of cosmonauts, who have performed space flight as a part of ISS multinational crew, allow us to suggest the recommendations for development of ISS crew training, in particular, it seems useful to increase the time of joint training for deepening of intercultural interaction.

  3. IoT On-Board System for Driving Style Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Czapla, Jacek; Damps, Pawel; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2018-04-17

    The assessment of skills is essential and desirable in areas such as medicine, security, and other professions where mental, physical, and manual skills are crucial. However, often such assessments are performed by people called “experts” who may be subjective and are able to consider a limited number of factors and indicators. This article addresses the problem of the objective assessment of driving style independent of circumstances. The proposed objective assessment of driving style is based on eight indicators, which are associated with the vehicle’s speed, acceleration, jerk, engine rotational speed and driving time. These indicators are used to estimate three driving style criteria: safety , economy , and comfort . The presented solution is based on the embedded system designed according to the Internet of Things concept. The useful data are acquired from the car diagnostic port—OBD-II—and from an additional accelerometer sensor and GPS module. The proposed driving skills assessment method has been implemented and experimentally validated on a group of drivers. The obtained results prove the system’s ability to quantitatively distinguish different driving styles. The system was verified on long-route tests for analysis and could then improve the driver’s behavior behind the wheel. Moreover, the spider diagram approach that was used established a convenient visualization platform for multidimensional comparison of the result and comprehensive assessment in an intelligible manner.

  4. Controlling maximum evaluation duration in on-line and on-board evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atta-ul-Qayyum, A.; Nedev, D.G.; Haasdijk, E.W.

    2014-01-01

    On-line evolution of robot controllers allows robots to adapt while they perform their proper tasks. In our investigations, robots contain their own self-sufficient evolutionary algorithm (known as the encapsulated approach) where individual solutions are evaluated by means of a time sharing scheme:

  5. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  6. MIV project: Detailed design of on-board and ground systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisch, Manlio; Thuesen, Gøsta; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report describes the algorithms used to achieve autonomous and ground supported guidance, navigation and control....

  7. Getting and Keeping Nora on Board: A Novice Elementary ESOL Student Teacher's Practices for Lesson Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Hansun Zhang; Hruska, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes how a novice ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) student teacher successfully navigates an instructional path in a one-on-one tutoring session with a second grade student. We document the student teacher's strategies to both engage and disengage her student, who alternately resists and cooperates throughout the…

  8. Non-linear quantization error reduction for the temperature measurement subsystem on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, J.; Nofrarias, M.

    2018-04-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder is a mission to test the technology enabling gravitational wave detection in space and to demonstrate that sub-femto-g free fall levels are possible. To do so, the distance between two free falling test masses is measured to unprecedented sensitivity by means of laser interferometry. Temperature fluctuations are one of the noise sources limiting the free fall accuracy and the interferometer performance and need to be known at the ˜10 μK Hz-1/2 level in the sub-millihertz frequency range in order to validate the noise models for the future space-based gravitational wave detector LISA. The temperature measurement subsystem on LISA Pathfinder is in charge of monitoring the thermal environment at key locations with noise levels of 7.5 μK Hz-1/2 at the sub-millihertz. However, its performance worsens by one to two orders of magnitude when slowly changing temperatures are measured due to errors introduced by analog-to-digital converter non-linearities. In this paper, we present a method to reduce this effect by data post-processing. The method is applied to experimental data available from on-ground validation tests to demonstrate its performance and the potential benefit for in-flight data. The analog-to-digital converter effects are reduced by a factor between three and six in the frequencies where the errors play an important role. An average 2.7 fold noise reduction is demonstrated in the 0.3 mHz-2 mHz band.

  9. 77 FR 12231 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... information on how to participate via the Internet on the FMCSA web site at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov in... Indep. Drivers Ass'n et al. v. Fed. Motor Carrier Safety Admin., 656 F.3d. 580 (7th Cir. 2011). The... be on the FMCSA Web site at http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov . FMCSA will docket the transcripts of the...

  10. 77 FR 19589 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... information on how to participate via the Internet on the FMCSA Web site at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov in... Admin., 656 F.3d. 580 (7th Cir. 2011). The Court held that, contrary to statutory requirements, the... telephone access number will be on the FMCSA Web site at http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov . FMCSA will docket the...

  11. Optical system for the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannes, Luc; Dupont, Olivier; Dewandel, Jean-Luc; Ligot, Renaud; Algrain, Hervé

    2004-06-01

    The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostic Facility (PCDF) is a multi-user facility to study the protein crystallisation under the conditions of micro-gravity onboard the International Space Station (ISS) Columbus facility. Large size protein crystals will growth under reduced gravity in thermally controlled reactors. A combination of diagnostic tools like video system, microscope, interferometer, and light scattering device shall help to understand the growth phenomena. Common methods of protein crystallisation shall be performed in PCDF: Dialysis where the protein solution and the salt solution are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. Extended Length Dialysis Batch where the saturation to get crystals is achieved by changing the concentration of the protein in the sample liquid. The overall ESA project is leaded by EADS Space Transportation, Friedrichshafen, Germany. Lambda-X is responsible for the Optical System (OS), with Verhaert Design and Development as sub-contractor for the mechanical design. The OS includes different compact parts: Original illumination systems based on LEDs of difference colours; Quantitative Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure the concentration distribution around crystals; Imaging assemblies to visualize the protein volume with different field of views. The paper concentrates on the description of each part, and in particular on the imaging assembly which allow switching from one field of view to another by passive elements only.

  12. 77 FR 63217 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrators on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., organizations, and governmental jurisdictions subject to regulation. To achieve this principle, agencies are... small entities, including small businesses, not-for-profit organizations, and small governmental... manufacturer's names. In this final rule, the FAA will add those previous manufacturer's names (International...

  13. The Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Combined Passive and On-Board Active Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Zangmeister, Tobias; Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Hermitte, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of the European TRACE project (TRaffic Accident Causation in Europe, 2006–2008) was to estimate the proportion of injury accidents that could be avoided and/or the proportion of injury accidents where the severity could be mitigated for on-the-market safety applications, if 100 % of the car fleet would be equipped with them. We have selected for evaluation the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and the Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) applications. As for passive safety systems, recent cars are designed to offer overall safety protection. Car structure, load limiters, front airbags, side airbags, knee airbags, pretensioners, padding and non aggressive structures in the door panel, the dashboard, the windshield, the seats, and the head rest also contribute to applying more protection. The whole safety package is very difficult to evaluate separately, one element independently segmented from the others. We decided to consider evaluating the effectivenessof the whole passive safety package, This package,, for the sake of simplicity, was the number of stars awarded at the Euro NCAP testing. The challenges were to compare the effectiveness of some safety configuration SC I, with the effectiveness of a different safety configuration SC II. A safety configuration is understood as a package of safety functions. Ten comparisons have been carried out such as the evaluation of the safety benefit of a fifth star given that the car has four stars and an EBA. The main outcome of this analysis is that any addition of a passive or active safety function selected in this analysis is producing increased safety benefits. For example, if all cars were five stars fitted with EBA and ESC, instead of four stars without ESC and EBA, injury accidents would be reduced by 47.2% for severe injuries and 69.5% for fatal injuries. PMID:20184838

  14. D-day on board a tank landing ship: meat, cheese and blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, A K; Gavalas, M C; Ryan, J

    2008-03-01

    Tank Landing Ships were used as evacuation station hospitals during D-Day of World War Two. This historical vignette describes how difficulties were overcome in blood transfusion and trauma surgery aboard these ships. Their place in the evacuation chain is discussed in relation to previous experiences in military medicine.

  15. 49 CFR 176.78 - Use of power-operated industrial trucks on board vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operation may expose the operator to danger from a falling object, the truck must be equipped with a driver... used to handle small objects or unstable loads must be equipped with a load backrest extension having... must be permanently connected to an exhaust duct leading to the open deck and terminate in a gooseneck...

  16. On-board landmark navigation and attitude reference parallel processor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. E.; Mahajan, D. T.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to autonomous navigation and attitude reference for earth observing spacecraft is described along with the landmark identification technique based on a sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA). Laboratory experiments undertaken to determine if better than one pixel accuracy in registration can be achieved consistent with onboard processor timing and capacity constraints are included. The SSDA is implemented using a multi-microprocessor system including synchronization logic and chip library. The data is processed in parallel stages, effectively reducing the time to match the small known image within a larger image as seen by the onboard image system. Shared memory is incorporated in the system to help communicate intermediate results among microprocessors. The functions include finding mean values and summation of absolute differences over the image search area. The hardware is a low power, compact unit suitable to onboard application with the flexibility to provide for different parameters depending upon the environment.

  17. Gamming Chairs and Gimballed Beds: Seafaring Women on Board Nineteenth-Century Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborn, Laurel

    2017-04-01

    During the nineteenth century, many captains' wives from New England took up residence on the ships their husbands commanded. This article focuses on how those women at sea attempted to use material culture to domesticate their voyaging space. While writing in their journals, they referred to not only the small personal things such as books and knitting needles that they brought in their trunks, but also large items, built for and used by women, such as gamming chairs, deckhouses, parlor organs, sewing machines, and gimballed beds. Mary Brewster attempted to retreat from the ship's officers in her small deckhouse, Annie Brassey slept in the gimballed bed, and Lucy Lord Howes disembarked in a gamming chair when captured by Confederates during the Civil War. Evidence of these artifacts found during shipwreck archaeology could be used to further what is known of the culture aboard ships on which women lived. Analysis of the material culture reveals how a captain's wife domesticated space, altered her environment, and made a home on the ship for her family.

  18. 75 FR 739 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reduce the risks typically associated with compressed... developed small portable oxygen concentrators (POC) that work by separating oxygen from nitrogen and other...

  19. Get on Board the Cost Effective Way: A Tech Prep Replication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne A.; Szul, Linda F.; Rivosecchi, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The Northwestern Pennsylvania Tech Prep Consortium model for replicating tech prep programs includes these steps: fact finding, local industry analysis, curriculum development, detailed description, marketing strategies, implementation, and program evaluation. (SK)

  20. The study of a plasma jet injected by an on-board plasma thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebnev, I.A.; Ivanov, G.V.; Khodnenko, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The injection of a steady plasma jet into the ionosphere results in interactions which were studied in experiments conducted onboard two Meteor satellites in 1977-1979. The jet parameters at the propulsion system output were as follows: propulsive mass: Xe Xe (+) ion density at the nozzle section 3 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm plasma stream divergence: 20 degrees jet velocity: 10-12 km/cm ion energy: 130 eV electron temperature: 1 + 3 eV. A Bennett-type modified radio-frequency mass-spectrometer and a two-channel electromagnetic wave analyzer were used for the measurements. It was found that (1) the injected plasma jet propagation depends on the jet injection pitch angle (2) when the plasma jet was injected along the magnetic field, impactless jet spreading took place without considerable interaction with the ionospheric plasma (3) when the plasma jet was injected across the magnetic field, considerable interaction was observed between the plasma jet/ionospheric plasma and the earth's magnetic field and (4) electromagnetic fields were generated near the satellite by plasma jet interaction