WorldWideScience

Sample records for flower shape flower

  1. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  2. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  3. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hůla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Tender shoots and the under surface of leaves are covered with dense brown velvety hairs. Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  8. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  9. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Muchhala

    Full Text Available Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid, 115cm and is edible when ripe. C. parviflorum is one of the commonest species of the scrub jungle ...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  16. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety. Seeds are flattened, smooth and reddish-brown. The unripe fruit is astringent and its extract is used in medicine. It is also used as a tan for fishing-nets. The viscid pulp is used as glue for bookbinding and also as a tar for ...

  18. Orbital flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Csillik, Iharka

    2017-11-01

    The regularizing techniques known as Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation have investigated. It has proved that it is very useful in n-body simulations, where it helps to handle close encounters. This paper shows how the basic transformation is a starting point for a family of polynomial coupled function. This interpretation becomes simply on writing KS transformations in quaternion form, which also helps to derive concise expressions for regularized equations of motion. Even if the KS regularization method is more easy to use, it is interesting to encapsulate the KS transformation in a family of methods, which all conserve the KS transformations' properties. Further, an interesting point of view is considering, the orbital shapes of the restricted three-body problem (also regularized restricted three-body problem) for different initial conditions has compared with flower pattern.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose with the seed enclosed in a stone. The jurisdiction for all disputes concerning published material, ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    . (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly lobed, dark green above and pale grey underneath. They are 3-nerved from the base and often crowded at the branch ends. Inflorescence is large, branched with small greenish-yellow flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...

  11. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and electro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Al-Akraa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The modification of a glassy carbon electrode with gold nanoparticles was pursued, characterized, and examined for electrocatalytic applications. The fabrication process of this electrode involved assembling the gold nanoparticles atop of amino group grafted glassy carbon electrode. The scanning electron microscopy indicated the deposition of gold nanoparticles in flower-shaped nanostructures with an average particle size of ca. 150 nm. Interestingly, the electrode exhibited outstanding enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction, which reflected from the large negative shift (ca. 0.8 V in its onset potential, in comparison with that observed at the bulk unmodified glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Alternatively, the Tafel plot of the modified electrode revealed a significant increase (∼one order of magnitude in the apparent exchange current density of the oxygen evolution reaction upon the modification, which infers a faster charge transfer. Kinetically, gold nanoparticles are believed to facilitate a favorable adsorption of OH− (fundamental step in oxygen evolution reaction, which allows the charge transfer at reasonably lower anodic polarizations.

  12. Flowers in Their Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of flower shaped Zinc Oxide nanostructures and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Appala Naidu, Etcherla; Sinha, Madhulika; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji

    2013-03-01

    Flower shaped Zinc Oxide nanostructures was synthesized using a simple method without using any structure directing agents. Elemental analysis, crystalline nature, shape and size were examined using Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). XRD revealed the formation of hexagonal ZnO nanostructures. SEM and TEM analyses revealed the formation of crystalline ZnO flowers in which a bunch of ZnO nanorods assembled together to form a leaf like structure followed by flower shaped ZnO nanostructures. Thus synthesised ZnO nanostructures showed good antimicrobial activity towards gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus as well as gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli with a MIC/MBC of 25 mg/L.

  14. Orchid flower evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    be explained by the ABC model of flower development and the polar coordinate model for zygomorphy which explains the phenotypic expression of flower symmetry in wild type and semipeloric flowers of Antirrhinum by the CYCLOIDEA, CYC gene. Similarly, the presence of such a similar gene in orchids CYCLOIDEA like, ...

  15. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  16. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan

    2015-01-01

    influences selection on flowering schedule in an herb with a bimodal flowering pattern, Actaea spicata. Within individuals, seeds from flowers on early terminal inflorescences had a higher germination rate and produced larger seedlings than seeds from flowers on late basal inflorescences. Reproductive value......, estimated using demographic integral projection models and accounting for size-dependent differences in future performance, was two times higher for intact seeds from early flowers than for seeds from late flowers. Fruits from late flowers were, however, much more likely to escape seed predation than fruits...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  18. Analysis on expression of gene for flower shape in Dendrobium sonia mutants using differential display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin; Nurul Nadia Aminuddin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2004-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis on Dendrobium Sonia in MINT has produced mutants with wide range of flower form and colour variations. Among the mutants are plants with different flower size and shape. These changes could be caused by alterations to the expression level of the genes responsible for the characteristics. In this studies, Differential Display technique was used to identify and analyse altered gene expression at the mRNA level. Total RNA of the control and mutants were reversed transcribed using three anchored oligo-d T primers. Subsequently, these cDNAs were Pcr amplified in combination with 16 arbitrary primers. The amplified products were electrophoresed side by side on agarose gel. Differentially expressed bands are isolated for further analysis. (Author)

  19. (Kaner) Flower Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of. Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  20. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  1. Design of Compact Flower Shape Dual Notched-Band Monopole Antenna for Extended UWB Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manish; Awasthi, Y. K.; Singh, Himanshu; Kumar, Raj; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, a compact monopole antenna for ultra wideband (UWB) applications is proposed with small size of 18×20=360 mm2. Antenna consist of a flower shape radiating patch with a pair of C-shaped slots which offer two notch bands for WiMAX (3.04-3.68 GHz) & WLAN (4.73-5.76 GHz) and two rectangular shaped slots in the ground plane which provides a wide measured usable fractional extended bandwidth of 163 % (2.83-14.0 GHz) with improved VSWR. Moreover, it is also convenient for other wireless application as close range radar, 8-12 GHz in X-band. Measured radiation patterns exhibits nearly omnidirectional in H-plane and dipole like pattern in E-plane across the bandwidth and furthermore exhibits good time domain performance.

  2. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  3. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  4. Current progress in orchid flowering/flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Mei; Tong, Chii-Gong; Jang, Seonghoe

    2017-05-04

    Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint.

  5. Daffodil flower delay senescence in cut Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering

  6. Orchid flowers: evolution and molecular development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR......MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR...

  7. Tubular flower head mutation in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivar 'Lalima' were irradiated with 0, 15, 20, and 25 Gray of gamma rays. Gamma irradiation reduced survival, growth, plant height, number of branches and leaves per plant and leaf and flower size and increased morphological, floral and chromosomal abnormalities. Gamma ray induced different types of flower head shape mutants in chrysanthemum have been reported

  8. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in...

  9. In vitro flowering of orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  10. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after ...

  11. A Feast of Flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 11. A Feast of Flowers. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article Volume 18 Issue 11 November 2013 pp 1004-1014. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/11/1004-1014. Keywords.

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) and the girl (ovule) has no say ... other flowers of a different plant but of the same species (cross- pollen). ... and style. (b). Trans- verse section of solid style to show cells of a part of the transmitting tissue (yel- low) with large intercellu- lar spaces filled with ex- tracellular ...

  13. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Even after initial screening for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the ...

  14. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourced agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- lect the right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in human beings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screen- ing process to select the right pollen grains and to reject the wrong ones.

  15. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  16. Perpetual flowering in strawberry species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...

  17. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  18. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  19. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  20. Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchhala, Nathan; Johnsen, Sönke; Smith, Stacey Dewitt

    2014-08-01

    One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements. This model predicts color overdispersion within communities relative to null assemblages. Here, we combine morphometric analyses, field surveys, and models of pollinator vision with a species-level phylogeny to test the competition model in the primarily hummingbird-pollinated clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae). Results show that flower color as perceived by pollinators is significantly overdispersed within sites. This pattern is not simply due to phylogenetic history: phylogenetic community structure does not deviate from random expectations, and flower color lacks phylogenetic signal. Moreover, taxa that occur in sympatry occupy a significantly larger volume of color space than those in allopatry, supporting the hypothesis that competition in sympatry drove the evolution of novel colors. We suggest that competition among close relatives may commonly underlie floral divergence, especially in species-rich habitats where congeners frequently co-occur. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  2. Flowers that threaten Funza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, S

    1993-01-01

    Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies.

  3. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  4. Self-assembled 3-D flower-shaped SnO2 nanostructures with improved electrochemical performance for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rong; Gu Yingan; Li Yaoqi; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2010-01-01

    Flower-shaped SnO 2 nanoplates were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of tin(II) dichloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O) and sodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O) in alkali solution. The obtained SnO 2 nanoplates were less than 5 nm thick and self-assembled into flower-shaped nanostructures. The introduction of citrate was essential for the preparation of the SnO 2 nanoplates. The nanoscale shape and self-assembled architecture of SnO 2 nanoparticles were mainly controlled by the alkalinity of the solution. When the self-assembled SnO 2 nanostructures were used as anode materials in Li-ion batteries, they exhibit a reversible capacity of 670 mA h g -1 after 30 cycles and an average capacity fading of 0.95% per cycle after the second cycle. The good electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 sample prepared via the hydrothermal synthesis indicates the possibility of fabricating specific self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures for Li-ion batteries.

  5. 3-Dimensional Necklace Flower Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva; Mortari, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    A new approach in satellite constellation design is presented in this paper, taking as a base the 3D Lattice Flower Constellation Theory and introducing the necklace problem in its formulation. This creates a further generalization of the Flower Constellation Theory, increasing the possibilities of constellation distribution while maintaining the characteristic symmetries of the original theory in the design.

  6. Teaching Flowers: A Photo Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Federico

    2017-01-01

    "Teaching Flowers" reflects on humanity's deep connections to horticulture by gathering varied thoughts from seminal writers in the field. In addition, this visual article draws attention to labor issues within the U.S. floral industry by documenting the author's exploration of flowers as social sculpture in New York City.

  7. Flowers free from the environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, van der L.

    1958-01-01

    At the jubilee of Professor Lam it seems suitable to contribute a paper on the flower as a functional unit, though it is in the form of a kind of book-review. Lam himself wrote on the more fundamental connections between flowering and lower plants and on the basal morphological elements of the

  8. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  9. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  10. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Sanda; Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Astilean, Simion

    2011-02-04

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  12. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion; Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  13. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion [Nanobiophotonics Center, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Nanobioscience, Babes-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela [Department of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Manastur 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian, E-mail: sanda.boca@phys.ubbcluj.ro, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Electron Microscopy Center, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Clinicilor 5-7, 400006, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-02-04

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  14. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars

  15. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  16. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  17. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...

  18. Conservation and diversity in flower land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrario, S.I.T.; Immink, R.G.H.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower development. In particular, homeotic genes that determine the identity of the floral organs have been characterised from different flowering plants, revealing considerable conservation among

  19. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  20. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  1. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  2. Postharvest physiology of Curcuma alismatifolia flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Flowering stems of Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) cv. Chiang Mai Pink contain small flower buds and open flowers, surrounded by large pink bracts. Vase life is limited by browning at the bract tips. This browning may relate to ethylene production as it was hastened by treatment with exogenous

  3. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  4. Flowering biology, nectar production and insect visits in Cucurbita pepo L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.

  5. Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time

  6. Low flower-size variation in bilaterally symmetrical flowers: Support for the pollination precision hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkeshi, Aoi; Kurimoto, Daiki; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2015-12-01

    The evolutionary shift from radial to bilateral symmetry in flowers is generally associated with the evolution of low flower-size variation. This phenomenon supports the hypothesis that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers can be attributed to low pollinator diversity. In this study, we propose two other hypotheses to explain low flower-size variation in bilateral symmetrical flowers. To test the three hypotheses, we examined the relative importance of pollinator diversity, composition, and bilateral symmetry itself as selective forces on low flower-size variation. We examined pollinator diversity and composition and flower-size variation for 36 species in a seminatural ecosystem with high bee richness and frequent lepidopteran visitation. Bilateral flowers were more frequently visited than radial flowers by larger bees, but functional-group diversity of the pollinators did not differ between symmetry types. Although bilateral flowers had significantly lower flower-size variation than radial flowers, flower-size variation did not vary with pollinator diversity and composition but was instead related to bilateral symmetry. Our results suggest that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers might have evolved under selection favoring the control of pollinator behavior on flowers to enhance the accurate placement of pollen on the body of the pollinator, independent of pollinator type. Because of the limited research on this issue, future work should be conducted in various types of plant-pollinator communities worldwide to further clarify the issue. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  7. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones; Holly Hale Rosario; Patricia Wilson; Terry R. McGuire

    2005-01-01

    For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study ...

  8. Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G T; Tsukaya, H; Saito, Y; Uchimiya, H

    1999-08-03

    In Arabidopsis, the two-dimensional expansion of leaves is regulated via the polarized elongation of cells. The ROTUNDIFOLIA3 (ROT3) protein, a member of the family of cytochromes P450, is involved in this process and regulates leaf length. Transgenic plants that overexpressed a wild-type ROT3 gene had longer leaves than parent plants, without any changes in leaf width. The shapes of floral organs were also altered, but elongation of the stem, roots, and hypocotyls was unaffected. To our knowledge, no similar specific regulation of leaf length has been reported previously. Transgenic plants overexpressing the rot3-2 gene had enlarged leaf blades but leaf petioles of normal length. Morphological alterations in such transgenic plants were associated with changes in shape of leaf cells. The ROT3 gene seems to play an important role in the polar elongation of leafy organs and should be a useful tool for the biodesign of plant organs.

  9. 2D Necklace Flower Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The 2D Necklace Flower Constellation theory is a new design framework based on the 2D Lattice Flower Constellations that allows to expand the possibilities of design while maintaining the number of satellites in the configuration. The methodology presented is a generalization of the 2D Lattice design, where the concept of necklace is introduced in the formulation. This allows to assess the problem of building a constellation in orbit, or the study of the reconfiguration possibilities in a constellation. Moreover, this work includes three counting theorems that allow to know beforehand the number of possible configurations that the theory can provide. This new formulation is especially suited for design and optimization techniques.

  10. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  11. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-02-02

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  12. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  13. Histological studies on flower abortion in olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Hegazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main categories of olive flowers were characterized. The first by presence of normal gynoecium and the other by the presence of rudimentary gynoecium. Complete flowers differed in shape of ovaries, style length, shape of stigma and density of hairs covering the stigma. Three types of aborted flowers were observed. The first type could be detected by lack of ovule integuments. The second by undevelopment of the style, outer tissues of the ovary and of the ovules, while the third comprised flowers of completely undeveloped female organs. No correlation existed between pistil abortion and the viability of pollen grains. Four groups of pollen grains regarding their stainability and three groups according to their shape were detected.

  14. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.

  15. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  16. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27869146

  17. Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Asma; Biella, Paolo; Klecka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers. Detailed data on foraging behaviour within clusters of different sizes were gathered for honeybees, Apis mellifera, the most abundant visitor of Dracocephalum in the experiments. We found that the total number of flower visitors increased with the increasing number of flowers on individual plants and in larger clusters, but less then proportionally. Although individual honeybees visited more flowers in larger clusters, they visited a smaller proportion of flowers, as has been previously observed. Consequently, visitation rate per flower and unit time peaked in clusters with an intermediate number of flowers. These patterns do not conform to expectations based on optimal foraging theory and the ideal free distribution model. We attribute this discrepancy to incomplete information about the distribution of resources. Detailed observations and video recordings of individual honeybees also showed that the number of flowers had no effect on handling time of flowers by honeybees. We evaluated the implications of these patterns for insect foraging biology and plant reproduction.

  18. flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Infrastructure Construction Project of Jiangsu Province. (BM2010590). REFERENCES. Ammar AH, Zagrouba F, Romdhane M (2010). Optimization of operating conditions of Tunisian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete factorial design.

  19. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  20. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.

  1. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  3. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tiedge

    Full Text Available Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold. As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context

  5. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod- dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans ...

  6. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  7. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  8. A new method for promoting lily flowering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.

  9. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... domestication and adaptation to new environments (Fuller. 2007). Domestication is reported to cause physiological changes including changes in photoperiod sensitivity and synchronized flowering (Doebley et al. 2006). To date, several flowering genes and their causative changes related to crop ...

  10. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  11. Air in xylem vessels of cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Meeteren, van U.; Keijzer, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Until now all studies on the role of air emboli in the water uptake of cut flowers describe indirect methods to demonstrate the presencFe of air in the plant tissues. Using cut chrysanthemum flowers, this report is the first one that directly visualises both air and water in xylem ducts of cut

  12. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to ...

  13. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  14. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  15. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp. is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  17. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali

    2017-04-26

    Grape hyacinth ( Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  18. Triuridaceae fossil flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, María A; Nixon, Kevin C; Crepet, William L

    2002-12-01

    We report here on a series of fossil flowers exhibiting a mosaic of characters present in the extant monocot family Triuridaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data from a broad sample of extant monocots confirm the affinities of the fossils with modern Triuridaceae. The fossil flowers were collected from outcrops of the Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous, ∼90 million years before present), New Jersey, USA. These are the oldest known unequivocal monocot flowers. Because other reports of "earliest" monocots are all based on equivocal character suites and/or ambiguously preserved fossil material, the Triuridaceae fossils reported here should also be considered as the oldest unequivocal fossil monocots. Flowers are minute and unisexual (only male flowers are known); the perianth is composed of six tepals, lacking stomata. The unicyclic androecium is of three stamens with dithecal, monosporangiate, extrorse anthers that open by longitudinal slits. The endothecium has U-shaped type thickenings. Pollen grains are monosulcate. The triurid fossil flowers can be separated into three distinctive species. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters, the fossil taxa nest within the completely saprophytic achlorophyllous Triuridaceae supporting the interpretation that the extinct plants were also achlorophyllous and saprophytic. If so, this represents the earliest known fossil occurrence of the saprophytic/mycotrophic habit in angiosperms.

  19. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  20. Analysis of the formation of flower shapes in wild species and cultivars of tree peony using the MADS-box subfamily gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng; Wu, Jie; Du, Hui; Liu, Zheng'an; Ren, Hongxu; Zhang, Jingjing

    2012-02-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffricotisa) cultivars have a unique character compared with wild species; the stamen petalody results in increased whorls of petals and generates different flower forms, which are one of the most important traits for cultivar classification. In order to investigate how petaloid stamens are formed, we obtained the coding sequence (666 bp) and genomic DNA sequence of the PsTM6 genes (belongs to B subfamily of MADS-box gene family) from 23 tree peony samples, Five introns and six exons consisted of the genomic DNA sequence. The analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the third and fourth intron indicated that they were highly conserved in all samples. Partial putative amino acids were analyzed and the results suggested that functional differentiation of PsTM6 paralogs apparently affected stamen petalody and flower shape formation due to due to amino acid substitution caused by differences in polarity and electronic charge. Sliding window analysis indicated that the different regions of PsTM6 were subjected to different selection forces, especially in the K domain. This is the first attempt to investigate genetic control of the stamen petalody based on the PsTM6 sequence. This will provide a basis for understanding the evolution of PsTM6 and its the function of in determining stamen morphology of tree peony. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Model of white oak flower survival and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Robert A. Cecich

    1997-01-01

    A stochastic model of oak flower dynamics is presented that integrates a number of factors which appear to affect the oak pistillate flower development process. The factors are modeled such that the distribution of the predicted flower populations could have come from the same distribution as the observed flower populations. Factors included in the model are; the range...

  2. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  3. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  4. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  5. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  6. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  7. Antioxidant properties of Sambucus nigra flower extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    1. Abstract Purpose of this thesis was to prove and determine antioxidant activity of flower extracts from black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and compile summary of their content substances and effects. Sambuci flos is often used in natural therapy and food industry. The main content substances are flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenoids, further are contained in flowers sterols, mucilage, essential oils, tannins. Flavonoids are the most significant, specifically rutin and kvercetin, because t...

  8. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  9. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  10. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  11. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  12. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  13. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  14. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    indicate that shifting the timing of flowering affects the temperature experienced during flower development and flowering beyond that imposed by interannual variations in climate. We also found that phenological timing may affect flower abundance, and hence, fitness. These findings suggest that plant population responses to future climate change will be shaped not only by extrinsic climate forcing, but also by species' phenological responses.

  15. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision. Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, N.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  16. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision : Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  17. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  18. EFFECT OF GENERIC PROMOTION OF FLOWERS ON THE USE OF RETAIL FLOWER OUTLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Ward, Ronald W.

    1998-01-01

    AIDs demand models are used to test if the generic promotion of fresh-cut flowers influenced the market shares for florists, supermarkets, and other retail outlets. Were the generic efforts outlet neutral? Generic promotions of fresh-cut flowers is shown to be outlet neutral while the brand advertising increased florists' market share.

  19. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  20. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on Flowering Biology of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An observation on flowering behaviour of 20 selected taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott. cultivars was conducted at the Germ Plasm Conservation Garden belonging to the Reserch Centre for Biotechnology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong, Bogor Regency. The observation included the emergence of inflorescences, the number of inflorescences in a cluster, the opening of the inflorescence, maturity of pistilate and staminate flowers, and pollinating agents that might play role in the pollination process. The study was aimed at elucidating some baseline information that might be used as a base to carry out breeding programme for future cultivar improvement. The study indicated that the 20 cultivar studied may be divided into 3 cultivar groups, namely a Cultivars which fully did not appear to flower during the periode of obeservation, which includes Lampung, Enau, Siriwa, Ketan and Bentul biru, b Cultivars that produced only a few (not more than 3 inflorescences per cluster or per individul plant. This includes cultivars : Bogor, Bentul, Kaliurang and Ketan hitam and c Cultivars that were profusedly flowering (produced a lot of inflorescences, usually 4-5 inflorescences per cluster and several clusters in an individual plant. This includes cultivars : Sutera, Semir, Lampung hitam, Boring, Burkok, Berod, Lampung hitam, Lompong, Ketune dan Kudo. The cultivar Sutera produced flower quite readily, followed by Burkok. Apart from the few inflorescences it produced, the cultivar Kaliurang also produced rather abnormal shape of inflorescence with only a few pollen grains. Taro flowers proved to be protogenic since the atipulate flowers have become receptive 1-2 days prior to anther dehiscence. Pollination was due to the role of (Dacus dorsalis.

  2. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  3. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  4. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  5. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  6. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

  7. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 regulates abscission zone placement in Arabidopsis flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The sepals, petals and stamens of Arabidopsis flowers detach via abscission zones formed at their boundaries with the underlying receptacle. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) MYB transcription factor plays a critical role in setting boundaries between newly formed leaf primordia and the shoot meristem. By repressing expression of a set of KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN (KNOX) genes from developing leaf primordia, AS1 and its partner ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 allow the patterning and differentiation of leaves to proceed. Here we show a unique role for AS1 in establishing the positions of the sepal and petal abscission zones in Arabidopsis flowers. Results In as1 mutant flowers, the sepal abscission zones are displaced into inverted V-shaped positions, leaving behind triangular stubs of tissue when the organs abscise. Movement of the petal abscission zones is also apparent. Abscission of the medial sepals is delayed in as1 flowers; loss of chlorophyll in the senescing sepals contrasts with proximal zones that remain green. AS1 has previously been shown to restrict expression of the KNOX gene, BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP), from the sepals. We show here that loss of BP activity in as1 flowers is sufficient to restore the positions of the sepal and petal abscission zones, the sepal-receptacle boundary of the medial sepals and the timing of their abscission. Conclusions Our results indicate that AS1 activity is critical for the proper placement of the floral organ abscission zones, and influences the timing of organ shedding. PMID:25038814

  9. Gene networks controlling Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The formation of flowers is one of the main models for studying the regulatory mechanisms that underlie plant development and evolution. Over the past three decades, extensive genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification of a large number of key floral regulators and to detailed insights into how they control flower morphogenesis. In recent years, genome-wide approaches have been applied to obtaining a global view of the gene regulatory networks underlying flower formation. Furthermore, mathematical models have been developed that can simulate certain aspects of this process and drive further experimentation. Here, we review some of the main findings made in the field of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, with an emphasis on recent advances. In particular, we discuss the activities of the floral organ identity factors, which are pivotal for the specification of the different types of floral organs, and explore the experimental avenues that may elucidate the molecular mechanisms and gene expression programs through which these master regulators of flower development act. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. [Progress of stress-induced flowering in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiaxu; Wang, Lei; Xu, Miaoyun

    2016-10-25

    Plants tend to flower earlier if placed under stress conditions. Those stress factors include drought, high salinity, low temperature, high- or low-intensity light, and ultraviolet light. This phenomenon has been called stress-induced flowering. Stress-induced plant flowering might be helpful for species preservation. Thus, stress-induced flowering might have biological significance and should be considered as important as other plant flowering control strategy. Here, history of stress-induced flowering, metabolic regulation and molecular regulation mechanisms in plants were reviewed. Potential perspective was discussed.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  12. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  13. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: okikuchi@net.ipen.br

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  14. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  15. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  16. Laser capture microdissection to study flower morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) is a sample preparation microscopic method that enables isolation of an interesting cell or cells population from human, animal or plant tissue. This technique allows for obtaining pure sample from heterogeneous mixture. From isolated cells, it is possible to obtain the appropriate quality material used for genomic research in transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We used LCM method to study flower morphogenesis and specific bud's organ organization and development. The genes expression level in developing flower buds of male (B10) and female (2gg) lines were analyzed with qPCR. The expression was checked for stamen and carpel primordia obtained with LCM and for whole flower buds at successive stages of growth.

  17. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  18. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.

  20. Pollination in avocado flowers (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda

    2008-01-01

    The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...

  1. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  2. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  3. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  4. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  5. Flower-shaped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a novel approach at near-room temperatures with antibacterial and antifungal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohd Farhan Khan,1,2 M Hameedullah,1 Akhter H Ansari,1 Ejaz Ahmad,3 MB Lohani,2 Rizwan Hasan Khan,3 M Mezbaul Alam,4 Wasi Khan,5 Fohad Mabood Husain,6 Iqbal Ahmad6 1NanoSolver Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; 2Department of Applied Chemistry, Integral University, Lucknow, India; 3Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; 4Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, India; 6Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India Abstract: Due to enormous applications of metal oxide nanoparticles in research and health-related applications, metal oxide nanoparticles are increasingly being developed through cheaper and more user-friendly approaches. We have formulated a simple route to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs by a sol–gel method at near-room temperatures 25°C, 35°C, 55°C, and 75°C. The results are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The effect of different temperature conditions (25°C–75°C on the particulate sizes (23.7–88.8 nm, pH levels (11.7–11.9, and morphologies (slender needle–broad arrow of flower-shaped ZNP colonies is studied. A possible mechanism depicting the growth rates at different temperatures and of different facets, mainly towards the <0 0 0 I> and <0 I Ī0> planes of the ZNPs has also been discussed. The values of λmax (293–298 nm suggest that ZNPs prepared at 55°C are the most effective ultraviolet B absorbers, and that they can be used in sunscreens

  6. Automated harvesting of flowers and cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosier, J.C.; Snel, R.; Goedvolk, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The harvesting of flowers and cuttings can be considered as a skilled task. It takes weeks of training for the pickers to harvest quality cutting at the required production rate of one per second. The skill of the pickers is the ability to execute a number of functions within a short time. The

  7. Internet log service for flower supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thors, M.

    2004-01-01

    This summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. Sponsored by the Dutch product board for horticulture, available technology was tested and integrated by researchers at the Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, WUR, into a system to

  8. T.he Mystery Behind Flowering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The concepts of photoperiodic induction, hormonal regu- lation and florigens used to form the basis of our knowledge ... Early Concept of Flowering. Day length is well-known to be involved as a stimulus in the .... also through his scholarly personality he was a spokesman for Indian science. One hears that. KSK was in many ...

  9. Hypolipidemic, Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activities of Flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-dyslipidemic, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities of the aqueous extract and solvent fractions of A. violacea flowers. Methods: The aqueous extract was fractionated into petroleum ether, ether, chloroform, chloroformmethanol (4:1) and chloroform-methanol (3:2) fractions. Lipid lowering ...

  10. T.he Mystery Behind Flowering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL. I ARTICLE tion of florigen (flowering hormone) in the leaves, and the florigen is thus translocated to the apical meristem and helps in its conversion into a floral ... 3) Mammalian serum response factor is found to induce the transcription of proto-oncogenes. .... also through his scholarly personality he was a.

  11. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  12. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  13. Flower opening and closure: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the

  14. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Postharvest Quality and. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers. Emongor*, V.E., T.M. Mutui and M.l .. Hutchinson. Department of Crop Science. University of Nairobi, P.O.BOX 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the response of ...

  15. Gall influence on flower production in solanum lycocarpum (solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malves, K.; Coelho, F.D.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is a negative influence on the flower production in Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae), due to the attack of gall inductor herbivores. 120 individuals were analyzed and compared as to the relation between presence and absence of galls and flower production. All flowers were collected from these individuals, so that the following characteristics could be compared: number of flowers, flower size (cm) and biomass (g) in plants with and without galls. Although these flowers are produced during the whole year, we found a greater number of flowers in plants without galls, being that plants without galls showed approximately four times more flowers than plants with galls. The flowers length in plants without galls was greater than flowers in plants with galls. The flower biomass of the individuals without galls was also higher than in individuals with galls. The results are pursuant to the hypothesis that producing galls demands a high energetic effort from these plants, resulting in nutrient allocation and decrease in flowers formation. (author)

  16. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystematic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The

  17. Vascular occlusion in stems of cut rose flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of cut rose flowers, a major horticultural crop in the Netherlands, is often unsatisfactory. During vase-life premature signs of water stress occur, such as slow growth of the bud which often results in poor flower opening, wilting of both the flowers and the leaves, and bending

  18. Tuhar pulse flowers corroding by corrosive pollutants | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These acids in turn develop micro electrochemical cell with flower of Tuhar pulse which destroy flowering of arhar pulse. Other factors are acid rain, global warming and depletion of ozone layer affecting the production of arhar pulse. Key words: Tuhar (Arhar) pulse flowers, pollutants, particulates, micro electrochemical cell, ...

  19. Morphology and cytology of flower chimeras in hybrids of Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization between white flowered Brassica carinata and yellow flowered B. rapa were made, and the flower chimeras were observed in a few hybrids. The simple single sequence molecular markers verified the hybridity of those hybrids. Chimeras were justified and totally classified based on the morphological ...

  20. FLOWERING LOCUS T Triggers Early and Fertile Flowering in Glasshouse Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon E; Alder, Adrian; Barsan, Cristina; Kohler, Mathias; Hennig, Lars; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2017-05-27

    Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium -mediated transformed cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early flowering in glasshouse-grown plants. An event seldom seen in a glasshouse environment, precocious flowering and mature inflorescence were obtained within 4-5 months from planting of stem cuttings. Manual pollination using pistillate and staminate flowers from clonal propagants gave rise to viable seeds that germinated into morphologically typical progeny. This strategy comes at a time when accelerated crop breeding is of increasing importance to complement progressive genome editing techniques.

  1. Do consecutive flower visits within a crown diminish fruit set in mass-flowering Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C

    2008-05-01

    Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa.

  2. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flower Initiation, Morphology, and Developmental Stages of Flowering-Fruiting of Mindi (Melia azedarach L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Syamsuwida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine flower initiation, floral morphology and to observe the stages of flowering and fruit  development of mindi (Melia  azedarch  L within a population  for one period of time 2008–2009.  The methods used were observing directly over the trees and some vegetatives and generatives buds were sampled for dissecting.  The observation revealed that the inflorescence type of mindi was panicle, located at the end of a branch.  The number of flower varied among inflorescences, ranged between 30–80 that bloomed simultaneously.  The flower was hermaphroditic with position of anther was closed to stigma that selfing might be happened.  Usually, the ovary contained 5 ovules that  developed into seeds.  Reproductive cycle was proceeded for 6–7 months within the year, first observation commenced from flower initiation that occur in August, generative buds to flower burst  in September–October.  Early fruits were formed in October–November and fruits reached physiological-maturity in January–February.  Reproductive success was 34%, indicated that the rate of fertilized ovules proportion to be potencially viable seeds were relatively low.Keywords: indian lily, phenology, reproductive biology, reproductive cycle, seed production

  4. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  5. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.

  6. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5-9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies.

  8. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  9. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic processes in flowering plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Köhler, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability. Global changes of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNAs are closely associated with epigenome programming during plant reproduction. Here, we review current knowledge on chromatin changes occurring during sporogenesis and gametogenesis, as well as early seed development in major flowering plant models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  12. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...

  13. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  14. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  15. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  16. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  17. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup ( Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  19. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  20. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  1. Nectar secretion in the flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L. and nectar chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar secretion and nectar chemistry in the flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L. were examined in the four stages of anthesis: large buds, before pollen exposure: II - freshy opened flowers with the beginning of anther dehiscence: III- completely opened flowers in the maximum of pollen exposure: lV- flowers at the final stage of anthesis, without pollen in the anthers. Individual flower stays fresh 2,5-3 days, on average. Disc-shaped nectaries of S.officinale are located at the base of the four-lobbed ovary. Nectar is released through the modified stomata. Start of nectar secretion was noted at the bud stage. Nectar volume, mass of nectar and sugars differed in the examined stages of anthesis and the biggest values were noted at the final stages. Dominant sugar in nectar was sucrose with smaller amounts of fructose and glucose. The presence of amino acids was also recorded.

  2. Developing a method for customized induction of flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT) [1]. First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago) was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable. PMID:21481273

  3. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  4. Gamma irradiation application for mutation breeding in early flowering moth orchid (phalaenopsis amabilis Bl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widiarsih, S.; Dwimahyani, I.

    2013-01-01

    Moth orchid is the popular national flower of Indonesia. CAIRT-NNEA has applied mutation techniques as an alternative to conventional crossings for broadening genetic diversity in order to obtain superior ornamental plant varieties. The experiment was conducted since January 2011. The materials used were ready-to-plant invitro plantlets of Phalaenopsis amabilis from Plant Conservation Laboratory, Bogor Botanical Garden, and irradiated by gamma rays at the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy respectively. Plantlets were acclimatized on sterile fern stem medium for 3 weeks, and then transferred to individual pots and maintained in the greenhouse on Pasar Jumat, South Jakarta. After 13 months (February 2012) there was one individual plant with treatment dose of 25 Gy which developed one flower spike. Five weeks later, the flowers started to open. The flower color and shape is almost similar with the wild type with flower diameter of 8 cm. Most orchid plants takes more than 2 years to grow from acclimatization to flowering stage, and especially most species of Phalaenopsis genus would flowers more readily in cooler region. Therefore, this early flowering mutant has a promising potential. Further observation will be needed for this new character stability on the next generation. (author)

  5. Inheritance of flower color in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2007-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16), erect, emergent, herbaceous aquatic perennial. The showy inflorescences of pickerelweed make this species a prime candidate for inclusion in water gardens and aquascapes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling flower color (blue vs. white) in pickerelweed. Two blue-flowered and one white-flowered parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations revealed that flower color in these populations was controlled by 2 alleles at one locus with blue flower color completely dominant to white. We propose that this locus be named white flower with alleles W and w.

  6. Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    mid- May and early August onto about 70 potted flowering rush plants covered with gauze bags. An additional 66 adults were kept for oviposition on 17... flowering rush plants . Ten replicates were established per density. Only egg laying females were used. Prior to set up plant size was measured and it...maintained flowering rush and test plants . Finally, we are very grateful to Jennifer Andreas (Integrated Weed Control Project, Washington State

  7. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  8. 'Who's who' in two different flower types of Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae: morphological and molecular analyses of flower organ identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Katja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2 were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are

  9. Discussion on Comprehensive Utilization Value of Scutellaria Baicalensis Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    The chemical constituents of Scutellaria baicalensis flower are flavonoids, volatile oils and melanin, It has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti angiogenic and antithrombotic pharmacological effects, and it has the effect of clearing away heat and relieving lung fire. Scutellaria baicalensis flower is rich in resources, cheap, easy to obtain, accurate effect, With the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. In this paper, the ancient application, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions and comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower were reviewed, The purpose of this study was to explore the value of its development and utilization, so as to provide reference for the comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower.

  10. Ozone and infection of geranium flowers by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-01-01

    Flowering plants of geranium cultivars were exposed to 0.2, 0.35, and 0.55 ppm ozone for 4-hr periods at 20/sup 0/C in a greenhouse fumigation chamber. Three fully-opened flower heads were sprayed with a spore suspension of Botrytis cinerea at 2000, 1000, or 500 spores/ml immediately before exposure to ozone began. Sterile distilled water was sprayed on noninoculated flower heads. All flowers were examined for evidence of infection 24 hr after the end of the ozone-exposure periods. All flower heads were then removed and placed in wet, loosely tied plastic bags and incubated at 20/sup 0/C for 72 hr, with examination at 24-hr intervals for evidence of infection. Ozone at 0.2 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent or inhibit flower infection by B. cinerea at all inoculum levels. Natural infection also occurred on some noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.35 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent infection, but did inhibit pathogenesis at the 500-spore/ml inoculum level and on noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.55 ppm caused moderate injury on all plants. Ozone at this level did not prevent infection, but did restrict pathogenesis on all inoculated and noninoculated flowers.

  11. Record-breaking early flowering in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Temple, Stanley A; Primack, Richard B; Bradley, Nina L; Davis, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change.

  12. Record-breaking early flowering in the eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Ellwood

    Full Text Available Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSA CANINA FLOWERS AGAINST SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Rovná

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa canina flowers were screened against various plant pathogenic microbial strains to study the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers were screened applying agar well diffusion method against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960 and three microscopic filamentous fungi strains Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata, respectively. The best antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the best antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Escherichia coli.

  14. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  15. Profile and behavior of flower consumer: subsidies for marketing actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of per capita consumption of flowers in Brazil is still low when compared with other countries. Among several factors that may be linked to this growth gap, the establishment of few or ineffective marketing strategies was cited. In this context, we present the results of the profile and behavior of flower consumer, aiming to subsidize marketing actions for the retail segment of flower supply chain. The study was conducted through interviews with 300 people of both genders at the moment they were buying flowers at 22 flower shops in the Paraná coast. This region was selected due to its potential for flower production and commercialization, which is similar to other Brazilian regions and other countries where the flower market has economic relevance. The female gender was identified as the major consumer (n = 62.7%, with tendency of increase in consumption as education level advanced (Spearman correlation coefficient, p < 0.05 = for own use r = 0.122; p = 0.039; for gift r = 0.174; p = 0.003. The acquisition average of 4.4 ± 1.9 times per year was registered, with preferential consumption of orchids (n = 36.3% for own use and roses (n = 86.7%, for gift. The flower retail trade did not meet the expectations of consumers, especially in relation to price, promotions, and production quality. The male gender and the elderly consumer class may represent important alternatives to increase the current consumption of flowers.

  16. Effect of Various Management Methods of Apical Flower Bud on Cut Flower Quality in Three Cultivars of Greenhouse Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour matloobi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In greenhouse roses, canopy management has been highly noted and emphasized during the past decades. It was recognized that improving canopy shape by implementing some techniques such as stem bending and flower bud removing can highly affect the marketable quality of cut roses. For most growers, the best method of flower bud treatment has not yet been described and determined physiologically. This experiment was designed to answer some questions related to this problem. Materials and Methods: A plastic commercial cut rose greenhouse was selected to carry out the trial. Three greenhouse rose cultivars, namely Eros, Cherry Brandy and Dancing Queen, were selected as the first factor, and three methods of flower bud treatment along with bending types were chosen as the second factor. Cuttings were taken from mother plants and rooted under mist conditions. The first shoot emerging from the cutting was treated at pea bud stage by one of the following methods: shoot bending at stem base with intact bud, immediate shoot bending at stem base after removing flower bud and shoot bending at stem base two weeks after flower bud removal. Some marketable stem properties including stem length, diameter and weight, and characteristics related to bud growth potential were measured, and then the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that cultivars differ in their marketable features. Cherry Brandy produced longer cut flowers with higher stem diameter compared to the two other cultivars. This cultivar was also good in stem weight trait; however its difference from Eros was not significant. Dancing Queen did not perform well in producing high quality stems on the whole. Regarding number of days until bud release and growth, Cherry Brandy’s buds spent fewest days until growing. In many studies, the effect of cultivar on rose shoot growth quality has been documented and explained. For instance

  17. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of

  18. Flower power? Potential benefits and pitfalls of using (flowering) vegetation for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we often know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or about their ultimate impact on biological pest control.

  19. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  20. Sustainable flower bulb production: prototyping integrated flower bulb production systems on sandy soils in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Snoek, A.J.; Wondergem, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower bulb production in The Netherlands is economically successful. However, production methods rely heavily on external inputs, causing contamination of surface and ground water. The use of pesticides has been estimated 100 kg active ingredient (a.i.) per ha in 1994. In the same year the annual

  1. Geraniales flowers revisited: evolutionary trends in floral nectaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeiter, Julius; Weigend, Maximilian; Hilger, Hartmut H

    2017-02-01

    The detailed relationships in Geraniales in their current circumscription have only recently been clarified. The disparate floral morphologies and especially the nectaries of the corresponding group have consequently not previously been studied in a phylogenetic context. The present study investigates floral and especially nectary morphology and structure for representatives of 12 of the 13 currently accepted genera in the five families of the Geraniales. Flowers were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data demonstrate the derivation of even the most disparate floral morphologies from a basic pentamerous and pentacyclic organization, with an obdiplostemonous androecium and receptacular nectaries associated with the antesepalous stamens. Divergent morphologies are explained by modifications of merosity (tetramerous flowers), symmetry (several transitions to zygomorphic flowers) and elaboration of the nectaries into variously shaped outgrowths and appendages, especially in Francoaceae. The divergent development of nectar glands ultimately leads to either a reduction in their number (to one in some Geraniaceae and Melianthaceae) or their total loss (some Vivianiaceae). Floral morphology of the Geraniales shows a high degree of similarity, despite the variation in overall floral appearance and nectary morphology. A hypothesis on the transformation of the nectaries within the Geraniales is presented. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Unusual positional effects on flower sex in an andromonoecious tree: Resource competition, architectural constraints, or inhibition by the apical flower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; Cayuela, Luis; Méndez, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences. We experimentally increased the availability of resources for the inflorescences by removing half of the inflorescences per twig or reduced resource availability by removing leaves. We also removed the apical flower to test its inhibitory effect on subapical flowers. The apical flower had the highest probability of being hermaphroditic. Further down, however, the probability of finding a hermaphroditic flower decreased from the base to the tip of the inflorescences. An experimental increase of resources increased the probability of finding hermaphroditic flowers at each position, and vice versa. Removal of the apical flower increased the probability of producing hermaphroditic flowers in proximal positions but not in subapical positions. These results indicate an interaction between resource competition and architectural constraints in influencing the arrangement of the hermaphroditic and male flowers within the inflorescences of the wild olive tree. Subapical flowers did not seem to be hormonally suppressed by apical flowers. The study of these unusual positional effects is needed for a general understanding about the functional implications of inflorescence architecture. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals: Synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2015-01-01

    Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) composites with a novel flower-like morphology were prepared via a hot precipitation assisted by the vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) route. An aqueous solution of AlCl 3 was mixed with the vinyl acetate monomer and acetic acid before adding a AgNO 3 solution at a temperature of 100 °C. The octapod shaped flower-like Ag/AgCl particles (or “flower-like Ag/AgCl” hereinafter) has eight petals each of which was about 7–11 μm in length. The flower-like octapods were formed by preferential overgrowth along the <111> directions of the cubic seeds. Detailed studies of the growth process at different AlCl 3 concentrations revealed that the concave cube developed into a Rubik's cube where eight corners grew further into the flower-like structures. The VAM and acetic acid concentration strongly affected the growth of the Ag/AgCl to the flower-like structure and their optimum concentrations were determined. The morphologies of these particles were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structures and orientation relationship were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals were tested for their photocatalytic degradation of orange G dye (OG) catalyzed by visible light. From comparative test runs, the flower-like Ag/AgCl exhibited better photocatalytic activity than simple and commercial Ag/AgCl particles. - Highlights: • Interesting transformation of microcrystals Ag/AgCl from concave cube via Rubik's cube to flower-like shape. • The first to use VAM as morphology control reagent. • High photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

  4. Flowering phenology, growth forms, and pollination syndromes in tropical dry forest species: Influence of phylogeny and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Flores, Jorge; Hernández-Esquivel, Karen Beatriz; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of temporal variation in abiotic factors on flowering phenology of tropical dry forest species have not considered the possible response of species with different growth forms and pollination syndromes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we investigated the relationship between flowering phenology, abiotic factors, and plant functional attributes, while controlling for phylogenetic relationship among species, in a dry forest community in Mexico. We characterized flowering phenology (time and duration) and pollination syndromes of 55 tree species, 49 herbs, 24 shrubs, 15 lianas, and 11 vines. We tested the influence of pollination syndrome, growth form, and abiotic factors on flowering phenology using phylogenetic generalized least squares. We found a relationship between flowering duration and time. Growth form was related to flowering time, and the pollination syndrome had a more significant relationship with flowering duration. Flowering time variation in the community was explained mainly by abiotic variables, without an important phylogenetic effect. Flowering time in lianas and trees was negatively and positively correlated with daylength, respectively. Functional attributes, environmental cues, and phylogeny interact with each other to shape the diversity of flowering patterns. Phenological differentiation among species groups revealed multiples strategies associated with growth form and pollination syndromes that can be important for understanding species coexistence in this highly diverse plant community. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, I M; Lemon, P; Palileo, A; Bremner, J B

    1996-06-10

    The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at a dosage of 100 mg/kg mouse. Statistical analysis using Kruskall Wallis one-way analysis of variance by Ranks showed that SQFw2D is different from the control group (tetracycline + corn oil) at alpha = 0.001. GC-MSD of isolate SQFwB2D shows 2 peaks at Rt = 19.860 (SQFwB2D-1) and 20.242 min (SQFwB2D-2) with relative peak heights of 16:1, respectively. Spectral analyses show that SQFwB2D-1 is 24 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-7,trans-22-dien-3 beta-ol or spinasterol.

  6. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger P Hellens

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates.We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  7. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellens, Roger P; Moreau, Carol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Schwinn, Kathy E; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark W E J; Frew, Tonya J; Murray, Sarah R; Hofer, Julie M I; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Davies, Kevin M; Allan, Andrew C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M; Ellis, T H Noel

    2010-10-11

    The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea. We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates. We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  8. Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

    2010-04-01

    The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  10. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair John Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1 pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’; (2 natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’; or (3 both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix. Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers. Pollinator (e.g., bees and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation, and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  11. In vitro flowering in embryogenic cultures of Kinnow mandarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... Embryogenic cultures of Kinnow mandarin (C. nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora) were raised from unfertilized ovules dissected from unopened flower buds of this plant inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L kinetin (KN). In vitro flowering was induced in these cultures by using different ...

  12. Proximate and mineral composition of flower (spathe and spadix) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM), crude lipid (8.02%DM) and crude fibre (30.35%DM) compared to flower spathe 16.65% DM protein, 5.93%DM lipid, and 12.01%DM crude fibre) which had higher crude ash content (11.65%DM). The major dietary fibre found in flower ...

  13. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...

  14. Genetic control of flowering using the FWA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soppe, W.J.J.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Koornneef, M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination, cloning and expression of the flowering time gene FWA and the use of this gene to delay or accelerate flowering in a large variety of plant species. Specifically the gene that was determined is that of Arabidopsis thaliana. Naturally the invention extends

  15. The effect of flowering on adventitious root-formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selim, H.H.A.

    1956-01-01

    The rooting of cuttings from day-neutral tomato was not influenced by flower development, nor by SD or LD treatments of them or of the mother plants. In cuttings of the SD plant Perilla crispa flower initiation and development severely inhibited rooting. Leaves produced about 61 %

  16. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat. Sushil Kumar Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary ...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  18. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  19. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  20. Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or

  1. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of

  2. Are flowers vulnerable to xylem cavitation during drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-05-17

    Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves. Leaves and flowers from a sample of two herbaceous and two woody eudicots were exposed to a severe water stress while the spatial and temporal propagation of embolism through veins was recorded. Although in most cases water potentials inducing 50% embolism of herbaceous flower veins were more negative than neighbouring leaves, there was no significant difference between the average vulnerability of leaves and petals of herbaceous species. In both woody species, petals were more vulnerable to cavitation than leaves, in one case by more than 3 MPa. Early cavitation and subsequent damage of flowers in the two woody species would thus be expected to precede leaf damage during drought. Similar cavitation thresholds of flowers and leaves in the herb sample suggest that cavitation during water shortage in these species will occur simultaneously among aerial tissues. Species-specific differences in the cavitation thresholds of petals provide a new axis of variation that may explain contrasting flowering ecology among plant species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  4. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and ... [Kumar S., Sharma V., Chaudhary S., Tyagi A., Mishra P., Priyadarshini A. and Singh A. 2012 Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat ..... to ascertain the hybrid nature of F1 plants.

  5. Physical Basis of Flower-opening in Pharbitis nil

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiko, Kaihara; Atsushi, Takimoto; Laboratory of Applied Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University; Laboratory of Applied Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University

    1981-01-01

    Flower buds of Pharbitis nil cut from plants growing in the field open rapidly when subjected to darkness (20-25℃) or low temperature (20℃) in light. Petals of the buds are the sites of photo- and thermo-perception; flower-opening is caused mainly by the epinasty of petal midribs.

  6. Flowering and seed dispersal of dwarfmistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf

    1965-01-01

    Under the short growing season of the Sierra Nevada, both flowering and seed dispersal of Arceuthobium campylopodum occurred earlier in the fall and dispersal extended for a shorter duration than at lower elevations and along the coast of California. Also in years of above normal surrmer temperatures, flowering and seed dispersal occurred earlier in...

  7. The emotional influence of flowers on social perception and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Veggel, Van R.J.F.M.; Wijk, De R.A.; Schepers, H.E.; Vermeer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Flowers are reported to have immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being, emotional reactions, mood, social behaviour and memory, but emotional effects have rarely been studied in more detail. Methods This study investigated the influences of flowers on emotional

  8. Flower Colour Inheritance in Nicotiana alata (Solanaceae) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flower Colour Inheritance in Nicotiana alata (Solanaceae) and its Use as a Genetic Marker for Gene Flow Studies. ... Abstract. In Nicotiana alata, flower colour inheritance has followed Mendelian inheritance with dark colours being dominant over lighter colours. Reciprocal crosses concluded the absence of the cytoplasm ...

  9. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Acid rain/deposition (including snow and fog), formed due to reaction of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen with atmospheric ... pollution. Several studies conducted in field and greenhouse have demonstrated that acid rain exposure of plants results in poor growth, premature leaf abscission, delayed flowering, decreased flower.

  10. Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... color, and is regarded as one of two flower spectacle in the world (Chen, 2001). However, their genetic backgrounds as well as genetic relationships are lack of knowledge. Large-flower chrysanthemum has been cultivated for more than 1, 600 years (Zhao et al., 2009). It experienced long-term arti-.

  11. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial

  12. Preliminary sensory evaluation of edible flowers from wild Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2013-11-01

    The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Relationship Between Genotypes at the Red Flower Colour Loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and four basic flower colour forms (red, salmon, rose-pink and soft-pink) in zonal pelargoniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey L.H.) was studied using complementation tests. The results confirmed that red flower colour is due to ...

  14. Preservative solution for gamma irradiated chrysanthemum cut flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Del Mastro, Nelida Lucia; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano

    1995-09-01

    Yellow mini-chrysanthemums were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 Gammacell at the dose of 900 Gy (467 Gy/h) one day after harvest. Samples of 50 flowers, parcially opened buds were used to estimate the flower viability. Aluminum sulfate and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate were used as two preservative solutions aiming to protect the cut flowers. Our results indicated that the stem immersion in the preservative solutions before and after the irradiation treatment was an efficient procedure, stimulating the flowers development and maintaining the vase-life almost as long as the controls. The present work concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions to minimize the damaging effects of the ionizing radiation on chysanthemum cut flowers, maintaining at the same time the disinfestation action of radiation processing.

  15. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  16. Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le

    2013-02-01

    Roses hold high symbolic value and great cultural importance in different societies throughout human history. They are widely used as garden ornamental plants, as cut flowers, and for the production of essential oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries. Domestication of roses has a long and complex history, and the rose species have been hybridized across vast geographic areas such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The domestication processes selected several flower characters affecting floral quality, such as recurrent flowering, double flowers, petal colours, and fragrance. The molecular and genetic events that determine some of these flower characters cannot be studied using model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, or at least only in a limited manner. In this review, we comment on the recent development of genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic tools for roses, and then focus on recent advances that have helped unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying several rose floral traits.

  17. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  18. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses...... as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  19. The causes and molecular consequences of polyploidy in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2014-07-01

    Polyploidy is an important force shaping plant genomes. All flowering plants are descendants of an ancestral polyploid species, and up to 70% of extant vascular plant species are believed to be recent polyploids. Over the past century, a significant body of knowledge has accumulated regarding the prevalence and ecology of polyploid plants. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the causes and molecular consequences of polyploidization in angiosperms. We also provide a discussion on the relationships between polyploidy and adaptation and suggest areas where further research may provide a better understanding of polyploidy. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.

  1. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  2. A model describing the flowering of single plants, and the heritability of flowering traits of Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, L.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Elberse, I.A.M.; Dolstra, O.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of new crops such as Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, improvement of flowering synchronisation is an important breeding objective. The flowering of single plants of Dimorphotheca pluvialis could be described by a logistic curve obtained by the regression of cumulative number of

  3. CAPRICE family genes control flowering time through both promoting and repressing CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuji; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-12-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) and six additional CPC family genes encode R3-type MYB transcription factors involved in epidermal cell fate determination, including Arabidopsis root hair and trichome differentiation. Previously, we reported that the CPC and CPC family genes TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE LIKE MYB3 (CPL3) also affect flowering time. The cpl3 mutant plants flower earlier, with fewer but larger leaves, than do wild type plants, and mutations in CPC or TRY delay flowering in the cpl3 mutant. In this study, we examined flowering time, leaf number, and fresh weight for CPC family gene double and triple mutants. Mutation in ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) shortened the flowering time of the cpl3 single mutant. Mutation in ETC2 significantly reduced fresh weight in the cpl3 mutant. Expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) were higher in the cpl3 mutant than in wild type plants. The high expression levels of CO and FT in cpl3 were significantly reduced by mutations in CPC, TRY, ETC1, or ETC2. Our results suggest that CPC family genes antagonistically regulate flowering time through CO and FT expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  5. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  6. Microclimate and Individual Variation in Pollinators: Flowering Plants are More than Their Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1995-01-01

    Variation in pollinator composition at the individual plant level is an important prerequisite for plant specialization on pollinators that does not seem to have been investigated previously. I studied variation in pollinator composition in a southeastern Spanish population of the insect-pollinated shrub Lavandula latifolia (Labiatae) and examined its correlates, with particular reference to the distinction between factors intrinsic (flower morphology, nectar standing crop, size of floral dis...

  7. Deep roots delay flowering and relax the impact of floral traits and associated pollinators in steppe plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrached, Rachda; Kadik, Leila; Ait Mouheb, Hocine; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Strong seasonality in abiotic harshness and pollinator availability shape the reproductive success of plants. Plant species can avoid or can tolerate harsh abiotic conditions and can attract different pollinators, but it remains unknown (i) which of these capacities is most important for flowering phenology, (ii) whether tolerance/avoidance of abiotic harshness reinforces or relaxes the phenological differentiation of species attracting different pollinators. We assembled possibly the first functional trait database for a North African steppe covering 104 species. We inferred avoidance of harshness (drought) from dormancy, i.e. annual life-span and seed size. We inferred tolerance or resistance to harshness from small specific leaf area, small stature, deep roots and high dry matter content. We inferred the type of pollinators attracted from floral colour, shape and depth. We found that avoidance traits did not affect flowering phenology, and among tolerance traits only deep roots had an effect by delaying flowering. Flower colour (red or purple), and occasionally flower depth, delayed flowering. Dish, gullet and flag shape accelerated flowering. Interactive effects however were at least as important, inversing the mentioned relationship between floral characters and flowering phenology. Specifically, among drought-tolerant deep-rooted species, flowering phenologies converged among floral types attracting different pollinators, without becoming less variable overall. Direct and interactive effects of root depth and floral traits explained at least 45% of the variance in flowering phenology. Also, conclusions on interactive effects were highly consistent with and without including information on family identity or outliers. Overall, roots and floral syndromes strongly control flowering phenology, while many other traits do not. Surprisingly, floral syndromes and the related pollinators appear to constrain phenology mainly in shallow-rooted, abiotically little

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  9. Photoperiod and cold night temperature in control of flowering in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering......), and K. longiflora did not flower in any of the treatments. The decrease of night temperature delayed the growth in all species and flowering in K. prittiwitzii and K. marmorata, and the number of open flowers in K. prittiwitzii was higher at 12C. The results demonstrate that there is a variation...... of the flowering stimuli in the Kalanchoë genus, and that short days are not the only factors controlling flowering. Even though short days are enough to induce flowering in easily-induced species (e.g., K. prittwitzii), cold night temperatures are required to flower-induce other species (e.g., K. marmorata...

  10. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Control of chrysanthemum flowering through integration with an aging pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yanjie; Wang, Tianle; Chen, Yiyu; Lü, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2017-10-10

    Age, as a threshold of floral competence acquisition, prevents precocious flowering when there is insufficient biomass, and ensures flowering independent of environmental conditions; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, silencing the expression of a nuclear factor gene, CmNF-YB8, from the short day plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), results in precocious transition from juvenile to adult, as well as early flowering, regardless of day length conditions. The expression of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family members, SPL3, SPL5, and SPL9, is upregulated in CmNF-YB8-RNAi plants, while expression of the microRNA, cmo-MIR156, is downregulated. In addition, CmNF-YB8 is shown to bind to the promoter of the cmo-MIR156 gene. Ectopic expression of cmo-miR156, using a virus-based microRNA expression system, restores the early flowering phenotype caused by CmNF-YB8 silencing. These results show that CmNF-YB8 influences flowering time through directly regulating the expression of cmo-MIR156 in the aging pathway.The mechanisms by which plant age regulates flowering remain incompletely understood. Here the authors show that age dependent regulation of SPL transcription factors by miR156 influence flowering via control of NF-YB8 expression in Chrysanthemum.

  12. Genetic regulation of flowering time in annual and perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time plays a significant role in the reproductive success of plants. So far, five major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod, vernalization, and gibberellins and autonomous floral iation, and aging by sequentially operating miRNAs (typically miR156 and miR172) responding to endogenous cues. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes (FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1) that determine the flowering time. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, antisense RNA and chromatin silencing regulatory mechanisms play an important role in this process by regulating related flowering gene expression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding in genetic regulation of the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth by using Arabidopsis as a model. We also describe how this knowledge has been successfully applied for identifying homologous genes from perennial crops. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between annual and perennial plants flowering will help elucidate the mechanisms of perennial plant maturation and regulation of floral initiation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Diagnosis of the retail flower market of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.

  14. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  15. [Nutritional content, functional properties and conservation of edible flowers. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

  16. Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

  17. Visual targeting of components of floral colour patterns in flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Fieselmann, Gabriele; Heuschen, Britta; van de Loo, Antje

    2006-07-01

    Floral colour patterns are contrasting colour patches on flowers, a part of the signalling apparatus that was considered to display shape and colour signals used by flower-visitors to detect flowers and locate the site of floral reward. Here, we show that flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris) spontaneously direct their approach towards the outside margin of artificial flowers, which provides contrast between these dummy flowers and the background. If no floral guides are present, the bumblebees continue to approach the margin and finally touch the marginal area of the dummy flower with the tips of their antennae. Whilst approaching dummy flowers that also have a central floral guide, the bumblebees change their direction of flight: Initially, they approach the margin, later they switch to approaching the colour guide, and finally they precisely touch the floral guide with their antennae. Variation of the shape of equally sized dummy flowers did not alter the bumblebees’ preferential orientation towards the guide. Using reciprocal combinations of guide colour and surrounding colour, we showed that the approach from a distance towards the corolla and the antennal contact with the guide are elicited by the same colour parameter: spectral purity. As a consequence, the dummy flowers eliciting the greatest frequency of antennal reactions at the guide are those that combine a floral guide of high spectral purity with a corolla of less spectral purity. Our results support the hypothesis that floral guides direct bumblebees’ approaches to the site of first contact with the flower, which is achieved by the tips of the antennae.

  18. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...

  19. Anisotropic cell growth-regulated surface micropatterns in flower petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flower petals have not only diverse macroscopic morphologies but are rich in microscopic surface patterns, which are crucial to their biological functions. Both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of minute wrinkles on flower petals. Three representative flowers, daisy, kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Eustoma grandiflorum, are investigated as examples. A surface wrinkling model, incorporating the measured mechanical properties and growth ratio, is used to elucidate the difference in their surface morphologies. The mismatch between the anisotropic epidermal cell growth and the isotropic secretion of surficial wax is found to dictate the surface patterns.

  20. Flowering biology and nectary structure of Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. covered flowering biology, monitoring of pollinating insects and floral nectary structure. The micromorphology of epidermal cells of the nectary was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The nectariferous tissues were observed using light microscopy based on semi-thin sections. Lemon balm flowered from the second decade of June until September. Buds opened from early morning hours until noon. Flowers lived for 24 hours, on the average. Their primary pollinator was the honey bee. The beginning of nectar secretion was found to be at the bud swell stage. The automorphic nectary forms a disc with four protrusions at the base of the nectary. Three smaller ones and one larger than the other ones were distinguished among them. No stomata were found on the lower protuberances, whereas on the highest part anomocytic stomata were present, the number of which was 15. The stomata exhibited different development stages and they were situated above other epidermal cells. In their outline, they were ellipsoidally shaped (18 × 23 µm and they had average-sized cuticular ledges. They produced a smooth cuticle and wax granules. In cross section, the nectary tissues were composed of a singlelayered epidermis and 9 - 11 layers of the nectary parenchyma. Their thickness was 198 µm. In longitudinal section, the height of the nectary was within a range of 354 - 404 µm. The epidermal cells produced thin outer cell walls. Some of them were completely filled with strongly stained cytoplasm, whereas others showed a high degree of vacuolisation. But the nectary parenchyma cells were marked by poorly stained cytoplasm, a large nucleus and vacuolisation of varying degree.

  1. Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phenological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amy M.; Høye, Toke T.; Inouye, David W.; Schmidt, Niels M.

    2013-01-01

    Many alpine and subalpine plant species exhibit phenological advancements in association with earlier snowmelt. While the phenology of some plant species does not advance beyond a threshold snowmelt date, the prevalence of such threshold phenological responses within plant communities is largely unknown. We therefore examined the shape of flowering phenology responses (linear versus nonlinear) to climate using two long-term datasets from plant communities in snow-dominated environments: Gothic, CO, USA (1974–2011) and Zackenberg, Greenland (1996–2011). For a total of 64 species, we determined whether a linear or nonlinear regression model best explained interannual variation in flowering phenology in response to increasing temperatures and advancing snowmelt dates. The most common nonlinear trend was for species to flower earlier as snowmelt advanced, with either no change or a slower rate of change when snowmelt was early (average 20% of cases). By contrast, some species advanced their flowering at a faster rate over the warmest temperatures relative to cooler temperatures (average 5% of cases). Thus, some species seem to be approaching their limits of phenological change in response to snowmelt but not temperature. Such phenological thresholds could either be a result of minimum springtime photoperiod cues for flowering or a slower rate of adaptive change in flowering time relative to changing climatic conditions. PMID:23836793

  2. QTL identification of flowering time at three different latitudes reveals homeologous genomic regions that control flowering in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixian; Kim, Moon Young; Kang, Yang Jae; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Srinives, Peerasak; Yuan, Dong Lin; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2011-08-01

    Since the genetic control of flowering time is very important in photoperiod-sensitive soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), genes affecting flowering under different environment conditions have been identified and described. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in different latitudinal and climatic regions, and to understand how chromosomal rearrangement and genome organization contribute to flowering time in soybean. Recombinant inbred lines from a cross between late-flowering 'Jinpumkong 2' and early-flowering 'SS2-2' were used to evaluate the phenotypic data for days to flowering (DF) collected from Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand (14°01'N), Suwon, Korea (37°15'N), and Longjing, China (42°46'N). A weakly positive phenotypic correlation (r = 0.36) was found between DF in Korea and Thailand; however, a strong correlation (r = 0.74) was shown between Korea and China. After 178 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were placed on a genetic map spanning 2,551.7 cM, four independent DF QTLs were identified on different chromosomes (Chrs). Among them, three QTLs on Chrs 9, 13 and 16 were either Thailand- or Korea-specific. The DF QTL on Chr 6 was identified in both Korea and China, suggesting it is less environment-sensitive. Comparative analysis of four DF QTL regions revealed a syntenic relationship between two QTLs on Chrs 6 and 13. All five duplicated gene pairs clustered in the homeologous genomic regions were found to be involved in the flowering. Identification and comparative analysis of multiple DF QTLs from different environments will facilitate the significant improvement in soybean breeding programs with respect to control of flowering time.

  3. Influence of vernalization and bulb size on the production of lily cut flowers and lily bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Brito de Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of bulbs to cold, a physiological phenomenon called vernalization, and bulb size are important factors in the production of lily bulbs and flowers. This study aimed to verify the influence of vernalization of bulbs on flowering cut lily plants, as well as the impact of size and shape of harvest on the production and quality of flowers and bulbs. In turn, the way the stems of the plants used for cut-flower production are cropped is of higher importance for the production of new flower bulbs. In this sense, the experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG, in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, in split splot scheme with three replications, in which the vernalization periods (25, 35 and 45 days at 4 ± 1 C constituted the plots; bulb sizes (diameters of 3.2-3.8 cm; 2.5-3.2 cm 1.9- and 2.5 cm, subplots and ways to harvest (full harvest of the stem at the required length for the commercial harvest of the flower, commercial stem harvest at the commercial length, maintaining 10cm of stem in the soil; removal of the floral buds as soon as their appearance is observed and harvest at the end of the season, the sub subplots. The bulbs were planted in beds, with 15 x 20 cm spacing. It was evaluated the number of plants that flowered and the number of flowers, the length and the diameter of the floral buds, fresh and dry weights, diameter and plant height as well as number, perimeter and amount of fresh and dry bulbs. There was a decrease in the plant height with the increase of the vernalization period and a reduction of the diameter of the planted bulbs, as well as of the number and the fresh and dry weights of the produced buds. The production of flowers and buds in number, size and weight was directly proportional to the size of the planted bulbs, while the form of harvest with removal of flower buds increased the number, the perimeter and the fresh and dry weights of the buds. Bulbs with diameter between 3.2 - 3.8 cm, stored for 25 days in

  4. Natural variation in flowering time among populations of the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammad, I.; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation in flowering time was studied in four natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, using greenhouse experiments. Two populations from ruderal sites flowered early, two others from river dykes late. However, the late flowering plants flowered almost as early as the others after cold

  5. A large scale joint analysis of flowering time reveals independent temperate adaptations in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulating days to flowering is a key mechanism in plants for adapting to new environments, and variation in days to flowering drives population structure by limiting mating. To elucidate the genetic architecture of flowering across maize, a quantitative trait, we mapped flowering in five global pop...

  6. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Flood and .... Some information about the interaction between VRN-1 and Ppd active alleles have been generated from ... The study also revealed the role of tempera- ture in the attainment of flowering competence in the pho-.

  7. Let's Stop Teaching About Sex (of the Flowering Plants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John F.; Thelen, Leverne J

    1969-01-01

    Points out common misconceptions, especially the idea that pollination in flowering plants corresponds to fertilization in animals. Gives history of understanding of plant sexuality, then summarizes modern view. Suggests we teach accurately or not at all. (EB)

  8. Antihemolytic activity and mineral contents of Juglans regia L. flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Nabavi, S F; Nabavi, S M

    2013-07-01

    Juglans (J.) regia L. is known to possess many biological properties. In this study, antihemolytic activity of methanol extract of Juglans regia L. flower were investigated. Antihemolytic activities of Juglans regia L. flowers were evaluated by various in vitro assays. In addition, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and mineral contents of flowers were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extract showed good antihemolytic activity against H2O2 and CuOOH induced hemolysis in comparison with control. Extract was capable of scavenging H2O2 in a concentration dependent manner. IC50 for H2O2 scavenging activity was 311±12.8 µg ml-1. The amount of eight elements was determined and was in the order: Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn. Our study indicate that J. regia flower has remarkable antihemolytic activity, which maybe result of its high phenol and flavonoid contents, especially quercetin.

  9. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia mascences, Clostridium ... This work has revealed further potentials of S. officinalis L flowers as an antimicrobial agent, especially against P. aeruginosa which is resistant to some antibiotics.

  10. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The molecular background of flower development has been intensively studied within core eudicots, and several studies have confirmed the extended ABC model as the molecular background of flower development in this plant group. The core eudicots are characterized as having one copy of each of the B......-class genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...... that A- and C-class gene expression is not mutually exclusive in monocots. The difference in expression of the A-class genes outside the floral organs shows a fundamental difference between monocot and core eudicot flowers....

  11. Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flower chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars. Sixty-three cultivars are triploid, 175 cultivars tetraploid, 32 cultivars pentaploid, 46 cultivars hexaploid and 1 cultivar heptaploid. Forty-eight cultivars were then randomly ...

  12. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , transpiperitol (68.5%), respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against 9 bacteria by agar diffusion method. The leaves of both plants showed higher activity than their flowers. The leaves of L. chevalieri ...

  14. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  15. The bee, the flower and the electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects use several different senses to forage on flowers, and detect floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, humidity and chemical volatiles. This presentation will present our discovery of a previously unappreciated sensory capacity in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris: the detection of floral electric fields. We show that these floral fields act as informational cues, and that they can be affected by the visit of naturally electrically charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator’s memory of floral rewards. Floral electric fields arise from complex interactions with the surrounding atmosphere, an interaction between plants and their environment that not well understood. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this new sensory modality - electrostatic field detection- may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  16. Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) flowers and leaves from Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Nathan A; Gandolfo, Maria A; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns). Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic.

  17. Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae flowers and leaves from Patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Jud

    Full Text Available Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns. Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic.

  18. The quest for molecular regulation underlying unisexual flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo eSobral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 | Article 599 and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs.

  19. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community

    OpenAIRE

    CaraDonna, Paul J.; Iler, Amy M.; Inouye, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal timing of biological events, phenology, is one of the strongest bioindicators of climate change. Our general understanding of phenological responses to climate change is based almost solely on the first day on which an event is observed, limiting our understanding of how ecological communities may be responding as a whole. Using a unique long-term record of flowering phenology from Colorado, we find that the number of species changing their flowering times likely has been underestima...

  20. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila; Marilys D Milián Jiménez; Yuniel Rodríguez García; Manuel Lima Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT), to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions) in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%), was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%). Increased temperature and relative h...

  1. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  2. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  3. [Hyperspectrum based prediction model for nitrogen content of apple flowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Lei, Tong; Zhan, Bing

    2010-02-01

    The present paper aims to quantitatively retrieve nitrogen content in apple flowers, so as to provide an important basis for apple informationization management. By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, hyperspectral reflectivity of 120 apple flower samples in full-bloom stage was measured and their nitrogen contents were analyzed. Based on the apple flower original spectrum and first derivative spectral characteristics, correlation analysis was carried out between apple flowers original spectrum and first derivative spectrum reflectivity and nitrogen contents, so as to determine the sensitive bands. Based on characteristic spectral parameters, prediction models were built, optimized and tested. The results indicated that the nitrogen content of apple was very significantly negatively correlated with the original spectral reflectance in the 374-696, 1 340-1 890 and 2 052-2 433 nm, while in 736-913 nm they were very significantly positively correlated; the first derivative spectrum in 637-675 nm was very significantly negatively correlated, and in 676-746 nm was very significantly positively correlated. All the six spectral parameters established were significantly correlated with the nitrogen content of apple flowers. Through further comparison and selection, the prediction models built with original spectral reflectance of 640 and 676 nm were determined as the best for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers. The test results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of the two models were 0.825 8 and 0.893 6, the total root mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.732 and 0.638 6, and the slopes were 0.836 1 and 1.019 2 respectively. Therefore the models produced desired results for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers with average prediction accuracy of 92.9% and 94.0%. This study will provide theoretical basis and technical support for rapid apple flower nitrogen content prediction and nutrition diagnosis.

  4. Volatile compounds profile of Bromeliaceae flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Everton Hilo; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Souza, Fernanda V D; Ledo, Carlos A S; Alencar, Severino M; Martinelli, Adriana P

    2016-09-01

    Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to nine chemical groups were identified. The compounds identified represented more than 97 % of the major components in Aechmea bicolor, Ae. bromeliifolia, Ae. distichantha, Ae. fasciata, and Vriesea friburgensis. In the Ananas varieties, over 99 % of the components were identified, and around 90 % in V. simplex. V. friburgensis presented the largest diversity of volatiles with 31 compounds, while Alcantarea nahoumii presented only 14. All three Ananas varieties presented the same 28 compounds in relatively similar abundance, which has been confirmed by principal component analysis. Current taxonomy and pollination syndrome studies available can adequately explain the variation in volatile compounds among species.

  5. Environmental stress influencing plant development and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aaram A; Mishra, Priyanka; Kumari, Khushbu; Panigrahi, Kishore C S

    2012-06-01

    Plants are sessile organisms and unlike animals, cannot run away from adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, they have evolved sophisticated signaling and protective systems to overcome sub-lethal stress situations. Although, effect of stress on physiology and morphology were studied earlier, the research on molecular mechanisms of stress response is albeit new. Studies at the molecular level on stress physiology reveal that, many stress-induced pathways converge downstream or interact significantly. Abiotic stress factors regulate the extent and pattern of developmental programme. The timing of transition from vegetative to flowering phase, which is vital for survival and reproductive success, is often altered under various stresses. Unraveling the mechanisms by which different environmental stresses induce their effects and how tolerance to stress is achieved is an active area of research. Enhancing stress tolerance, especially in crop plants is an area of prime importance. In this review, we focus on stress responses induced by temperatures, high and low light intensities, UV radiation, drought and salinity stress and summarize the recent advancements by highlighting the underlying molecular pathways and processes.

  6. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  7. Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Flower Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.

  8. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chayut

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  9. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination.

  10. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...

  11. [Pesticides use by flower companies associated with the Colombian Association of Flower Exporters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Marcela E; Tolosa, Jorge E; Cárdenas, Omayda; Torres, Carlos H; Pardo, Darío; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Frumkin, Howard

    2005-09-01

    In Colombia, pesticide exposure has became a public health problem, as the use of these substances continues to increase. The current study accumulated information concerning pesticides used by flower companies in Bogotá and Rionegro (Antioquia) that were associated with Asociación Colombiana de Exportadores de Flores (Asocolflores) in Colombia. Eighty-four companies were stratified by geographic location and size. Company and worker information was collected, and for each company, the process of pesticide application and maintenance of the cultivated flowers was carefully observed. Univariate and bivariate, and correlation analyses were applied for data analysis. Sex of workers was 39.4% male and 60.6% female. Pesticides were grouped into 4 toxicity classes: 14.3% were class I, 14.4% class II, 52.0% class III, and 19.2% class IV. Dithiocarbamates was the group of pesticides more commonly used (11.7%). The equipment most frequently used for pesticide application was the "bomba móvil" (92.8%), and the "lanza" (92.9%). Cholinesterase activity measured by the Michel-Aldrige method was the biological marker for exposure to pesticides used in 85.9% of the companies. Recommendations for improvements in their use and for measures to further reduce exposure of workers are made.

  12. Growth, Flowering and Dry Matter Partitioning Response of Mid-Flowering Snapdragon Cultivar Liberty White Grown Under Different Light Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhajhoj, M. R.; Munir, M.

    2016-01-01

    The rationale of the present study was to quantify the effects of different shade levels (30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent and 60 percent) and a control (no shade) on growth, flowering and dry matter partitioning traits of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty Wight. A linear relationship was observed between different shade levels and flowering time, rate of progress to flowering, leaf numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant spread, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight and lead dry weight. These growth and development traits increased linearly from 30 percent to 60 percent shade levels, however, the rate of progress to flowering was inverse to flowering time when plants were kept under shades. A polynomial hyperbolic relationship was observed in specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. It is concluded that different shade levels significantly (P<=0.05) prolonged various growth and development phases of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty White. These finding can be applied to enhance crop quality and to delay growth and flowering time for steadily supply of plants to the market. (author)

  13. Flowering biology of three taxa of the genus Scilla L. (Hyacinthaceae and flower visitation by pollinating insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żuraw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squill of the family Hyacinthaceae is a small bulb perennial. The present study on flowering and pollination of Scilla sibirica Andr., S. sibirica 'Alba', and S. bifolia L. was conducted in the years 1995, 1997, and 1999 in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The plants flowered from the end of March until the middle of May. The duration of flowering of individual taxa was similar and it averaged 20 days (Scilla sibirica, 21 days (S. sibirica 'Alba', and 23 days (S. bifolia. The opening of flower buds always started around 9.00 am and lasted, depending on the taxon, until 3.00 pm (Scilla sibirica 'Alba', 4.00 pm (S. bifolia, and 5.00 pm (S. sibirica. The flowers were visited by bees (Apoidea, primarily the honey bee (Apis mellifera L., bumblebee (Bombus L., and solitary bees. Numerous honey bee foragers were observed; they bit through the anther walls and even attempted to open still closed flower buds in order to reach the pollen.

  14. Elevated levels of MYB30 in the phloem accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis through the regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Liu

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of flowering locus T (FT, which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO, the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, twin sister of FT (TSF is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time.

  15. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the

  16. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  17. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2008-01-01

    heart of Christian teaching. Another essential aspect of this subject is the phenomenon of exuding a sweet smell or fragrance, which is in a direct functional connection with flowers. Recent work has shown convincingly how complex and diffuse meanings of this subject are, especially with regard to the relationship between fragrance and fundamental Christian beliefs about the nature, redemption and resurrection of the human body, ascetic practices, or the cult of relics. One of the starting points in Christian exegesis was the message in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (2,14-16 about Christ and the 'savour of his knowledge', interpreted as the 'savour of life' as opposed to the 'savour of death'. Along the same lines, St Ambrose refers to the 'fragrance of resurrection' as anticipating life everlasting. Ephrem the Syrian, who was instrumental in shaping the theological notion of fragrance, argues that a sweet smell is a vehicle for recognizing divine blessing, receiving revelation and sending it out into the world, as at the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles. Eschatological symbolism connected with flowers and scents played an important role in the cult of relics. Fragrance, as is well known, was a key indicator of sanctity and a sign of divine presence. A similar, transcendental, meaning was assigned to other elements of the ritual of elevatio and depositio of relics: resplendent polychrome ornamentation of the coffin, various perfume oils and aromatics, lavish shrouds, flowers laid onto the grave. This is a phenomenon which researchers have recognized, and with good reason, as a distinctive type of 'aesthetics' or religious sensibility which may be traced back to late antiquity and its marked penchant for flowers, bright colours and luminous effects. Finally, this theme has yet another level of meaning that is well worthy of mention: flowers as a metaphor for piety, virtue and ascetic values. This sort of fragrance originates from Christian virtues and

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Origin and Diversification of the Angiosperm Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Guenter; Melzer, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mode and mechanisms of the evolution of the angiosperm flower is a long-standing and central problem of evolutionary biology and botany. It has essentially remained unsolved, however. In contrast, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of flower development in some extant model species. The knowledge that accumulated this way has been pulled together in two major hypotheses, termed the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’. These models explain how the identity of the different types of floral organs is specified during flower development by homeotic selector genes encoding transcription factors. Scope We intend to explain how the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’ are now guiding investigations that help to understand the origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower. Conclusions Investigation of orthologues of class B and class C floral homeotic genes in gymnosperms suggest that bisexuality was one of the first innovations during the origin of the flower. The transition from dimer to tetramer formation of floral homeotic proteins after establishment of class E proteins may have increased cooperativity of DNA binding of the transcription factors controlling reproductive growth. That way, we hypothesize, better ‘developmental switches’ originated that facilitated the early evolution of the flower. Expression studies of ABC genes in basally diverging angiosperm lineages, monocots and basal eudicots suggest that the ‘classical’ ABC system known from core eudicots originated from a more fuzzy system with fading borders of gene expression and gradual transitions in organ identity, by sharpening of ABC gene expression domains and organ borders. Shifting boundaries of ABC gene expression may have contributed to the diversification of the angiosperm flower many times independently, as may have changes in interactions between ABC genes and their target

  19. Aggregation of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) Males on Iris spp. Flowers Releasing Methyl Anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

    2014-06-27

    Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.

  1. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Different Stages of Cananga odorata Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Qin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray–Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%–33.30%. Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.

  2. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  3. Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...

  4. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Khan, M.A.; Riaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  5. Sterile flowers increase pollinator attraction and promote female success in the Mediterranean herb Leopoldia comosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carolina L.; Traveset, Anna; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Large floral displays have opposing consequences for animal-pollinated angiosperms: they attract more pollinators but also enable elevated among-flower self-pollination (geitonogamy). The presence of sterile flowers as pollinator signals may enhance attraction while allowing displays of fewer open fertile flowers, limiting geitonogamy. The simultaneous contributions of fertile and non-fertile display components to pollinator attraction and reproductive output remain undetermined. Methods The simultaneous effects of the presence of sterile flowers and fertile-flower display size in two populations of Leopoldia comosa were experimentally assessed. Pollinator behaviour, pollen removal and deposition, and fruit and seed production were compared between intact plants and plants with sterile flowers removed. Key Results The presence of sterile flowers almost tripled pollinator attraction, supplementing the positive effect of the number of fertile flowers on the number of bees approaching inflorescences. Although attracted bees visited more flowers on larger inflorescences, the number visited did not additionally depend on the presence of sterile flowers. The presence of sterile flowers improved all aspects of plant performance, the magnitude of plant benefit being context dependent. During weather favourable to pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased pollen deposition on stigmas of young flowers, but this difference was not evident in older flowers, probably because of autonomous self-pollination in poorly visited flowers. Total pollen receipt per stigma decreased with increasing fertile display size. In the population with more pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased fruit number but not seed set or mass, whereas in the other population sterile flowers enhanced seeds per fruit, but not fruit production. These contrasts are consistent with dissimilar cross-pollination and autonomous self-pollination, coupled with the

  6. Edible flowers as sources of phenolic compounds with bioactive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The edible flowers are widely used, but there is still a lot to be done in relation to its bioactive potential and its correlation with the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was determined the individual phenolic profile in the hydromethanolic extracts and infusion preparations of four different flower samples (Dahlia mignon, Rosa damascena 'Alexandria' and R. gallica 'Francesa' draft in R. canina, Calendula officinalis L., and Centaurea cyanus L.) and their bioactive potential (antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antibacterial capacity). All the studied flowers presented different profiles regarding their phenolic composition and revealed biological potential. The bioactive potential of the studied flowers was moderate, the hydromethanolic extracts of rose petals showed the best results for antioxidant and antibacterial assays, while the antiproliferative properties were only present in some of the tested cell lines, for the hydromethanolic extracts, in which dahlia and rose showed the best results. These results demonstrate that edible flowers can be used as a source of phenolic compounds with bioactive potential, which can be applied in the food sector, as foods and as sources natural ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  9. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  10. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Dole, Isabelle; Celikel, Fisun G; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-01-15

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Why background colour matters to bees and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovac, Zoë; Shrestha, Mani; Garcia, Jair E; Burd, Martin; Dorin, Alan; Dyer, Adrian G

    2017-05-01

    Flowers are often viewed by bee pollinators against a variety of different backgrounds. On the Australian continent, backgrounds are very diverse and include surface examples of all major geological stages of the Earth's history, which have been present during the entire evolutionary period of Angiosperms. Flower signals in Australia are also representative of typical worldwide evolutionary spectral adaptations that enable successful pollination. We measured the spectral properties of 581 natural surfaces, including rocks, sand, green leaves, and dry plant materials, sampled from tropical Cairns through to the southern tip of mainland Australia. We modelled in a hexagon colour space, how interactions between background spectra and flower-like colour stimuli affect reliable discrimination and detection in bee pollinators. We calculated the extent to which a given locus would be conflated with the loci of a different flower-colour stimulus using empirically determined colour discrimination regions for bee vision. Our results reveal that whilst colour signals are robust in homogeneous background viewing conditions, there could be significant pressure on plant flowers to evolve saliently-different colours to overcome background spectral noise. We thus show that perceptual noise has a large influence on how colour information can be used in natural conditions.

  12. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  13. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct sampling technique of bees on Vriesea philippocoburgii (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study on Vriesea philippocoburgii Wawra pollination, due to the small proportion of flowers in anthesis on a single day and the damage caused to inflorescences when netting directly on flowers, we used the direct sampling technique (DST of bees on flowers. This technique was applied to 40 flowering plants and resulted in the capture of 160 specimens, belonging to nine genera of Apoidea and separated into 19 morph species. As DST maintains the integrity of flowers for later Bees’ visits, it can enhance the survey’s performance, constituting an alternative methodology for the collection of bees visiting flowering plants.

  15. [Bee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea) visitation to cantaloupe Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae) flowers in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Juan Carlos Di Trani

    2007-06-01

    Flower visits by bees were observed in a melon cultivated field of San Lorenzo district, in Chiriqui, Panama, from January 6 to February 19, 2002, from 6:30 am to 4:30 pm We recorded the duration of each foraging event and the type of resource collected. Flower visits were mostly for nectar collection (approximately 75 %). Pollen foraging was concentrated in the first hours of the morning and ended by 11:00 am The mean collection time was similar for both food resources, but was different between flower sexes. Flower visits to female flowers took longer (Student's t test, pmelon flowers.

  16. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  18. IN VITRO FLOWERING OF INDONESIAN Phalaenopsis amabilis (L. Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Sartika Mercuriani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flowering is very important in orchid cultivation. However, the long vegetative phase to be able to bloom of the plant becomes an important problem. The orchid needs three up to five years after sowing to bloom. In this study, flowering induction is done in the early growth stages of plants. At six months after sowing (mas, plants were sub-cultured on New Phalaenopsis (NP medium witha half Nitrogen(N concentration of NP (1/2NP, with or without Benzyl Adenine (BA, concentration variations of Phosphor/P (1,5 mM and 3 mM, and with or without roots cutting. In vitro flowering of Indonesian Phalaenopsisamabilis (P. amabilis can induced on medium that contain 22.2 µM BA and 3 mM P with roots cutting at 18 mas.

  19. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance of cut flowers to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.

    1999-01-01

    Cut flowers were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 1000 Gy. Dianthuscaryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae), Freesia sp (Iridaceae), Limonium sinuatum Mill. (Plumbaginaceae), L. latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae), Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae), Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. (Compositae) and Rhodanthe manglesii Lindl (Compositae) were tolerant up to 1000 Gy, without visible negative changes after irradiation and during the vase-life. Callistephus chinensis (Compositae) and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Liliaceae) were moderately tolerant, but were modified by high doses. Anthurium sp (Araceae), Strelitzia sp (Musaceae), Matthiola incana R. Br. (Cruciferae), Aechmea distichanta (Bromeliaceae), Consolida ajacis Niew (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus sp (Ranunculaceae), Dendrobium phalenopsis (Orchidaceae) and Gerbera sp (Compositae) were not tolerant to a dose of 200 Gy. The most adequate flowers to be submitted to irradiation treatment for disinfestation purpose were those of the Caryophillaceae family and those which can be used as dried flowers, such as members of the Rhodanthe, Helichrysum and Limmonium genera. (author)

  1. The Flower Workshop in psychosocial rehabilitation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas

    2009-01-01

    We report a pilot study with the Flower Workshop, a new modality of psychosocial rehabilitation group activity. Cognitive performance in schizophrenia and other mental conditions can be impaired depending on the tasks to be executed and their respective social context. The vulnerability of these individuals can be reduced by means of cognitive and socio-affective facilitation. We conducted a pilot study to introduce the Flower Workshop in a public Mental Health Service in the city of Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo-Brasil) with 12 participants during 18 months (2002-2003). With cognitive and socio-affective facilitation, participants were able to construct vases and make flower arrangements successfully.

  2. Overlapped flowers yield detection using computer-based interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture has always dealt with the accuracy and timely information about agricultural products. With the help of computer hardware and software technology designing a decision support system that could generate flower yield information and serve as base for management and planning of flower marketing is made so easy. Despite such technologies, some problem still arise, for example, a colour homogeneity of a specimen which cannot be obtained similar to actual colour of image and overlapping of image. In this paper implementing a new ‘counting algorithm’ for overlapped flower is being discussed. For implementing this algorithm, some techniques and operations such as colour image segmentation technique, image segmentation, using HSV colour space and morphological operations have been used. In this paper used two most popular colour space; those are RGB and HSV. HSV colour space decouples brightness from a chromatic component in the image, by which it provides better result in case for occlusion and overlapping.

  3. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  5. Ecological factors affecting the fruiting success of a Tibouchina trichopoda (DC. Baill. (Melastomataceae flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of resources for pollinators modulate the reproduction of plants. This study attempted to determine whether and how the fruiting success of Tibouchina trichopoda flowers varies due to plant size, number of flowers produced, distance between individuals and cardinal orientation of the flowers. From July 2009 to February 2010, we conducted monthly evaluations of 21 plants in an area of regenerating forest within the Atlantic Forest biome, located near the municipality of Antonina, in southern Brazil. Floral density was monitored weekly. During the study period, the species bloomed twice: once during the cool, dry season, showing an extended flowering period with scattered flowering individuals; and once during the hot, rainy season, showing a brief flowering period with a high density of flowering individuals. Plant size was not found to influence fruiting success. There was greater production of flowers and fruits during the brief flowering period. The extent of the floral display positively affected the fruiting success of the flowers, the effect being greater when the density of flowers was low and tending to stabilize at higher densities. The northern-facing portions of tree crowns produced more flowers and therefore had greater fruiting success than did the southern-facing portions. However, the proportion of fruits produced per flower was the same.

  6. Activation analysis of a few flowers of Liliiflorae plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Tatsuro

    1983-01-01

    The flowers of Liliiflorae plants (Lycoris radiata Herb., Lilium longiflorum Thunb. and Crinum asiaticum L.) were divided into leaf, peduncle, bract, perianth, filament, anther, ovary, style, stigma etc. and the distribution of elements in each part was determined. The analytical results revealed that (1) almost all elements were distributed with different concentration according to a part of the flowers, (2) abnormal distribution of cobalt and nickel to genital organ was noticed in Lilium longiflorum Thunb., and (3) high content of cadmium to genital organ and low content of calcium in each part were observed on Crinum asiaticum L. (author)

  7. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  8. High Prevalence of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Among Ethiopian Flower Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Vegard Mjelde; Nigatu, Amare Workiye; Zeleke, Zeyede Kebede; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-01-01

    The flower industry is among the most important export industries in Ethiopia, employing more than 50,000 workers. The working conditions and health status among workers in Ethiopian flower industry are not documented. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted among 213 flower industry workers from 3 flower farms and 60 control workers from supermarkets from February to March 2012. A walk-through survey was also performed on the 3 flower farms. Interviewed flower farm workers have high prevalences of respiratory and dermal symptoms, which are rarely reported among controls. Female workers inside the greenhouses on the 3 flower farms have significantly more respiratory and dermal symptoms than workers outside the greenhouse, also when adjusting for age and education. Limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE) and unsafe pesticide routines are documented. This study indicates that working in these flower greenhouses might be associated with adverse health effects.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of female and male flower buds of Idesia polycarpa Maxim. var. vestita Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanju Mei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This work provides the first detailed transcriptome analysis of female and male flower of I. polycarpa and lays foundations for future studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying flower bud development of I. polycarpa.

  10. Acceleration of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Cape Verde Islands alleles of FLOWERING H is dependent on the floral promoter FD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Noorina; Dinsdale, Adrian; Ong, Eng Kok; Gendall, Anthony Richard

    2013-07-01

    Flowering time in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by both external environmental signals and internal developmental pathways. Natural variation at the FLOWERING H (FLH) locus has previously been described, with alleles present in the Cape Verde Islands accession causing early flowering, particularly after vernalization. The mechanism of FLH-induced early flowering is not understood. Here, the integration of FLH activity into the known flowering time pathways is described using molecular and genetic approaches. The identification of molecular markers that co-segregated with the FLH locus allowed the generation of multiple combinations of FLH alleles with mutations in flowering time genes in different flowering pathways. Combining an early flowering FLH allele with mutations in vernalization pathway genes that regulate FLC expression revealed that FLH appears to act in parallel to FLC. Surprisingly, the early flowering allele of FLH requires the floral integrator FD, but not FT, to accelerate flowering. This suggests a model in which some alleles of FLH are able to affect the FD-dependent activity of the floral activator complex.

  11. Low temperatures are required to induce the development of fertile flowers in transgenic male and female early flowering poplar (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lehnhardt, Denise; Briones, Valentina; Nilsson, Ove; Fladung, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Until now, artificial early flowering poplar systems have mostly led to the development of sterile flowers. In this study, several strategies aimed at inducting fertile flowers in pHSP::AtFT transgenic poplar were evaluated, in particular the influence of temperature and photoperiod. Our results provide evidence that temperature, and not photoperiod, is the key factor required for the development of fertile flowers in early flowering poplar. Fertile flowers were only obtained when a cold treatment phase of several weeks was used after the heat treatment phase. Heat treatments induced AtFT gene activity through activation of the heat-shock promoter (pHSP). Photoperiod did not show a similar influence on flower fertility as pollen grains were obtained under both long- and short-day conditions. Fertility was confirmed in flowers of both male and female plants. For the first time, crosses were successfully performed with transgenic female early flowering poplar. All mature flowers obtained after 8 weeks of inductive treatments were fertile. Gene expression studies also confirmed that cold temperatures influenced expression of poplar genes homologous to 'pollen development genes' from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Homology and expression patterns suggested a role for PtTDF1, PtBAM1, PtSERK1/2 and PtMS1 on anther and pollen development in poplar flowers. The system developed in this study allows a fast and very reliable induction of fertile poplar flowers in a very short period of time. The non-reproductive phase, usually 7-10 years, can now be shortened to 6-10 months, and fertile flowers can be obtained independently of the season. This system is a reliable tool for breeding purposes (high-speed breeding technology), genomics and biosafety research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): a flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Jiang, Ning; Hancock, James F

    2013-11-01

    The blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT )-like gene ( VcFT ) cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering. Blueberry is a woody perennial bush with a longer juvenile period than annual crops, requiring vernalization to flower normally. Few studies have been reported on the molecular mechanism of flowering in blueberry or other woody plants. Because FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) from Arabidopsis thaliana plays a multifaceted role in generating mobile molecular signals to regulate plant flowering time, isolation and functional analysis of the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT-like gene (VcFT) will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of flowering in woody plants. Based on EST sequences, a 525-bpVcFT was identified and cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry cultivar, Bluecrop. Ectopic expression of 35S:VcFT in tobacco induced flowering an average of 28 days earlier than wild-type plants. Expression of the 35S:VcFT in the blueberry cultivar Aurora resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype, which flowered not only during in vitro culture, a growth stage when nontransgenic shoots had not yet flowered, but also in 6-10-week old, soil-grown transgenic plants, in contrast to the fact that at least 1 year and 800 chilling hours are required for the appearance of the first flower of both nontransgenic 'Aurora' and transgenic controls with the gusA. These results demonstrate that the VcFT is a functional floral activator and overexpression of the VcFT is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering.

  13. Effect of gibberellic acid on enhancing flowering time in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of GA/sub 3/ on plant height, number of branches, leaves, flowers plant/sup -1/, leaf area, days to flowering, blooming period, flower size and flower fresh weight. There were total six treatments of GA/sub 3/ concentrations at 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg L/sup -1/. Data regarding vegetative and flowering attributes indicated that flowering in Chrysanthemum morifolium varied significantly for most of the studied parameters. Application of GA/sub 3/ at the rate of 250 mg L/sup -1/ with plant height (62.0 cm), number of branches (8.65), suckers (8.05), leaves (55.05) plant/sup -1/, leaf area (122.35 cm2), days to flower (110.8 days) and number of flowers (31.9) were significantly different as compared to rest of the treatments and was followed by GA/sub 3/ at the rate of 200 mg L/sup -1/ in flower size (5.49 cm) and flower fresh weight (4.01g). Untreated Chrysanthemum plants had least plant height (47.5 cm), number of branches (6.4), suckers (6.75), leaves (39.2) plant/sup -1/, leaf area (96.85 cm2), days to flower (131.05 days), number of flowers (21.91) plant/sup -1/, flower size (4.88 cm) and flower fresh weight (3.44 g). Application of GA/sub 3/ at the rate 250 mg L/sup -1/ produced flowers earlier (28th September) than the normal season and extended the flowering season up to 22 days. (author)

  14. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  15. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  16. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  17. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. million hectares of with a total ... The North West Frontier Province of the country shared an area of .... Table 1. Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant of tomato during 2008.

  18. Segregation for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the segregation of the F3 (early generation) and F6 (late generation) families for seed weight, pod length and days to flowering among cowpea inter-sub-specific crosses. A wide range of segregants were provided in this cross and families were highly significantly different in the ...

  19. Impact of Cut-Flower Industries on Sustainable Livelihood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various theories regarding cut-flower industries in Tanzania suggest that,the major perspectives of the community was to improve people's living conditions, including housing, education, health and ... The industries should provide protective gears to the worker and abide by government heath risk policies and regulations.

  20. Attracting and maintaining Tachinidae with flowering plants: estimating attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic flies such as Tachinidae. Of the 14 plant species tested only 4 captured significantly more Tachinidae than controls (Agastache hybrid, Ageratina aromatic, Aloysia virgata, and Daucus...

  1. Photoperiod sensing system for timing of flowering in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Doo; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi Ri; Paek, Nam-Chon; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2018-03-27

    CONSTANS (CO) induces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in the photoperiodic pathway, and thereby regulates the seasonal timing of flowering. CO expression is induced and CO protein is stabilized by FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX PROTEIN 1 (FKF1) in the late afternoon, while CO is degraded by CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) during the night. These regulatory cascades were thought to act independently. In our study, we investigated the relationship between FKF1 and COP1 in the regulation of CO stability in response to ambient light conditions. A genetic analysis revealed that FKF1 acts as a direct upstream negative regulator of COP1, in which cop1 mutation is epistatic to fkf1 mutation in the photoperiodic regulation of flowering. COP1 activity requires the formation of a hetero-tetramer with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA1), [(COP1)2(SPA1)2]. Light-activated FKF1 has an increased binding capacity for COP1, forming a FKF1-COP1 hetero-dimer, and inhibiting COP1 homo-dimerization at its coiled-coil (CC) domain. Mutations in the CC domain result in poor COP1 dimerization and misregulation of photoperiodic floral induction. We propose that FKF1 represses COP1 activity by inhibiting COP1 dimerization in the late afternoon under long-day conditions, resulting in early flowering.

  2. The use of flowering plants to attract Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    New approaches to vector surveillance and control are being evaluated at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. One approach is to use flowering plants. Mosquitoes of both sexes are attracted to nectar producing plants. These plants generate mixture...

  3. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.
    A

  4. Vascular occlusion in cut rose flowers - a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The causes of low water uptake and water stress symptoms in cut rose flowers are briefly reviewed. Low water uptake is due to an occlusion, mainly located in the basal stem end. No evidence has been found for a reaction of the plant after cutting, in the formation of this occlusion. The blockage has

  5. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content in leaves, flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutraceutical composition (phenolics and flavonoids) of all leaves, flowers, stems and seeds of mallow, Malva sylvestris L., as well as their antioxidant properties were studied using in vitro methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and total ...

  6. Cytokinin treatment and flower quality in Phalaenopsis orchids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... high quality flowering plants to market during key sales periods, such as ... the target market. Some markets favor a double-spike plant, while others prefer a single spike on a plant. Prefe- rence also varies for spike height. However, in all ... An earlier work was concerned with describing the effect of plant.

  7. Reduction of mineral nutrient availability accelerates flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Jan; Seňková, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 15 (2008), s. 1601-1609 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Flowering * Landsberg erecta Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2008

  8. Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt.

  9. Hydroponic Technology for Lily Flowers and Bulbs Production Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture and ...

  10. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  11. Phytochemical And Biological Studies Of The Flowers And Fruits Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of the flowers of Pongamia pinnata L.Pierre was prepared by hydrodistillation and analysed using GS/MS technique. Thirty three components were identified, of which, β-citronellene (13.7%), limonene (13.35%) and trans caryophyllene (12.75%) were the major components. The retention indexes of the ...

  12. Antioxidant activities of extracts from areca (Areca catectu L.) flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activities of areca ( Areca catectu L.) flower, husk and seed extracts were evaluated using 3 complementary in vitro assays, inhibition of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radicals, inhibition of hydroxyl radicals and reducing power system. The EC50 values were calculated for all the methods in order to ...

  13. The essential oil composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorius L. growing in Iran was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). 29 compounds were identified in the oil. The major compounds of the oil were ...

  14. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  15. Determination of antioxidant activity of saffron taken from the flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since oxidative stress has been implicated in most common cause of death, especially in case of cancer and cardiovascular disease, natural substances and spices that show antioxidant effects merit a closer examination. Saffron is the yellow natural spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus and used as a coloring ...

  16. Growth, physiology and flowering of chrysanthemum var. Punch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth retardants have been proven to prevent excessive stem elongation and reduce internode length in plants by inhibiting the effect of cell division and enlargement of cell in plants. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of daminozide and maleic hydrazide on growth, physiology and flowering of ...

  17. Flower visitation by generalists and specialists : Analysis of pollinator quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Velterop, O; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1997-01-01

    Flowers of Scabiosa columbaria (Dipsacaceae) are visited by a large number of insect species, generalists and one specialist. Per population one insect species or group was dominant. Syrphids, bumblebee males and the day-active night moth Autographa gamma were the most numerous visitors in Dutch

  18. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%), limonene (9.7%), b-pinene (7.9%), linalool (7.4%), α-pinene (6.4%) and 1,8-cineole (5.5%). Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2%) and oxygenated monoterpenes ...

  19. Cytokinin treatment and flower quality in Phalaenopsis orchids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously documented an N-6-benzyladenine (BA) protocol to increase spike and flower number in Phalaenopsis orchids. To increase options for growers, we tested two additional cytokinins, kinetin (Kin) and 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2-iP), comparing them with BA. Two key commercial cultivars were used ...

  20. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 1. Bringing the Male and Female ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 1. Bringing the Male and Female Partners Together is Outsourced ... Change in email domain name. Posted on 26 August 2016. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office ...

  1. Flowering phenology and floral visitors of Piliostigma reticulatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Apidae (Hymenoptera) and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) were regarded as main potential pollinators of P. reticulatum. Apidae (Apis mellifera) was the most abundant and frequent visitor. We found that August was the peak flowering period for both male and female individuals ...

  2. Widespread flower color convergence in Solanaceae via alternate biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Julienne; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is rampant throughout the tree of life. While recent studies have made significant progress in ascertaining the proximate mechanisms underlying convergent phenotypes, less is known about the frequency and predictability with which convergent phenotypes arise via the same or multiple pathways at the macroevolutionary scale. We investigated the proximate causes and evolutionary patterns of red flower color in the tomato family, Solanaceae, using large-scale data mining and new sequence data to reconstruct a megaphylogeny of 1341 species. We then combined spectral and anatomical data to assess how many times red flowers have evolved, the relative contribution of different pathways to independent origins of red, and whether the underlying pathway is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness. We estimated at least 30 relatively recent origins of red flowers using anthocyanins, carotenoids, or a dual production of both pigments, with significant phylogenetic signal in the use of anthocyanins and dual production, indicating that closely related red-flowered species tend to employ the same mechanism for coloration. Our study is the first to test whether developmental pathways exhibit phylogenetic signal and implies that historical contingency strongly influences the evolution of new phenotypes. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distilled water-7.0 (control), 5.7, 4.5 and 3.0] on leaf abscission, flowering and pollen germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. 'Morden' as test system under field conditions in sandy loam soil with sufficient organic matter, pale yellow in ...

  4. Plant regeneration and stimulation of in vitro flowering in Eruca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant regeneration and stimulation of in vitro flowering in Eruca sativa Mill. Madan Mohan Sharma, Mukta Dhingra, Anju Dave, Amla Batra. Abstract. Explants such as apical buds, axillary buds, cotyledons, cotyledonary nodes, leaves, hypocotyls and immature embryonal axes from in vitro-grown plantlets were inoculated on ...

  5. Creativity...The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents background information on the artist Ginny Ruffner who was a "flameworker." Includes information on the exhibition entitled "Creativity: The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner" and the accompanying art pop-up book. Provides photographs of some of her artwork. (CMK)

  6. Genetic architecture of flowering time variation in Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step of a plant’s life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a non-domesticated c...

  7. Rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of non-functional pollen by plant reduces effectiveness of pollination. A study was carried out at Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan to determine the influence of rainfall and temperature on flowering intensity of selected clones of Upper Amazon cocoa (Theobroma cacao), as well as its pollen fertility.

  8. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparison of the Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of the aqueous and 70% methanol extracts from the flower of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), originating from Sudan was carried out. Material and Methods: Aqueous, and aquatic methanolic extracts of S. officinalis was investigated for ...

  9. Sunbirds hover at flowers of Salvia and Lycium | Wester | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here I present detailed observations of foraging behaviour in two sunbird species (Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa and Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus) at flowers of three Salvia species (Salvia africana-lutea, S. lanceolata and S. africana-caerulea; Lamiaceae) and one natural hybrid as well as ...

  10. Genetics of growth habit and photoperiodic response to flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... var and photoperiod sensitive, indeterminate type germplasm accessions, GL 37 and GL 103. The genotypes are being maintained at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS),. UAS, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore. Emasculated flowers of variety HA 4 were pollinated by pollen grains ...

  11. Trait correlates and functional significance of heteranthery in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Da Silva, Elizabeth M; Sargent, Risa D; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-10-01

    Flowering plants display extraordinary diversity in the morphology of male sexual organs, yet the functional significance of this variation is not well understood. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of floral correlates of heteranthery - the morphological and functional differentiation of anthers within flowers - among angiosperm families to identify traits associated with this condition. • We performed a phylogenetic analysis of correlated evolution between heteranthery and several floral traits commonly reported from heterantherous taxa. In addition, we quantified the effect of phylogenetic uncertainty in the observed patterns of correlated evolution by comparing trees in which polytomous branches were randomly resolved. • Heteranthery is reported from 12 angiosperm orders and is phylogenetically associated with the absence of floral nectaries, buzz-pollination and enantiostyly (mirror-image flowers). These associations are robust to particularities of the underlying phylogenetic hypothesis. • Heteranthery has probably evolved as a result of pollinator-mediated selection and appears to function to reduce the conflict of relying on pollen both as food to attract pollinators and as the agent of male gamete transfer. The relative scarcity of heteranthery among angiosperm families suggests that the conditions permitting its evolution are not easily met despite the abundance of pollen-collecting bees and nectarless flowers. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  12. rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of non-functional pollen by plant reduces effectiveness of pollination. A study was carried out at. Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan to determine the influence of rainfall and temperature on flowering intensity of selected clones of Upper Amazon cocoa (Theobroma cacao), as well as its pollen fertility.

  13. Effect of refrigeration on post-harvest flowers | Vieira | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of refrigeration on post-harvest flowers. Marcos Ribeiro da Silva Vieira, Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros, Paula Nepomuceno Costa, Caio Marcio Guimarães Santos, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Luiza Maria de Sousa Fernandez, Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira, Arthur Allan, Flavio Silva ...

  14. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  15. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on sweet potato flower induction. A 3*4 factorial experiment in a randomized ... short photoperiod, moderate temperature, limited water supply, trellising vines, overwintering, ..... Sweet potato Germplasm Management Training. Manual. International Potato Center (CIP), ...

  16. Impact of 50% ethanolic extract of Calendula officinalis (flower) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  17. In vitro regeneration, flowering, and cell culture of Centaurea species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg/L indole-3- acetic acid (IAA). In vitro flowering and seed set occurred in C. cyanus when the shoots were incubated on MS basal medium supplemented with B5 vitamins, 100 mg/L myo-inositol and 30 g/L ...

  18. Western flower thrips, a serious pest of floricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Robb; Michael P. Perella

    1991-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has recently become one of the most serious pest problems facing the ornamental industry (Robb & Parrella 1988). It is polyphagous and has been collected from plants of almost every order of the Spermatophyta in California (Watson 1923, Bailey 1933, Bryan & Smith 1956). However...

  19. Molecular markers as a tool for breeding for flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Segregation of flower longevity in two lily populations was studied and the genetic linkage of morphological markers and RAPD markers with loci involved in flower longevity was investigated. A large variation in flower longevity was found within the two populations tested at individual plant level.

  20. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  1. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette

  2. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a second...

  3. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory..., NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston, TX 77551 or...

  4. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of... ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine... 28, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks...

  5. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen

    1991-01-01

    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  6. Early flowers of Bartsia alpina (Scrophulariaceae) and the visitation by bumblebees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Bergman, P

    Phenology and insect visitation of early flowers of Bartsia alpina, a perennial herb, in a subalpine population in northern Sweden, were investigated to find causes for low seed set in early flowers. Bumblebees are the only visitors of B. alpina; they collect pollen and nectar. Flower phenologies of

  7. Determinants of pollinator activity and flower preference in the early spring blooming Crocus vernus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Ørjan; Matthews, Ingrid

    1998-04-01

    This study examines the effects of environmental factors on the pollination activity on Crocus vernus by Apis mellifera, and also whether bees discriminate among flowers on the basis of floral display size and colour. Flower density was much more important than temperature, humidity, and time of day and season in explaining variation in bee numbers, the total number of flowers visited, the number of flowers visited by individual bees and the total number of visits per flower (visitation rate) during 10 min observation periods. Although flower density positively influenced bee abundance and the number of flowers visited by individual bees, we found a negative relationship between flower density and visitation rates, suggesting that the pool of available pollinators was saturated at flower densities below maximum. Despite this, visitation rates were high. On average a flower received 3.42 visits during one hour; thus there seems to be little intraspecific competition for pollinators despite saturation of the pollinator pool. There was no significant difference between the size or colour of flowers that were visited, approached, or ignored by bees, and duration of visits was not related to floral display size or colour. Thus, on average A. mellifera did not appear to discriminate between flowers on the basis of floral display. Consequently, the data indicate that there is no pollinator mediated selection on floral display, driven by discriminating pollinators.

  8. Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different flowering stages of Protea repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R; Crous, Casparus J; Roets, Francois; Venter, Stephanus N; Wingfield, Michael J; de Beer, Z Wilhelm

    2018-02-01

    Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees. Since the P. repens habitat is fire-prone, we also considered the potential of these bacteria to recolonise infructescences after fire. Actinomycetes were largely absent from flower buds and inflorescences but were consistently present in young and mature infructescences. Two Streptomyces spp. were the most consistent taxa recovered, one of which was also routinely isolated from leaf litter. Lower colonisation rates were evident in samples from a recently burnt site. One of the most consistent taxa isolated from older trees in the unburnt site was absent from this site. Our findings show that P. repens has a distinct community of actinomycetes dominated by a few species. These communities change over time and infructescence developmental stage, season and the age of the host population. Mature infructescences appear to be important sources of inoculum for some of the actinomycetes, seemingly disrupted by fire. Increased fire frequency limiting maturation of P. repens infructescences could thus impact future actinomycete colonisation in the landscape. Streptomyces spp. are likely to share this niche with the ophiostomatoid fungi, which merits further study regarding their interactions and mode of transfer.

  9. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  10. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  11. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  12. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach 'Genpei' bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori; Makino, Izumi; Inagaki, Azusa; Arakawa, Osamu; Martin, Cathie

    2014-03-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. Flowers for food? : Scoping study on Dutch flower farms, land governance and local food security in Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirigia, Evans; Betsema, G.; van Westen, A.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068876572; Zoomers, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073723592

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands is an important actor in the floriculture sector worldwide. Many Dutch flower companies have in recent years established businesses in the Global South as a result of favourable climatic conditions, available land and water resources, and the presence of cheap labour. With the aim to

  14. Why do we treat flowers the way we do? a system analysis approach of the Cut Flowers Postharvest Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    2007-01-01

    Although temperature is one of the most important factors in the post-harvest chain to control quality losses of cut flowers, decisions related to temperature management are often poorly underpinned. The effects of temperature on some physiological, physical and phytopathological processes involved

  15. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  16. Genetic divergence of Etlingera elatior based on agro-morphological features for cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide acceptability Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior by the consumer market and its cultivation are still restrict­ed due to the high mass of inflorescences (over 1 kg, which complicates the process of harvesting, handling, packaging and transportation. The objective of this work was to characterize agromorphological and estimate the genetic divergence among Etlingera elatior ( Jack R.M. Sm. with standard cut flower. A stand of 75 genotypes resulting from crosses between genotypes at random from the collection of germplasm with variability inflorescences of commercial interest, they keep on growing in the Research and Development of Ubatuba. Seventeen descriptors were evaluated on the leaf, inflorescence and infrutescence. The inflorescence mass, length and diameter of the flowering stem, height and flower diameter were selected as the most important descriptors for selecting accessions with standard marketing as cut flower. We selected 12 promising accessions, with characteristics appropriate to the market and with good combination of shapes and coloring bracts.

  17. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of normal and malformed flowers in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) to identify the differential expressed genes between normal and malformed flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaidong; Li, Haili; Li, Weijin; Zhong, Jundi; Chen, Yan; Shen, Chenjia; Yuan, Changchun

    2017-10-23

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.), a popular fruit with high medicinal and nutritional properties, is widely cultivated in tropical South Asia and America. The malformed flower is a major cause for a reduction in production of sugar apple. However, little information is available on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple. To gain a comprehensive perspective on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple, cDNA libraries from normal and malformation flowers were prepared independently for Illumina sequencing. The data generated a total of 70,189,896 reads that were integrated and assembled into 55,097 unigenes with a mean length of 783 bp. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among these DEGs, 701 flower development-associated transcript factor encoding genes were included. Furthermore, a large number of flowering- and hormone-related DEGs were also identified, and most of these genes were down-regulated expressed in the malformation flowers. The expression levels of 15 selected genes were validated using quantitative-PCR. The contents of several endogenous hormones were measured. The malformed flowers displayed lower endogenous hormone levels compared to the normal flowers. The expression data as well as hormone levels in our study will serve as a comprehensive resource for investigating the regulation mechanism involved in floral organ development in sugar apple.

  18. Cover Image Innate or learned preference for upward-facing flowers?: implications for the costs of pendent flowers from experiments on captive bumble bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator preferences for phenotypic characters, including floral orientation, can affect plant reproductive success. For example, hawkmoths and syrphid flies prefer upward- over downward-facing flowers in field experiments. Although such preferences suggest a cost of pendent flowers in terms of pollinator attraction, we cannot rule out the possibility that the preferences have been affected by prior experience: pollinators might choose the same type of flowers to which they have already become accustomed. To test for innate preference, we observed bumble bees foraging on an array of upward- and downward-facing artificial flowers. Without any prior experience with vertical flowers, 91.7% bees chose an upward-facing flower at the very first visit. In addition to this innate preference, we also found that the preference was strengthened by experience, which suggests that the bees learned upward-facing flowers were easier to handle. Although bumble bees may concentrate on pendent flowers in the field, such learned preferences are evidently imposed on a template of upward-facing preference. Because bee-pollinated pendent flowers face particular difficulties in attracting visits, therefore, we expect them to compensate through other means, such as greater floral rewards.

  19. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  1. De novo transcriptome analysis in Dendrobium and identification of critical genes associated with flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Shen, Qi; Lin, Renan; Zhao, Zhuangliu; Shen, Chenjia; Sun, Chongbo

    2017-10-01

    Artificial control of flowering time is pivotal for the ornamental value of orchids including the genus Dendrobium. Although various flowering pathways have been revealed in model plants, little information is available on the genetic regualtion of flowering in Dendrobium. To identify the critical genes associated with flowering, transcriptomes from four organs (leaf, root, stem and flower) of D. officinale were analyzed in our study. In total, 2645 flower-specific transcripts were identified. Functional annotation and classification suggested that several metabolic pathways, including four sugar-related pathways and two fatty acid-related pathways, were enriched. A total of 24 flowering-related transcripts were identified in D. officinale according to the similarities to their homologous genes from Arabidopsis, suggesting that most classical flowering pathways existed in D. officinale. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs in orchids are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, expression changes in nine randomly-selected critical flowering-related transcripts between the vegetative stage and reproductive stage were quantified by qRT-PCR analysis. Our study provided a number of candidate genes and sequence resources for investigating the mechanisms underlying the flowering process of the Dendrobium genus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  3. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hileman, Lena C

    2014-08-05

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical investigation of earliness in radiation induced early flowering mutantlines of jute Corchorus capsularis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Ilias, M.; Biswas, A.K.; Naznin, S.

    1980-01-01

    With the help of radiation induced early and late flowering mutantlines of jute, studies have been made to determine the biochemical factors which could regulate the induction and expression of genes for the flowering processes in this plant. Comparative biochemical investigations were done with the parameters like : plant pigments (Chlorophyl a, b and carotenoides), auxin/antiauxin, and gibberellin/anti-gibberellin type of substances. Quantitative as well as qualitative differences of plant pigments were observed between the early and late flowering lines. Extracts of early flowering lines have been found to induce earliness in the late flowering mother variety of jute (D-154). Re-isolated growth inhibitors of early flowering lines have also been found to induce earliness in the late flowering mother variety (D-154). (author)

  5. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  7. Understanding the genetic and epigenetic architecture in complex network of rice flowering pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhui; Chen, Dan; Fang, Jun; Wang, Pingrong; Deng, Xiaojian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-12-01

    Although the molecular basis of flowering time control is well dissected in the long day (LD) plant Arabidopsis, it is still largely unknown in the short day (SD) plant rice. Rice flowering time (heading date) is an important agronomic trait for season adaption and grain yield, which is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. During the last decade, as the nature of florigen was identified, notable progress has been made on exploration how florigen gene expression is genetically controlled. In Arabidopsis expression of certain key flowering integrators such as FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are also epigenetically regulated by various chromatin modifications, however, very little is known in rice on this aspect until very recently. This review summarized the advances of both genetic networks and chromatin modifications in rice flowering time control, attempting to give a complete view of the genetic and epigenetic architecture in complex network of rice flowering pathways.

  8. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  9. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds.

  10. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇ´, Višnja; žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-07-01

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe. Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during

  11. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇetic, Višnja; Žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-07-01

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe.Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during the

  12. Ecological implications of a flower size/number trade-off in tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Chris J; Maycock, Colin R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Hollingsworth, Pete M; Khoo, Eyen; Sukri, Rahayu Sukmaria Haji; Burslem, David F R P

    2011-02-01

    In angiosperms, flower size commonly scales negatively with number. The ecological consequences of this trade-off for tropical trees remain poorly resolved, despite their potential importance for tropical forest conservation. We investigated the flower size number trade-off and its implications for fecundity in a sample of tree species from the Dipterocarpaceae on Borneo. We combined experimental exclusion of pollinators in 11 species, with direct and indirect estimates of contemporary pollen dispersal in two study species and published estimates of pollen dispersal in a further three species to explore the relationship between flower size, pollinator size and mean pollen dispersal distance. Maximum flower production was two orders of magnitude greater in small-flowered than large-flowered species of Dipterocarpaceae. In contrast, fruit production was unrelated to flower size and did not differ significantly among species. Small-flowered species had both smaller-sized pollinators and lower mean pollination success than large-flowered species. Average pollen dispersal distances were lower and frequency of mating between related individuals was higher in a smaller-flowered species than a larger-flowered confamilial. Our synthesis of pollen dispersal estimates across five species of dipterocarp suggests that pollen dispersal scales positively with flower size. Trade-offs embedded in the relationship between flower size and pollination success contribute to a reduction in the variance of fecundity among species. It is therefore plausible that these processes could delay competitive exclusion and contribute to maintenance of species coexistence in this ecologically and economically important family of tropical trees. These results have practical implications for tree species conservation and restoration. Seed collection from small-flowered species may be especially vulnerable to cryptic genetic erosion. Our findings also highlight the potential for differential

  13. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality.

  14. Ecological implications of a flower size/number trade-off in tropical forest trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Kettle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, flower size commonly scales negatively with number. The ecological consequences of this trade-off for tropical trees remain poorly resolved, despite their potential importance for tropical forest conservation. We investigated the flower size number trade-off and its implications for fecundity in a sample of tree species from the Dipterocarpaceae on Borneo.We combined experimental exclusion of pollinators in 11 species, with direct and indirect estimates of contemporary pollen dispersal in two study species and published estimates of pollen dispersal in a further three species to explore the relationship between flower size, pollinator size and mean pollen dispersal distance. Maximum flower production was two orders of magnitude greater in small-flowered than large-flowered species of Dipterocarpaceae. In contrast, fruit production was unrelated to flower size and did not differ significantly among species. Small-flowered species had both smaller-sized pollinators and lower mean pollination success than large-flowered species. Average pollen dispersal distances were lower and frequency of mating between related individuals was higher in a smaller-flowered species than a larger-flowered confamilial. Our synthesis of pollen dispersal estimates across five species of dipterocarp suggests that pollen dispersal scales positively with flower size.Trade-offs embedded in the relationship between flower size and pollination success contribute to a reduction in the variance of fecundity among species. It is therefore plausible that these processes could delay competitive exclusion and contribute to maintenance of species coexistence in this ecologically and economically important family of tropical trees. These results have practical implications for tree species conservation and restoration. Seed collection from small-flowered species may be especially vulnerable to cryptic genetic erosion. Our findings also highlight the potential for

  15. The influence of heterostyly, pollination method and hormonization on eggplant's (Solanum melongena L. flowering and fruiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Kowalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in a three unheated plastic tunnels in 1998-2000. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of flower's heterostyly and two methods of flower pollination (self-pollination and using bumble-bee as well as flower hormonization on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of aubergine - 'Black Beauty', 'Solara F1 and Epic F1' The analysis of results showed that the eggplants formed more flowers in object with self-pollination and flower hormonization than those pollinated by bumble-bee. Regardless of the pollination way and flower hormonization, eggplants formed the highest number of flowers with long pistil and much less - with medium and short pistil. It was shown that the tendency to formation the flowers with particular type of pistil is the variety trait of eggplants. The highest number of flowers with long pistil was observed in varieties 'Solara F1' and 'Epic F1' and those with medium pistil - in 'Black Beauty' variety. Heterostyly phenomenon occurring in eggplant's flowers affected the plant's fruiting. The most fruits were set from flowers with long pistils than from those with medium and short ones. Fruits formed from long pistil flowers were characterized with significantly greater mean weight and size, than those formed from medium and short pistil ones. No significant influence of pollination method on eggplant fruit quality was found in three years of study. Fruits achieved due to three pollination methods were characterized with similar mean weight and diameter. Fruits with significantly larger mean length were achieved from flowers pollinated by bumble-bees than from self - pollinated ones.

  16. Current Situation of Turkey’s Cut Flower Production and Trade, Problems and Offered Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Tapkı

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cut flower production has become an income-generating activity branch. Global cut flower production area was 609.000 ha in 2014 which was 39% of total indoor plants production area. Primary continents in cut flower production are; Asia, Pacific and America, and primary countries are; USA, Japan, Italy, Holland, Ecuador, Colombia and Kenya. Europe has a 63% of share and American Continent has 29% of share in global cut flower export. The biggest cut flower exporters in the world are; Holland (56%, Colombia (17% and Ecuador (11%, and the biggest cut flower importers are; USA (18%, Germany (15% and Holland (14%. Due to geographical location and climate conditions, Turkey has an advantage in cut flower production. In terms of production area size, cut flowers take a 26% of share among the indoor plants area in Turkey. According to Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI data, total cut flower production area in Turkey was 1.195 ha by 2016, and it has a 68% of share in indoor plants production. Mediterranean region comes first that has a 46% of share in cut flower production area in Turkey with 5.095 da. In terms of production area, İzmir has the largest share (41.25%. Turkey’s indoor plants export volume is 81.5 million USD which is 26th in the world. Among product groups, cut flower has a 34% of share in export with 27.7 million USD, and Holland is the country that Turkey exports cut flower most (19.29%. Among the cut flowers, carnation is produced and exported most in Turkey. Cut flower sector is open for improvement, therefore taking actions towards market demands, and product diversification would be beneficial for the sector improvement.

  17. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams.…

  18. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  19. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  20. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of flowers of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mateos, Rosario; Aguilar-Santelises, Leonor; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Nieto-Angel, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts of flowers from some Mexican accessions of Crataegus were studied using six accessions with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the nutraceutical properties of the accessions of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC-MS. Among the flavonoids, the quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (4), quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)-glucoside (2) and quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)]-glucoside (1) were assigned. Flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity explain some of the medicinal properties attributed to flowers of Mexican hawthorns.

  1. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Riechmann, José L

    2010-12-01

    The onset of flower formation is a key regulatory event during the life cycle of angiosperm plants, which marks the beginning of the reproductive phase of development. It has been shown that floral initiation is under tight genetic control, and deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms has been a main area of interest in plant biology for the past two decades. Here, we provide an overview of the developmental and genetic processes that occur during floral initiation. We further review recent studies that have led to the genome-wide identification of target genes of key floral regulators and discuss how they have contributed to an in-depth understanding of the gene regulatory networks controlling early flower development. We focus especially on a master regulator of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1), but also outline what is known about the AP1 network in other plant species and the evolutionary implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Labour Management on Contemporary Kenyan Cut Flower Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized in te...... elements) and political and demand-side developments (in the case of civic elements). The paper concludes by considering the generalizability of these findings to other large-scale agricultural sectors in developing countries.......This paper describes the labour management system applied since around 2005 on farms accounting for the bulk of the output of the Kenyan cut flower sector, and provides an analysis of the foundations of this system. Using categories drawn from convention theory, this system is characterized...

  3. Volatile constituents of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. (Rutaceae from Iran was analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Thirty six compounds comprising 92.2% of the total oil were characterized. The main components were b-caryophyllene (12.9%, limonene (9.7%, b-pinene (7.9%, linalool (7.4%, α-pinene (6.4% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Volatile oil of Haplophyllum buhsei Boiss. flowering aerial parts was dominated by the high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (39.2% and oxygenated monoterpenes (23.2%.

  4. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    to have modest value for detecting resistance to methiocarb in field populations of F. occidentalis. The particular host plant of a polyphagous insect population may affect activity of detoxification enzymes and tolerance to insecticides. Another part of this study investigated the possible effects......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  5. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  6. In vitro flowering - literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Wayner Montero-Carmona; Víctor M. Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    In vitro flowering can be induced at different stages during development of in vitro plants by changes in chemical and physical factors related to the tissue culture process. Among the physical factors, photoperiod and temperature have been studied more detailed. Their inductive effect may vary in different species. Some physical factors can also be replaced by chemical stimuli. The chemical factors more frequently described in the literature are some growth regulators and the sucrose/nitroge...

  7. Visits of bats to flowers of Lafoensia glyptocarpa KOEHNE (LYTHRACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, S. S. P.; PERACCHI, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study visits of phyllostomid bats to the Lafoensia glyptocarpa Kohne flowers were observed at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Itaguaí municipality, Rio de Janeiro state. This tree species present floral characteristics to fit the "chiropterophilous syndrome", encouraging the visit of four species of bats which showed different behavior patterns, according to their size, weight and access to the food resources. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) showed hovering beha...

  8. Flavonoids from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jambor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten flavonoids were obtained from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L. Their structures were determined mainly on the basis of spectral analyses (UV, 'H NMR, MS. The following aglycons were isolated: quercetin, kaempferol, isokaempferide and apigenin as well as the following glycosides: quercetion 4'-β-xyloside, 3-methylquercetin 3'-β-xyloside and a mixture of quercetin 3-galactoside and 3-glucoside. The structures of three compounds obtained in very small amounts were determined in part.

  9. Kaempferol tri- and tetraglycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2012-02-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivar "Jackmanii Superba", together with a known kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1). The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Can Flowering Greencover Crops Promote Biological Control in German Vineyards?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Christoph; Köckerling, Janine; Biancu, Sandra; Gramm, Thomas; Michl, Gertraud; Entling, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. P...

  11. New triterpenoid saponins from the flowers of Pueraria thomsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Sun, Jia-Hong; Tan, Yao; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, kakkasaponin II (1) and kakkasaponin III (2), were isolated from the methanol extract of the flowers of Pueraria thomsonii (Leguminosae), together with seven known oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, phaseoside IV (3), sophoradiol monoglucuronide (4), kakkasaponin I (5), kaikasaponin III (6), soyasaponin I (7), soyasaponin III (8), and soyasaponin IV (9). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including IR, ESI-TOF-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  12. Phenolic arids from the flowers of Nymphaea alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jambor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nympheae alba flowers contain a variety of phenolic acids. Crystalline ellagic and gallic acids were isolated as well as their methyl and ethyl esters. Their identification was made on the basis of the results of spectral analyses 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, UV. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic, p-cumaric, vanillic and ferulic acids were isolated. The presence of bound forms of acids in the material was demonstrated.

  13. The art of the deal. Interview by Joe Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, M

    1997-04-05

    Health care today is a maelstrom of deals-massive contracts, joint ventures, mergers, strategic alliances. Margaret Neale, a professor of organizational behavior at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business, has studied deal-making for most of her professional life. As she tells freelance writer Joe Flower, the focus shouldn't be on power tactics or how to be tough, but on what we can do to make negotiations work better-for all sides.

  14. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  15. Circumnutation on the water surface: female flowers of Vallisneria

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuge, Keiko; Iida, Satoko; Katou, Kiyoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin's time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial ...

  16. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  17. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Chandler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  18. Recent progress of flower colour modification by biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa; Chandler, Steve

    2009-12-15

    Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  19. Distribution of Two bioactive compounds in flowers of Trollius chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; An, Yan-Nan; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi; Sun, Zhen-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure was established, which combined a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the simultaneous quantification of 2″-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin (OGA) and veratric acid and a gravimetric analysis for the determination of the mass fraction of the floral parts (calyx, corolla, stalk, stamens and pistils and ovary) of Trollius chinensis, to investigate the distribution and identify the enriched floral part(s) of these two compounds in the flowers. The calculated mean distributions of OGA in calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils, stalk and ovary were 83.62, 7.76, 4.35, 2.92 and 1.35%, respectively, whereas those of veratric acid in the corresponding floral parts were 46.41, 9.01, 18.41, 4.11 and 22.06%, respectively, indicating the uneven and noncorresponding distribution of these two compounds. This study extends the application of the HPLC assay and favors the production of OGA and veratric acid from the flowers of T. chinensis in addition to the benefits of breeding, cultivation and utilization of these flowers.

  20. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  1. Chemical thinning affects yield and return flowering in 'Jubileu' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Giovanaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Peach hand thinning improves fruit quality; however, it requires a high demand of labor and increases production costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators applied at post-flowering as an alternative to hand thinning of peaches. The experiment was conducted with peach cultivar Jubileu, in 2012. The treatments consisted of no thinning, hand thinning 45 days after full bloom (DAFB, ethephon (85 and 120 mg L-1, benzyladenine (BA (400 mg L-1, and BA plus gibberellic acid (GA4 + 7 (400 mg L-1 applied 40 DAFB. BA-treated plants were not different from non-thinned plants, had excessive load, and smaller diameter fruit. Treatment with ethephon at 120 mg L-1 resulted in excessive thinning and decreased yield in comparison with other treatments. Plants treated with 85 mg L-1 ethephon and BA + AG4 + 7 (400 mg L-1 had fruit abscission, crop load, production per plant and fruit diameter similar to hand-thinned plants. In 2013, an increased number of flower buds was observed in treatments with ethephon and also reduction of this trait in BA and BA + GA4 + 7 applications. Ethephon at 85 mg L-1 can be an alternative of chemical thinning in 'Jubileu' peaches, without compromising the return of flower bud numbers in the next crop.

  2. ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis. PMID:15805488

  3. Pollinator attraction of the wasp-flower Scrophularia umbrosa (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, J; Emer, D; Ayasse, M

    2012-05-01

    Certain species of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae), such as S. nodosa and S. umbrosa, are mainly pollinated by social wasps and are consequently described as wasp-flowers. Because plants attract their pollinators with the help of various floral cues, such as floral odour and/or optical cues, we have investigated the role of olfactory and visual floral signals responsible for wasp attraction in S. umbrosa. Using a combination of chemical (GC, GC-MS) and electrophysiological analyses (GC-EAD), we identified ten compounds in the complex floral odour bouquet that are detectable by the wasps' antennae. As in the wasp-flower Epipactis helleborine, we found so-called 'green leaf volatiles' (GLVs) in the floral odour; these GLVs are highly attractive to the wasps. GLVs, mostly six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols and acetates, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are emitted by many plants infested with herbivores, e.g. caterpillars. In contrast to other investigated wasp-flowers, behavioural experiments have demonstrated that, in addition to the floral odour of S. umbrosa, visual cues are involved in pollinator attraction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Patterning of Inflorescences and Flowers by the F-Box Protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY Homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of Petunia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, E.J.; Bliek, M.; Koes, R.E.; Kusters, E.; Bruin de, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY

  5. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  6. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Mating between Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae) individuals increases with their flowering synchrony and spatial proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Jennifer L; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Although spatial distance is considered the primary factor in determining plant mating patterns, flowering time and synchrony are also likely to be important. We quantified the relationships of both distance and flowering phenology to the probability of mating between individual plants. In an experimental plot, we followed daily flowering phenology in Echinacea angustifolia, a self-incompatible perennial pollinated by solitary bees. We assigned paternity to 832 of 927 seedlings from 37 maternal plants using 11 microsatellite loci. Potential pollen donors included the experiment plot's 202 flowering plants and a nearby plot's 19 flowering plants. For each maternal plant sampled, we examined the pollen pool by quantifying correlated paternity and the effective number of pollen donors. Significantly more pollinations occurred between neighboring and synchronous plants than expected under random mating, with distance being more important than flowering synchrony. The distance pollen moved varied over the course of the season, with late flowering plants mating with more distant plants compared to early or peak flowering plants. All maternal plants had a diverse set of mates (mean number of effective pollen donors = 23.7), and the composition of the pollen pools overlapped little between maternal plants. Both distance and flowering synchrony influenced pollination patterns in E. angustifolia. Our results suggest that pollen movement between incompatible mates and flowering asynchrony could be contributing to the reduced seed set observed in small E. angustifolia remnants. However, we also found that individual plants receive pollen from a diverse group of pollen donors.

  8. Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Karen J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm mutants of maize (Zea mays L., which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

  9. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania P Gonzalez-Terrazas

    Full Text Available Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40-50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10-20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening.

  10. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

  11. Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.

  12. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Fleming, Theodore H.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Tschapka, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40–50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10–20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening. PMID:27684373

  13. Pollinators, "mustard oil" volatiles, and fruit production in flowers of the dioecious tree Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D; Griffiths, Megan E; Peter, Craig I; Lawes, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    The Putranjivaceae is an enigmatic family, notable for being the only lineage outside the Capparales to possess the glucosinolate biochemical pathway, which forms the basis of an induced chemical defense system against herbivores (the "mustard oil bomb"). We investigated the pollination biology and floral scent chemistry of Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae), a dioecious subcanopy tree with flowers borne on the stem (cauliflory). Flowering male trees were more abundant than female ones and produced about 10-fold more flowers. Flowers of both sexes produce copious amounts of nectar on disc-like nectaries accessible to short-tongued insects. The main flower visitors observed were cetoniid beetles, bees, and vespid wasps. Pollen load analysis indicated that these insects exhibit a high degree of fidelity to D. natalensis flowers. Insects effectively transfer pollen from male to female plants resulting in about 31% of female flowers developing fruits with viable seeds. Cetoniid beetles showed significant orientation toward the scent of D. natalensis flowers in a Y-maze olfactometer. The scents of male and female flowers are similar in chemical composition and dominated by fatty acid derivatives and isothiocyanates from the glucosinolate pathway. The apparent constitutive emission of isothiocyanates raises interesting new questions about their functional role in flowers.

  14. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  15. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on flower, pollen, and nectar production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, B.J.; Cane, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Intensified ultraviolet-B radiation or UV-B (wavelengths between 280 and 320 nm) can delay flowering and diminish lifetime flower production in a few plants. Here we studied the effects of enhanced UV-B on floral traits crucial to pollination and pollinator reproduction. We observed simultaneous flowering responses of a new crop plant, Limnanthes alba (Limnathaceae), and a wildflower, Phacelia campanularia (Hydrophyllaceae), to five lifetime UV-B dosages ranging between 2.74 and 15.93 kJ·m -2 ·d -1 . Floral traits known to link plant pollination with bee host preference, host fidelity and larval development were measured. Intensified UV-B had no overall effect on nectar and pollen production of L. alba and P. campanularia flowers. A quadratic relationship between UV-B and nectar sugar production occurred in P. campanularia and showed that even subambient UV-B dosages can be deleterious for a floral trait. Other floral responses to UV-B were more dramatic and idiosyncratic. As UV-B dosage increased, L. alba plants were less likely to flower, but suffered no delays in flowering or reductions to lifetime flower production for those that did flower. Conversely, an equal proportion of P. campanularia plants flowered under all UV-B treatments, but these same plants experienced delayed onset to bloom and produced fewer flowers at greater UV-B intensities. Therefore, intensified UV-B elicits idiosyncratic responses in flowering phenology and flower production from these two annual plants. Diurnal patterns in nectar and pollen production strongly coincided with fluctuating humidity and only weakly with UV-B dosage. Overall, our results indicated that intensified UVB can alter some flowering traits that impinge upon plant competition for pollinator services, as well as plant and pollinator reproductive success. (author)

  16. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Librada Alcaraz

    Full Text Available A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  17. Vase-life of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus cut flowers depending upon; media, mineral nutrition, their morphological attributes and treatment with flower preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rudnicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among different media, mineral nutrition and morphological features of gerbera flowers in relation to their vase-life period investigated. The bast medium for longevity of cut gerbera flowers was the mixture of composted pine bark and peat moss fertilized with N – 250 mg/1 and Mg – 150 mg/1. It was found that cut gerberas lasted longer when they were the Alkemade type, i.e. with wide petals. Yellow flowers remained fresh longer than red and pink ones. It was also found that the vase-life period of gerberas directly correlated with the length of floral stalk, its ability to grow and the inflorescence diameter. The solution of flower preservative Proflovit-72 was effective 'in extending life at room temperature and improved the quality and longevity of flowers which were previously in coldstorage for 1 to 3 weeks.

  18. Interacting effects of genetic variation for seed dormancy and flowering time on phenology, life history, and fitness of experimental Arabidopsis thaliana populations over multiple generations in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark A; Cooper, Martha D; Sellamuthu, Reena; Braun, Peter; Migneault, Andrew; Browning, Alyssa; Perry, Emily; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    Major alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time are well studied, and can interact to influence seasonal timing and fitness within generations. However, little is known about how this interaction controls phenology, life history, and population fitness across multiple generations in natural seasonal environments. To examine how seed dormancy and flowering time shape annual plant life cycles over multiple generations, we established naturally dispersing populations of recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana segregating early and late alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time in a field experiment. We recorded seasonal phenology and fitness of each genotype over 2 yr and several generations. Strong seed dormancy suppressed mid-summer germination in both early- and late-flowering genetic backgrounds. Strong dormancy and late-flowering genotypes were both necessary to confer a winter annual life history; other genotypes were rapid-cycling. Strong dormancy increased within-season fecundity in an early-flowering background, but decreased it in a late-flowering background. However, there were no detectable differences among genotypes in population growth rates. Seasonal phenology, life history, and cohort fitness over multiple generations depend strongly upon interacting genetic variation for dormancy and flowering. However, similar population growth rates across generations suggest that different life cycle genotypes can coexist in natural populations. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Quantitative Determination of Alkaloids in Lotus Flower (Flower Buds of Nelumbo nucifera and Their Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity

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    Toshio Morikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analytical method for five aporphine alkaloids, nuciferine (1, nornuciferine (2, N-methylasimilobine (3, asimilobine (4, and pronuciferine (5, and five benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, armepavine (6, norarmepavine (7, N-methylcoclaurine (8, coclaurine (9, and norjuziphine (10, identified as the constituents responsible for the melanogenesis inhibitory activity of the extracts of lotus flowers (the flower buds of Nelumbo nucifera, has been developed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these 10 alkaloids were achieved on a πNAP column, a reversed-phase column with naphthylethyl group-bonded silica packing material, with CH3CN–0.2% aqueous acetic acid as the mobile phase and using mass spectrometry equipped with a positive-mode electrospray ionization source. According to the protocol established, distributions of these 10 alkaloids in the petal, receptacle, and stamen parts, which were separated from the whole flower, were examined. As expected, excellent correlations were observed between the total alkaloid content and melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Among the active alkaloids, nornuciferine (2 was found to give a carbamate salt (2′′ via formation of an unstable carbamic acid (2′ by absorption of carbon dioxide from the air.

  20. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  1. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Extract of Pinus merkusii Jungh & De Vriese Cone Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkiya, N. I.; Masruri, M.; Ulfa, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The paper studies recent application of cone flower waste from Pinus merkusii Jungh & De Vriese for an environmentally unclear method for synthesis silver nanoparticle. Phytochemical characterization using iron trichloride solution showed the extract of Pinus merkusii cone flower contains of phenolic group of secondary metabolite. This group acts as both reducing and stabilizing agents. For the synthesis of silver nanoparticle, solution of silver nitrate is added to the extract at 60°C. The effect of extract concentration (5-20%) and time reaction (15-60 min) is investigated. The formation of silver nanoparticle is confirmed by the color change from yellowish to brown. Meanwhile, UV-Vis characterization of silver nanoparticle in extract 20% and 60 min reaction showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 431 nm, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed the particle size range in between 8 and 23 nm with a spherical in shape.

  2. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  3. How Do Trees Know When to Flower? Predicting Reproductive Phenology of Douglas-fir with Changing Winter and Spring Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevey, J.; St Clair, B.; Harrington, C.

    2016-12-01

    Flowering at the right time is one of the primary ways that plants are adapted to their environment. Trees that flower too early risk cold damage to vulnerable new tissues and those that flower too late miss peak resources or may mistime flowering to coincide with other trees, altering outcrossing rates and gene flow. Past observations indicate that temperature cues over winter and spring influence the timing of flowering in many tree species. Understanding these cues is important for predicting how flowering phenology of trees will change with a changing climate.We developed predictive models of flowering for Douglas-fir, an abundant and commercially important tree in the Pacific Northwest. We assembled over 10,000 flowering observations of trees from 11 sites across western Oregon and Washington. We modeled the dates of flowering using hourly temperature data; our models of flowering were adapted from previous models of vegetative budburst and height growth initiation developed for Douglas-fir. Preliminary results show that both chilling (cold) and forcing (warm) temperatures over winter and spring are important determinants of flowering time for Douglas-fir. This suggests that as spring temperatures warm in the future, Douglas-fir across the Pacific Northwest will flower earlier, unless plants experience insufficient chilling over winter, in which case it is possible that Douglas-fir may flower later than in the past, or not flower at all. At one site, Douglas-fir genotypes from different geographic regions flowered in the same order from year to year, indicating that both temperature and heredity influence flowering. Knowledge of the environmental and genetic cues that drive the timing of flowering can help predict how changes in temperature under various climate models could change flowering time across sites. These models may also indicate the geographic areas where future climate could enhance or reduce flowering of Douglas-fir in the future.

  4. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H 2 O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P

  5. Flowering dynamics, nectar secretion and insect visitation of Phacelia campanularia A. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wróblewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006, flowering dynamics and nectar secretion of Phacelia campanularia A. Gray flowers as well as the insect visitation rate were studied in the climatic conditions of Lublin, Poland. The flowering of phacelia started in the middle of June and lasted for 1.5 up to 2 months. Full bloom occurred between the third and fifth week of the flowering period of this taxon. For the study period, the average weight of nectar produced by 10 flowers was 75.64 mg, weight of sugars 11.31 mg, while their concentration in the nectar was 20.2%. Among the entomofauna foraging on the flowers of phacelia, honey bees were predominant, with their proportion among the pollinators accounting for 84.8%.

  6. Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-10-01

    Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. EMF1, a novel protein involved in the control of shoot architecture and flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, D.; Chen, L.; Moon, Y.-H.

    2001-01-01

    shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class......Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform...... the apical meristem from indeterminate to determinate growth by producing a single terminal flower on all nodes. We have identified the EMF1 gene by positional cloning. The deduced polypeptide has no homology with any protein of known function except a putative protein in the rice genome with which EMF1...

  8. [Effect of 5-azacitidine on flower stalk branching in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletskaia, E I; Iudanova, S S; Maletskiĭ, S I

    2006-01-01

    An influence of epimutagen 5-azacitidine on a flower stalk morphogenesis in sugar beet was studied. After the epimutagene treatment the great number of the first- and the third-order branch formation was observed. A higher level of branching completely modified the flower stalk architectonics (generations A0Az0 and A1Az1). A number of the second-order branches in the control and the experimental plants were not distinguished. A new epiphenotype with higher level of branching (generation A0Az0) inherited in daughter generation A1Az1. A flower stalk architectonics was modified because the third-order branches developed in the bract axil instead of flower primordium. A great number of lateral shoot modified a metamer organization of the flower stalk. The metamers on the third-order branches were single-flowered.

  9. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  10. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages.

  11. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  13. The influence of floral symmetry, dependence on pollinators and pollination generalization on flower size variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, A; Totland, O

    2014-07-01

    The pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection hypothesis suggests that the specialized pollination system of zygomorphic flowers might cause stabilizing selection, reducing their flower size variation compared with actinomorphic flowers. However, the degree of ecological generalization and of dependence on pollinators varies greatly among species of both flower symmetry types and this may also affect flower size variation. Data on 43 species from two contrasting communities (one alpine and one lowland community) were used to test the relationships and interactions between flower size phenotypic variation, floral symmetry, ecological pollination generalization and species' dependence on pollinators. Contrary to what was expected, higher flower size variation was found in zygomorphic than in actinomorphic species in the lowland community, and no difference in flower size variation was found between symmetry types in the alpine community. The relationship between floral symmetry and flower size variation depended on ecological generalization and species' dependence on pollinators, although the influence of ecological generalization was only detected in the alpine community. Zygomorphic species that were highly dependent on pollinators and that were ecologically specialized were less variable in flower size than ecologically generalist and selfing zygomorphic species, supporting the pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection hypothesis. However, these relationships were not found in actinomorphic species, probably because they are not dependent on any particular pollinator for efficient pollination and therefore their flower size always shows moderate levels of variation. The study suggests that the relationship between flower size variation and floral symmetry may be influenced by population-dependent factors, such as ecological generalization and species' dependence on pollinators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  14. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  15. Risk Assessment of Florists Exposed to Pesticide Residues through Handling of Flowers and Preparing Bouquets

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty volunteer florists located in Namur Province and in the Brussels Capital Region of Belgium in order to assess their potential dermal exposure to dislodgeable pesticide residues transferred from flowers to hands. Two pairs of cotton gloves were worn during two consecutive half days while handling fl...

  16. Potential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist)...

  17. Blooming Knit Flowers: Loop-Linked Soft Morphing Structures for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    A loop-linked structure, which is capable of morphing in various modes, including volumetric transformation, is developed based on knitting methods. Morphing flowers (a lily-like, a daffodil-like, gamopetalous, and a calla-like flower) are fabricated using loop patterning, and their blooming motion is demonstrated by controlling a current that selectively actuates the flowers petals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

    2017-12-01

    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  19. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  20. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...