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Sample records for flow-volume curve parameters

  1. Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashini, Arcot Sadagopa; Satchidhanandam, Natesa

    2002-01-01

    Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure.

  2. Classification of pulmonary system diseases patterns using flow-volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabalibeik, Hossein; Jafari, Samaneh; Agin, Khosro

    2011-01-01

    Spirometry is the most common pulmonary function test. It provides useful information for early detection of respiratory system abnormalities. While decision support systems use normally calculated parameters such as FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% to diagnose the pattern of respiratory system diseases, expert physicians pay close attention to the pattern of the flow-volume curve as well. Fisher discriminant analysis shows that coefficients of a simple polynomial function fitted to the curve, can capture the information about the disease patterns much better than the familiar single point parameters. A neural network then can classify the abnormality pattern as restrictive, obstructive, mixed, or normal. Using the data from 205 adult volunteers, total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for four categories are 97.6%, 97.5% and 98.8% respectively.

  3. Maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume curves in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, J M; Hovestadt, A; Meerwaldt, J; vd Meché, F G; Stigt, J

    1989-03-01

    In order to investigate the type and degree of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease in different stages of the disease, we obtained maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume (MEFV and MIFV) curves and maximal static mouth pressures. The clinical disability was indicated by a Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) scale, ranging from III to V, and a more continuous Northwestern University Disability Scale (NUDS), ranging from zero to 50. Twelve patients were in H-Y Group III, and eleven and eight were in Groups IV and V, respectively. The pattern of the flow-volume curves was classified as either normal, or with superimposed regular or irregular oscillations (A), or with rounded-off and delayed expiratory peak appearance (B). Mean MEFV curves in Groups III and IV were not appreciably different from reference. In Group V, the mean curve showed a lower peak expiratory flow (PEF) and a more convex tail. Only the effort-dependent variables PEF, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and maximal mouth pressures at RV and TLC (PmTLC and PmRV) appeared to be significantly correlated with the NUDS index and decreased with increasing clinical disability. The mean values of those variables were also significantly different between the H-Y groups. The number of normal curves decreased from H-Y Group III to Group V. The contribution of A and B curves was relatively equal in the groups, with only a small number of A curves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Smooth reference equations for slow vital capacity and flow-volume curve indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, F; Bottai, M; Viegi, G; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L; Baldacci, S; Pedreschi, M; Giuntini, C

    2000-03-01

    We derived reference values for slow vital capacity (VC) and flow-volume curve indexes (FVC, FEV(1), and flows) from the 1,185 tracings provided by 1,039 "normal" subjects who participated in one or both cross-sectional surveys of the Po River Delta study in 1980-1982 and in 1988-1991. Definition of "normal" was based on negative answers to questions on respiratory symptoms/diseases or recent infections, current/past tobacco smoking, and work exposure to noxious agents. Reference equations were derived separately by sex as linear regressions of body mass index (BMI = weight/height(2)), BMI-squared, height, height-squared, and age. Age entered all the models by natural cubic splines using two break points, except for the ratios FEV(1)/VC and FEV(1)/FVC. Random effects models were applied to adjust for the potential intrasubject correlation. BMI, along with height and age, appeared to be an important predictor, which was significantly associated with VC, FEV(1), FVC, FEV(1)/FVC, and PEF in both sexes, and with FEV(1)/VC and FEF(25-75) in females. Natural cubic splines provided smooth reference equation curves (no "jumps" or "angled points") over the entire age span, differently from the conventional reference equations. Thus, we recommend the use of smooth continuous equations for predicting lung function indexes, along with the inclusion of BMI in the equations.

  5. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  6. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Kambe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Mitsunori; Nakajima, Hidekatsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamane, Kousuke; Kuraoka, Toshihiko; Miyamura, Isao

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)

  7. Suitable image parameters and analytical method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow volume with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa H

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine suitable image parameters and an analytical method for phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI as a means of measuring cerebral blood flow volume. This was done by constructing an experimental model and applying the results to a clinical application. The experimental model was constructed from the aorta of a bull and circulating isotonic saline. The image parameters of PC-MRI (repetition time, flip angle, matrix, velocity rate encoding, and the use of square pixels were studied with percent flow volume (the ratio of actual flow volume to measured flow volume. The most suitable image parameters for accurate blood flow measurement were as follows: repetition time, 50 msec; flip angle, 20 degrees; and a 512 x 256 matrix without square pixels. Furthermore, velocity rate encoding should be set ranging from the maximum flow velocity in the vessel to five times this value. The correction in measuring blood flow was done with the intensity of the region of interest established in the background. With these parameters for PC-MRI, percent flow volume was greater than 90%. Using the image parameters for PC-MRI and the analytical method described above, we evaluated cerebral blood flow volume in 12 patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries. The results were compared with conventional xenon computed tomography. The values found with both methods showed good correlation. Thus, we concluded that PC-MRI was a noninvasive method for evaluating cerebral blood flow in patients with occlusive disease of the major cervical arteries.

  8. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV curve, called the “angle of collapse (AC”. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. Methods: This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001, and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876 than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a

  9. Discriminant analysis of bronchial asthma by linear discriminant function with parameters of flow-volumes: discriminant analysis of bronchial asthma in young male non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available With the parameters of a flow-volume and a volume-time curve, the discriminant analysis of bronchial asthma is described. The subjects were classified into three groups (healthy adults, mild asthmatic patients and moderates ones. The difference of the mean vectors of the parameters of the three groups was made clear by the selection methods of the discriminant analysis between any two of the groups both with 6 parameters (%FVC, FEV1.0%, peak flow rate (PF, flow rate at 50% of FVC (V50, flow rate at 25% of FVC (V25, and V50/V25 and with 8 (6 parameters mentioned above and V75, V10. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent (FEV1.0% or V50 was selected at the first step with 6 parameters, and V75 was selected at the first step with 8 parameters. Probabilities of misclassification with 8 parameters were lower than those with 6 ones and the probability of misclassification at the discriminant analysis between healthy adults and mild asthmatic patients with 8 parameters was 15.75% at the final step.

  10. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  11. Piecewise quartic polynomial curves with a local shape parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuli

    2006-10-01

    Piecewise quartic polynomial curves with a local shape parameter are presented in this paper. The given blending function is an extension of the cubic uniform B-splines. The changes of a local shape parameter will only change two curve segments. With the increase of the value of a shape parameter, the curves approach a corresponding control point. The given curves possess satisfying shape-preserving properties. The given curve can also be used to interpolate locally the control points with GC2 continuity. Thus, the given curves unify the representation of the curves for interpolating and approximating the control polygon. As an application, the piecewise polynomial curves can intersect an ellipse at different knot values by choosing the value of the shape parameter. The given curve can approximate an ellipse from the both sides and can then yield a tight envelope for an ellipse. Some computing examples for curve design are given.

  12. The structure of uniform B-spline curves with parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cao; Guozhao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The shape-adjustable curve constructed by uniform B-spline basis function with parameter is an extension of uniform B-spline curve. In this paper, we study the relation between the uniform B-spline basis functions with parameter and the B-spline basis functions. Based on the degree elevation of B-spline, we extend the uniform B-spline basis functions with parameter to ones with multiple parameters. Examples show that the proposed basis functions provide more flexibility for curve design.

  13. MODIFIABLE QUARTIC AND QUINTIC CURVES WITH SHAPE-PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This papeer presents a method for creating modificable quartic and quintic curves with shape-parameters. The cur oes can achieve C2 even C3 continuity and unify both interpolation and ap proximation to the control points without solving a system of equations or inserting additional control points. They have the local properties like the cubic B-spline. Besides, the quintic curve would be able globally to tend the control polygon.

  14. Quasi-Bézier Curves with Shape Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal form of univariate Quasi-Bézier basis functions with multiple shape parameters and a series of corresponding Quasi-Bézier curves were constructed step-by-step in this paper, using the method of undetermined coefficients. The series of Quasi-Bézier curves had geometric and affine invariability, convex hull property, symmetry, interpolation at the endpoints and tangent edges at the endpoints, and shape adjustability while maintaining the control points. Various existing Quasi-Bézier curves became special cases in the series. The obvious geometric significance of shape parameters made the adjustment of the geometrical shape easier for the designer. The numerical examples indicated that the algorithm was valid and can easily be applied.

  15. Optimal vibration control of curved beams using distributed parameter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushou; Jin, Dongping; Wen, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The design of linear quadratic optimal controller using spectral factorization method is studied for vibration suppression of curved beam structures modeled as distributed parameter models. The equations of motion for active control of the in-plane vibration of a curved beam are developed firstly considering its shear deformation and rotary inertia, and then the state space model of the curved beam is established directly using the partial differential equations of motion. The functional gains for the distributed parameter model of curved beam are calculated by extending the spectral factorization method. Moreover, the response of the closed-loop control system is derived explicitly in frequency domain. Finally, the suppression of the vibration at the free end of a cantilevered curved beam by point control moment is studied through numerical case studies, in which the benefit of the presented method is shown by comparison with a constant gain velocity feedback control law, and the performance of the presented method on avoidance of control spillover is demonstrated.

  16. Optimal designs for dose response curves with common parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Chrystel; Schorning, Kirsten; Dette, Holger; Bermann, Georgina; Bornkamp, Björn

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in Phase II clinical trials is the comparison of dose response curves corresponding to different treatment groups. If the effect of the dose level is described by parametric regression models and the treatments differ in the administration frequency (but not in the sort of drug) a reasonable assumption is that the regression models for the different treatments share common parameters. This paper develops optimal design theory for the comparison of different regression models ...

  17. Hysteresis and uncertainty in soil water-retention curve parameters

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    Likos, William J.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of soil hydraulic parameters representing wetting and drying paths are required for predicting hydraulic and mechanical responses in a large number of applications. A comprehensive suite of laboratory experiments was conducted to measure hysteretic soil-water characteristic curves (SWCCs) representing a wide range of soil types. Results were used to quantitatively assess differences and uncertainty in three simplifications frequently adopted to estimate wetting-path SWCC parameters from more easily measured drying curves. They are the following: (1) αw=2αd, (2) nw=nd, and (3) θws=θds, where α, n, and θs are fitting parameters entering van Genuchten’s commonly adopted SWCC model, and the superscripts w and d indicate wetting and drying paths, respectively. The average ratio αw/αd for the data set was 2.24±1.25. Nominally cohesive soils had a lower αw/αd ratio (1.73±0.94) than nominally cohesionless soils (3.14±1.27). The average nw/nd ratio was 1.01±0.11 with no significant dependency on soil type, thus confirming the nw=nd simplification for a wider range of soil types than previously available. Water content at zero suction during wetting (θws) was consistently less than during drying (θds) owing to air entrapment. The θws/θds ratio averaged 0.85±0.10 and was comparable for nominally cohesive (0.87±0.11) and cohesionless (0.81±0.08) soils. Regression statistics are provided to quantitatively account for uncertainty in estimating hysteretic retention curves. Practical consequences are demonstrated for two case studies.

  18. Identifiability of altimetry-based rating curve parameters in function of river morphological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; André Garambois, Pierre; Calmant, Stéphane; Paiva, Rodrigo; Walter, Collischonn; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frédérique; Monnier, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Estimating river discharge for ungauged river reaches from satellite measurements is not straightforward given the nonlinearity of flow behavior with respect to measurable and non measurable hydraulic parameters. As a matter of facts, current satellite datasets do not give access to key parameters such as river bed topography and roughness. A unique set of almost one thousand altimetry-based rating curves was built by fit of ENVISAT and Jason-2 water stages with discharges obtained from the MGB-IPH rainfall-runoff model in the Amazon basin. These rated discharges were successfully validated towards simulated discharges (Ens = 0.70) and in-situ discharges (Ens = 0.71) and are not mission-dependent. The rating curve writes Q = a(Z-Z0)b*sqrt(S), with Z the water surface elevation and S its slope gained from satellite altimetry, a and b power law coefficient and exponent and Z0 the river bed elevation such as Q(Z0) = 0. For several river reaches in the Amazon basin where ADCP measurements are available, the Z0 values are fairly well validated with a relative error lower than 10%. The present contribution aims at relating the identifiability and the physical meaning of a, b and Z0given various hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions. Synthetic river bathymetries sampling a wide range of rivers and inflow discharges are used to perform twin experiments. A shallow water model is run for generating synthetic satellite observations, and then rating curve parameters are determined for each river section thanks to a MCMC algorithm. Thanks to twin experiments, it is shown that rating curve formulation with water surface slope, i.e. closer from Manning equation form, improves parameter identifiability. The compensation between parameters is limited, especially for reaches with little water surface variability. Rating curve parameters are analyzed for riffle and pools for small to large rivers, different river slopes and cross section shapes. It is shown that the river bed

  19. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

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    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  20. Estimation of the growth curve parameters in Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Nagulu, Banoth; Satyanarayana , Y.; Srinivasa, Rao P.; Gopal , Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Growth is one of the most important characteristics of cultured species. The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of linear, log linear, polynomial, exponential and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Macrobrachium rosenbergii obtained by using weekly records of live weight, total length, head length, claw length, and last segment length from 20 to 192 days of age. The models were evaluated according to the coefficient of determination (R2), and error sum off square (ES...

  1. The relation between parameter curves and lines of curvature on canal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    A canal surface is the envelope of a moving sphere with varying radius, defined by the trajectory C(t) (spine curve) of its center and a radius function r(t). In this paper, we investigate when parameter curves of the canal surface are also lines of curvature. Last of all, for special spine curves we obtain the radius function of canal surfaces.

  2. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

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    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  3. Confidence Bands for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Frederic M.; Pashley, Peter J.

    A large sample method for obtaining asymptotic simultaneous confidence bands for a three-parameter logistic response curve is described. Simultaneous confidence bands indicate the sampling variation of item response curves relative to a fitted function. A procedure is given which requires as input maximum likelihood parameter estimates and an…

  4. Bayesian multi-QTL mapping for growth curve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuven, Henri C M; Janss, Luc L G

    2010-01-01

    . The locations of the QTLs for separate parameters were very close in some cases and probably caused the genetic correlation observed between ASYM and XMID and SCAL respectively. None of the QTL appeared on chromosome five. Conclusions Repeated observations on individuals were affected by at least nine QTLs...

  5. An extended L-curve method for choosing a regularization parameter in electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanbin; Pei, Yang; Dong, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The L-curve method is a popular regularization parameter choice method for the ill-posed inverse problem of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). However the method cannot always determine a proper parameter for all situations. An investigation into those situations where the L-curve method failed show that a new corner point appears on the L-curve and the parameter corresponding to the new corner point can obtain a satisfactory reconstructed solution. Thus an extended L-curve method, which determines the regularization parameter associated with either global corner or the new corner, is proposed. Furthermore, two strategies are provided to determine the new corner-one is based on the second-order differential of L-curve, and the other is based on the curvature of L-curve. The proposed method is examined by both numerical simulations and experimental tests. And the results indicate that the extended method can handle the parameter choice problem even in the case where the typical L-curve method fails. Finally, in order to reduce the running time of the method, the extended method is combined with a projection method based on the Krylov subspace, which was able to boost the extended L-curve method. The results verify that the speed of the extended L-curve method is distinctly improved. The proposed method extends the application of the L-curve in the field of choosing regularization parameter with an acceptable running time and can also be used in other kinds of tomography.

  6. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card...

  7. The association of patient characteristics and spinal curve parameters with Lenke classification types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Paul D; Flynn, John M; Newton, Peter O; Marks, Michelle C; Bastrom, Tracey P; Petcharaporn, Maty; McElroy, Mark J; Lonner, Baron S; Betz, Randal R

    2012-06-01

    Retrospective review. To determine the association of patient characteristics and spinal curve parameters with Lenke curve types. The Lenke curve classification may be used for surgical planning and clinical research. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1912 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent initial surgery at 21 years of age or younger; collected data on patient's age, patient's sex, primary curve magnitude (Society (SRS) outcomes questionnaire (SRS-22) score; and compared that data by Lenke curve type. Analysis of variance and χ tests were used as appropriate (significance level, P ≤ 0.005). RESULTS.: Lenke types vary by sex: male patients had more major thoracic (types 1-4) than major thoracolumbar/lumbar (types 5 and 6) curves, fewer lumbar C-modifiers (32% vs. 44%), and less apical lumbar translation (1.1 vs. 1.7 cm). Lenke types vary by frequency: the most common type was 1 (50%); the least common, 4 (4%). Lenke types vary by magnitude: type 4 had the greatest percentage of large curves (52% of curves .75°), most smaller curves were types 1 and 5, and type 4 had the largest mean magnitude (78° ± 17°). Lenke types vary by patient age: type 5 curves occurred in the oldest patients (average age at surgery: 15.4 ± 2.2 vs. 14.3 ± 14.6 years for all others) despite having the lowest mean magnitude (P = 0.001); curve size was negatively correlated with age at surgery (r = -0.16, P = 0.001). Lenke types vary by patient self-image: patients with type 4 curves had lower preoperative SRS outcome scores for self-image than did patients with type 1 curves (P = 0.005). Lenke types vary by sex, frequency magnitude, patient age, and patient self-image, which should be considered in designing studies.

  8. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  9. Dynamic Bayesian estimation of displacement parameters of continuous curve box based on Novozhilov theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; YE Jian-shu; ZHAO Xin-ming

    2007-01-01

    The finite strip controlling equation of pinned curve box was deduced on basis of Novozhilov theory and with flexibility method, and the problem of continuous curve box was resolved. Dynamic Bayesian error function of displacement parameters of continuous curve box was found. The corresponding formulas of dynamic Bayesian expectation and variance were derived. After the method of solving the automatic search of step length was put forward, the optimization estimation computing formulas were also obtained by adapting conjugate gradient method. Then the steps of dynamic Bayesian estimation were given in detail. Through analysis of a classic example, the criterion of judging the precision of the known information is gained as well as some other important conclusions about dynamic Bayesian stochastic estimation of displacement parameters of continuous curve box.

  10. Convexity-preserving interpolation of trigonometric polynomial curves with a shape parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), it is often needed to produce a convexity-preserving interpolating curve according to the given planar data points. However, most existing pertinent methods cannot generate convexity-preserving interpolating transcendental curves; even constructing convexity-preserving interpolating polynomial curves, it is required to solve a system of equations or recur to a complicated iterative process. The method developed in this paper overcomes the above drawbacks. The basic idea is: first to construct a kind of trigonometric polynomial curves with a shape parameter, and interpolating trigonometric polynomial parametric curves with C2 (or G1) continuity can be automatically generated without having to solve any system of equations or do any iterative computation. Then, the convexity of the constructed curves can be guaranteed by the appropriate value of the shape parameter. Performing the method is easy and fast, and the curvature distribution of the resulting interpolating curves is always well-proportioned. Several numerical examples are shown to substantiate that our algorithm is not only correct but also usable.

  11. An Interoperability Consideration in Selecting Domain Parameters for Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Will (Technical Monitor); Eddy, Wesley M.

    2005-01-01

    Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) will be an important technology for electronic privacy and authentication in the near future. There are many published specifications for elliptic curve cryptosystems, most of which contain detailed descriptions of the process for the selection of domain parameters. Selecting strong domain parameters ensures that the cryptosystem is robust to attacks. Due to a limitation in several published algorithms for doubling points on elliptic curves, some ECC implementations may produce incorrect, inconsistent, and incompatible results if domain parameters are not carefully chosen under a criterion that we describe. Few documents specify the addition or doubling of points in such a manner as to avoid this problematic situation. The safety criterion we present is not listed in any ECC specification we are aware of, although several other guidelines for domain selection are discussed in the literature. We provide a simple example of how a set of domain parameters not meeting this criterion can produce catastrophic results, and outline a simple means of testing curve parameters for interoperable safety over doubling.

  12. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 50 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card and the Saladin fixation disparity card. The x intercepts were on average more in the base-in direction with the Wesson card than with the Saladin card. The y intercepts were shifted in the exo direction with the Wesson card compared with the Saladin card. The slope with the Wesson card was steeper than the slope obtained with the Saladin card. The distribution of curve types was also different with the two different instruments. Fixation disparity curves measured with these two instruments are different, and separate norms should be used for each fixation disparity measurement method.

  13. Visualization and Curve-Parameter Estimation Strategies for Efficient Exploration of Phenotype Microarray Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaas, Lea A. I.; Sikorski, Johannes; Michael, Victoria; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background The Phenotype MicroArray (OmniLog® PM) system is able to simultaneously capture a large number of phenotypes by recording an organism's respiration over time on distinct substrates. This technique targets the object of natural selection itself, the phenotype, whereas previously addressed ‘-omics’ techniques merely study components that finally contribute to it. The recording of respiration over time, however, adds a longitudinal dimension to the data. To optimally exploit this information, it must be extracted from the shapes of the recorded curves and displayed in analogy to conventional growth curves. Methodology The free software environment R was explored for both visualizing and fitting of PM respiration curves. Approaches using either a model fit (and commonly applied growth models) or a smoothing spline were evaluated. Their reliability in inferring curve parameters and confidence intervals was compared to the native OmniLog® PM analysis software. We consider the post-processing of the estimated parameters, the optimal classification of curve shapes and the detection of significant differences between them, as well as practically relevant questions such as detecting the impact of cultivation times and the minimum required number of experimental repeats. Conclusions We provide a comprehensive framework for data visualization and parameter estimation according to user choices. A flexible graphical representation strategy for displaying the results is proposed, including 95% confidence intervals for the estimated parameters. The spline approach is less prone to irregular curve shapes than fitting any of the considered models or using the native PM software for calculating both point estimates and confidence intervals. These can serve as a starting point for the automated post-processing of PM data, providing much more information than the strict dichotomization into positive and negative reactions. Our results form the basis for a freely

  14. Visualization and curve-parameter estimation strategies for efficient exploration of phenotype microarray kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A I Vaas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Phenotype MicroArray (OmniLog® PM system is able to simultaneously capture a large number of phenotypes by recording an organism's respiration over time on distinct substrates. This technique targets the object of natural selection itself, the phenotype, whereas previously addressed '-omics' techniques merely study components that finally contribute to it. The recording of respiration over time, however, adds a longitudinal dimension to the data. To optimally exploit this information, it must be extracted from the shapes of the recorded curves and displayed in analogy to conventional growth curves. METHODOLOGY: The free software environment R was explored for both visualizing and fitting of PM respiration curves. Approaches using either a model fit (and commonly applied growth models or a smoothing spline were evaluated. Their reliability in inferring curve parameters and confidence intervals was compared to the native OmniLog® PM analysis software. We consider the post-processing of the estimated parameters, the optimal classification of curve shapes and the detection of significant differences between them, as well as practically relevant questions such as detecting the impact of cultivation times and the minimum required number of experimental repeats. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comprehensive framework for data visualization and parameter estimation according to user choices. A flexible graphical representation strategy for displaying the results is proposed, including 95% confidence intervals for the estimated parameters. The spline approach is less prone to irregular curve shapes than fitting any of the considered models or using the native PM software for calculating both point estimates and confidence intervals. These can serve as a starting point for the automated post-processing of PM data, providing much more information than the strict dichotomization into positive and negative reactions. Our results form the basis

  15. Estimating kinetic parameters of complex catalytic reactions using a curve resolution based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, S.C.; Rothenberg, G.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    A Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) based algorithm is used to extract kinetic parameters from on-line FT - NIR data of a series of Heck reactions between iodobenzene and n-butyl acrylate (NBA), measured at different temperatures with different catalysts. Four

  16. The dependence of the abstract boundary classification on a set of curves II: How the classification changes when the bounded parameter property satisfying set of curves changes

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, B E

    2012-01-01

    The abstract boundary uses sets of curves with the bounded parameter property (b.p.p.) to classify the elements of the abstract boundary into regular points, singular points, points at infinity and so on. Building on the material of Part one of this two part series, we show how this classification changes when the set of b.p.p. satisfying curves changes.

  17. Single parameter galaxy classification: The Principal Curve through the multi-dimensional space of galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taghizadeh-Popp, M; Szalay, A S

    2012-01-01

    We propose to describe the variety of galaxies from SDSS by using only one affine parameter. To this aim, we build the Principal Curve (P-curve) passing through the spine of the data point cloud, considering the eigenspace derived from Principal Component Analysis of morphological, physical and photometric galaxy properties. Thus, galaxies can be labeled, ranked and classified by a single arc length value of the curve, measured at the unique closest projection of the data points on the P-curve. We find that the P-curve has a "W" letter shape with 3 turning points, defining 4 branches that represent distinct galaxy populations. This behavior is controlled mainly by 2 properties, namely u-r and SFR. We further present the variations of several galaxy properties as a function of arc length. Luminosity functions variate from steep Schechter fits at low arc length, to double power law and ending in Log-normal fits at high arc length. Galaxy clustering shows increasing autocorrelation power at large scales as arc l...

  18. Physical quantities and spatial parameters in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on finding out several physical quantities to exert an influence on the spatial parameters of complex-octonion curved space, including the metric coefficient, connection coefficient, and curvature tensor. In the flat space described with the complex octonions, the radius vector is combined with the integrating function of field potential to become a composite radius vector. And the latter can be considered as the radius vector in a flat composite-space (a function space). Further it is able to deduce some formulae between the physical quantity and spatial parameter, in the complex-octonion curved composite-space. Under the condition of weak field approximation, these formulae infer a few results accordant with the General Theory of Relativity. The study reveals that it is capable of ascertaining which physical quantities are able to result in the warping of space, in terms of the curved composite-space described with the complex octonions. Moreover, the method may be expanded into some curve...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Phenomenological Approximations of the Light Curves of Eclipsing Binary Stars with Additional Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Ivan L; Chinarova, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the special shapes (patterns, profiles) of the eclipses applied for the phenomenological modeling of the light curves of eclipsing binary stars is conducted. Families of functions are considered, generalizing local approximations (Andronov, 2010, 2012) and the functions theoretically unlimited in a width, based on a Gaussian (Mikulasek, 2015). For an analysis, the light curve of the star V0882 Car = 2MASS J11080308 - 6145589 of the classic Algol - subtype (\\beta Persei) is used. By analyzing dozens of modified functions with additional parameters, it was chosen the 14 best ones according to the criterion of the least sum of squares of deviations. The best are the functions with an additional parameter, describing profiles, which are limited in phase.

  20. Single Parameter Galaxy Classification: The Principal Curve through the Multi-dimensional Space of Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh-Popp, M.; Heinis, S.; Szalay, A. S.

    2012-08-01

    We propose to describe the variety of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by using only one affine parameter. To this aim, we construct the principal curve (P-curve) passing through the spine of the data point cloud, considering the eigenspace derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of morphological, physical, and photometric galaxy properties. Thus, galaxies can be labeled, ranked, and classified by a single arc-length value of the curve, measured at the unique closest projection of the data points on the P-curve. We find that the P-curve has a "W" letter shape with three turning points, defining four branches that represent distinct galaxy populations. This behavior is controlled mainly by two properties, namely u - r and star formation rate (from blue young at low arc length to red old at high arc length), while most other properties correlate well with these two. We further present the variations of several important galaxy properties as a function of arc length. Luminosity functions vary from steep Schechter fits at low arc length to double power law and ending in lognormal fits at high arc length. Galaxy clustering shows increasing autocorrelation power at large scales as arc length increases. Cross correlation of galaxies with different arc lengths shows that the probability of two galaxies belonging to the same halo decreases as their distance in arc length increases. PCA analysis allows us to find peculiar galaxy populations located apart from the main cloud of data points, such as small red galaxies dominated by a disk, of relatively high stellar mass-to-light ratio and surface mass density. On the other hand, the P-curve helped us understand the average trends, encoding 75% of the available information in the data. The P-curve allows not only dimensionality reduction but also provides supporting evidence for the following relevant physical models and scenarios in extragalactic astronomy: (1) The hierarchical merging scenario in the

  1. New method of parameters extraction from dark I-V curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, A.; Marchand, J.J.; Fave, A.; Laugier, A. [INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere

    1997-12-31

    It is very necessary, for solar cells, to obtain a low series resistance and to be able to determine it with accuracy because it is an important parameter of fill factor and efficiency improvement. In the case of low series resistance, the authors have developed a new method of parameters extraction from only one dark I-V characteristic. They have also improved another technique (the integral) of series resistance extraction. They have compared these two methods to two other ones (the derivative and Lee et al. method). The method gives very good results. Moreover, it is very simple to use and presents the advantage of being independent of the voltage step in contrary to the derivative and to the integral. They have then applied their technique to a whole solar cell I-V curve and the results are very good.

  2. Assessment of evolutionary status of eclipsing binaries using light-curve parameters and spectral classification

    CERN Document Server

    Ekaterina, Avvakumova

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for the classification of eclipsing binaries from their light-curve parameters and spectral type. The procedure was tested on more than 1000 systems with known classification, and its efficiency was estimated for every evolutionary status we use. The procedure was applied to about 4700 binaries with no classification, and the vast majority of them was classified successfully. Systems of relatively rare evolutionary classes were detected in that process, as well as systems with unusual and/or contradictory parameters. Also, for 50 previously unclassified cluster binaries evolutionary classes were identified. These stars can serve as tracers for age and distance estimation of their parent stellar systems. The procedure proved itself as fast, flexible and effective enough to be applied to large ground based and space born surveys, containing tens of thousands of eclipsing binaries.

  3. A method for inverse bifurcation of biochemical switches: inferring parameters from dose response curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Yordanov, Pencho; Stelling, Joerg

    2014-11-20

    Within cells, stimuli are transduced into cell responses by complex networks of biochemical reactions. In many cell decision processes the underlying networks behave as bistable switches, converting graded stimuli or inputs into all or none cell responses. Observing how systems respond to different perturbations, insight can be gained into the underlying molecular mechanisms by developing mathematical models. Emergent properties of systems, like bistability, can be exploited to this purpose. One of the main challenges in modeling intracellular processes, from signaling pathways to gene regulatory networks, is to deal with high structural and parametric uncertainty, due to the complexity of the systems and the difficulty to obtain experimental measurements. Formal methods that exploit structural properties of networks for parameter estimation can help to overcome these problems. We here propose a novel method to infer the kinetic parameters of bistable biochemical network models. Bistable systems typically show hysteretic dose response curves, in which the so called bifurcation points can be located experimentally. We exploit the fact that, at the bifurcation points, a condition for multistationarity derived in the context of the Chemical Reaction Network Theory must be fulfilled. Chemical Reaction Network Theory has attracted attention from the (systems) biology community since it connects the structure of biochemical reaction networks to qualitative properties of the corresponding model of ordinary differential equations. The inverse bifurcation method developed here allows determining the parameters that produce the expected behavior of the dose response curves and, in particular, the observed location of the bifurcation points given by experimental data. Our inverse bifurcation method exploits inherent structural properties of bistable switches in order to estimate kinetic parameters of bistable biochemical networks, opening a promising route for developments in

  4. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. [Pennsylvania U.; Guy, J. [LBL, Berkeley; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Astier, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Marriner, J. [Fermilab; Betoule, M. [Paris U., VI-VII; Sako, M. [Pennsylvania U.; El-Hage, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Biswas, R. [Argonne; Pain, R. [Paris U., VI-VII; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne; Regnault, N. [Paris U., VI-VII; Frieman, J. A. [Fermilab; Schneider, D. P. [Penn State U.

    2014-08-29

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  5. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; El-Hage, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universié Denis Diderot Paris 7, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, J. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Biswas, R.; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Schneider, D. P., E-mail: kessler@kicp.chicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ∼120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ∼255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ∼290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w {sub input} – w {sub recovered}) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  6. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mosher, J; Kessler, R; Astier, P; Marriner, J; Betoule, M; Sako, M; El-Hage, P; Biswas, R; Pain, R; Kuhlmann, S; Regnault, N; Frieman, J A; Schneider, D P

    2014-01-01

    We use simulated SN Ia samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and the bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: 120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, 255 SDSS SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and 290 SNLS SNe Ia (z <= 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (winput - wrecovered) ranging from -0.005 +/- 0.012 to -0.024 +/- 0.010. These biases a...

  7. Automatic selection of regularization parameters for dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography: a comparison of L-curve and U-curve methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maomao; Su, Han; Zhou, Yuan; Cai, Chuangjian; Zhang, Dong; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising technique for the study of the metabolic process of fluorescent agents in the biological body in vivo, and the quality of the parametric images relies heavily on the accuracy of the reconstructed FMT images. In typical dynamic FMT implementations, the imaged object is continuously monitored for more than 50 minutes. During each minute, a set of the fluorescent measurements is acquired and the corresponding FMT image is reconstructed. It is difficult to manually set the regularization parameter in the reconstruction of each FMT image. In this paper, the parametric images obtained with the L-curve and U-curve methods are quantitatively evaluated through numerical simulations, phantom experiments and in vivo experiments. The results illustrate that the U-curve method obtains better accuracy, stronger robustness and higher noise-resistance in parametric imaging. Therefore, it is a promising approach to automatic selection of the regularization parameters for dynamic FMT.

  8. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  9. Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: measuring cyclic fatigue and other physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ove A; Kappeler, Stefan; Bucher, Willi; Barbakow, Fred

    2002-04-01

    An increasing number of engine-driven rotary systems are marketed to shape root canals. Although these systems may improve the quality of canal preparations, the risk for instrument fracture is also increased. Unfortunately, the stresses generated in rotary instruments when shaping curved root canals have not been adequately studied. Consequently, the aim of an ongoing project was to develop a measurement platform that could more accurately detail physical parameters generated in a simulated clinical situation. Such a platform was constructed by fitting a torque-measuring device between the rotating endodontic instrument and the motor driving it. Apically directed force and instrument insertion depth were also recorded. Additional devices were constructed to assess cyclic fatigue and static fracture loads. The current pilot study evaluated GT rotary instruments during the shaping of curved canals in plastic blocks as well as "ISO 3630-1 torque to fracture" and number of rotations required for fatigue fracture. Results indicated that torques in excess of 40 Nmm were generated by rotary GT-Files, a significantly higher figure than static fracture loads (less than 13 Nmm for the size 20. 12 GT-File). Furthermore, the number of rotations needed to shape simulated canals with a 5 mm radius of curvature in plastic blocks was 10 times lower than the number of rotations needed to fracture instruments in a "cyclic fatigue test". Apical forces were always greater than 1 N, and in some specimens, scores of 8 N or more were recorded. Further studies are required using extracted natural teeth, with their wide anatomical variation, in order to reduce the incidence of fracture of rotary instruments. In this way, the clinical potential of engine-driven rotary instruments to safely prepare curved canals can be fully appreciated.

  10. Toward a Zero-Parameter Model for Galaxy Rotation Curve Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cisneros, Sophia; Oblath, Noah; Formaggio, Joe; Crowley, Meagan; Milkulski, Kyler

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the luminous mass components of spiral galaxies in standard gravity poses a challenge due to the missing mass problem. However, with the addition of cold dark matter, the missing mass problem can be circumvented at the cost of additional free parameters to the theory. The Luminous Convolution Model (LCM) reconsiders how we interpret rotation curve data, such that Doppler-shifted spectra measurements can constrain luminous mass discovery. For a sample of 25 galaxies of varying morphologies and sizes, we demonstrate an ansatz for relative galaxy curvatures that can explain the missing mass. We solve for the LCM free parameter, which we report as a ratio of radial densities of the emitter, to receiver galaxy baryonic mass, to an exponent of $1.63$. Here, we show that this exponent is sensitive to which Milky Way luminous mass model one chooses. We then make a first prediction regarding the Milky Way mass profile in the inner one kpc. Thus, with a bound on the LCM free parameter, we pave the way for futu...

  11. EFFECTS OF POLISHING PARAMETERS ON MATERIAL REMOVAL FOR CURVED OPTICAL GLASSES IN BONNET POLISHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianfeng; YAO Yingxue; XIE Dagang; GAO Bo; YUAN Zhejun

    2008-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes the influence factor on material removal rate of curved optical work-pieces in the bonnet polishing. Then the experiments are conducted to reveal the effects of several polishing parameters on the material removal rate when the spherical optical glasses are polished with different curvature radius, such as the decrement of the bonnet, the rotational speed of the bonnet and the curvature radius of the work-piece's surface using a bonnet trial-manufacturing machine developed by our assignment groups. In the end, the curvilinear relationships between these parameters and the material removal rate are acquired and the laws of the effects on material removal rate in bonnet polishing by several parameters are given. When the spherical-pieces are polished with smaller curvature radius, it is not proportional to either bonnet decrement or bonnet rotational speed as described by the Preston equation although the removal rate increases as the relative velocity or the applied pressure increases. Therefore, for the purpose of calculating more accurately the material removal of the spherical work-pieces, the Preston equation should be modified and studied further.

  12. Multiaxial fatigue criterion based on parameters from torsion and axial S-N curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margetin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial high cycle fatigue is a topic that concerns nearly all industrial domains. In recent years, a great deal of recommendations how to address problems with multiaxial fatigue life time estimation have been made and a huge progress in the field has been achieved. Until now, however, no universal criterion for multiaxial fatigue has been proposed. Addressing this situation, this paper offers a design of a new multiaxial criterion for high cycle fatigue. This criterion is based on critical plane search. Damage parameter consists of a combination of normal and shear stresses on a critical plane (which is a plane with maximal shear stress amplitude. Material parameters used in proposed criterion are obtained from torsion and axial S-N curves. Proposed criterion correctly calculates life time for boundary loading condition (pure torsion and pure axial loading. Application of proposed model is demonstrated on biaxial loading and the results are verified with testing program using specimens made from S355 steel. Fatigue material parameters for proposed criterion and multiple sets of data for different combination of axial and torsional loading have been obtained during the experiment.

  13. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall–runoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storage–discharge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a top–down empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storage–discharge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storage–discharge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  14. Powell dynamic identification of displacement parameters of indeterminate thin-walled curve box based on FCSE theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Chu-Wei Zhou; Jia-Shou Zhuo

    2011-01-01

    The FCSE controlling equation of pinned thinwalled curve box was derived and the indeterminate problem of continuous thin-walled curve box with diaphragm was solved based on flexibility theory. With Bayesian statistical theory, dynamic Bayesian error function of displacement parameters of indeterminate curve box was founded. The corresponding formulas of dynamic Bayesian expectation and variance were deduced. Combined with one-dimensional Fibonacci automatic search scheme of optimal step size,the Powell optimization theory was utilized to research the stochastic identification of displacement parameters of indeterminate thin-walled curve box. Then the identification steps were presented in detail and the corresponding calculation procedure was compiled. Through some classic examples, it is obtained that stochastic performances of systematic parameters and systematic responses are simultaneously deliberated in dynamic Bayesian error function. The one-dimensional optimization problem of the optimal step size is solved by adopting Fibonacci search method. And the Powell identification of displacement parameters of indeterminate thin-walled curve box has satisfied numerical stability and convergence, which demonstrates that the presented method and the compiled procedure are correct and reliable.The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 10472045.10772078 and 11072108 and the Science Foundation of NUAA(S0851-013).During parameters' iterative processes, the Powell theory is irrelevant with the calculation of finite curve strip element (FCSE) partial differentiation, which proves high computation efficiency of the studied method.

  15. Photovoltaic performance parameters at the nanoscale from in situ I-V curve measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sadia; Tennyson, Elizabeth; Leite, Marina

    Monocrystalline photovoltaic (PV) devices exhibit higher efficiencies than polycrystalline devices, but the high manufacturing costs associated with single crystal solar cells pose a hindrance to their wide implementation. Polycrystalline CuInxGa(1 - x)Se2 (CIGS) material with high optical absorbance and low cost/Watt, is a promising alternative. Yet, the efficiency of this low-cost technology is still substantially lower than the theoretical values estimated by the Shockley-Queisser limit. This is likely due to microstructural non-uniformities, which cannot be accessed by macroscopic light I-V measurements. Therefore, we spatially resolve the electrical response of these devices by `local' I-Vs. For that, we utilize a 100x objective as a local excitation source and LabVIEW to map the PV performance with sub-micronscale resolution through extrapolation of key parameters from pixel by pixel I-V curves. Extraction of performance parameters such as short-circuit current, opencircuit voltage fill factor, and maximum power point can provide useful information regarding optimal microstructural characteristics. This information is not only valuable for CIGS-based devices, but also will be an essential tool for maximizing performance across all PV technologies.

  16. [Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: a platform to assess physical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, O A; Kappeler, S; Bucher, W; Barbakow, F

    2001-01-01

    The number of engine-driven rotary instruments available on the market is steadily increasing. These instruments enable clinicians to prepare better shaped root canals, however, rotary instruments have a higher risk for fracture than hand instruments. Unfortunately, the stresses placed on engine-driven rotary instruments in curved canals are insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to develop a device which could measure more accurately the physical parameters influencing rotary instruments in curved canals. For this purpose, a specially designed machine was constructed to measure the torque which develops between the rotary instrument and the motor. Apical forces and penetration depths could also be directly measured in real time. A variety of other measurements was also possible because of other special set-ups integrated into the device. In the current study torque was assessed for GT-Files, size 35 with a .12 and sizes 20 with a .12 to .06 taper. In additions to preparations in simulated canals in plastic blocks, the "ISO 3630-1 specification for fracture moment" and "number of cycles till fatigue fracture" was measured. The findings indicated that when instruments were used for preparations, torques up to 40 Nmm were present. This exceeded the static fracture load, which was less than than 13 Nmm for the size 20 with .12 taper. In contrast, the number of rotations were more than 10 times lower when shaping canals in plastic blocks with a 5 mm radius of curvature than the number of rotations to fracture in the "cyclic fatigue test". This suggests that a GT-instrument could be used in ten canals. The apical force was always greater than 1 N and occasionally, 8 N or more was recorded. Further studies on natural teeth with varying canal geometries are required using the specially developed torsional machine to reduce the incidence of instrument fracture. In this way an efficient clinical potential can be confirmed for engine-driven rotary instruments in

  17. Genetic (co)variances and breeding value estimation of Gompertz growth curve parameters in Finnish Yorkshire boars, gilts and barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, M; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Strandén, I; Matilainen, K; Serenius, T; Stalder, K J; Mäntysaari, E A

    2008-06-01

    This paper's objectives were to estimate the genetic (co)variance components of the Gompertz growth curve parameters and to evaluate the relationship of estimated breeding values (EBV) based on average daily gain (ADG) and Gompertz growth curves. Finnish Yorkshire central test station performance data was obtained from the Faba Breeding (Vantaa, Finland). The final data set included 121,488 weight records from 10,111 pigs. Heritability estimates for the Gompertz growth parameters mature weight (alpha), logarithm of mature weight to birth weight ratio (beta) and maturation rate (kappa) were 0.44, 0.55 and 0.31, respectively. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations between the growth curve parameters were high and mainly negative. The only positive relationship was found between alpha and beta. Pearson and Spearman rank correlation coefficients between EBV for ADG and daily gain calculated from Gompertz growth curves were 0.79. The Spearman rank correlation between the sire EBV for ADG and Gompertz growth curve parameter-based ADG for all sires with at least 15 progeny was 0.86. Growth curves differ significantly between individuals and this information could be utilized for selection purposes when improving growth rate in pigs.

  18. Estimating Important Electrode Parameters of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells By Fitting a Model to Polarisation Curves and Impedance Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl;

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell model capable of simulating both steady state and dynamic operation is presented. The purpose is to enable extraction of unknown parameters from sets of impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The model is fitted to two polarisation curves and four...... impedance spectra measured on a Dapozol 77 MEA. The model is capable of achieving good agreement with the recorded curves. Except at OCV, where the voltage is overpredicted, the simulated polarisation curves deviate maximum 3.0% from the measurements. The impedance spectra deviate maximum 3.7%. The fitted...... parameter values are within the range reported in literature. The only exception is the catalyst layer acid content, which is an order of magnitude lower. This may derive from acid migration. The model is used to illustrate the effect of reactant dynamics on the impedance spectrum. The model can aid...

  19. Characteristic parameters and operational curves of γ-Al2O3 nanofiltration membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The γ-Al2O3 nanofiltration membranes were manufactured by the sol-gel technique. The result of N2 adsorption and desorption test indicates that the characteristic parameters of the membranes: BJH desorption average pore diameter, BJH desorption cumulative volume of pores and BET surface area are about 3.9 nm, 0.33 cm3/g and 245 m2/g respectively, and the pore size distribution is very narrow. The operational curves of γ-Al2O3 nanofiltration membranes of the Ca2+ retention rate vs the trans-membrane pressure, feed concentration of solution treated and pH of solution treated were studied for the first time. It is found that the retention rate for Ca2+ increases with the transmembrane pressure increasing and decreases with the feed concentration of CaCl2 solution increasing. The retention of Ca2+ is very much dependent on the pH of the solution. Minimal Ca2+ retention rate is found at the isoelectric point (pH = 7.5).

  20. Estimating stock parameters from trawl cpue-at-age series using year-class curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, A.J.R.; Mesnil, B.; Piet, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A year-class curve is a plot of log cpue (catch per unit effort) over age for a single year class of a species (in contrast to the better known catch curve, fitted to multiple year classes at one time). When linear, the intercept and slope estimate the log cpue at age 0 and the average rate of total

  1. ANALYTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODELS OF SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE: {chi}{sup 2}-MINIMIZATION OF PARAMETER FITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Vinko, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Horvath, Z. L.; Nagy, A., E-mail: manolis@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-08-10

    We present fits of generalized semi-analytic supernova (SN) light curve (LC) models for a variety of power inputs including {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co radioactive decay, magnetar spin-down, and forward and reverse shock heating due to supernova ejecta-circumstellar matter (CSM) interaction. We apply our models to the observed LCs of the H-rich superluminous supernovae (SLSN-II) SN 2006gy, SN 2006tf, SN 2008am, SN 2008es, CSS100217, the H-poor SLSN-I SN 2005ap, SCP06F6, SN 2007bi, SN 2010gx, and SN 2010kd, as well as to the interacting SN 2008iy and PTF 09uj. Our goal is to determine the dominant mechanism that powers the LCs of these extraordinary events and the physical conditions involved in each case. We also present a comparison of our semi-analytical results with recent results from numerical radiation hydrodynamics calculations in the particular case of SN 2006gy in order to explore the strengths and weaknesses of our models. We find that CS shock heating produced by ejecta-CSM interaction provides a better fit to the LCs of most of the events we examine. We discuss the possibility that collision of supernova ejecta with hydrogen-deficient CSM accounts for some of the hydrogen-deficient SLSNe (SLSN-I) and may be a plausible explanation for the explosion mechanism of SN 2007bi, the pair-instability supernova candidate. We characterize and discuss issues of parameter degeneracy.

  2. Prediction of Breakthrough Curves for Conservative and Reactive Transport from the Structural Parameters of Highly Heterogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haslauer, Claus P. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Cirpka, Olaf A. [Univ. of Tubingen (Germany); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-05

    The key points of this presentation were to approach the problem of linking breakthrough curve shape (RP-CTRW transition distribution) to structural parameters from a Monte Carlo approach and to use the Monte Carlo analysis to determine any empirical error

  3. Determination of the parameters of the eclipsing binary system V367 CYG by the light-curve synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antokhina, E. A.; Menchenkova, E. V.

    1990-06-01

    Fresa's (1966) blue light curve of V367 Cyg is analyzed by the synthesis method in the framework of the Roche model and a model with a geometrically thick disk. The new spectroscopic mass ratio q = M2//M1 = 1.57 was used. The fundamental parameters and the absolute dimensions of the system were determined.

  4. A Parameter Identification Method for Dynamics of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on Step-Change Current Curves and Constant Current Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameterization of battery dynamics based on terminal operating data is a main concern in engineering applications of batteries. The key technology is designing an adequate test procedure and a data processing procedure to excite different inner dynamics and then estimate the parameters of a corresponding equivalent circuit model (ECM. This paper proposes a parameter identification method that utilizes the terminal voltage curves (TVC under step-change current conditions and constant current conditions. With this method, I-V characteristics of battery’s Ohmic resistance, mass diffusion process, thermal process and SOC varying process are decoupled and parametric functions of an ECM are obtained. Experimental results show that the method is easy to be implemented and modeling accuracy is sufficient for applications.

  5. The slope parameter of concentration-response curves used as a touchstone for the existence of spare receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneter, E; Singer, E A; Sauermann, W; Feuerstein, T J

    1997-09-01

    The present work was stimulated by findings of a large reserve of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors in rat neocortex by different investigators and our own group, using classical models of receptor agonism. The mathematical background of these classical models seems erroneous since the asymmetry that spare receptors introduce into concentration-response curves is not considered appropriately. This asymmetry leads to a steepening of curve fits based on the logistic function. Therefore, the slope parameter c of a logistically fitted concentration-response curve can be used as a touchstone for the existence of spare receptors. Spare receptors induce a c > 1. Concentration-response data of the alpha2-autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release in rat neocortex slices were re-analysed. The estimates of the slope parameter c of logistically fitted concentration-response curves obtained after treatment of rats with either vehicle or N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) to achieve an irreversible inactivation of alpha2-autoreceptors, were not compatible with the existence of a large receptor reserve. A model for nonlinear regression analysis developed under the a priori assumption of spare receptors confirmed the absence of spare receptors. Evaluation methods which neglect the alteration of the geometrical form of concentration-response curves due to non-proportionality between receptor occupation and relative response do not seem appropriate to quantify spare receptors. These methods may detect spare receptors where they do not exist.

  6. Assessment of the adequacy of bronchial stenting by flow-volume loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Clare A.; Roebuck, Derek J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Pigott, Nick; Elliott, Martin J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiothoracic Unit, London (United Kingdom); Dunne, Catherine [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Physiotherapy, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Airway compression is a common problem in children with certain forms of congenital heart disease. Although various surgical approaches are available to overcome this form of airway obstruction, internal stenting is necessary in a minority of patients. It can be difficult to assess the success of stenting at the time of the procedure, and the interval to successful extubation is usually used as an outcome measure. Measurement of relevant parameters of respiratory physiology with flow-volume and volume-pressure loops permits immediate quantitative assessment of the adequacy of stenting. A 3-month-old infant who underwent bronchial stenting and physiological assessment at the time of the procedure is described. (orig.)

  7. Estimate of the soil water retention curve from the sorptivity and β parameter calculated from an upward infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Latorre, B.

    2017-01-01

    The water retention curve (θ(h)), which defines the relationship between the volumetric water content (θ) and the matric potential (h), is of paramount importance to characterize the hydraulic behaviour of soils. Because current methods to estimate θ(h) are, in general, tedious and time consuming, alternative procedures to determine θ(h) are needed. Using an upward infiltration curve, the main objective of this work is to present a method to determine the parameters of the van Genuchten (1980) water retention curve (α and n) from the sorptivity (S) and the β parameter defined in the 1D infiltration equation proposed by Haverkamp et al. (1994). The first specific objective is to present an equation, based on the Haverkamp et al. (1994) analysis, which allows describing an upward infiltration process. Secondary, assuming a known saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, calculated on a finite soil column by the Darcy's law, a numerical procedure to calculate S and β by the inverse analysis of an exfiltration curve is presented. Finally, the α and n values are numerically calculated from Ks, S and β. To accomplish the first specific objective, cumulative upward infiltration curves simulated with HYDRUS-1D for sand, loam, silt and clay soils were compared to those calculated with the proposed equation, after applying the corresponding β and S calculated from the theoretical Ks, α and n. The same curves were used to: (i) study the influence of the exfiltration time on S and β estimations, (ii) evaluate the limits of the inverse analysis, and (iii) validate the feasibility of the method to estimate α and n. Next, the θ(h) parameters estimated with the numerical method on experimental soils were compared to those obtained with pressure cells. The results showed that the upward infiltration curve could be correctly described by the modified Haverkamp et al. (1994) equation. While S was only affected by early-time exfiltration data, the β parameter had a

  8. Evaluation of trapping parameter of quartz by deconvolution of the glow curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, R.K. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Imphal 795001 (India); Singh, L. Lovedy, E-mail: lovedyo1@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Imphal 795001 (India)

    2011-08-15

    The glow curves of natural quartz excited with different doses of {beta}-irradiation have been subjected to Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) in the kinetic formalism. The location of the constituent peaks, which are as many as eleven in the temperature region of 27-575 deg. C, has been ascertained by resorting to the second order derivative plot of the glow curve. Not only figure of merit (FOM) but {chi}{sup 2}-test has also been taken as a criterion for the acceptance of goodness of fit. CGCD analysis reveals that the frequency factor of quartz is in the range of 1.50 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup 11} sec{sup -1}. This analysis lead to the conclusion that the trapping levels of quartz can be approximated by the Urbach's relation E = 27kT{sub m} where T{sub m} is the temperature at the maximum intensity. - Highlights: > Glow curves of natural and beta-irradiated quartz in the temperature range from room temperature to 573 deg. C is analysed. > Frequency factor of quartz is in the range of 1.50 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup 11} sec{sup -1}. > Trapping levels of quartz can be approximated by the Urbach's relation E = 27kT{sub m}.

  9. Long-Term Transit Timing Monitoring and Refined Light Curve Parameters of HAT-P-13b

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Winn, Joshua N; Holman, Matthew J; Pál, András; Gazak, J Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We present 10 new transit light curves of the transiting hot Jupiter HAT-P-13b, obtained during two observational seasons by three different telescopes. When combined with 12 previously published light curves, we have a sample consisting of 22 transit light curves, spanning 1,041 days across 4 observational seasons. We use this sample to examine the recently observed large-amplitude transit timing variations (P\\'al et al. 2011), and give refined system parameters. We find that the transit times are consistent with a linear ephemeris, with the exception of a single transit time, from UT 2009 Nov 5, for which the measured mid transit time significantly deviates from our linear ephemeris. The nature of this deviation is not clear, and the rest of the data does not show any significant transit timing variation.

  10. A Stepwise Test Characteristic Curve Method to Detect Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    An important assumption of item response theory is item parameter invariance. Sometimes, however, item parameters are not invariant across different test administrations due to factors other than sampling error; this phenomenon is termed item parameter drift. Several methods have been developed to detect drifted items. However, most of the…

  11. Coexistence curves and molecule number densities of AdS black holes in the reduced parameter space

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coexistence curves and molecule number densities of $f(R)$ AdS black holes and Gauss-Bonnet AdS black holes. Specifically, we work with the reduced parameter space and derive the analytic expressions of the universal coexistence curves that are independent of theory parameters. Moreover, we obtain the explicit expressions of the physical quantity describing the difference of the number densities of black hole molecules between the small and large black hole. It is found that both the coexistence curve and the difference of the molecule number densities of $f(R)$ AdS black holes coincide with those of RN-AdS black holes. It may be attributed to the same equation of state they share in the reduced parameter space. The difference of the molecule number densities between the small and large Gauss-Bonnet AdS black hole exhibits different behavior. This may be attributed to the fact that the charge of RN-AdS black hole is non-trivial. Our research will not only deepen the understan...

  12. Internet traffic load balancing using dynamic hashing with flow volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Yoohwan; Chao, H. Jonathan; Merat, Francis L.

    2002-07-01

    Sending IP packets over multiple parallel links is in extensive use in today's Internet and its use is growing due to its scalability, reliability and cost-effectiveness. To maximize the efficiency of parallel links, load balancing is necessary among the links, but it may cause the problem of packet reordering. Since packet reordering impairs TCP performance, it is important to reduce the amount of reordering. Hashing offers a simple solution to keep the packet order by sending a flow over a unique link, but static hashing does not guarantee an even distribution of the traffic amount among the links, which could lead to packet loss under heavy load. Dynamic hashing offers some degree of load balancing but suffers from load fluctuations and excessive packet reordering. To overcome these shortcomings, we have enhanced the dynamic hashing algorithm to utilize the flow volume information in order to reassign only the appropriate flows. This new method, called dynamic hashing with flow volume (DHFV), eliminates unnecessary flow reassignments of small flows and achieves load balancing very quickly without load fluctuation by accurately predicting the amount of transferred load between the links. In this paper we provide the general framework of DHFV and address the challenges in implementing DHFV. We then introduce two algorithms of DHFV with different flow selection strategies and show their performances through simulation.

  13. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1983-12-15

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  14. The bolometric light curves and physical parameters of stripped-envelope supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Prentice, S J; Pian, E; Gal-Yam, A; Kulkarni, S R; Rubin, A; Corsi, A; Fremling, C; Sollerman, J; Yaron, O; Arcavi, I; Zheng, W; Kasliwal, M M; Filippenko, V V; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Nugent, P

    2016-01-01

    The optical and optical/near-infrared pseudobolometric light curves of 84 stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) are constructed using a consistent method and a standard cosmology. The light curves are analysed to derive temporal characteristics and peak luminosity $L_{\\mathrm{p}}$, enabling the construction of a luminosity function. Subsequently, the mass of $^{56}$Ni synthesised in the explosion, along with the ratio of ejecta mass to ejecta kinetic energy, are found. Analysis shows that host-galaxy extinction is an important factor in accurately determining luminosity values as it is significantly greater than Galactic extinction in most cases. It is found that broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-BL) and gamma-ray burst SNe are the most luminous subtypes with a combined median $L_{\\mathrm{p}}$, in erg s$^{-1}$, of log($L_{\\mathrm{p}})=42.99$ compared to $42.51$ for SNe Ic, $42.50$ for SNe Ib, and $42.36$ for SNe IIb. It is also found that SNe Ic-BL synthesise approximately twice the amount of $^{56}$Ni compared with SN...

  15. The model parameters of the mean light curves of the variable red giant stars in the near infrared colour-bands and compare them with the visual mean light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kudashkina, L S

    2016-01-01

    The observational data of the near infrared bands (H and K) have been used for the modeling mean light curves. Also the visual observational data have been fitted the same. The infrared and visual mean light curves were compared. All parameters and Fourier-coefficients of the mean light curves were obtained. The periodogram analysis of the variation of the brightness have been carried out.

  16. Influence of design and mode parameters on pump performance curve of heat generating aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barykin, O.; Kovalyov, S.; Ovcharenko, M.; Papchenko, A.

    2017-08-01

    Classification of multi-functional heat generating aggregates according to the function is considered in this article. Analysis of operating process mathematical model was implemented and methods for its refinement were proposed. Results of physical investigation of heat generating aggregate design and mode parameters influence on its power and head were presented.

  17. Accurate kinetic parameter estimation during progress curve analysis of systems with endogenous substrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2011-10-01

    We have identified an error in the published integral form of the modified Michaelis-Menten equation that accounts for endogenous substrate production. The correct solution is presented and the error in both the substrate concentration, S, and the kinetic parameters Vm , Km , and R resulting from the incorrect solution was characterized. The incorrect integral form resulted in substrate concentration errors as high as 50% resulting in 7-50% error in kinetic parameter estimates. To better reflect experimental scenarios, noise containing substrate depletion data were analyzed by both the incorrect and correct integral equations. While both equations resulted in identical fits to substrate depletion data, the final estimates of Vm , Km , and R were different and Km and R estimates from the incorrect integral equation deviated substantially from the actual values. Another observation was that at R = 0, the incorrect integral equation reduced to the correct form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. We believe this combination of excellent fits to experimental data, albeit with incorrect kinetic parameter estimates, and the reduction to the Michaelis-Menten equation at R = 0 is primarily responsible for the incorrectness to go unnoticed. However, the resulting error in kinetic parameter estimates will lead to incorrect biological interpretation and we urge the use of the correct integral form presented in this study.

  18. A new method in highway route design: joining circular arcs by a single C-Bézier curve with shape parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-hui CAI; Guo-jin WANG

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a single C-Bezier curve with a shape parameter for G2 joining two circular arcs. It was shown that an S-shaped transition curve, which is able to manage a broader scope about two circle radii than the Bezier curves, has no curvature extrema, while a C-shaped transition curve has a single curvature extremum. Regarding the two kinds of curves, specific algorithms were presented in detail, strict mathematical proofs were given, and the effectiveness of the method was shown by examples.This method has the following three advantages: (1) the pattern is unified; (2) the parameter able to adjust the shape of the transition curve is available; (3) the transition curve is only a single segment, and the algorithm can be formulated as a low order equation to be solved for its positive root. These advantages make the method simple and easy to implement.

  19. Analytical Light Curve Models of Super-Luminous Supernvae: chi^2-Minimizations of Parameter Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, E; Vinko, J; Horvath, Z L; Nagy, A

    2013-01-01

    We present fits of generalized semi-analytic supernova (SN) light curve (LC) models for a variety of power inputs including Ni-56 and Co-56 radioactive decay, magnetar spin-down, and forward and reverse shock heating due to supernova ejecta-circumstellar matter (CSM) interaction. We apply our models to the observed LCs of the H-rich Super Luminous Supernovae (SLSN-II) SN 2006gy, SN 2006tf, SN 2008am, SN 2008es, CSS100217, the H-poor SLSN-I SN 2005ap, SCP06F6, SN 2007bi, SN 2010gx and SN 2010kd as well as to the interacting SN 2008iy and PTF09uj. Our goal is to determine the dominant mechanism that powers the LCs of these extraordinary events and the physical conditions involved in each case. We also present a comparison of our semi-analytical results with recent results from numerical radiation hydrodynamics calculations in the particular case of SN 2006gy in order to explore the strengths and weaknesses of our models. We find that CS shock heating produced by ejecta-CSM interaction provides a better fit to t...

  20. A MACHINE-LEARNING METHOD TO INFER FUNDAMENTAL STELLAR PARAMETERS FROM PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bloom, J. S.; Richards, J. W.; Starr, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Lee, Y. S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Tokarz, S. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smith, N.; Eisner, J. A., E-mail: amiller@astro.caltech.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    A fundamental challenge for wide-field imaging surveys is obtaining follow-up spectroscopic observations: there are >10{sup 9} photometrically cataloged sources, yet modern spectroscopic surveys are limited to ∼few× 10{sup 6} targets. As we approach the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era, new algorithmic solutions are required to cope with the data deluge. Here we report the development of a machine-learning framework capable of inferring fundamental stellar parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) using photometric-brightness variations and color alone. A training set is constructed from a systematic spectroscopic survey of variables with Hectospec/Multi-Mirror Telescope. In sum, the training set includes ∼9000 spectra, for which stellar parameters are measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). We employed the random forest algorithm to perform a non-parametric regression that predicts T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] from photometric time-domain observations. Our final optimized model produces a cross-validated rms error (RMSE) of 165 K, 0.39 dex, and 0.33 dex for T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H], respectively. Examining the subset of sources for which the SSPP measurements are most reliable, the RMSE reduces to 125 K, 0.37 dex, and 0.27 dex, respectively, comparable to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy. For variable stars this represents a ≈12%-20% improvement in RMSE relative to models trained with single-epoch photometric colors. As an application of our method, we estimate stellar parameters for ∼54,000 known variables. We argue that this method may convert photometric time-domain surveys into pseudo-spectrographic engines, enabling the construction of extremely detailed maps of the Milky Way, its structure, and history.

  1. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 1. Responses in growth parameters and food conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyánková, L; Knízetová, H; Dĕdková, L; Hort, J

    2001-12-01

    1. HG and LG quail lines selected for high and low relative weight gain between 11 and 28 d of age (RG11-28), respectively, and an unselected C line were compared. Mature body weight of both selected lines was held at that of the C line. Progeny of generation 6 were used for analysis. 2. Divergent selection for RG11-28 brought about opposite changes in the growth rates shortly after hatching. 3. Parameters of the Richards function were used to describe the growth curve. The largest differences between HG and LG lines occurred in age (t+) and body weight (y+) at the inflection point of the growth curve (on average for both sexes 28% and 20%, respectively). For HG quail, the parameter t+ was 5 d later than that for LG quail (18.6 vs 14.1 d for males and 20.6 vs 15.6 d for females, respectively), and consequently the parameter y+ was greater (90.3 vs 84.0 g for males and 104.5 vs 96.1 g for females, respectively). The shape of the growth curve expressed by the y+/A ratio was substantialy different for HG and LG quail (44.8% vs 39.6% for males and 43.5% vs 36.8% for females, respectively). 4. The food/gain ratios for the fattening period (3 to 35 d of age) were 3.21, 3.47 and 3.34 for the HG, LG and C lines, respectively. The HG quail started to utilise food more efficiently than the LG quail as early as 10 to 14 d, that is, at the age when their relative growth rate first became greater. 5. The relative deviations of the HG and LG lines from the C line are discussed.

  2. A Machine Learning Method to Infer Fundamental Stellar Parameters from Photometric Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, A A; Richards, J W; Lee, Y S; Starr, D L; Butler, N R; Tokarz, S; Smith, N; Eisner, J A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for wide-field imaging surveys is obtaining follow-up spectroscopic observations: there are > $10^9$ photometrically cataloged sources, yet modern spectroscopic surveys are limited to ~few x $10^6$ targets. As we approach the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era, new algorithmic solutions are required to cope with the data deluge. Here we report the development of a machine-learning framework capable of inferring fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) using photometric-brightness variations and color alone. A training set is constructed from a systematic spectroscopic survey of variables with Hectospec/MMT. In sum, the training set includes ~9000 spectra, for which stellar parameters are measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). We employed the random forest algorithm to perform a non-parametric regression that predicts Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] from photometric time-domain observations. Our final, optimized model produces a cross-validated root...

  3. SU-E-T-391: Evaluation of Image Parameters Impact On the CT Calibration Curve for Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Z; Reyhan, M; Huang, Q; Zhang, M; Yue, N; Chen, T [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The calibration of the Hounsfield units (HU) to relative proton stopping powers (RSP) is a crucial component in assuring the accurate delivery of proton therapy dose distributions to patients. The purpose of this work is to assess the uncertainty of CT calibration considering the impact of CT slice thickness, position of the plug within the phantom and phantom sizes. Methods: Stoichiometric calibration method was employed to develop the CT calibration curve. Gammex 467 tissue characterization phantom was scanned in Tomotherapy Cheese phantom and Gammex 451 phantom by using a GE CT scanner. Each plug was individually inserted into the same position of inner and outer ring of phantoms at each time, respectively. 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm slice thickness were used. Other parameters were same. Results: HU of selected human tissues were calculated based on fitted coefficient (Kph, Kcoh and KKN), and RSP were calculated according to the Bethe-Bloch equation. The calibration curve was obtained by fitting cheese phantom data with 1.25 mm thickness. There is no significant difference if the slice thickness, phantom size, position of plug changed in soft tissue. For boney structure, RSP increases up to 1% if the phantom size and the position of plug changed but keep the slice thickness the same. However, if the slice thickness varied from the one in the calibration curve, 0.5%–3% deviation would be expected depending on the plug position. The Inner position shows the obvious deviation (averagely about 2.5%). Conclusion: RSP shows a clinical insignificant deviation in soft tissue region. Special attention may be required when using a different slice thickness from the calibration curve for boney structure. It is clinically practical to address 3% deviation due to different thickness in the definition of clinical margins.

  4. The Effects of Uncertainty in Speed-Flow Curve Parameters on a Large-Scale Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in transport models and prevents the use of a deterministic approach when traffic is modeled. Quantifying uncertainty thus becomes an indispensable step to produce a more informative and reliable output of transport models. In traffic assignment models, volume-delay functi......Uncertainty is inherent in transport models and prevents the use of a deterministic approach when traffic is modeled. Quantifying uncertainty thus becomes an indispensable step to produce a more informative and reliable output of transport models. In traffic assignment models, volume...... uncertainty. This aspect is evident particularly for stretches of the network with a high number of competing routes. Model sensitivity was also tested for BPR parameter uncertainty combined with link capacity uncertainty. The resultant increase in model sensitivity demonstrates even further the importance...

  5. The SARS algorithm: detrending CoRoT light curves with Sysrem using simultaneous external parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ofir, Aviv; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Carone, Ludmila; Carpano, Stefania; Samuel, Benjamin; Weingrill, Jorg; Aigrain, Suzanne; Auvergne, Michel; Baglin, Annie; Barge, Pierre; Borde, Pascal; Bouchy, Francois; Deeg, Hans J; Deleuil, Magali; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erikson, Anders; Mello, Sylvio Ferraz; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gillon, Michel; Guillot, Tristan; Hatzes, Artie; Jorda, Laurent; Lammer, Helmut; Leger, Alain; Llebaria, Antoine; Moutou, Claire; Ollivier, Marc; Paetzold, Martin; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Rouan, Daniel; Schneider, Jean; Wuchterl, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    Surveys for exoplanetary transits are usually limited not by photon noise but rather by the amount of red noise in their data. In particular, although the CoRoT spacebased survey data are being carefully scrutinized, significant new sources of systematic noises are still being discovered. Recently, a magnitude-dependant systematic effect was discovered in the CoRoT data by Mazeh & Guterman et al. and a phenomenological correction was proposed. Here we tie the observed effect a particular type of effect, and in the process generalize the popular Sysrem algorithm to include external parameters in a simultaneous solution with the unknown effects. We show that a post-processing scheme based on this algorithm performs well and indeed allows for the detection of new transit-like signals that were not previously detected.

  6. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  7. Development of a laboratory data interpretation software for determination of relative permeability curves by a parameter estimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, Fernando S.V.; Maliska, Clovis R.; Silva, Antonio F.C. da; Ambrus, Jaime; Contessi, Bruno A.; Cordazzo, Jonas [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)

    2004-07-01

    It is unquestionable the significant role that reservoir simulation has gained in the petroleum industry today. Nevertheless, the accuracy of this prediction toll is frequently degraded not only by inherent uncertainty in the reservoir characterization, but also by usually deficient estimation of relative permeability curves, which are the key elements for macroscopic description of multiphase flow in porous media. In practice, these flow functions should be estimated from data collected in displacement experiments. Although numerous methods for estimating relative permeabilities from these experimental data have been developed over the years, their practical application have been suffered from many problems mainly arisen on the oversimplified mathematical models on which those methods were based. In recent years, parameter estimation techniques are being increasingly applied to estimate relative permeabilities, mostly because they allow employing a flow model as accurate as necessary to represent all influencing factors on the fluid displacement. The present work describes the main characteristics and potentialities of an application software developed as a supporting toll for the task of estimation of reliable relative permeability curves by a parameter estimation method. Special emphasis was given to the implementation of a numerical flow model including relevant physical factors, such as rock heterogeneity, capillary pressure, gravity effects, and fluid compressibility. (author)

  8. Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion is a local thermal therapy that is used for several conditions. Quantifying the effects of moxibustion therapy has been difficult because the treatment temperature depends on the physician's experience, and the temperature distribution in the target area is not uniform. This prospective observational study aims to quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation to the abdomen. We developed a heat transfer control device (HTCD for local thermal stimulation. Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled and they underwent abdominal thermal stimulation to the para-umbilical region with the device for 20 min. Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and brachial artery (BA, the heart rate and the blood pressure were measured at rest, 15 min after starting thermal stimulation and 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after completing thermal stimulation. Blood flow parameters were measured by high-resolution ultrasound. In the SMA, blood flow volume was significantly increased during thermal stimulation (, as well as at 10 min ( and 20 min ( after stimulation. In the BA, blood flow volume decreased at 40 min after stimulation (. In conclusion we could quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation with an HTCD and high-resolution ultrasound. Thermal stimulation of the para-umbilical region increased blood flow in the SMA 20 min after stimulation in healthy subjects.

  9. Modeling IR Spectral Energy Distributions: A Pilot Study of Starburst Parameters and Silicate Absorption Curves for Some GOALS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Kewley, Lisa J; Rich, Jeff A; Sanders, Dave; Appleton, Phillip N; Chan, Ben H P; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Evans, Aaron S; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph A; Petric, Andreea; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study into the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting and the derivation of physical parameters for 19 galaxies observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) survey as observed with the \\emph{Spitzer Space Telescope}. For this we have used the pan-spectral fitting tools developed in a series of papers by Dopita and his co-workers. We show that the standard Lee and Draine `astronomical silicate' model cannot provide a good fit to the silicate absorption features as observed in the heavily dust-extinguished ($A_{\\rm V} \\sim 50$mag.) starbursts. We have derived an empirical fit to the `starburst silicate' absorption in these objects. This absorption curve is consistent with the silicate grains being systematically larger in starburst environments than in the local Galactic interstellar medium. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the SED fitting to each of the fitted parameters, and derive these parameters for those galaxies which do not have an embedded AG...

  10. A New Method of Parameter- Estimation for the Gompertz Curve%Gompertz曲线参数估计新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓华; 虞敏; 吉承儒

    2011-01-01

    我们提出了一种估计Gompertz曲线参数的新方法。通过研究产生Gompertz曲线的Gompertz微分方程,利用微分与差分的基本原理,借助多元回归方法,给定显著性水平α,在置信水平1-α下,估计出Gompertz曲线的参数。应用该结果研究中国1994年至2007年的汽车年销售数据,获得相应的预测数据和2008的预测值(1090万辆)。MAPE=5.58〈10,显示模型有预测精度较高。%We propose a new method of parameters estimation for Gomportz Curve. research Gompertz differential equation which creates Gompertz curve, by making use of the basic principle of differential and difference, given the α significance level, estimate parame

  11. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-03-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach.

  12. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach. PMID:28338056

  13. Discriminant analysis of pulmonary function parameters. Healthy adults versus mild asthmatics and moderate asthmatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Volume-time (V-T and flow-volume (F-V curves were measured in all the subjects of nonsmoking young males (mean value 26.3 yrs. of age, healthy and asthmatics. Eleven parameters of pulmonary function tests composed of two V-T, six F-V, and three mean time constant (MTC parameters, were calculated from the curves. These parameters were used in the two analyses through the all possible selection procedure (APSP discriminating between healthy adults and mild asthmatics and also between healthy and moderate. Flow rate at 75% of FVC (V75 proved to be the most useful parameter and V50 the next best in both analyses. The probability of misclassification using all eleven parameters was 19.64% in the analysis of healthy adults and mild asthmatics, and 4.29% in the analysis of healthy adults and moderate asthmatics. There was a little difference in the parameters selected at every step. The discriminant analysis proved that the flow-volume patterns were different according to the severity of bronchial asthma. Thus flow-volume recognition was considered to be important in analyzing the severity of bronchial asthma.

  14. Comparison of Surgical Parameters and Results between Curved Varus Osteotomy and Rotational Osteotomy for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Park, Chan Ho; Ha, Yong-Chan; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lyu, Sung-Hwa; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-06-01

    Various osteotomies have been introduced to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical parameters, postoperative limb length discrepancy, and minimum 5-year clinical and radiological results between transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy (TCVO) and transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy (TRO) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. From 2004 to 2009, 103 consecutive TROs (97 patients) followed by 72 consecutive TCVOs (64 patients) were performed for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Of these, 85 patients (91 hips) in the TRO group and 58 patients (65 hips) in the TCVO group completed minimum 5-year clinical and radiological follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to estimate survival. The TCVO group had shorter operation time (p TRO group and 7 hips (10.8%) in the TCVO group (p = 0.007). Osteophyte formation was observed in 34 hips (37.4%) in the TRO group and 13 hips (20%) in the TCVO group (p = 0.020). Fifteen hips (16.5%) in the TRO group and 7 hips (10.8%) in the TCVO group underwent conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA). The survival rate at 9 years with radiographic collapse as the endpoint was 68.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.1% to 79.3%) in the TRO group, and 84.7% (95% CI, 71.5% to 97.9%) in the TCVO group. With conversion to THA as the endpoint, the survival rate was 82.2% (95% CI, 73.1% to 91.3%) in the TRO group and 89.2% (95% CI, 81.7% to 96.7%) in the TCVO group. The comparison indicates that TCVO was better than TRO in terms of surgical parameters including operation time and estimated blood loss while the 9-year survival rates were similar.

  15. Rapid Mechanistic Evaluation and Parameter Estimation of Putative Inhibitors in a Single-Step Progress-Curve Analysis: The Case of Horse Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Stojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and rapid lead compound evaluation for estimation of inhibition parameters and type of inhibition is proposed. This is based on a single progress-curve measurement in the presence of each candidate compound, followed by the simultaneous analysis of all of these curves using the ENZO enzyme kinetics suite, which can be implemented as a web application. In the first step, all of the candidate ligands are tested as competitive inhibitors. Where the theoretical curves do not correspond to the experimental data, minimal additional measurements are added, with subsequent processing according to modified reaction mechanisms.

  16. Statistical Analysis of the Parameters of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Known Redshifts and Peaked Optical Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Beskin, Gregory; Greco, Giuseppe; Karpov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We present the statistical analysis of the properties of gamma-ray bursts with measured host galaxy redshifts and peaked optical light curves in proper frames of reference. The optical transients are classified by comparing the time lag of the optical peak relative to the GRB trigger with the duration of the gamma-ray emission itself. The results of the correlation analysis of all possible pairs of energy, spectral, and temporal characteristics of both gamma-ray and optical emissions are given. We specify the pairs of the parameters with correlation coefficients greater than 50 % at significance levels better than 1 %. The following empirical relations, obtained for the first time, are specifically discussed: a correlation between the peak optical afterglow $R$ band luminosity and redshift $L_{R} \\propto (z+1)^{5.39 \\pm 0.74}$ and a correlation between the peak luminosity of the prompt optical emissions and the time of the peak $L_{R} \\propto T_{\\rm peak}^{-3.85 \\pm 1.22}$. We also analyze the similarity of t...

  17. The influences of the properties of impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curve and output parameters of c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Song, Yang; Gao, Jie; Wang, Xinxin; Zhang, Yufeng

    2017-09-01

    The influences of the coating ratio of electrode, doping concentration of substrate and type of impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curves and output parameters of c-Si solar cells are studied by finite difference method and the dark I-V characteristic curves under different conditions are analyzed by their ideal factors, the results show that: the dark current values under the same bias voltage will increase with the increasing of the coating ratio of electrode or doping concentration of substrate; the influences of donor-like, acceptor-like and recombination-center-like impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curves have threshold effects; the parameters of the impurities and defects smaller than their corresponding threshold will have no obvious influences on dark I-V characteristic curves; the acceptor-like impurities and defects on the surface of c-Si solar cells have no influences on their dark I-V characteristic curve, but the donor-like and recombination-center-like impurities and defects have strong influences on their dark I-V characteristic curve; the variations of the output parameters of c-Si solar cells are analyzed in detail under the different properties of the impurities and defects inside and on the surfaces of c-Si solar cells.

  18. Identification of material parameters using indentation test —study of the intrinsic dimensionality of P-h curves and residual imprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumented indentation test has been used to determine material parameters with two different sources of information. Based on the recent shape-manifold identification approach, we formally demonstrate, in the scope of manifold, the non-uniqueness of the solution to the inverse problem based on load-displacement curves. The identifiability is also compared for P-h curve and imprint mapping, highlighting the manifold’s ability to estimate the maximum number of independent material parameters that may be determined with a given experimental setup.

  19. Two kinds of trigonometric curves with shape parameters%两种带形状参数的三角曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严兰兰; 梁炯丰; 黄涛

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of trigonometric curves with shape parameters are defined, they are trigonometric polynomial curves and cubic trigonometric spline curves. The former retains the main properties of the quadratic Bezier curve, and it is closer to the control polygon and can achieve higher order of continuity than the quadratic Bezier curve. The latter is similar to the quadratic B-spline curve, each piece of it is generated by three consecutive control points. For equidistant knots, the curves are C2 continuous, and they are C3 continuous under special conditions.%定义了带形状参数的三次三角多项式曲线和三次三角样条曲线.前者具有与二次Bézier曲线类似的端点性质,但逼近性比二次Bézier曲线更好,且在拼接时能达到更高阶的连续性.而后者与二次B样条曲线类似,其每一段由相继的三个控制顶点生成.对于等距节点,在一般情况下曲线C2连续,在特殊条件下可达C3连续.

  20. The comparison of the estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters by fitting reaction curve to the integrated Michaelis-Menten rate equations of different predictor variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fei; Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yong-Mei; Zuo, Yu-Ping

    2005-01-31

    The estimation of enzyme kinetic parameters by nonlinear fitting reaction curve to the integrated Michaelis-Menten rate equation ln(S(0)/S)+(S(0)-S)/K(m)=(V(m)/K(m))xt was investigated and compared to that by fitting to (S(0)-S)/t=V(m)-K(m)x[ln(S(0)/S)/t] (Atkins GL, Nimmo IA. The reliability of Michaelis-Menten constants and maximum velocities estimated by using the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation. Biochem J 1973;135:779-84) with uricase as the model. Uricase reaction curve was simulated with random absorbance error of 0.001 at 0.075 mmol/l uric acid. Experimental reaction curve was monitored by absorbance at 293 nm. For both CV and deviation kinetic parameters and applicable for the characterization of enzyme inhibitors.

  1. On Multiple Repeating Point of Parameter Curve%关于参数曲线的多重点讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张府柱

    2014-01-01

    由参数方程表示的曲线在积分学中占有重要地位,它和定积分的换元积分法的密切联系。在求由参数曲线所围平面图形面积时,积分限的确定是一个难点,它与参数曲线的多重点息息相关。%The curve shown by the parameter equation, which is closely bound up with integration by substitu-tion of definite integral, plays an important part in integral calculus. When calculating the area of plane en-closed by the parameter curve,one may find it is a difficult point to fix the integral bounds, which is vitally in-terrelated with multiple repeating point of parameter curve. This paper concerns a superficial understanding of multiple repeating point of parameter curve.

  2. Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Angeles-Hernandez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD, Wilmink (WL, and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2 and three parameters (POL3 and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS, determination coefficients (R2, and correlation (r analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019, followed by WD (0.023, POL2 (0.025 and POL3 (0.029. The four models provided total milk yield (TMY estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97 with observed TMY (89.9 kg. The four models under estimated peak yield (PY, whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management.

  3. Comparison of Mathematical Models Applied to F1 Dairy Sheep Lactations in Organic Farm and Environmental Factors Affecting Lactation Curve Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892

  4. Indication of BOLD-specific venous flow-volume changes from precisely controlled hyperoxic vs. hypercapnic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Clarisse I; Pike, G Bruce

    2012-04-01

    Deriving cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals involves a flow-volume parameter (α), reflecting total cerebral blood volume changes, and a calibration constant (M). Traditionally, the former is assumed a fixed value and the latter is measured under alterations in fixed inspired fractional concentrations of carbon dioxide. We recently reported on reductions in M-variability via precise control of end-tidal pressures of both hypercapnic (HC) and hyperoxic (HO) gases. In light of these findings, our aim was to apply the improved calibration alternatives to neuronal activation, making use of their distinct vasoactive natures to evaluate the α-value. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3 T while simultaneously measuring BOLD and arterial spin-labeling signals during controlled, graded, HC, and HO, followed by visual (VC) and sensorimotor cortices (SMC) activation. On the basis of low M- and CMRO(2)-variability, the comparison of these calibration alternatives accurately highlighted a reduced venous flow-volume relationship (α=0.16±0.02, with α(VC)=0.12±0.04, and α(SMC)=0.20±0.02), as appropriate for BOLD modeling.

  5. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  6. Can flow-volume loops be used to diagnose exercise induced laryngeal obstructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Maltbæk, Niels; Jørgensen, Inger M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops are often recommended as an easy non-invasive method for diagnosing or excluding exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions in patients with exercise-related respiratory symptoms. However, at present there is no evidence for this recommendation....... AIMS: To compare physician evaluated pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops and flow data with laryngoscopic findings during exercise. METHODS: Data from 100 consecutive exercise tests with continuous laryngoscopy during the test were analysed. Laryngoscopic images were compared...... with the corresponding pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops assessed by four separate physicians and with data from the loops (forced inspiratory flow (FIF) at 25% vs. FIF at 75% of forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced expiratory volume vs. FIF at 50% of FIVC, and FIVC vs...

  7. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re(sub max), Re(sub w), and A(sub R), embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. Volume 1 contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).

  8. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 2: Tabulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re sub max, Re sub w, and A sub R, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation, and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphics).

  9. The phase smearing effect in the light curves of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission and the determination of the parameters of 17 contact systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Debski, B.; Jableka, D.

    2017-04-01

    The Kepler mission observations, taken in the long cadence mode, have a time resolution of about 30 min. In this paper, we investigate how the long cadence binning influences the shapes of the light curves of eclipsing binaries. A simulated light curve of a contact binary exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum was applied for this purpose. We found that the binning caused a change in the variation amplitude and the shape of the minima. We modelled the simulated light curves corresponding to periods between 0.2 and 2 d using a code that does not account for binning and we derived the parameters. It turned out that only when the binary period is close to or longer than about 1.5 d are the solutions derived with such a code accurate. Rigorous modelling of systems with shorter periods requires the use of codes that do account for phase smearing due to long exposure times. We selected a sample of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission, exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum and showing no intrinsic activity. We solved the light curves of the sample with the most recent (2015) version of the Wilson-Devinney code and we derived the system parameters. The best models that we derived indicate that most of the systems in our sample have a deep contact configuration and that 13 out of 17 required the addition of a third light for good fits. Our results suggest that 13 systems could have tertiary companions.

  10. The thermoluminescent curve as parameter to compare archaeological ceramics; La curva termoluminiscente como parametro para comparar ceramica arqueologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez R, I.R.; Ramirez C, G.A. [Centro INAH Estado de Mexico. Morelos Ote. 502, Col. San Sebastian, 50090 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P.R.; Mendoza A, D. [lNIN, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez C, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, INAH, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Most mineral materials, including the constituents of pottery, have the property of thermoluminescence (TL), where part of the energy from radioactive decay in the mineral is stored and later released as light upon strong heating. The intensity of emitted light as a function of temperature is the thermoluminescence glow curve. However, it is well-know the thermoluminescence glow curve form depends of several factors associates with the incident radiation and type of materials. Between the factors associated with the materials, it can be mentioned the quantity and type of crystalline phases, and quantity and type of impurities that they could be present in the material. That is to say, materials with different physicochemical characteristics will produce different thermoluminescence glow curve, although, they have been irradiated under the same conditions. In accordance with the above mentioned, it is possible to identified differences between pre hispanic ceramic belonging to a same site and other sites. In this work a discussion about advantages and disadvantages is presented. Some specific examples in ceramic artifacts belonging to the Matlatzinca and Teotihuacan cultures are included. (Author)

  11. Twenty-One New Light Curves of OGLE-TR-56b: New System Parameters and Limits on Timing Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, E R; Elliot, J L; Seager, S; Osip, D J; Holman, M J; Winn, J N; Hoyer, S; Rojo, P

    2011-01-01

    Although OGLE-TR-56b was the second transiting exoplanet discovered, only one light curve, observed in 2006, has been published besides the discovery data. We present twenty-one light curves of nineteen different transits observed between July 2003 and July 2009 with the Magellan Telescopes and Gemini South. The combined analysis of the new light curves confirms a slightly inflated planetary radius relative to model predictions, with R_p = 1.378 +/- 0.090 R_J. However, the values found for the transit duration, semimajor axis, and inclination values differ significantly from the previous result, likely due to systematic errors. The new semimajor axis and inclination, a = 0.01942 +/- 0.00015 AU and i = 73.72 +/- 0.18 degrees, are smaller than previously reported, while the total duration, T_14 = 7931 +/- 38 s, is 18 minutes longer. The transit midtimes have errors from 23 s to several minutes, and no evidence is seen for transit midtime or duration variations. Similarly, no change is seen in the orbital period...

  12. Statistically Optimal Determination of the Phenomenological Parameters of the Phase Light Curves of Eclipsing Binaries. The Structure of the Test Function

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Mariia G

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of the test function on the phenomenological parameters used in the "NAV" ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (Andronov, 2012Ap.....55..536A) is studied. Due to a presence of local minima, the method of minimization contains two steps: the "brute force" minimization at a grid in the 4D parameter space, and further iterations using the differential corrections. This method represents an effective approximation of the light curve using the special pattern (shape) separately for the primary and secondary minima. The application of the method to concrete stars is briefly reviewed.

  13. Using the computerized glow curve deconvolution method and the R package tgcd to determination of thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of chilli powder samples by GOK model and OTOR one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nguyen Duy; Van Hung, Nguyen; Van Hung, Tran; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2017-03-01

    The kinetic parameters of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks of chilli powder irradiated by gamma rays with the different doses of 0, 4 and 8 kGy have been calculated and estimate by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method and the R package tgcd by using the TL glow curve data. The kinetic parameters of TL glow peaks (i.e. activation energies (E), order of kinetics (b), trapping and recombination probability coefficients (R) and frequency factors (s)) are fitted by modeled general-orders of kinetics (GOK) and one trap-one recombination (OTOR). The kinetic parameters of the chilli powder are different toward the difference of the sample time-storage, radiation doses, GOK model and OTOR one. The samples spending the shorter period of storage time have the smaller the kinetic parameters values than the samples spending the longer period of storage. The results obtained as comparing the kinetic parameters values of the three samples show that the value of non-irradiated samples are lowest whereas the 4 kGy irradiated-samples' value are greater than the 8 kGy irradiated-samples' one time.

  14. Combined Wavelet Transform with Curve-fitting for Objective Optimization of the Parameters in Fourier Self-deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀琦; 郑建斌; 高鸿

    2001-01-01

    Fourier self-deconvolution was the most effective technique in resolving overlapping bands, in which deconvolution function results in deconvolution and apodization smoothes the magnified noise. Yet, the choice of the original half-width of each component and breaking point for truncation is often very subjective. In this paper, the method of combined wavelet transform with curve fitting was described with the advantages of an enhancement of signal to noise ratio as well as the improved fitting condition, and was applied to objective optimization of the o riginal half-widths of components in unresolved bands for Fourier self-deconvolution. Again, a noise was separated from a noisy signal by wavelet transform,therefore, the breaking point of apodization function can be determined directly in frequency domain. Accordingly, some artifacts in Fourier self-deconvolution were minimized significantly.

  15. Testing feedback-modified dark matter haloes with galaxy rotation curves: estimation of halo parameters and consistency with ΛCDM scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris B.; Schombert, James M.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations predict dark matter (DM) haloes with steep central cusps (e.g. NFW). This contradicts observations of gas kinematics in low-mass galaxies that imply the existence of shallow DM cores. Baryonic processes such as adiabatic contraction and gas outflows can, in principle, alter the initial DM density profile, yet their relative contributions to the halo transformation remain uncertain. Recent high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations by Di Cintio et al. (DC14) predict that inner density profiles depend systematically on the ratio of stellar-to-DM mass (M*/Mhalo). Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we test the NFW and the M*/Mhalo-dependent DC14 halo models against a sample of 147 galaxy rotation curves from the new Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves data set. These galaxies all have extended H I rotation curves from radio interferometry as well as accurate stellar-mass-density profiles from near-infrared photometry. The DC14 halo profile provides markedly better fits to the data compared to the NFW profile. Unlike NFW, the DC14 halo parameters found in our rotation-curve fits naturally fall within two standard deviations of the mass-concentration relation predicted by Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and the stellar mass-halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching with few outliers. Halo profiles modified by baryonic processes are therefore more consistent with expectations from ΛCDM cosmology and provide better fits to galaxy rotation curves across a wide range of galaxy properties than do halo models that neglect baryonic physics. Our results offer a solution to the decade long cusp-core discrepancy.

  16. Radial velocity observations of the 2015 Mar. 20 eclipse. A benchmark Rossiter-McLaughlin curve with zero free parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Lemke, U.; Bauer, F.; Beeck, B.; Huke, P.

    2016-10-01

    Spectroscopic observations of a solar eclipse can provide unique information for solar and exoplanet research; the huge amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect during solar eclipse and the high precision of solar radial velocities (RVs) allow detailed comparison between observations and RV models, and they provide information about the solar surface and about spectral line formation that are otherwise difficult to obtain. On March 20, 2015, we obtained 159 spectra of the Sun as a star with the solar telescope and the Fourier Transform Spectrograph at the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, 76 spectra were taken during partial solar eclipse. We obtained RVs using I2 as wavelength reference and determined the RM curve with a peak-to-peak amplitude of almost 1.4 km s-1 at typical RV precision better than 1 m s-1. We modeled the disk-integrated solar RVs using well-determined parameterizations of solar surface velocities, limb darkening, and information about convective blueshift from 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We confirm that convective blueshift is crucial to understand solar RVs during eclipse. Our best model reproduced the observations to within a relative precision of 10% with residuals lower than 30 m s-1. We cross-checked parameterizations of velocity fields using a Dopplergram from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and conclude that disk-integration of the Dopplergram does not provide correct information about convective blueshift necessary for m s-1 RV work. As main limitation for modeling RVs during eclipses, we identified limited knowledge about convective blueshift and line shape as functions of solar limb angle. We suspect that our model line profiles are too shallow at limb angles larger than μ = 0.6, resulting in incorrect weighting of the velocities across the solar disk. Alternative explanations cannot be excluded, such as suppression of convection in magnetic areas and undiscovered systematics during eclipse observations. To make

  17. A new method to estimate photosynthetic parameters through net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut

    2017-02-01

    Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set. These may result in significant bias in estimating photosynthetic parameters. To avoid the above-mentioned hypotheses, we present a new method for fitting A-Ci curves and CF data simultaneously. This method was applied to a data set obtained from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves of various leaf ages and grown under eight different light conditions. The new method had significantly lower root mean square error and a lower rate of failures compared with previously published methods (6.72% versus 24.1%, respectively) and the effect of light conditions on Vcmax and J was better observed. Furthermore, the new method allows the estimation of a new parameter, the fraction of incoming irradiance harvested by photosystem II, and the dependence of gm on Ci .

  18. Radial velocity observations of the 2015 Mar 20 eclipse - A benchmark Rossiter-McLaughlin curve with zero free parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, Ansgar; Bauer, Florian; Beeck, Benjamin; Huke, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, we obtained 159 spectra of the Sun as a star with the solar telescope and the FTS at the Institut f\\"ur Astrophysik G\\"ottingen, 76 spectra were taken during partial solar eclipse. We obtained RVs using $I_2$ as wavelength reference and determined the RM curve with a peak-to-peak amplitude of almost 1.4 km s$^{-1}$ at typical RV precision better than 1 m s$^{-1}$. We modeled disk-integrated solar RVs using surface velocities, limb darkening, and information about convective blueshift from 3D magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. We confirm that convective blueshift is crucial to understand solar RVs during eclipse. Our best model reproduced the observations to within a relative precision of 10% with residuals less than 30 m s$^{-1}$. We cross-checked parameterizations of velocity fields using a Dopplergram from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and conclude that disk-integration of the Dopplergram does not provide correct information about convective blueshift necessary for m s$^{-1}$ RV work. As ...

  19. Hydrogeological Parameters solution Using Entire Curve Fitting Method and Aquifertest software%全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 水文地质求参

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜川; 梁秀娟; 张茜; 陈章; 李文娟

    2014-01-01

    Pumping test is the main method to obtain aquifer hydrogeological parameters and the results directly affect the recognizing and exploita-tion of the hydrogeological conditions of study area. The traditional methods have the problems of being effected easily by subjective judgment and external environmental conditions,taking long time to calculate and lacking data about pumping stage. This paper used the entire curve fitting method and Aquifertest software from the standard curve method and recovery method to calculate parameters individually,and combined with the entire curve fitting method to determine the final value. The results show that using Aquifertest software method to calculate parameters is convenient and accurate;the results have smaller differences using water level recovery method;and the entire curve fitting method has the advantage of unique-ness and reliability in deciding the parameters. Combining different methods can more truly reflect the hydrogeological conditions.%抽水试验是获取含水层水文地质参数的主要方法,求参结果直接影响对调查区水文地质条件的认识和地下水开发利用。传统求参方法存在主观影响大、求参时间长、易受外界影响和抽水阶段数据的不足等问题。通过全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 软件分别从配线法和水位恢复法两个角度进行求参,并结合全程曲线拟合法确定最终取值。结果表明,采用 Aquifertest 软件求参便捷、准确,与水位恢复法求参结果的差异相对较小,全程曲线拟合法求参值具有唯一性和可靠性,多种方法结合求参能更真实反映水文地质情况。

  20. Finest light curve details, physical parameters, and period fluctuations of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, J. M.; Szabó, R.; Derekas, A.; Sódor, Á.

    2016-12-01

    The CoRoT satellite supplied the scientific community with a huge data base of variable stars. Among them the RR Lyrae stars have intensively been discussed in numerous papers in the last few years, but the latest runs have not been checked to find RR Lyrae stars up to now. Our main goal was to fill this gap and complete the CoRoT RR Lyrae sample. We found nine unstudied RR Lyrae stars. Seven of them are new discoveries. We identified three new Blazhko stars. The Blazhko effect shows non-strictly repetitive nature for all stars. The frequency spectrum of the Blazhko star CoRoT 104948132 contains second overtone frequency with the highest known period ratio. The harmonic amplitude and phase declines with the harmonic order were studied for non-Blazhko stars. We found a period dependent but similar shape amplitude decline for all stars. We discovered significant random period fluctuation for one of the two oversampled target, CM Ori. After a successful transformation of the CoRoT band parameters to the Johnson V values we estimated the basic physical properties such as mass, luminosity, metallicity. The sample can be divided into two subgroups with respect to the metallicity but otherwise the physical parameters are in the canonical range of RR Lyrae stars.

  1. Analysis test of understanding of vectors with the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory and item response curves technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, Suttida; Prasitpong, Singha; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV), by applying item response theory (IRT). The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming unidimensionality and local independence. Moreover, all distractors of the TUV were analyzed from item response curves (IRC) that represent simplified IRT. Data were gathered on 2392 science and engineering freshmen, from three universities in Thailand. The results revealed IRT analysis to be useful in assessing the test since its item parameters are independent of the ability parameters. The IRT framework reveals item-level information, and indicates appropriate ability ranges for the test. Moreover, the IRC analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the test's distractors. Both IRT and IRC approaches reveal test characteristics beyond those revealed by the classical analysis methods of tests. Test developers can apply these methods to diagnose and evaluate the features of items at various ability levels of test takers.

  2. Chronic upper airway obstruction: value of the flow volume loop examination in assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, G B; Fairfax, A J

    1982-06-01

    Chronic obstructive lesions of the upper airways such as post-traumatic strictures, bilateral vocal cord paralysis and chronic inflammatory foci are uncommon. The functional assessment of the severity and character of an obstruction is important both for diagnosis and management, and may also allow evaluation of the efficacy of medical and surgical treatment. There are limitations of simple spirometric pulmonary function tests, which are evident when assessing upper airways obstruction. The flow volume loop is a graphic recording of airflow during maximal respiration and expiration at different lung volumes, and may be affected in a characteristic way by alterations in the airway resistance. Three unusual cases of chronic upper airway obstruction are presented which illustrate the value of the flow volume loop examination in their management.

  3. Maximal expiratory flow-volume types in young subjects with past history of nasal allergy and bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function tests were performed on 252 healthy young subjects free from respiratory and allergic symptoms, and 80 young subjects with past history of nasal allergy (PNA and 10 subjects with past history of bronchial asthma (PBA. All the subjects were non-smokers. Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV curves were visually classified into five types (A-E. The percent distribution of type A in healthy subjects was significantly higher than in the PNA group, while the total sum of percentage of types B, C, and D in the PNA group was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. The percent distribution of type E in the PNA group was similar to that in the healthy subjects. The percent distribution of MEFV types were significantly different between healthy males and healthy females. The percent distribution of types A, B and E were the highest in healthy subjects, PNA and PBA groups, respectively. Conclusively, the difference in the percent distributions of MEFV types was recognized among healthy subjects, PNA and PBA groups.

  4. Estimation of regional pulmonary perfusion parameters from microfocal angiograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Anne V.; Al-Tinawi, Amir; Linehan, John H.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1995-05-01

    An important application of functional imaging is the estimation of regional blood flow and volume using residue detection of vascular indicators. An indicator-dilution model applicable to tissue regions distal from the inlet site was developed. Theoretical methods for determining regional blood flow, volume, and mean transit time parameters from time-absorbance curves arise from this model. The robustness of the parameter estimation methods was evaluated using a computer-simulated vessel network model. Flow through arterioles, networks of capillaries, and venules was simulated. Parameter identification and practical implementation issues were addressed. The shape of the inlet concentration curve and moderate amounts of random noise did not effect the ability of the method to recover accurate parameter estimates. The parameter estimates degraded in the presence of significant dispersion of the measured inlet concentration curve as it traveled through arteries upstream from the microvascular region. The methods were applied to image data obtained using microfocal x-ray angiography to study the pulmonary microcirculation. Time- absorbance curves were acquired from a small feeding artery, the surrounding microvasculature and a draining vein of an isolated dog lung as contrast material passed through the field-of-view. Changes in regional microvascular volume were determined from these curves.

  5. Estimation of biological kinetic parameters from an analysis of the BOD curve of waste waters - effects of a chemical preoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlan, F.J.; Garcia-Araya, J.F.; Alvarez, P. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

    1997-12-31

    Urban waste waters were treated with pure ozone or combinations of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and/or UV radiation to study the course of resulting BOD (biological oxygen demand)-time profiles and to propose a kinetic model. BOD-time profiles of chemically treated waste waters show an initial lag period that first order kinetic models cannot describe. A second order kinetic model is then proposed that satisfactorily fits experimental BOD-time profiles, except when hydrogen peroxide has been used. In these cases, BOD-time profiles present the highest lag periods observed. By applying this model, three parameters are determined: the biokinetic constant (k) which is an index of the biological removal rate; the potential amount of biodegradable matter (BOD{sub T}), and the measure of the size of inocula and microbial activities of microorganisms ({lambda}). The model was checked with experimental results of BOD-time profiles corresponding to both untreated and chemically ozonated urban waste waters. Ozonated waste waters showed the highest values of k and BOD{sub T}, which implies an improvement of waste water biodegradability after ozonation. However, values of {lambda} corrsponding to ozonated waste waters presented lower values than those of untreated waste waters. This was due to the lag period observed in the BOD-time profile, which was a consequence of a lack of micro-organism acclimation to ozonated waste waters. The effect of the ozone dose, pH and carbonates during oxonation on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and the above indicated parameters was also studies. The results suggest that ozonolysis, the direct molecular ozone way of reaction, due to its selective character, increases the biodegradability of waste water more than other chemically advancec oxidation processes based on hydroxyl radical reactions. (orig./SR)

  6. Is there any correlation between model-based perfusion parameters and model-free parameters of time-signal intensity curve on dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Boram; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Tae Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dukyong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hyunee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To find out any correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) model-based parameters and model-free parameters, and evaluate correlations between perfusion parameters with histologic prognostic factors. Model-based parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) of 102 invasive ductal carcinomas were obtained using DCE-MRI and post-processing software. Correlations between model-based and model-free parameters and between perfusion parameters and histologic prognostic factors were analysed. Mean Kep was significantly higher in cancers showing initial rapid enhancement (P = 0.002) and a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.001). Ve was significantly lower in cancers showing a delayed washout pattern (P = 0.015). Kep significantly correlated with time to peak enhancement (TTP) (ρ = -0.33, P < 0.001) and washout slope (ρ = 0.39, P = 0.002). Ve was significantly correlated with TTP (ρ = 0.33, P = 0.002). Mean Kep was higher in tumours with high nuclear grade (P = 0.017). Mean Ve was lower in tumours with high histologic grade (P = 0.005) and in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.047). TTP was shorter in tumours with negative oestrogen receptor status (P = 0.037). We could acquire general information about the tumour vascular physiology, interstitial space volume and pathologic prognostic factors by analyzing time-signal intensity curve without a complicated acquisition process for the model-based parameters. (orig.)

  7. Biosorption of cadmium(II) ions by citrus peels in a packed bed column: effect of process parameters and comparison of different breakthrough curve models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Schiewer, Silke [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of low cost citrus peels as biosorbents for removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution was investigated in a fixed bed column, a process that could be applied to treat industrial wastewaters similar to commonly used ion exchange columns. Effluent concentration versus time profiles (i.e., breakthrough curves) were experimentally determined in a laboratory-scale packed bed column for varying operational parameters such as flow rate (2, 9, and 15.5 mL/min), influent cadmium concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg/L), and bed height (24, 48, and 72 cm) at pH 5.5. Column operation was most efficient for empty bed contact times of at least 10 min, which were apparently necessary for mass transfer. While the sorption capacity was largely unaffected by operational variables, the Thomas (Th) rate constant increased with the flow rate, and slightly decreased with increasing column length. Three widely used semi-mechanistic models (Th, Bohart-Adams, and Yoon-Nelson) were shown to be equivalent and the generalized model was compared with a two-parameter empirical model (dose-response). The latter was found to be able to better simulate the breakthrough curve in the region of breakthrough and saturation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Portal blood flow volume measurement in schistosomal patients: evaluation of Doppler ultrasonography reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao; Moulin, Danilo Sales; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Colleoni, Ramiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Gastroenterologia

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of Doppler ultrasonography in the measurement of portal blood flow volume in schistosomal patients. Materials and methods: Prospective, transversal, observational and self-paired study evaluating 21 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to Doppler ultrasonography performed by three independent observers for measurement of portal blood flow. Pairwise interobserver agreement was calculated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient, paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Interobserver agreement was excellent. Intraclass correlation ranged from 80.6% to 93.0% (IC at 95% [65.3% ; 95.8%]), with the Pearson's correlation coefficient ranging between 81.6% and 92.7% with no statistically significant interobserver difference regarding the mean portal blood flow volume measured by Doppler ultrasonography (p = 0.954 / 0.758 / 0.749). Conclusion: Doppler ultrasonography has demonstrated to be a reliable method for measuring the portal blood flow volume in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, with a good interobserver agreement. (author)

  9. Comparison of vertebral artery velocity and flow volume measurements for diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency using color duplex sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Murat [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Kirmizi Hastane, 03200 Afyon (Turkey)]. E-mail: drmacar@hotmail.com; Degirmenci, Bumin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Kirmizi Hastane, 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Yucel, Aylin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Kirmizi Hastane, 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Albayrak, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Kirmizi Hastane, 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Haktanir, Alpay [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Kirmizi Hastane, 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Yaman, Mehmet [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyon (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the measurements of vertebral artery (VA) systolic flow velocity and flow volume for diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Material and methods: We examined 96 patients who were referred for evaluation of VBI. Net vertebral artery flow volume and mean systolic flow velocity were determined by using color duplex sonography. We had grouped the patients into three according to VA flow volume: group 1 was consisted of patients with severely damped VA flow volume (lower than 120 mL/min), group 2 was consisted of patients with moderately damped VA flow volume (120-200 mL/min), group 3 was consisted of patients with normal VA flow volume (>200 mL/min). The mean systolic flow velocities in each group were compared by one-way ANOVA. Results: Mean VA systolic flow velocities of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 32 {+-} 12, 42 {+-} 10 and 46 {+-} 8 cm/s, respectively. Mean VA systolic flow velocity in group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2 (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant differences between VA systolic flow velocities in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.2). Conclusions: According to our findings, measurement of volume in addition to velocity is more valuable in detection of moderately damped VA flow volumes in diagnosis of VBI.

  10. Finest light curve details, physical parameters, and period fluctuations of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Benkő, J M; Derekas, A; Sódor, Á

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT satellite supplied the scientific community with a huge data base of variable stars. Among them the RR Lyrae stars have intensively been discussed in numerous papers in the last few years, but the latest runs have not been checked to find RR Lyrae stars up to now. Our main goal was to fill this gap and complete the CoRoT RR Lyrae sample. We found nine unstudied RR Lyrae stars. Seven of them are new discoveries. We identified three new Blazhko stars. The Blazhko effect shows non-strictly repetitive nature for all stars. The frequency spectrum of the Blazhko star CoRoT 104948132 contains second overtone frequency with the highest known period ratio. The harmonic amplitude and phase declines with the harmonic order were studied for non-Blazhko stars. We found a period dependent but similar shape amplitude decline for all stars. We discovered significant random period fluctuation for one of the two oversampled target, CM Ori. After a successful transformation of the CoRoT band parameters to the Johnson ...

  11. 带形状调整参数的一阶三角B样条曲线%One order trigonometric B-spline curves with shape parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶昕; 张嘉洋; 郭丽霞

    2013-01-01

    给出了一阶三角B样条基函数的构造,讨论这种基函数的性质以及在具有重节点情形时的变化,并利用这类三角B样条基构造了相应的三角B样条函数及三角B样条曲线。还给出了用带调节参数的控制点方法生成一阶三角B样条曲线以便对曲线形状进行调整的方法。讨论了如何利用这类B样条基以及带参数的控制点方法生成可调形状的三角样条曲线的问题。%T he construction of the one order trigonometric B-spline basic functions is presented in this paper .The properties of the basic functions and the case of multiple knots of the basic functions are discussed .T his kind basic function can be used to construct trigonometric spline functions and trigo-nometric spline curves .By the method of control points trasformation ,a kind of spline curve with shape parameters is presented and discussed .

  12. Paths of algebraic hyperbolic curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-juan LI; Li-zheng LU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Cubic algebraic hyperbolic (AH) Bezier curves and AH spline curves are defined with a positive parameter α in the space spanned by {1, t, sinht, cosht}. Modifying the value of α yields a family of AH Bezier or spline curves with the family parameter α. For a fixed point on the original curve, it will move on a defined curve called "path of AH curve" (AH Bezier and AH spline curves) when α changes. We describe the geometric effects of the paths and give a method to specify a curve passing through a given point.

  13. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja;

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the modular......-arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  14. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  15. Post-retention Development of Curve of Spee in Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance Cases, Its Correlation to Dentoskeletal Parameters: An In vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahammed, A R Yusuf; Ganiger, Channamallappa C; Shetty, Vikranth; Sunny, Sunil; Shetty, Sadashiva; Pawar, Renuka; K V Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Curve of Spee was first described by Ferdin and Graf Von Spee in 1890. The curve of Spee is an important characteristic of the mandibular dental arch. One of the most frequently encountered problems in the treatment of orthodontic patients is an excessive overbite. Deep bite has been found to be associated with abnormal mandibular function. Temporomandibular joint disorders also have potentially detrimental effects on mandibular development. Andrews advocated leveling the curve of...

  16. Comparison of Several Parameter Estimation Methods for Hydrological Frequency Curve%几种水文频率曲线参数估计方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海波; 赵东亮; 祝薄丽

    2016-01-01

    水文频率曲线参数估计多采用计算机优化适线法,然而该方法在拟合经验点据时将特大值序列与一般洪水序列等同对待,仅在数学上寻找拟合误差最小的曲线,不符合水文学中历史洪水的克-闵假定。通过对比矩法、权函数法、概率权重矩法、线性矩法、目估适线法、计算机优化适线法6种方法在柴石滩水文站水文频率的计算结果,表明:在一般洪水部分,各方法得出的结果相近,但在特大值部分,计算机优化适线法较其他方法得出的设计值大得多。在推求特大洪水设计值时应从理论上继续深入探讨,不宜简单用计算机优化适线法进行计算。%Computer optimized fitting method is widely used in parameter estimation of hydrological frequency curve recently. But the method considering the extreme value series is the same as the normal flood sequence, only searching for the fitting curve with the minimum error on mathematics, which doesn't conform to the K⁃M assumption about historical flood in hydrology. The paper compared the difference of hydrological frequency result in Chaishitan Hydrological Station computed by moment method, weight function method, probably weighted moment method, line moment method, estimation of fitting line method and computer optimized fitting line method. The results indicate that various method has the similar result on the normal flood sequence, but computer optimized fitting line method has the bigger result on the extreme value series. So it should be in⁃depth discussion when infer the design value of the large flood, instead of only using the computer optimized fitting line method simply.

  17. Evaluating Design Parameters for Breakthrough Curve Analysis and Kinetics of Fixed Bed Columns for Cu(II) Cations Using Lignocellulosic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2014-01-01

    A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II) cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, init...

  18. Role of Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of superior mesenteric artery flow volume in the assessment of Crohn's disease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Paiva Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate superior mesenteric artery flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography as a means of characterizing inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease. Materials and Methods Forty patients were examined and divided into two groups – disease activity and remission – according to their Crohn's disease activity index score. Mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was calculated for each group and correlated with Crohn's disease activity index score. Results The mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was significantly greater in the patients with active disease (626 ml/min ± 236 × 376 ml/min ± 190; p = 0.001. As a cut off corresponding to 500 ml/min was utilized, the superior mesenteric artery flow volume demonstrated sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease activity. Conclusion The present results suggest that patients with active Crohn's disease have increased superior mesenteric artery flow volume as compared with patients in remission. Superior mesenteric artery flow measurement had a good performance in the assessment of disease activity in this study sample.

  19. Analytical Algorithms for the Blend Ratios by Fibre-bundle Tensile Curves Part Ⅲ:The Definition Method and the Relationships between the Blend Ratio and Tensile Parameters Calculated from Different Ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-dong; Ron Postle; YAN Hao-jing

    2004-01-01

    The algorithms of the strength, work, modulus and percentage methods have been introduced and discussed in Part Ⅰ and Part Ⅱ of the series papers. As the following, the percentage-function calculation and the frequency-function calculation of the definition method are defined and developed in detail. Meanwhile, the procedures to find the tensile parameters are analysed experimentally and involve "ED" being the average values of the corresponding tensile parameters of each bundle tensile curve measured; "EC" being the tensile parameters obtained from the averaged experimental tensile curve; and "TC" being the parameters of the theoretical tensile curve according to the corresponding nominal blend ratio. The theoretical and experimental results indicate that the blend ratio estimated by the definition method from wool/polyester blended fibre bundles has a high correlation with the actual blend ratio though the variables to be known in this method are the most of all the methods and there exist the difficulty to solve fibre bundle tensile behaviour without fibre broken in accuracy and that there are high correlations between the EC and TC data and the tensile parameters should be calculated using the EC method rather than the ED method with the exception of the bundle initial modulus. The relationships between blend ratios and the tensile properties of blended fibre bundles can be used to select the optimum blend ratio of blended tops or yarns.

  20. Unbiasedness of Some Test Criteria of Parameters in a Grown Curve Model%生长曲线模型中参数的某些检验准则的无偏性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圣兵; 龚力强

    2011-01-01

    讨论了生长曲线模型中尺度参数矩阵和位置参数矩阵的检验问题,证明了当尺度参数矩阵为分块角矩阵时有关参数矩阵的三个似然比检验准则是无偏的.%The problem* on hypothetical testing of scale parameter and location parameter in a grown curve model are considered in this paper. It is proved that three likelihood tests criteria are unbiased when scale parameter is the form of block diagonal matrix

  1. Analysis Test of Understanding of Vectors with the Three-Parameter Logistic Model of Item Response Theory and Item Response Curves Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, Suttida; Prasitpong, Singha; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV), by applying item response theory (IRT). The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming…

  2. 带多个形状参数的三次均匀B样条曲线的扩展%Extension of Uniform Cubic B-Spline Curves withMultiple Shape Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成林; 邬弘毅; 郑兴国; 彭凯军

    2011-01-01

    通过构造两类带多个形状参数的调配函数,生成三次均匀B样条基函数的扩展.基于给出的调配函数定义了两类带多个形状参数的分段多项式曲线.这些曲线具有三次均匀B样条曲线的绝大多数重要性质,能达到GC1或GC2连续.改变形状参数的值可以独立地调控各子段的端点的位置及其切矢的长度,对曲线进行整体或局部调整,甚至直接插值任何所需的控制点.%Two classes of blending functions with multiple shape parameters are presented in this paper. They are the extension of uniform cubic B-spline basic functions. Based on the given blending functions, the piecewise polynomial curves with shape parameters are defined. These curves inherit the most properties of uniform cubic B-spline curves with GCl or GC2 continuity.The position and the length of tangent vector at the end points of curve segments can be independently controlled by changing the values of the shape parameters. These curves can be adjusted totally or locally and interpolated by any given control points.

  3. Phase separation of polymer solutions. The calculation of the cloudpoint curve with a concentration and temperature-dependent free energy correction parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, van P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    The free enthalpy correction parameter g in the Flory-Huggins equation for the Gibbs free enthalpy of mixing in polymer solutions is considered generally as a concentration- and temperature-independent parameter. It has been extended here with linear concentration- and temperature-dependent terms. W

  4. Gompertz curves with seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers an extension of the usual Gompertz curve by allowing the parameters to vary over the seasons. This means that, for example, saturation levels can be different over the year. An estimation and testing method is proposed and illustrated with an example.

  5. 混凝土曲线梁桥双向规则性判别参数影响分析探讨%Bidirectional Regularity Discriminant Parameter Impact Analysis for Concrete Curve Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠欲; 程鹏; 罗德专

    2013-01-01

    为给我国桥梁抗震设计规范的修订提供参考资料,从抗震设计反应谱理论角度,通过改变地震动的输入方向,引入抗侧力桥墩的“相对墩底剪力比”参数来判别混凝土曲线梁桥的双向规则性,探讨了圆心角、曲线半径、跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等结构参数变化对混凝土曲线梁桥横桥向和纵桥向规则性地震行为的影响规律.研究表明:圆心角是影响混凝土曲线梁桥双向规则性的主要因素,而跨径、跨宽比和跨高比等参数的影响可以忽略,曲线半径不应作为定义规则曲线梁桥的参数;曲线梁桥当满足单跨圆心角φ小于35°,且多跨一联累计圆心角φ小于55°时具有双向规则性,规则曲线梁桥的地震力可比拟为等参的直线桥进行简化抗震计算,计算结果偏于保守.%Aimed at providing references for Chinese seismic design code revision, from seismic design response spectrum theory of view, by changing input direction of ground motion, "relative pier shear ratio" parameter of resist lateral force piers is introducied to judge concrete curve girder bridge's bidirectional directions regularity.This study conducts structure parameters change affecting the lateral and longitudinal regularity seismic behavior of concrete curve girger bridge, such as central angle, curve radius, span, the span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameter, etc.Research shows: Central angle parameter is the major factor affecting the bidirectional regularity of concrete curve girder bridge, while the influences by span, span-width ratio and span-height ratio parameters can be ignored ; Curve radius should not be used to define regular curve girder bridge as one parameter; As a curve girder bridge meets the central angle φ less than 35 degrees, meanwhile the accumulative total of central angle of multispans Ψ less than 55 degrees, It satisfies bidirectional regularity,so it can be analyzed by simplified antiseismic

  6. Testing Feedback-Modified Dark Matter Haloes with Galaxy Rotation Curves: Estimation of Halo Parameters and Consistency with $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris B; Schombert, James M

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations predict dark matter (DM) haloes with steep central cusps (e.g. NFW), which contradicts observations of gas kinematics in low mass galaxies that imply the existence of shallow DM cores. Baryonic processes such as adiabatic contraction and gas outflows can, in principle, alter the initial DM density profile, yet their relative contributions to the halo transformation remain uncertain. Recent high resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (Di Cintio et al. 2014, DC14) predict that inner density profiles depend systematically on the ratio of stellar to DM mass (M$_*$/M$_{\\rm halo}$). Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we test the NFW and the M$_*$/M$_{\\rm halo}$-dependent DC14 halo models against a sample of 147 galaxy rotation curves from the new SPARC data set. These galaxies all have extended HI rotation curves from radio interferometry as well as accurate stellar mass density profiles from near-infrared photometry. The DC14 halo profile provides markedly better ...

  7. Measurement of quantifiable parameters by time-density curves in the elastase-induced aneurysm model: first results in the comparison of a flow diverter and a conventional aneurysm stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Ott, Sabine; Kowarschik, Markus; Bender, Frederik; Adamek, Edyta; Engelhorn, Tobias; Gölitz, Philipp; Lang, Stefan; Strother, Charles M; Doerfler, Arnd

    2013-02-01

    Quantifiable parameters to evaluate the effectiveness of flow diverters (FDs) are desirable. We measured time-density curves (TDCs) and calculated quantifiable parameters in the rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model after stent (Neuroform [NF]) and FD (Pipeline embolisation device [PED]) treatment. Sixteen rabbit elastase-induced aneurysms were treated with FD (n = 9) or NF (n = 5). Angiography was performed before and after treatment and TDCs were created. The time to peak (TTP), the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the average slope of the curve which represent the inflow (IF) and outflow (OF) were calculated. Mean values before treatment were TTP = 0.8 s, FWHM = 1.2 s, IF = 153.5 and OF = -54.9. After PED treatment, the TTP of 1.8 s and FWHM of 47.8 s were extended. The IF was 31.2 and the OF was -11.5 and therefore delayed. The values after NF treatment (TTP = 1.1 s, FWHM = 1.8 s, IF = 152.9, OF = -33.2) changed only slightly. It was feasible to create TDCs in the rabbit aneurysm model. Parameters describing the haemodynamic effect of PED and NF were calculated and were different according to the type of device used. These parameters could possibly serve as predictive markers for aneurysm occlusion.

  8. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  9. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  10. Optimization of P-Ⅲ Frequency Curve Parameters Based on MATLAB%基于MATLAB的P-Ⅲ型频率曲线参数估算的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞超锋; 刘新成

    2015-01-01

    利用线性矩法对P-Ⅲ型频率曲线参数进行了优化估算,采用最小二乘法进行最优曲线的判断,通过试算确定最优频率分布曲线参数,并运用MATLAB编程实现了这一过程的程序化,最终可输出相应最优曲线的水文变量设计值。将输出的最优曲线结果与传统的目估适线法结果进行对比,结果表明:该方法和目估适线法的计算结果比较吻合,可以用于实际工程。%This paper optimized the parameter estimation of P-Ⅲfrequency curve by linear moment approach and the method of tentative cal-culation,based on least squares technique,was used to determine of the optimum frequency distribution curve,the process was programmed by Matlab. Finally,the designed hydrological variables values were output. And the optimized curve-fitting method was verified by comparing with the traditional visual adaptability estimation. The results show that the method can be effectively applied to the actual engineering.

  11. Selection of effective maximal expiratory parameters to differentiate asthmatic patients from healthy adults by discriminant analysis using all possible selection procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximal expiratory volume-time and flow-volume (MEVT and MEFV curves were drawn for young male nonsmoking healthy adults and for young male nonsmoking asthmatic patients. Eleven parameters, two MEVT (%FVC and FEV1.0%, six MEFV (PFR, V75, V50, V25, V10 and V50/V25, and three MTC parameters (MTC75-50, MTC50-25 and MTC25-RV were used for the multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis in this study consisted of correlation coefficient matrix computation, the test for mean values in the multivariates, and the linear discriminant analysis using the all possible selection procedure (APSP. Correlation coefficients among flow rate parameters and flow rate related parameters in high lung volumes were different between the two groups. In the eleven-parameter discriminant analysis by APSP using single parameters, PFR, V75 (flow rate at 75% of forced vital capacity, and FEV1.0% were considered to be the effective parameters. In the seven-parameter discriminant analysis using the parameter groups, the group of all parameters and the %FVC and flow rate-related parameter group were considered to be the effective numerical alternatives to MEFV curves discriminating between healthy adults and asthmatic patients.

  12. Optimal velocity encoding during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of velocity encoding on measurement of brain blood flow and blood volume of inflow and outflow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography. A single two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography slice was applied perpendicular to the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery at C2 level. For each subject, the velocity encoding was set from 30 to 90 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s for a total of seven settings. Various velocity encodings greatly affected blood flow volume, maximal blood flow velocity and mean blood flow velocity in the internal carotid artery, but did not significantly affect vertebral arteries and jugular veins. When velocity encoding was 60-80 cm/s, the inflow blood volume was 655 ± 118 mL/min, and the outflow volume was 506 ± 186 mL/min. The ratio of outflow/inflow was steady at 0.78-0.83, and there was no aliasing in any of the images. These findings suggest that velocity encodings of 60-80 cm/s should be selected during measurement of cerebral blood flow volume using phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

  13. Poiseuille flow in curved spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Poiseuille channel flow through intrinsically curved (campylotic) media, equipped with localized metric perturbations (campylons). To this end, we study the flux of a fluid driven through the curved channel in dependence of the spatial deformation, characterized by the campylon parameters (amplitude, range and density). We find that the flux depends only on a specific combination of campylon parameters, which we identify as the average campylon strength, and derive a universal flux law for the Poiseuille flow. For the purpose of this study, we have improved and validated our recently developed lattice Boltzmann model in curved space by considerably reducing discrete lattice effects.

  14. Weibull 统计理论的参数对混凝土全曲线模型的影响%Application of Weibull Statistical Theory in Concrete’s Parameter Curve Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘青松; 彭刚; 胡伟华; 徐鑫

    2015-01-01

    为了解混凝土在不同加载速率下的力学特性,采用微机控制电液伺服大型多功能动静力三轴仪,对强度等级为 C15、边长为150 mm 的立方体混凝土试件在不同加载速率为10-5/s,10-4/s,10-3/s,5×10-3/s 下进行了单轴压缩试验,对不同加载速率下单轴压缩混凝土的抗压强度、变形、基于修正后的 Weibull 统计理论的应力应变全曲线模型参数等进行了研究和分析。结果表明:修正后的 Weibull 统计理论模型能较好地拟合混凝土试件在不同加载速率下的全曲线模型;材料的强度硬化特性可以通过 Weibull 本构模型中的参数 m 和 E 值表征;应变软化特性可以通过 Weibull 本构模型中的参数 c 值表征。%In order to understand the mechanical properties of concrete under different loading rates,we conducted uniaxial compression test on cubic concrete specimens (strength C15,side length 150mm)under different loading rates (10 -5 /s,10 -4 /s,10 -3 /s,5 ×10 -3 /s).The test was carried out by micro-computer controlled electro-hydrau-lic servo static and dynamic multifunctional triaxial apparatus.The compressive strength of concrete under uniaxial compression,deformation,and stress-strain curve model parameters based on the statistical theory of modified Weibull were studied and analyzed.Results revealed that the modified Weibull strain curve model parameters well fit the complete curve model of concrete specimens under different loading rates.The strength hardening properties could be characterized by the values of parameter m and E in the Weibull constitutive model,and the strain soften-ing behavior can be expressed by parameter c in the constitutive Weibull model.

  15. Combined effects of grain size, flow volume and channel width on geophysical flow mobility: three-dimensional discrete element modeling of dry and dense flows of angular rock fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoli, Bruno; Piersanti, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out new three-dimensional numerical simulations by using a discrete element method (DEM) to study the mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments. These simulations are relevant for geophysical flows such as rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows. The model is validated by previous laboratory experiments. We confirm that (1) the finer the grain size, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows; (2) the smaller the flow volume, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows and (3) the wider the channel, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows. The grain size effect is due to the fact that finer grain size flows dissipate intrinsically less energy. This volume effect is the opposite of that experienced by the flow fronts. The original contribution of this paper consists of providing a comparison of the mobility of granular flows in six channels with a different cross section each. This results in a new scaling parameter χ that has the product of grain size and the cubic root of flow volume as the numerator and the product of channel width and flow length as the denominator. The linear correlation between the reciprocal of mobility and parameter χ is statistically highly significant. Parameter χ confirms that the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows is an increasing function of the ratio of the number of fragments per unit of flow mass to the total number of fragments in the flow. These are two characteristic numbers of particles whose effect on mobility is scale invariant.

  16. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  17. Box-Cox变量变换拟合法估计三参数P-S-N曲线的研究%RESEARCH ON BOX-COX VARIABLE TRANSFORM FITTING METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THREE PARAMETER P-S-N CURVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家权; 陈国军; 陈非凡; 张云泉; 温洁明

    2011-01-01

    Box-Cox variable transform fitting method based on variable transformation method was presented, in order to solve fitting problems of three-parameter P-S-N curves under the logarithm fatigue life of different stress levels, which does not meet the normal linear regression Gauss-Markov assumptions. The effectiveness and reliability of this method has been verified by selected test data of the LC4, 40CrNiMo and LY12CS. Analysis of experimental data showed that fitting results of estimating three parameters of P-S-N curves by this method is better than the least square method, the relative error of curves fitting in two kinds of reliability could reduce to 1/2 of the least square method, and to 1/4 at most, so that the residual deviation of transformed model reached minimum, improved and stabilized distribution of the residual deviation of this model, also obtained the best linear unbiased estimate of regression coefficient. Finally, a greater ability of non-linear power function model was obtained after being restored transformation to enhance the accuracy and credibility of fitting three-parameter P-S-N curves on original data.%提出一种基于变量变换法的Box-Cox变量变换拟合法,可以解决不同应力水平下对数疲劳寿命不满足正态线性Gauss-Markov假设的三参数P-S-N曲线拟合问题;选取LC4、40CrNiMo和LY12CS材料的试验数据对文中方法的有效性和可靠性进行验证.数据分析表明,文中方法估计的三参数P-S-N曲线比利用最小二乘法的拟合效果更好.在两种可靠度下曲线拟合的相对误差可降低至最小二乘法拟合的1/2,最大可降低至1/4,使变换后的模型残差达到最小.改善并稳定了回归模型的残差分布,得到回归系数估计值的最佳无偏估计,还原变换后得到非线性能力较强的幂函数模型,从而提高原始数据的三参数P-S-N曲线的拟合精度和可信度.

  18. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  19. Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.

  20. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  1. 某型通用机枪大杠杆曲线参数优化研究%Parameter Optimization of Big-lever Curve of a Dual-purpose Machine Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞林; 张本军; 李永建; 郝刚

    2012-01-01

    为解决某型通用机枪首发装填困难的故障,利用线位移传感器进行了首发装填试验,得到了影响首发装填的重要因素,即拨弹滑板在向外和向里2个阶段所受阻力传递到装填拉柄运动方向上的最大值;在大杠杆的两段曲线上各取5个点,利用三次样条曲线对这两条曲线进行拟合,求出了2个最大值与插值点之间的函数关系;分别以这2个最大值为目标函数,以各插值点的Y向坐标为待优化参数,利用遗传算法对大杠杆曲线进行了优化,使得2个目标函数分别减少了47.24%和39.3%,达到了优化的目的.为该枪的改进工作提供指导,所使用的方法为同类型武器的设计和改进提供参考.%To solve the problem in first-round loading of a dual-purpose machine gun, the loading test was carried out by using a linear displacement sensor, and the importance factors which affect the first-round loading were revealed, i. e. two maximum values of resistances transferred from feed slide to the loading handle. Five points were taken in two segments of big-lever curve respectively, and the relationship between two maximum values and interpolation points were found out by using cubic spline curve fitting. Taken these two values as objective functions and the Y coordinates of interpolation points as the optimized parameters, the big-lever curves were optimized by using genetic algorithm, and the objective functions were reduced by 47. 24% and 39. 3% . The method can provide reference for the design and improvement of the similar weapons.

  2. Measurement of blood flow volume and its characteristic in the shunt after TIPS with intravascular Doppler guidewire%多普勒导丝评价TIPS术门腔分流道血流特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晤; 祖茂衡; 王志荣; 李国均

    2012-01-01

    Objective Via the measurement of blood flow volume after TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) with intravascular Doppler guidewire, a novel, reliable method to investigate the hemodynamical parameters of TIPS was tested. Methods With Doppler guidewire. blood flow velocity in the TIPS of 10 patients with portal hypertension were measured, and with the aid of DSA, blood flow volume was obtained. 10 normal hepatic veins were taken as contral. Results After TIPS,some parameters in the TIPS were gained: Average Peak Velocity (APV) was (18. 51± 7. 32) cm/s, Maximum Peak Velocity (MPV) was (25. 93±9. 54) cm/s, blood flow volumes were (557. 95 + 94. 57) ml/ min; and blood flow spectrum was acquired. The wave was nomo-phase in pattern and dischanged with the heart cycle. At the same time, the parameters in hepatic veins were as follows; APV was (15. 73±4. 52) cm/s;MPV was (26. 01±8. 33) cm/s;blood flow volume was (654. 64± 108. 56) ml/min. The wave was three-phase in pattern and changed with the heart cycle. Conclusion Accurately and conveniently, blood flow velocity in the TIPS was measured by intravascular Doppler guidewire. The present work on the TIPS in patients illustrated that the novel method is practicable and reliable for measuring the blood flow,%目的 应用血管内多普勒导丝测定TIPS术后门腔分流量及血流特点,提出一种新的、更可靠的检测静脉血流动力学指标的方法.方法 10例门静脉高压患者TIPS术后即刻,使用血管内多普勒导丝测定分流通道内血流速度,结合DSA技术,测出血流量;并予10例正常肝静脉血流作为对照.结果 测得TIPS术后分流通道内的平均峰值流速(APV)为(18.51±7.32)cm/s,最大峰值流速(MPV)为(25.93±9,54)cm/s,分流道的直径为(0.80±0.26)cm,门腔分流量为(557.96±94.57)ml/min,并且获得血流频谱特点为波形呈单相,不随心动周期而变化.而肝静脉APV为(15.73±4.52)cm/s;MPV为(26.01±8.33)cm

  3. A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

  4. Herdabilidades de parâmetros de curvas de crescimento não-lineares em zebuínos, no estado de Pernambuco Heritabilities of nonlinear growth curve parameters in zebu breeds, in Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Régis Santoro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de curvas de crescimento de modelos não-lineares. Foram analisados dados de pesagem constantes no banco de dados de Controle de Desenvolvimento Ponderal da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ, referentes a 24.028 animais Zebu, nascidos entre 1960 e 2000, das raças Guzerá, Nelore e Nelore Mocho. As pesagens ocorreram ao nascimento e em intervalos de 90 dias até dois anos de idade. Os seguintes modelos não-lineares foram utilizados na análise dos dados de peso-idade: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, von Bertalanffy e Richards. Os efeitos fixos estudados no modelo misto foram sexo, rebanho, ano e mês de nascimento e regime de criação. As herdabilidades para os parâmetros foram de baixa a alta magnitude, em geral, para todos os modelos. As correlações genéticas entre peso assintótico e taxa de maturidade e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento foram negativas, enquanto aquelas entre taxa de maturidade e velocidade de crescimento foram positivas. As correlações fenotípicas foram negativas entre peso assintótico e taxa de crescimento e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento e positivas entre taxa e velocidade de crescimento. Encontrou-se variabilidade possível de ser explorada em um programa de melhoramento genético, especialmente para a raça Nelore, que apresentou amostra de dados e resultados mais consistentes.Weight records of 24.028 zebu animals from Guzerá, Nelore, and Polled Nelore breeds available from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ database were used to estimate heritabilities of growth curve parameters. Non-linear Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Double Logistic models including sex, farm, year of birth, month of birth, raising system, and interaction sex*raising system as fixed effects and sire and dam, as random effects were adjusted using weight-age records of animals

  5. Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschlich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Gabor filters play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved Gabor filters which locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved Gabor filters enable the choice of filter parameters which increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved Gabor filters are applied to the curved ridge and valley structure of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation and they are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Lastly, curved Gabor filters are defined based on curved regions and they are applied for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004...

  6. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish w

  7. Topics in General Relativity theory: Gravitational-wave measurements of black-hole parameters; gravitational collapse of a cylindrical body; and classical-particle evolution in the presence of closed, timelike curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Fernando

    I study three different topics in general relativity. The first study investigates the accuracy with which the mass and angular momentum of a black hole can be determined by measurements of gravitational waves from the hole, using a gravitational-wave detector. The black hole is assumed to have been strongly perturbed and the detector measures the waves produced by its resulting vibration and ring-down. The uncertainties in the measured parameters arise from the noise present in the detector. It is found that the faster the hole rotates, the more accurate the measurements will be, with the uncertainty in the angular momentum decreasing rapidly with increasing rotation speed. The second study is an analysis of the gravitational collapse of an infinitely long, cylindrical dust shell, an idealization of more realistic, finite-length bodies. It is found that the collapse evolves into a naked singularity in finite time. Analytical expressions for the variables describing the collapse are found at late times, near the singularity. The collapse is also followed, with a numerical simulation, from the start until very close to the singularity. The singularity is found to be strong, in the sense that an observer riding on the shell will be infinitely stretched in one direction and infinitely compressed in another. The gravitational waves emitted from the collapse are also analyzed. The last study focuses on the consequences of the existence of closed time like curves in a worm hole space time. One might expect that such curves might cause a system with apparently well-posed initial conditions to have no self-consistent evolution. We study the case of a classical particle with a hard-sphere potential, focusing attention on initial conditions for which the evolution, if followed naively, is self-inconsistent: the ball travels to the past through the worm hole colliding with its younger self, preventing itself from entering the worm hole. We find, surprisingly, that for all

  8. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  9. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  10. Optimization of soil water characteristic curves parameters by modified firefly algorithm%基于改进萤火虫算法的土壤水分特征曲线参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 蒋睿奇; 王子龙; 李天霄

    2015-01-01

    Inacurate estimation of parameters of soil water characteristic curves can cause simulation results of soil moisture models. This paper introduced firefly algorithm to solve the nonlinear fitting problem of soil water characteristic curve model (Van Genuchten) parameters. In the algorithm principle, the force of attraction and light are based on the distance between different individuals, based on which the whole population is divided into a number of subgroups at the beginning, and every sub-population gathered around local optimal value. All sub-population can optimize at the same time, improving the efficiency, and the global optimal solution is found between all these local optimal values. Compared with the particle swarm algorithm, the firefly algorithm does not use perception such as individual best position, the global optimal position to control calculation, which avoids the potential defects such as premature convergence. In addition, the algorithm dose not set speed for fireflies, which avoids the problem that the speed exceeds a threshold. But, when firefly individuals approach the optimal value, it is likely to move longer than the distance between the individual and the optimal value, therefore resulting in the jump-over of the optimal value and reaching the other side. If this situation appears repeatedly, it will affect the convergence speed and accuracy of algorithm. So in this paper we turned the fixed step length into a variant step length that changed according to the between-firefly distance, and thus the firefly algorithm had a better global optimization ability at the beginning and rapidly found the position adjacent to the optimal value region, in the end it had a good local search ability and was able to find the overall optimal value. The test samples came from test field of College of Water Conservancy and Architecture in Northeast Agricultural University(126°45'32″E、45°44'41″N), China. Black soil in Harbin area can represent the

  11. Superfluids in Curved Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Villegas, Kristian Hauser A

    2015-01-01

    Superfluids under an intense gravitational field are typically found in neutron star and quark star cores. Most treatments of these superfluids, however, are done in a flat spacetime background. In this paper, the effect of spacetime curvature on superfluidity is investigated. An effective four-fermion interaction is derived by integrating out the mediating scalar field. The fermions interacting via the mediating gauge vector bosons is also discussed. Two possible cases are considered in the mean-field treatment: antifermion-fermion and fermion-fermion pairings. An effective action, quadratic in fermion field, and a self-consistent equation are derived for both cases. The effective Euclidean action and the matrix elements of the heat kernel operator, which are very useful in curved-spacetime QFT calculations, are derived for the fermion-fermion pairing. Finally, explicit numerical calculation of the gravitational correction to the pairing order parameter is performed for the scalar superfluid case. It is foun...

  12. Spinal curves (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are four natural curves in the spinal column. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral curvature. The curves, along with the intervertebral disks, help to absorb and distribute stresses that occur from everyday activities such as walking or from ...

  13. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  14. Parametrizing Algebraic Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    We present the technique of parametrization of plane algebraic curves from a number theorist's point of view and present Kapferer's simple and beautiful (but little known) proof that nonsingular curves of degree > 2 cannot be parametrized by rational functions.

  15. The density curve of F distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaopeng; LIU Kunhui

    2004-01-01

    Employing the properties of special function,we discuss the positional relation between two density curves with different parameters for F distribution in this paper.Some varying regularities about the position of density curve of F distribution have been obtained.

  16. Section Parameters Design of the Curved Surface Fuselage and Stealth Performance Optimization%曲面机身剖面参数设计与隐身性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启鹏; 王和平; 潘志雄; 司亮

    2011-01-01

    To reduce fuselage side face RCS ( Radar Cross Section ), the section parametrics of fuselage are designed and optimized. Section parametrics modeling and model of the curved surface fuselage are established. Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm is used to calculate fuselage' s RCS. The impact of the angle of minimal normal slope of the upper and lower fuselage surface and the wedge angle to fuselage side face RCS is researched. Through the calculation of different fuselage, response surface is built by Radial Basis Function modeling method. And the section parameters of fuselage model are optimized by SQP. Comparing with the fuselage model without optimization and with the same size ellipse fuselage, side face RCS of the optimized fuselage model dropped away by 2.2dBm2 and 6.0dBm2, which validated the effectiveness of fuselage optimization with parametric modeling method and RCS reduction.%研究飞机的战斗力和生存力问题,为了降低机身侧向雷达散射截面(RCS),对机身剖面参数进行设计和优化.将典型曲面机身分段进行剖面参数化造型,并建立曲面机身模型,利用多层快速多极子方法计算机身RCS,研究了机身上下表面最小法线斜率角和尖劈角对机身侧向RCS的影响.通过对不同剖面参数机身的计算,采用径向基函数建模方法建立机身侧向RCS对机身剖面参数的响应面,根据序列二次子规划方法对机身模型剖面参数进行优化.优化后的机身模型侧向RCS分别较优化前椭圆机身尺寸降低了,验证了剖面参数优化和RCS减缩的有效性.

  17. Influência de polimorfismos genéticos sobre os parâmetros da curva de crescimento em bovinos de corte Effect of genetic polymorphisms on the growth curve parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz

    2004-08-01

    Logistic nonlinear model that included the fixed effects of the contemporary group and genotype of the genes kappa-casein-HinfI (CSN3: AA and AB, growth hormone-AluI (GH: LL and LV, and beta-lactoglobulin-HaeIII (LGB: AA, AB and BB, to examine the effect of these markers on the growth curve. The Logistic model used to explain the growth of the CN, AN and SN genetic groups, was influenced by the genotypes of the CSN3, GH e LGB markers. The major differences started at 12-13 months of age. The value of the maturing rate (k of the AA genotype for CSN3 was superior in relation to AB genotype in the CN, AN and SN genetic groups. However, there was observed small difference in estimate of the asymptotic value (A for the AA and AB genotypes in CN and SN genetic groups. For the GH polymorphism there were inferior values of the parameters A and k to LL genotype in relation to LV genotype for the AN genetic group, however for the SN genetic group there was inferior value of the parameter A and superior value of the parameter k to LV genotype in relation to LL genotype. The same was observed for the LGB, there were superior values of the parameter k of the AA and AB genotypes in relation to the BB for the AN genetic group, however, there was inferior value of the parameter k of the AB genotype in relation to the BB, for the SN genetic group.

  18. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  19. Elastic Curves on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-16

    12 = (K,, + )- (29) K 2 (see [3]). The parameter KM represents the amplitude of the periodic curva - ture function and sm denotes the value at which K...Additamentum De curvis elasticis. Methodus Inveniendi Lineas Curvas Maximi Minimive Proprietate Gaudentes, Ser. 1., Vol. 24, Lausanne 1744. 17 [10...Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 4th. ed., Cambridge University Press, 1927. [12] G. Nielson. Bernstein/ Bezier Curves and Splines on Spheres based upon

  20. Doppler Ultrasonographic Parameters for Predicting Cerebral Vascular Reserve in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Han Young; Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    We investigated Doppler ultrasonographic (US) parameters of patients with acute stroke to predict the cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) measured by SPECT. We reviewed the flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel at the common, external, and internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the vertebral arteries (VA) in 109 acute stroke patients who underwent SPECT. Flow volume (FV) of each artery was calculated as the product of the angle-corrected time averaged flow velocity and cross-sectional area of the circular vessel. Total cerebral FV (TCBFV) was determined as the sum of the FVs of the right and left ICA and VA. We compared the Doppler US parameters between 44 cases of preserved and 65 cases of impaired CVR. In the preserved CVR group, ICA FV, anterior circulating FV (ACFV) and TCBFV were higher than in the impaired CVR group (p < 0.05, independent t-test). In the impaired CVR group, the ROC curves showed ACFV and TCBFV were suitable parameters to predict CVR (p < 0.05). Doppler US was helpful for understanding the hemodynamic state of acute stroke. FV measurement by Doppler US was useful for predicting CVR

  1. The Impact of the Combination of Circular Curve and Transition Curve on Highway Operation Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Youlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the accident in 2009 and 2011 of Taijiu Expressway, the study analyzed the relationship between the horizontal curve radiuses, the length of horizontal curve, the length of transition curve and the number of accidents, established the corresponding regression model. The trend of accidents was determined with different length of transition curve and different combination of circular curve according to this model. The results show that the circular curve radius and length of transition curve increase with the decreases of accidents number, the number of accidents decreases with the increase of the ratio of the length of the transition curve and the length of the round curve. When the ratio of the parameters of the transition curve and the radius of the circle is between 0.3-0.6, the accidents are more focused. The bigger change rate of curves is, there are more accidents of flat curve. To evaluate road traffic safety from the perspective of horizontal curve alignment design, these regularities have very important reference.

  2. Pencils on real curves

    CERN Document Server

    Coppens, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We consider coverings of real algebraic curves to real rational algebraic curves. We show the existence of such coverings having prescribed topological degree on the real locus. From those existence results we prove some results on Brill-Noether Theory for pencils on real curves. For coverings having topological degree 0 we introduce the covering number k and we prove the existence of coverings of degree 4 with prescribed covering number.

  3. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  4. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  5. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  6. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  7. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression th

  8. Pairings on hyperelliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Jennifer; Chisholm, Sarah; Eisentraeger, Kirsten; Stange, Katherine; Teske, Edlyn

    2009-01-01

    We assemble and reorganize the recent work in the area of hyperelliptic pairings: We survey the research on constructing hyperelliptic curves suitable for pairing-based cryptography. We also showcase the hyperelliptic pairings proposed to date, and develop a unifying framework. We discuss the techniques used to optimize the pairing computation on hyperelliptic curves, and present many directions for further research.

  9. Retrospectives: Engel Curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreas Chai; Alessio Moneta

    2010-01-01

    ..., Professor of Economics, University of Illinois, Chicago, at jpersky@uic.edu jpersky@uic.edu.. Introduction Introduction Engel curves describe how household expenditure on particular goods or Engel curves describe how household expenditure on particular goods or services depends on household income. The name comes from the German st...

  10. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  11. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  12. Optical conductivity of curved graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A J; Frederico, T; Oliveira, O; de Paula, W; Santos, M C

    2014-05-07

    We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far- and mid-infrared frequencies for periodicities ∼100 nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthermore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type.

  13. Supersymmetric Spacetimes from Curved Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzenko, Sergei M

    2015-01-01

    We review the superspace technique to determine supersymmetric spacetimes in the framework of off-shell formulations for supergravity in diverse dimensions using the case of 3D N=2 supergravity theories as an illustrative example. This geometric formalism has several advantages over other approaches advocated in the last four years. Firstly, the infinitesimal isometry transformations of a given curved superspace form, by construction, a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra, with its odd part corresponding to the rigid supersymmetry transformations. Secondly, the generalised Killing spinor equation, which must be obeyed by the supersymmetry parameters, is a consequence of the more fundamental superfield Killing equation. Thirdly, general rigid supersymmetric theories on a curved spacetime are readily constructed in superspace by making use of the known off-shell supergravity-matter couplings and restricting them to the background chosen. It is the superspace techniques which make it possible to generate arbitra...

  14. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  15. Remote sensing used for power curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Paulsen, U. S.; Larsen, T. J.; Antoniou, I.; Thesbjerg, L.

    2008-05-01

    : Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles.

  16. ANALYTICAL COMPARISION OF DISC BRAKES WITH LINEAR AND CURVED SHAPED SLOTS BETWEEN PLATES FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON DIFFERENT PARAMETER USING THROUGH CATIA V5 R20 AND ANSYS 15.0.7

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar*, Anshuka Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    The process which converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle into mechanical energy is known as Braking, which must be dissipated in the form of heat. The device using for decelerating or stopping the rotation of a wheel is called as disc brake. A brake disc (or rotor) usually made of linear shaped slots between plates and a disc brake ( or rotor) usually made of curved shaped slots between plates having materials used in both is Structural Steel, is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. Fr...

  17. HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Bersten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present progress in light curve models of type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P obtained using a newly devel- oped, one-dimensional hydrodynamic code. Using simple initial models (polytropes, we reproduced the global behavior of the observed light curves and we analyzed the sensitivity of the light curves to the variation of free parameters.

  18. On the Light Curves of AM CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Smak, J

    2016-01-01

    Light curves of AM CVn are analyzed by decomposing them into their Fourier components. The amplitudes of the fundamental mode and overtones of the three components: the superhumps, the negative superhumps and the orbital variations, are found to be variable. This implies that variations in the shape of the observed light curve of AM CVn are not only due to the interference between those components, but also due to the variability of their parameters.

  19. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  20. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  1. Large Curved Surface Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement principle of large curved surface through theodolite industry survey system is introduced. Two methods are suggested with respect to the distribution range of curved surface error. The experiments show that the measurement precision can be up to 0.15mm with relative precision of 3×10-5. Finally, something needed paying attention to and the application aspects on theodolite industry survey system are given.

  2. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  3. Arithmetic of Shimura curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This is the note for a series of lectures that the author gave at the Centre de Recerca Matemtica (CRM), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain on October 19–24, 2009. The aim is to give a comprehensive description of some recent work of the author and his students on generalisations of the Gross-Zagier formula, Euler systems on Shimura curves, and rational points on elliptic curves.

  4. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  5. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  6. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E

    1997-01-01

    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  7. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  8. 温度相关参数对反应堆压力容器压力温度限值曲线的影响研究%INFLUENCES OF TEMPERATURE-RELATED PARAMETERS ON P—T LIMIT CURVES FOR RPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任爱; 吕峰; 陈明亚; 吴洪

    2013-01-01

    During nuclear power plant (NPP) heat up and cool down processes,pressure and temperature in a Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) should be kept under the pressure-temperature (P—T) limit curve.For the P—T limit curve calculation three temperature-related parameters are required,including the fluid temperature of primary loop,the temperature at crack-tip and the temperature changing rate.The comparison of the latest versions of the RCCM (Design and Construction Rules for Mechanical Components for PWR Nuclear Islands) code and the ASEM (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code is performed.A new P—T limit curve calculation procedure based on the Ver.2007 RCCM code is proposed.Furthermore,the effects of the temperature-related parameters on the P—T limit curves are studied.The result shows that the effect of the temperature-related parameters depends on the adopted standards,the heat up and cool down processes and other factors.The conclusion can be used to calculate the P—T limit curve.%核电站在启停堆过程中,需要将压力、温度控制在压力温度限值曲线(P—T曲线)所规定的范围内.在P—T曲线的制定过程中,涉及与温度相关的参数包括升降温速率、一回路流体温度和裂纹前缘温度.对比分析最新版ASME(American Society of Mechanical Engineers)规范和RCCM(Design and Construction Rules for Mechanical Components for PWRNuclear Islands)规范在P—T曲线计算方面的差异,基于2007版RCCM规范提出新的P—T曲线计算流程,通过数值算例分别研究温度相关参数对基于ASME规范和基于RCCM规范得到的P—T曲线的影响.数值分析显示温度相关参数的影响与所采用的标准、升降温工况等因素有关.研究结果可供P—T曲线工程计算参考,有助于核电站安全、可靠的使用反应堆压力容器.

  9. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  10. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  11. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  12. Power curve investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    are not performed according to IEC 61400-12-1 [1]. Therefore, the results presented in this report cannot be considered a power curve according to the reference standard, and are referred to as “power curve investigation” instead. The measurements have been performed by a customer and the data analysis has been......This report describes the analysis carried out with data from a given turbine in a wind farm and a chosen period. The purpose of the analysis is to correlate the power output of the wind turbine to the wind speed measured by a nacelle-mounted anemometer. The measurements and analysis...

  13. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  14. Graphs, Curves and Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis has three main subjects. The first subject is Measure-theoretic rigidity of Mumford Curves. One can describe isomorphism of two compact hyperbolic Riemann surfaces of the same genus by a measure-theoretic property: a chosen isomorphism of their fundamental groups corresponds to a homeomo

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  16. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  17. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  18. Fitting a Gompertz curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a simple Gompertz curve-fitting procedure is proposed. Its advantages include the facts that the stability of the saturation level over the sample period can be checked, and that no knowledge of its value is necessary for forecasting. An application to forecasting the stoc

  19. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  20. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Yordanova, Ginka

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  1. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  2. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Straightening Out Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, E. N.; Morecombe, V. J.

    1970-01-01

    The basic mathematical theory behind learning curves is explained, together with implications for clerical and industrial training, evaluation of skill development, and prediction of future performance. Brief studies of textile worker and typist training are presented to illustrate such concepts as the reduction fraction (a consistent decrease in…

  5. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Federici, Paolo

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  7. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  8. Curved-region-based ridge frequency estimation and curved Gabor filters for fingerprint image enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Gabor filters (GFs) play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved GFs that locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved GFs enable the choice of filter parameters that increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved GFs are applied to the curved ridge and valley structures of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation-field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation. Subsequently, these curved regions are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Finally, curved GFs are defined based on curved regions, and they apply the previously estimated orientations and ridge frequencies for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004 databases show improvements of this approach in comparison with state-of-the-art enhancement methods.

  9. [Duplex scanning of hemodynamic parameters of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery in healthy volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, G I; Shilenok, D V

    1993-07-01

    The possibility of studying the hemodynamics in the visceral arteries of the abdominal aorta by duplex scanning was demonstrated. The results of examination of 30 healthy persons are discussed. Characteristic features of the blood flow spectrogram of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery were revealed. According to the spectrogram, the flow of blood in the celiac trunk is characterized by rapidly increasing peak systolic rate and slowly diminishing diastolic rate to approximately 1/3 of the maximal value of systole. The character of the blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery is distinguished by a lesser peak systolic rate and the presence of a short-lived reverse rate before the sloping diastolic curve. Normal values of the blood flow volume rate were determined, it was 649 +/- 25.4 ml/min in the celiac trunk and 395 +/- 20.5 ml/min in the superior mesenteric artery. Among the advantages of the duplex scanning method are noninvasiveness and safety and the possibility of dynamic study of the hemodynamic parameters.

  10. Curved Nanotube Structures under Mechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Yazdani Sarvestani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Configuration of carbon nanotube (CNT has been the subject of research to perform theoretical development for analyzing nanocomposites. A new theoretical solution is developed to study curved nanotube structures subjected to mechanical loadings. A curved nanotube structure is considered. A nonlocal displacement-based solution is proposed by using a displacement approach of Toroidal Elasticity based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics. The governing equations of curved nanotube structures are developed in toroidal coordinate system. The method of successive approximation is used to discretize the displacement-based governing equations and find the general solution subjected to bending moment. The numerical results show that all displacement components increase with increasing the nonlocal parameter. The present theoretical study highlights the significance of the geometry and nonlocal parameter effects on mechanical behavior of nanotube structures.

  11. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  12. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  13. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  14. Packing Superballs from Codes and Algebraic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIU; Chao Ping XING

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we make use of codes with good parameters and algebraic curves over finite fields with many rational points to construct dense packings of superballs. It turns out that our packing density is quite reasonable. In particular, we improve some values for the best-known lower bounds on packing density.

  15. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  16. Identification of variables for site calibration and power curve assessment in complex terrain. Task 8, a literature survey on theory and practice of parameter identification, specification and estimation (ISE) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Leendertse, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    This document presents the literature survey results on Identification, Specification and Estimation (ISE) techniques for variables within the SiteParIden project. Besides an overview of the different general techniques also an overview is given on EU funded wind energy projects where some of these techniques have been applied more specifically. The main problem in applications like power performance assessment and site calibration is to establish an appropriate model for predicting the considered dependent variable with the aid of measured independent (explanatory) variables. In these applications detailed knowledge on what the relevant variables are and how their precise appearance in the model would be is typically missing. Therefore, the identification (of variables) and the specification (of the model relation) are important steps in the model building phase. For the determination of the parameters in the model a reliable variable estimation technique is required. In EU funded wind energy projects the linear regression technique is the most commonly applied tool for the estimation step. The linear regression technique may fail in finding reliable parameter estimates when the model variables are strongly correlated, either due to the experimental set-up or because of their particular appearance in the model. This situation of multicollinearity sometimes results in unrealistic parameter values, e.g. with the wrong algebraic sign. It is concluded that different approaches, like multi-binning can provide a better way of identifying the relevant variables. However further research in these applications is needed and it is recommended that alternative methods (neural networks, singular value decomposition etc.) should also be tested on their usefulness in a succeeding project. Increased interest in complex terrains, as feasible locations for wind farms, has also emphasised the need for adequate models. A common standard procedure to prescribe the statistical

  17. Potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters of the 24 Λ-S states and 54 Ω states of the F2 + cation including the spin-orbit coupling effect*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2016-11-01

    This work calculated the PECs of 24 Λ-S states and 54 Ω states of F2+ cation. The calculations were done with the CASSCF method, which was followed by the internally contracted MRCI approach. Core-valence correlation correction, scalar relativistic correction and basis set extrapolation were taken into account. Of these 24 Λ-S states, the 22Σg-, 22Σu-, 24Σg-, 14Δu, and 24Πg states were found to be repulsive. The X2Πg, A2Πu 14Δg, 14Πg and 24Πg states were found to be inverted with the spin-orbit coupling effect included. The 12Δg, 24Πu, 14Πg, 14Σu+, 22Πu, 14Σg-, 24Σu-, and 12Σg+ states were found to be weakly bound. The 24Σu- state had double wells. The avoided crossings of PECs were observed between the A2Πu and 22Πu states, the X2Πg and 22Πg states, the 12Σu- and 22Σu- states, the 14Πu and 24Πu states, and the 14Σ-g and 24Σ-g states. Some spectroscopic parameters were determined and the vibrational properties of several weakly-bound states were predicted. The spin-orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic parameters was evaluated. Comparison with available experimental data shows that the methodology used in this paper is highly accurate for this system. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70388-9

  18. 一种基于简正波模态频散的远距离宽带海底参数反演方法∗%A far distance wideband geoacoustic parameter inversion metho d based on a mo dal disp ersion curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in shallow water is greatly influenced by the properties of the sea bottom. The dispersion characteristics of modes are relatively sensitive to the bottom parameters and have been used to invert the bottom parameters. Since the inversion error using a single wideband sound source increases with increasing range, a far distance inversion method based on the modal dispersion curve using a single hydrophone with two wideband sound sources is presented in this paper, in which a warping transform is applied so that it can accurately extract the modal dispersion curve from the warped signal spectrum. Experimental data used for the inversion are acquired using a hydrophone of vertical array in the South Sea of China during the Autumn in 2012. The transmitted signals are explosive signals, and the bottom sound speed and density are inverted by matching the theoretical arrival time differences of various modes and frequencies with those calculated using the experimental data. The attenuation coefficient is deduced using the transmission loss data recorded in the experiment. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used for optimization search for the parameter bounds. Inversion results demonstrate that the arrival time difference when using the bottom sound speed and density show a high consistency with those obtained using the experimental data. Moreover, the attenuation coefficient is nonlinear over the frequency band from 100 to 315 Hz. The validity of inverted parameters is evaluated by the posteriori probability distributions, and the numerical results of arrival time differences calculated using the inverted sound speed and density are in good agreement with those extracted from the other two wideband explosive signals at different distances. In addition, the theoretical transmission loss calculated using the inverted attenuation coefficient matches the experiment data very well. It is shown that the inversion scheme can provide a valid and stable

  19. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  20. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  1. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  2. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  3. Atypical Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Steenwyk, Steven D; Molnar, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    We have identified some two-hundred new variable stars in a systematic study of a data archive obtained with the Calvin-Rehoboth observatory. Of these, we present five close binaries showing behaviors presumably due to star spots or other magnetic activity. For context, we first present two new RS CVn systems whose behavior can be readily attribute to star spots. Then we present three new close binary systems that are rather atypical, with light curves that are changing over time in ways not easily understood in terms of star spot activity generally associated with magnetically active binary systems called RS CVn systems. Two of these three are contact binaries that exhibit gradual changes in average brightness without noticeable changes in light curve shape. A third system has shown such large changes in light curve morphology that we speculate this may be a rare instance of a system that transitions back and forth between contact and noncontact configurations, perhaps driven by magnetic cycles in at least o...

  4. Curved-Region-Based Ridge Frequency Estimation and Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Gabor filters play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved Gabor filters which locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved Gabor filters enable the choice of filter parameters which increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved Gabor filters are applied to the curved ridge and valley structure of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation and they are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Lastly, curved Gabor filters are defined based on curved regions and they are applied for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004 databases show improvements of this approach in comparison to state-of-the-art enhancement methods.

  5. Magnetism in curved geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Fischer, Peter; Kronast, Florian; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Sheka, Denis D.; Gaididei, Yuri; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2016-09-01

    Extending planar two-dimensional structures into the three-dimensional space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring the geometry of an object, e.g. its local curvature. In a generic electronic system, curvature results in the appearance of scalar and vector geometric potentials inducing anisotropic and chiral effects. In the specific case of magnetism, even in the simplest case of a curved anisotropic Heisenberg magnet, the curvilinear geometry manifests two exchange-driven interactions, namely effective anisotropy and antisymmetric exchange, i.e. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interaction. As a consequence, a family of novel curvature-driven effects emerges, which includes magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning, resulting in theoretically predicted unlimited domain wall velocities, chirality symmetry breaking and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons. The broad range of altered physical properties makes these curved architectures appealing in view of fundamental research on e.g. skyrmionic systems, magnonic crystals or exotic spin configurations. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of three-dimensionally shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications, spin-wave filters, advanced magneto-encephalography devices for diagnosis of epilepsy or for energy-efficient racetrack memory devices. These recent developments ranging from theoretical predictions over fabrication of three-dimensionally curved magnetic thin films, hollow cylinders or wires, to their characterization using integral means as well as the development of advanced tomography approaches are in the focus of this review.

  6. Maximal expiratory flow volume curve and diffuse function changes of patients lung cancer%肺癌病人最大呼吸流速容量曲线及弥散功能变化的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怡; 张金花; 赵卫国

    2007-01-01

    目的 了解肺癌患者肺功能最大呼吸流速容量曲线(MEFV)变化的意义及其变化与气道阻力(Raw)、用力肺活量(FVC)测定相关性.观察放/化疗后弥散功能和肺CT的改变.方法 测定36例肺癌患者的MEFV、Raw及弥散功能,并对其间的相关性进行分析.结果 发现肺癌病人存在FVC、FEV1、PEF、V50、V25下降,且这种下降在放/化疗后更明显,PEF、V50下降与吸/呼气的气道阻力呈负相关,与FVC呈正相关.肺癌患者在放/化疗后1、2年Dlco、Co减少,CT所见存在28.57%肺间质病变.结论 肺癌病人肺功能表现可有阻塞性通气功能障碍,当气道阻塞严重时,PEF、V50、V25可同时下降,说明PEF的下降可与小气道的阻塞有关,V50下降也可与用力大小有关.DLco可与CT一样作为敏感指标观察放/化疗后肺间质的损害.

  7. Drawable Region of the Generalized Log Aesthetic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. U. Gobithaasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of visually pleasing curves used for product design is a monotonic curvature profile. Recently, a planar curve called Generalized Log Aesthetic Curve (GLAC has been extended from the Log Aesthetic Curve (LAC, and it has an additional shape parameter, ν. This curve preserves the monotonicity of curvature and is said to produce visually pleasing curves. This paper delves on the drawable region of the GLAC segment which indicates the probable solutions of shape parameters from given interpolating points and the direction of travel at those points. The first section reviews the formulation of GLAC and its related bounds. The section describes the algorithm for identifying the drawable region. It is followed by the section describing how small changes of ν widen the drawable boundaries. The final section discusses the superiority of GLAC compared to LAC for use in industrial product design.

  8. Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhuo

    A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder

  9. BIFURCATIONS OF INVARIANT CURVES OF A DIFFERENCE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺天兰

    2001-01-01

    Bifurcation of the invariant curves of a difference equation is studied. The system defined by the difference equation is integrable , so the study of the invariant curves of the difference system can become the study of topological classification of the planar phase portraits defined by a planar Hamiltonian system. By strict qualitative analysis, the classification of the invariant curves in parameter space can be obtained.

  10. Synchrotron radiation from a curved plasma channel laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Hafizi, B; Chen, Y -H; Johnson, L A; Penano, J R; Helle, M H; Mamonau, A A

    2016-01-01

    A laser pulse guided in a curved plasma channel can excite wakefields that steer electrons along an arched trajectory. As the electrons are accelerated along the curved channel, they emit synchrotron radiation. We present simple analytical models and simulations examining laser pulse guiding, wakefield generation, electron steering, and synchrotron emission in curved plasma channels. For experimentally realizable parameters, a ~2 GeV electron emits 0.1 photons per cm with an average photon energy of multiple keV.

  11. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  12. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2012-11-18

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. A Radiosity Solution for Curved Surface Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙济洲; RichardL.Grimsdale

    1997-01-01

    Radiosity has been a popular method for photorealistic image generation.But the determination of form factors between curved patches is the most difficult and time consuming procedure,and also the errors caused by approximating source patch's radiosity with average values are obvious.In this paper,a radiosity algorithm for rendering curved surfaces represented by parameters is described.The contributed radiosity from differential areas on four vertices of the source patch to a receiving point is calculated firstly,then the contribution from the inner area of the source patch is evaluated by interpolating the values on four corners.Both the difficult problem of determining form-factors between curved surfaces and errors mentioned above have been avoided.Comparison of the experimental results using the new algorithm has been made with the ones obtained by traditional method.Some associated techniques such as the visibility test and the adaptive subdivision are also described.

  14. Electrodynamics in Non-commutative Curved Space Time

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Abolfazl

    2009-01-01

    We study the issue of the electrodynamics theory in noncommutative curved space time (NCCST) with a new star-product. In this paper, the motion equation of electrodynamics and canonical energy-momentum tensor in noncommutative curved space time will be found. The most important point is the assumption of the noncommutative parameter ($\\theta$) be $x^{\\m}$-independent.

  15. New determinations of 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages and flow volumes for Cenozoic volcanism in the Terror Rift, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, S.; Mukasa, S.; Wilson, T.; Lawver, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    This study provides new determinations of 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages and flow volumes for submarine and subaerial Neogene volcanism developed within the Terror Rift, Ross Sea, Antarctica, the youngest segment of the West Antarctic Rift System. The study is based on the first dredged samples from seven seamounts north of Ross Island, as well as new data from Franklin and Beaufort Islands. The sampled foidite and basanitic lavas range in age from Quaternary (90 ± 66 ka) on a small seamount ˜10 km north of Franklin Island to 6.80 ± 0.05 Ma on Beaufort Island. These ages are consistent with ages of volcanism in both the Melbourne and Erebus Volcanic Provinces and significantly expand the documented area of Neogene magmatism in Victoria Land. There is no geographic progression of volcanism through time, but volcanism was voluminous in the Pliocene and particularly widespread during the Pleistocene. Two of the dredges sampled edifices comprised of less than 0.2 km3 of volcanic materials. The largest seamount in the study area has 58.8 km3 of volcanic material and represents growth over a period of several thousand years. Estimated minimum eruption rates range from 2 × 10-4 km3 y-1 to 2 × 10-3 km3 y-1, consistent with rates proposed for other rift systems and nearby Mt. Erebus. Recent estimates of extension magnitude for the Terror Rift correspond to minimal decompression of only 0.10 to 0.22 GPa and therefore limited melt output of a typical peridotite source.

  16. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  17. Using the generalized Radon transform for detection of curves in noisy images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter Aundal

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the discrete generalized Radon transform will be investigated as a tool for detection of curves in noisy digital images. The discrete generalized Radon transform maps an image into a parameter domain, where curves following a specific parameterized curve form will correspond to a peak...... in the parameter domain. A major advantage of the generalized Radon transform is that the curves are allowed to intersect. This enables a thresholding algorithm in the parameter domain for simultaneous detection of curve parameters. A threshold level based on the noise level in the image is derived. A numerical...

  18. Polymers in Curved Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yaman, K; Solis, F J; Witten, T A

    1996-01-01

    We apply results derived in other contexts for the spectrum of the Laplace operator in curved geometries to the study of an ideal polymer chain confined to a spherical annulus in arbitrary space dimension D and conclude that the free energy compared to its value for an uncurved box of the same thickness and volume, is lower when $D < 3$, stays the same when $D = 3$, and is higher when lowers the effective bending elasticity of the walls, and might induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. bending. (Actually, the above mentioned results show that {\\em {any}} shell in $D = 3$ induces this effect, except for a spherical shell). We compute the contribution of this effect to the bending rigidities in the Helfrich free energy expression.

  19. Evolutes of Hyperbolic Plane Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyuichi IZUMIYA; Dong He PEI; Takashi SANO; Erika TORII

    2004-01-01

    We define the notion of evolutes of curves in a hyperbolic plane and establish the relationships between singularities of these subjects and geometric invariants of curves under the action of the Lorentz group. We also describe how we can draw the picture of an evolute of a hyperbolic plane curve in the Poincar(e) disk.

  20. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  1. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  2. Modelling Growth Curves in a Nondescript Italian Chicken Breed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Selvaggi; Vito Laudadio; Cataldo Dario; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-01-01

    ... it. This study was carried out to estimate the parameters of logistic, Gompertz and Richards growth curve models in a nondescript chicken breed population from southern Italy to determine the goodness of fit...

  3. Investigating the relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve and confined compression curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Hossein; Sedaghat, Azadeh; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Gregory, Andrew S.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity through the van Genuchten model using easy to measure soil properties by regression and artificial neural networks methods. In this study, 148 soil samples were taken from five provinces of Iran. Basic soil properties (clay, silt/sand and bulk density) and other soil properties were measured. Soil water retention curve was measured to obtain the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve using the van Genuchten-Mualem model. Confined compression curve was measured and the modified model of van Genuchten was fitted on its data. Two-thirds and one-third of the data were used for the training and testing steps, respectively. Confined compression curve parameters and other soil properties were used as predictors to estimate unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed in two separate parts: in 5 and 6 PTFs basic soil properties were or were not used as predictors, respectively. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) performed better than the regression methods. Among the ANN-developed PTFs which have not used basic soil properties as predictors, PTFa3, with the inputs of the parameters of confined compression curve (n∗, α∗ and e0), performed better than the others. Also, among the ANN-developed PTFs that used basic soil properties as predictors along with the other input variables, PTFb5 that used the σmc (stress at the maximum curvature) and σi (stress at the inflection point) as inputs along with basic soil properties, performed better than the other PTFs. The results showed a successful prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve using confined compression curve.

  4. Short communication Estimation of growth curve parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ikeskin

    V. Sariyel. 1 and M. Gokmen. 2. 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of ... The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Quadratic, Cubic, Gompertz and Logistic ... from 0.96 to 0.99 for females and from 0.96 to 0.99 for males.

  5. Drought resistance of four grasses using pressure-volume curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xingdong; CONG Peifang; GAO Yubao; LU Jianguo; WANG Haitao; XUE Pingping; ZHANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-volume curve (PV curve) technique is a major method for studying critical plant water potential and critical tissue water content when plasmolysis takes place.In the present study,a mathematical solution method is put forward to obtain parameters based on the PV curve.The calculated results for the parameters ofLolium perenne,Festuca arundinacea,Leymus chinensis and Stipa krylovii indicated that the mathematical solution method is convenient for actual research compared with the graphical method.Further analysis of the calculations suggested that drought resistance decreased in the following order:S.krylovii > F.arundinacea and L.chinensis > L.perenne.

  6. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-12-01

    Effective (mass-dependent) potential energy curves of the ground electronic states of 9BeH, 9BeD, and 9BeT are constructed by morphing a very accurate MR-ACPF ab initio potential of Koput (2011) within the framework of the reduced potential energy curve approach of Jenč (1983). The morphing is performed by fitting the RPC parameters to available experimental ro-vibrational data. The resulting potential energy curves provide a fairly quantitative reproduction of the fitted data. This allows for a reliable prediction of the so-far unobserved molecular states in terms of only a small number of fitting parameters.

  7. Cubic B-spline curve approximation by curve unclamping

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Diao; Ma, Weiyin; Paul, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A new approach for cubic B-spline curve approximation is presented. The method produces an approximation cubic B-spline curve tangent to a given curve at a set of selected positions, called tangent points, in a piecewise manner starting from a seed segment. A heuristic method is provided to select the tangent points. The first segment of the approximation cubic B-spline curve can be obtained using an inner point interpolation method, least-squares method or geometric H...

  8. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  9. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  10. Heegner modules and elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin L

    2004-01-01

    Heegner points on both modular curves and elliptic curves over global fields of any characteristic form the topic of this research monograph. The Heegner module of an elliptic curve is an original concept introduced in this text. The computation of the cohomology of the Heegner module is the main technical result and is applied to prove the Tate conjecture for a class of elliptic surfaces over finite fields; this conjecture is equivalent to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for the corresponding elliptic curves over global fields.

  11. Closed planar curves without inflections

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Shuntaro; Umehara, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    We define a computable topological invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ for generic closed planar regular curves $\\gamma$, which gives an effective lower bound for the number of inflection points on a given generic closed planar curve. Using it, we classify the topological types of locally convex curves (i.e. closed planar regular curves without inflections) whose numbers of crossings are less than or equal to five. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the number of double tangents and the invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ on a given $\\gamma$.

  12. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...

  13. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG

    2009-01-01

    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  14. Methodology and apparatus for determining psychoacoustical threshold curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates in a first aspect to a method of determining a psychoacoustical threshold curve by selectively varying a first parameter and a second parameter of an auditory stimulus signal applied to a test subject/listener. The methodology comprises steps of determining a two...

  15. A New Finite Interval Lifetime Distribution Model for Fitting Bathtub-Shaped Failure Rate Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper raised a new four-parameter fitting model to describe bathtub curve, which is widely used in research on components’ life analysis, then gave explanation of model parameters, and provided parameter estimation method as well as application examples utilizing some well-known lifetime data. By comparative analysis between the new model and some existing bathtub curve fitting model, we can find that the new fitting model is very convenient and its parameters are clear; moreover, this model is of universal applicability which is not only suitable for bathtub-shaped failure rate curves but also applicable for the constant, increasing, and decreasing failure rate curves.

  16. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  17. Object-Image Correspondence for Algebraic Curves under Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Burdis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel algorithm for deciding whether a given planar curve is an image of a given spatial curve, obtained by a central or a parallel projection with unknown parameters. The motivation comes from the problem of establishing a correspondence between an object and an image, taken by a camera with unknown position and parameters. A straightforward approach to this problem consists of setting up a system of conditions on the projection parameters and then checking whether or not this system has a solution. The computational advantage of the algorithm presented here, in comparison to algorithms based on the straightforward approach, lies in a significant reduction of a number of real parameters that need to be eliminated in order to establish existence or non-existence of a projection that maps a given spatial curve to a given planar curve. Our algorithm is based on projection criteria that reduce the projection problem to a certain modification of the equivalence problem of planar curves under affine and projective transformations. To solve the latter problem we make an algebraic adaptation of signature construction that has been used to solve the equivalence problems for smooth curves. We introduce a notion of a classifying set of rational differential invariants and produce explicit formulas for such invariants for the actions of the projective and the affine groups on the plane.

  18. Minimax hypothesis testing for curve registration

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of goodness-of-fit for curve registration, and more precisely for the shifted curve model, whose application field reaches from computer vision and road traffic prediction to medicine. We give bounds for the asymptotic minimax separation rate, when the functions in the alternative lie in Sobolev balls and the separation from the null hypothesis is measured by the l2-norm. We use the generalized likelihood ratio to build a nonadaptive procedure depending on a tuning parameter, which we choose in an optimal way according to the smoothness of the ambient space. Then, a Bonferroni procedure is applied to give an adaptive test over a range of Sobolev balls. Both achieve the asymptotic minimax separation rates, up to possible logarithmic factors.

  19. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David M.; Peskin, Charles S.

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood therethrough with two curved leaflets each of which is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance.

  20. Type II supernovae Early Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shussman, Tomer; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Observations of type II supernova early light, from breakout until recombination, can be used to constrain the explosion energy and progenitor properties. Currently available for this purpose are purely analytic models, which are accurate only to within an order of magnitude, and detailed numerical simulations, which are more accurate but are applied to any event separately. In this paper we derive an analytic model that is calibrated by numerical simulations. This model is much more accurate than previous analytic models, yet it is as simple to use. To derive the model we analyze simulated light curves from numerical explosion of $124$ red supergiant progenitors, calculated using the stellar evolution code MESA. We find that although the structure of the progenitors we consider varies, the resulting light curves can be described rather well based only on the explosion energy, ejecta mass and progenitor radius. Our calibrated analytic model, which is based on these three parameters, reproduces the bolometric ...

  1. Modeling and Fitting Exoplanet Transit Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical model along with an original fitting routine for the analysis of transiting extra-solar planet light curves. Our light curve model is unique in several ways from other available transit models, such as the analytic eclipse formulae of Mandel & Agol (2002) and Giménez (2006), the modified Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program (EBOP) model implemented in Southworth’s JKTEBOP code (Popper & Etzel 1981; Southworth et al. 2004), or the transit model developed as a part of the EXOFAST fitting suite (Eastman et al. in prep.). Our model employs Keplerian orbital dynamics about the system’s center of mass to properly account for stellar wobble and orbital eccentricity, uses a unique analytic solution derived from Kepler’s Second Law to calculate the projected distance between the centers of the star and planet, and calculates the effect of limb darkening using a simple technique that is different from the commonly used eclipse formulae. We have also devised a unique Monte Carlo style optimization routine for fitting the light curve model to observed transits. We demonstrate that, while the effect of stellar wobble on transit light curves is generally small, it becomes significant as the planet to stellar mass ratio increases and the semi-major axes of the orbits decrease. We also illustrate the appreciable effects of orbital ellipticity on the light curve and the necessity of accounting for its impacts for accurate modeling. We show that our simple limb darkening calculations are as accurate as the analytic equations of Mandel & Agol (2002). Although our Monte Carlo fitting algorithm is not as mathematically rigorous as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based algorithms most often used to determine exoplanetary system parameters, we show that it is straightforward and returns reliable results. Finally, we show that analyses performed with our model and optimization routine compare favorably with exoplanet characterizations published by groups such as the

  2. Equations of hyperelliptic Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm that computes explicit models of hyperelliptic Shimura curves attached to an indefnite quaternion algebra over Q and Atkin-Lehner quotients of them. It exploits Cerednik-Drinfeld's non-archimedean uniformisation of Shimura curves, a formula of Gross and Zagier for the endomorphism ring of Heegner points over Artinian rings and the connection between Ribet's bimodules and the specialization of Heegner points. As an application, we provide a list of equations of Shimura curves and quotients of them obtained by our algorithm that had been conjectured by Kurihara.

  3. Fitting the curve in Excel®: Systematic curve fitting of laboratory and remotely sensed planetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraig, Michael A.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Reddy, Vishnu; Fieber-Beyer, Sherry K.; Pompilio, Loredana; van der Meer, Freek; Berger, Jeffrey A.; Bramble, Michael S.; Applin, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectroscopy in planetary science often provides the only information regarding the compositional and mineralogical make up of planetary surfaces. The methods employed when curve fitting and modelling spectra can be confusing and difficult to visualize and comprehend. Researchers who are new to working with spectra may find inadequate help or documentation in the scientific literature or in the software packages available for curve fitting. This problem also extends to the parameterization of spectra and the dissemination of derived metrics. Often, when derived metrics are reported, such as band centres, the discussion of exactly how the metrics were derived, or if there was any systematic curve fitting performed, is not included. Herein we provide both recommendations and methods for curve fitting and explanations of the terms and methods used. Techniques to curve fit spectral data of various types are demonstrated using simple-to-understand mathematics and equations written to be used in Microsoft Excel® software, free of macros, in a cut-and-paste fashion that allows one to curve fit spectra in a reasonably user-friendly manner. The procedures use empirical curve fitting, include visualizations, and ameliorates many of the unknowns one may encounter when using black-box commercial software. The provided framework is a comprehensive record of the curve fitting parameters used, the derived metrics, and is intended to be an example of a format for dissemination when curve fitting data.

  4. Detection of Periodic Variability in Simulated QSO Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Westman, David B; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    Periodic light curve behavior predicted for some binary black hole systems might be detected in large samples, such as the multi-million quasar sample expected from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We investigate the false-alarm probability for the discovery of a periodic signal in light curves simulated using damped random walk (DRW) model. This model provides a good description of observed light curves, and does not include periodic behavior. We used the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to search for a periodic signal in a million simulated light curves that properly sample the DRW parameter space, and the LSST cadence space. We find that even a very conservative threshold for the false-alarm probability still yields thousands of "good" binary black hole candidates. We conclude that the future claims for binary black holes based on Lomb-Scargle analysis of LSST light curves will have to be interpreted with caution.

  5. Description of dose response curve

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai, Firas

    2011-01-01

    The book included several methods to estimate LD50, in addition to explain how to use several programs to estimate LD50. Moreover the book illustrate the description of the dose response curves. Firas Al-Samarai

  6. Normal origamis of Mumford curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    An origami (also known as square-tiled surface) is a Riemann surface covering a torus with at most one branch point. Lifting two generators of the fundamental group of the punctured torus decomposes the surface into finitely many unit squares. By varying the complex structure of the torus one obtains easily accessible examples of Teichm\\"uller curves in the moduli space of Riemann surfaces. The p-adic analogues of Riemann surfaces are Mumford curves. A p-adic origami is defined as a covering of Mumford curves with at most one branch point, where the bottom curve has genus one. A classification of all normal non-trivial p-adic origamis is presented and used to calculate some invariants. These can be used to describe p-adic origamis in terms of glueing squares.

  7. Asymptotic curved interface models in piezoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpilli, Michele

    2016-10-01

    We study the electromechanical behavior of a thin interphase, constituted by a piezoelectric anisotropic shell-like thin layer, embedded between two generic three-dimensional piezoelectric bodies by means of the asymptotic analysis in a general curvilinear framework. After defining a small real dimensionless parameter ε, which will tend to zero, we characterize two different limit models and their associated limit problems, the so-called weak and strong piezoelectric curved interface models, respectively. Moreover, we identify the non-classical electromechanical transmission conditions at the interface between the two three-dimensional bodies.

  8. String networks as tropical curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Koushik

    2008-01-01

    A prescription for obtaining supergravity solutions for planar (p,q)-string networks is presented, based on earlier results. It shows that networks may be looked upon as tropical curves emerging as the spine of the amoeba of a holomorphic curve in M-theory. The Kaehler potential of supergravity is identified with the corresponding Ronkin function. Implications of this identification in counting dyons is discussed.

  9. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B.

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  10. The extended polar writhe: a tool for open curves mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Christopher B.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    A measure of the writhing of a curve is introduced and is used to extend the Călugăreanu decomposition for closed curves, as well as the polar decomposition for curves bound between planes. The new writhe measure is also shown to be able to assess changes in linking due to belt-trick and knotting type deformations, and further its utility is illustrated on examples taken from elastic rod parameter-continuation studies. Finally C++ and mathematica codes are made available and shown to be faster than existing algorithms for the numerical computation of the writhe.

  11. Free vibration of shallow and deep curved FG nanobeam via nonlocal Timoshenko curved beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A. H.; Rahmani, O.

    2016-03-01

    A free vibration analysis of shallow and deep curved functionally graded (FG) nanobeam is presented. Differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton's principle, and then, nonlocal theory is employed to derive differential equations in small scale. Properties of the material are FG in radial direction. In order to investigate the effects of deep curved beam, extensional stiffness, bending-extension coupling stiffness, and bending stiffness are calculated in the deep case, analytically. By employing Navier method, an analytical solution is presented. Results are compared and validated with available studies, and a good agreement is seen. The influences of effective parameters such as geometrical deep term, nonlocal parameter, opening angle, aspect ratio, mode number, and gradient index are discussed in detail. It is found that the frequency of deep curved nanobeam is higher than that of shallow one, and the aspect ratio significantly affects this difference to decrease. Also, it is concluded that the opening angle, nonlocal parameter, and power gradient index can notably influence the amount of frequency.

  12. Linear Systems on Tropical Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Christian; Yu, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    A tropical curve \\Gamma is a metric graph with possibly unbounded edges, and tropical rational functions are continuous piecewise linear functions with integer slopes. We define the complete linear system |D| of a divisor D on a tropical curve \\Gamma analogously to the classical counterpart. We investigate the structure of |D| as a cell complex and show that linear systems are quotients of tropical modules, finitely generated by vertices of the cell complex. Using a finite set of generators, |D| defines a map from \\Gamma to a tropical projective space, and the image can be extended to a tropical curve of degree equal to \\deg(D). The tropical convex hull of the image realizes the linear system |D| as a polyhedral complex. We show that curves for which the canonical divisor is not very ample are hyperelliptic. We also show that the Picard group of a \\Q-tropical curve is a direct limit of critical groups of finite graphs converging to the curve.

  13. Projection of curves on B-spline surfaces using quadratic reparameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yijun

    2010-09-01

    Curves on surfaces play an important role in computer aided geometric design. In this paper, we present a hyperbola approximation method based on the quadratic reparameterization of Bézier surfaces, which generates reasonable low degree curves lying completely on the surfaces by using iso-parameter curves of the reparameterized surfaces. The Hausdorff distance between the projected curve and the original curve is controlled under the user-specified distance tolerance. The projected curve is T-G 1 continuous, where T is the user-specified angle tolerance. Examples are given to show the performance of our algorithm. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial measurement of Doppler hepatic hemodynamic parameters for the diagnosis of acute rejection after live donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Koichi; Hirota, Masashi; Takeda, Shin; Kamei, Hideya; Nakamura, Taro; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Nakao, Akimasa

    2009-09-01

    To elucidate the role of Doppler hepatic hemodynamic parameters as surrogate markers of acute rejection (AR) after live donor liver transplantation (LDLT), serial Doppler measurements were prospectively performed during the first 2 weeks after LDLT to compare the longitudinal hepatic hemodynamic changes between patients with histologically proven AR and patients without histologically proven AR. Forty-six patients that had undergone adult-to-adult LDLT using a right lobe graft were enrolled in this study. The portal venous maximum velocity (PVV; cm/second), portal venous flow volume, hepatic arterial peak systolic velocity, hepatic arterial pulsatility index, hepatic venous maximum velocity, hepatic venous pulsatility index, and splenic arterial pulsatility index were measured. Fourteen patients were diagnosed by biopsy to have clinically relevant AR. Markedly increased PVV was seen soon after surgery and gradually decreased in both patients with clinically relevant AR and patients without clinically relevant AR. This serial change of decreasing PVV was significantly greater in patients with clinically relevant AR (P patients with clinically relevant AR was significantly lower than that in patients without clinically relevant AR (PVV on postoperative day 6: 35.6 +/- 21.3 versus 58.3 +/- 27.1 cm/second, respectively, P = 0.0080). A PVV cutoff value of 20.2 cm/second demonstrated the best accuracy for predicting clinically relevant AR. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting clinically relevant AR were 92.9% and 87.1%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.94. In conclusion, serial Doppler measurement of hepatic parameters in LDLT is useful for the diagnosis of clinically relevant AR. Clinically relevant AR should therefore be suspected when a marked unexpected decrease in the PVV is observed.

  15. Image Filtering Driven by Level Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwade, Ajit; Banerjee, Arunava; Rangarajan, Anand

    This paper presents an approach to image filtering that is driven by the properties of the iso-valued level curves of the image and their relationship with one another. We explore the relationship of our algorithm to existing probabilistically driven filtering methods such as those based on kernel density estimation, local-mode finding and mean-shift. Extensive experimental results on filtering gray-scale images, color images, gray-scale video and chromaticity fields are presented. In contrast to existing probabilistic methods, in our approach, the selection of the parameter that prevents diffusion across the edge is robustly decoupled from the smoothing of the density itself. Furthermore, our method is observed to produce better filtering results for the same settings of parameters for the filter window size and the edge definition.

  16. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  17. Atlas of Secular Light Curves of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrin, Ignacio

    2007-12-01

    We have completed work on the secular light curves of 30 periodic and non-periodic comets. The objectives and approach of this project has been explained in Ferrin (Icarus, 178, 493-516, 2005). Each comet requires 2 plots. The time plot shows the reduced (to Δ = 1 AU) magnitude of the comet as a function of time, thus displaying the brightness history of the object. The log plot is a reflected double log plot. The reflection takes place at R=1 AU, to allow the determination of the absolute magnitude by extrapolation. 22 photometric parameters are measured from the plots, most of them new. The plots have been collected in a document that constitutes "The Atlas". We have defined a photometric age, P-AGE, that attempts to measure the age of a comet based on its activity. P-AGE has been scaled to human ages to help in its interpretation. We find that comets Hale-Bopp and 29P/SW 1, are baby comets (P-AGE 100 cy). The secular light curve of 9P/Tempel 1 exhibits sublimation due to H2O and due to CO. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimento to be visited by the Rossetta spacecraft in 2014 exhibits a photometric anomaly. Comet 65P/Gunn exhibits a lag in maximum brightness of LAG = + 254 days after perihelion. We suggest that the pole is pointing to the sun at that time. The secular light curves will be presented and a preliminary interpretation will be advanced. The secular light curves present complexity beyond current understanding. The observations described in this work were carried out at the National Observatory of Venezuela (ONV), managed by the Center for Research in Astronomy (CIDA), for the Ministry of Science and Technology (MinCyT).

  18. Logistic回归联合受试者工作特征曲线评价血小板参数对急性冠脉综合征的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of platelet parameters for acute coronary syndrome by receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 魏璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with chest pain. Methods A total of 83 chest pain patients with identified ACS and 56 chest pain patients without cardiovascular disease in our hospital from January to June 2013 were subjected in this study. Their venous blood samples were collected within 6 h of onset for platelet parameters. Mean comparison between the 2 groups and logistic regression analysis were used to find the effective platelet parameters, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate their diagnostic significances for ACS. Results ACS group had significantly lower platelet than the non-cardiac chest pain group [(191.28±67.07)×109 vs (236.75±64.09)×109/L)], and significantly higher MPV [(11.88±1.24) vs (10.73±1.08)fL], platelet distribution width (PDW) [(15.54±1.87) vs (13.40±2.35)fL] and P-LCR [(47.49±9.55)%vs (35.11±10.00)%] (all P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that P-LCR and MPV were auxiliary diagnostic indicatos for ACS. ROC curve analysis showed that the cut-off was 0.15µg/L, 38.5%, 11.05fL, and 19.0U/L, respectively, for troponin I (TnI), P-LCR, MPV and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and their areas under the curve were 0.987, 0.817, 0.754 and 0.598, respectively. Their sensitivity was 97.3%, 92.8%, 71.1%and 45.8%respectively, the specificity were 90.3%, 64.3%62.5%, and 73.2%respectively, and the diagnostic accuracy were 100%, 80%, 72.6%, and 67.2%, respectively for TnI, P-LCR, MPV and CK-MB. Conclusion MPV and P-LCR are helpful in the early diagnosis of ACS, and can be seperately used as auxiliary diagnostic indicators of ACS in patients with chest pain. Because of their high diagnostic accuracy, the 2 parameters can be served as a reference for early prediction and differential diagnosis of ACS.%目的:探讨平均血小板体积(MPV)和大型血小板比例(P

  19. Preliminary Analysis of ULPC Light Curves Using Fourier Decomposition Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi; Barrett, Brittany; Lin, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on Ultra Long Period Cepheids (ULPCs) has suggested their usefulness as a distance indicator, but has not commented on their relationship as compared with other types of variable stars. In this work, we use Fourier analysis to quantify the structure of ULPC light curves and compare them to Classical Cepheids and Mira variables. Our preliminary results suggest that the low order Fourier parameters of ULPCs show a continuous trend defined by Classical Cepheids after the resonance around 10 days. However their Fourier parameters also overlapped with those from Miras, which make the classification of long period variable stars difficult based on the light curves information alone.

  20. Topological recursion and mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We study the constant contributions to the free energies obtained through the topological recursion applied to the complex curves mirror to toric Calabi-Yau threefolds. We show that the recursion reproduces precisely the corresponding Gromov-Witten invariants, which can be encoded in powers of the MacMahon function. As a result, we extend the scope of the "remodeling conjecture" to the full free energies, including the constant contributions. In the process we study how the pair of pants decomposition of the mirror curves plays an important role in the topological recursion. We also show that the free energies are not, strictly speaking, symplectic invariants, and that the recursive construction of the free energies does not commute with certain limits of mirror curves.

  1. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  2. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  3. Canonical curves with low apolarity

    CERN Document Server

    Ballico, Edoardo; Notari, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and let $C$ be a non--hyperelliptic smooth projective curve of genus $g$ defined over $k$. Since the canonical model of $C$ is arithmetically Gorenstein, Macaulay's theory of inverse systems allows to associate to $C$ a cubic form $f$ in the divided power $k$--algebra $R$ in $g-2$ variables. The apolarity of $C$ is the minimal number $t$ of linear form in $R$ needed to write $f$ as sum of their divided power cubes. It is easy to see that the apolarity of $C$ is at least $g-2$ and P. De Poi and F. Zucconi classified curves with apolarity $g-2$ when $k$ is the complex field. In this paper, we give a complete, characteristic free, classification of curves $C$ with apolarity $g-1$ (and $g-2$).

  4. Curved spacetimes in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Szpak, Nikodem

    2014-01-01

    We present some new ideas on how to design analogue models of quantum fields living in curved spacetimes using ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. We discuss various types of static and dynamical curved spacetimes achievable by simple manipulations of the optical setup. Examples presented here contain two-dimensional spaces of positive and negative curvature as well as homogeneous cosmological models and metric waves. Most of them are extendable to three spatial dimensions. We mention some interesting phenomena of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes which might be simulated in such optical lattices loaded with bosonic or fermionic ultra-cold atoms. We also argue that methods of differential geometry can be used, as an alternative mathematical approach, for dealing with realistic inhomogeneous optical lattices.

  5. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new...... Keynesian Phillips curve has been severely criticized for poor empirical dynamics. Suggested improvements involve making some adjustments to the standard sticky price framework, e.g. introducing backwardness and real rigidities, or abandoning the sticky price model and relying on models of inattentiveness......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...

  6. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  7. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  8. Caloric Curves and Nuclear Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Natowitz, J B; Ma, Y; Murray, M; Qin, L; Shlomo, S; Wada, R; Wang, J

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear caloric curves have been analyzed using an expanding Fermi gas hypothesis to extract average nuclear densities. In this approach the observed flattening of the caloric curves reflects progressively increasing expansion with increasing excitation energy. This expansion results in a corresponding decrease in the density and Fermi energy of the excited system. For nuclei of medium to heavy mass apparent densities $~0.3\\rho_0$ are reached at the higher excitation energies. The average densities derived in this manner are in good agreement with those derived using other, more complicated, techniques.

  9. Curved branes with regular support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Sorbonne Universites, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, ITP, Bern (Switzerland); Cotsakis, Spiros; Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [American University of the Middle East, Department of Mathematics, P. O. Box 220, Dasman (Kuwait)

    2016-09-15

    We study spacetime singularities in a general five-dimensional braneworld with curved branes satisfying four-dimensional maximal symmetry. The bulk is supported by an analog of perfect fluid with the time replaced by the extra coordinate. We show that contrary to the existence of finite-distance singularities from the brane location in any solution with flat (Minkowski) branes, in the case of curved branes there are singularity-free solutions for a range of equations of state compatible with the null energy condition. (orig.)

  10. Maturity assessment and curve progression in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Browne, Richard H; McConnell, Sharon J; Margraf, Susan A; Cooney, Timothy E; Finegold, David N

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis progression during adolescence is closely related to patient maturity. Maturity has various indicators, including chronological age, height and weight changes, and skeletal and sexual maturation. It is not certain which of these indicators correlates most strongly with scoliosis progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate various maturity measurements and how they relate to scoliosis progression. Physically immature girls with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated every six months through their growth spurt with serial spinal radiographs; hand skeletal ages; Oxford pelvic scores; Risser sign determinations; height; weight; sexual staging; and serologic studies of the levels of selected growth factors, estradiol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. These measurements were then correlated with the curve-acceleration phase. The period and pattern of curve acceleration began during Risser stage 0 for all patients. Skeletal maturation scores derived with the use of the Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS method, particularly those for the metacarpals and phalanges, were superior to all other indicators of maturity. Regression of the scores provided good estimates of maturity relative to the period of curve progression (Pearson r = 0.93). The initiation of this period occurred simultaneously with digital changes from Tanner-Whitehouse-III stage F to G. At this stage, curves also separated into rapid, moderate, and low-acceleration patterns, with specific curve types in the rapid and moderate-acceleration groups. The low-acceleration group was not confined to a specific curve type. The curve-acceleration phase separates curves into various types of curve progression. The Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS scores are highly correlated with timing relative to the curve-acceleration phase and provide better maturity determination and prognosis determination during adolescence than the other parameters tested. Accurate skeletal maturity determination

  11. Numerical computation of fragility curves for NPP equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, I., E-mail: irmela.zentner@edf.f [LaMSID, Laboratory for the Mechanics of Aging Industrial Structures, UMR EDF/CNRS, 1, av. du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2010-06-15

    The seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology is a popular approach for evaluating the risk of failure of engineering structures due to earthquake. In this framework, fragility curves express the conditional probability of failure of a structure or component for a given seismic input motion parameter A, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration. The failure probability due to a seismic event is obtained by convolution of fragility curves with seismic hazard curves. In general, a log-normal model is used in order to estimate fragilities. In nuclear engineering practice, these fragilities are determined using safety factors with respect to design earthquake. This approach allows to determine fragility curves based on design study but largely draws on expert judgement and simplifying assumptions. When a more realistic assessment of seismic fragility is needed, simulation-based statistical estimation of fragility curves is more appropriate. In this paper, we will discuss statistical estimation of parameters of fragility curves and present results obtained for a reactor coolant system of nuclear power plant. We have performed non-linear dynamic response analyses using artificially generated strong motion time histories. Uncertainties due to seismic loads as well as model uncertainties are taken into account and propagated using Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Dong, ZhiBao; Han, FengQing

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR) model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated "trial-and-error" protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves) are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  13. A universal dose–response curve for radiochromic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Viera Cueto, J. A., E-mail: josea.martinviera.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Parra Osorio, V.; Moreno Sáiz, C.; Navarro Guirado, F.; Casado Villalón, F. J.; Galán Montenegro, P. [Radiofísica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario, Málaga 29010 (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a model for dose–response curves of radiochromic films. It is based on a modified version of single-hit model to take into account the growth experienced by lithium salt of pentacosa-10,12-diynoic acid polymers after irradiation. Methods: Polymer growth in radiochromic films is a critical phenomenon that can be properly described by means of percolation theory to provide an appropriate distribution function for polymer sizes. Resulting functional form is a power function featuring a critical exponent and two adjustable parameters. Moreover, these parameters act as scaling factors setting a natural scale for sensitometric curves where the dependence on channel sensitivity is removed. A unique reduced response curve is then obtained from all the color channels describing film behavior independently of film dosimetry system. Results: Resulting functional form has been successfully tested in several sensitometric curves from different Gafchromic EBT models, providing excellent agreement with experimental data in a wide dose range up to about 40 Gy and low dose uncertainty. Conclusions: The model presented in this paper describes accurately the sensitometric curves of radiochromic films in wide dose ranges covering all typical ranges used in external radiotherapy. Resulting dose uncertainty is low enough to render a reasonably good performance in clinical applications. Due to cross-correlation, only one of the adjustable parameters is totally independent and characterizes film batches.

  14. Interpolation and Polynomial Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2014-01-01

    Two points determine a line. Three noncollinear points determine a quadratic function. Four points that do not lie on a lower-degree polynomial curve determine a cubic function. In general, n + 1 points uniquely determine a polynomial of degree n, presuming that they do not fall onto a polynomial of lower degree. The process of finding such a…

  15. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  16. Variability among polysulphone calibration curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, G R [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Physics Department, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185, Rome (Italy); Borra, M [ISPESL - Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione E la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Occupational Hygiene Department, Via Fontana Candida 1, I-0040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Colosimo, A [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185, Rome (Italy); Colucci, M [ISPESL - Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione E la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Occupational Hygiene Department, Via Fontana Candida 1, I-0040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Militello, A [ISPESL - Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione E la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Occupational Hygiene Department, Via Fontana Candida 1, I-0040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Siani, A M [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Physics Department, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185, Rome (Italy); Sisto, R [ISPESL - Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione E la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Occupational Hygiene Department, Via Fontana Candida 1, I-0040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy)

    2006-09-07

    Within an epidemiological study regarding the correlation between skin pathologies and personal ultraviolet (UV) exposure due to solar radiation, 14 field campaigns using polysulphone (PS) dosemeters were carried out at three different Italian sites (urban, semi-rural and rural) in every season of the year. A polysulphone calibration curve for each field experiment was obtained by measuring the ambient UV dose under almost clear sky conditions and the corresponding change in the PS film absorbance, prior and post exposure. Ambient UV doses were measured by well-calibrated broad-band radiometers and by electronic dosemeters. The dose-response relation was represented by the typical best fit to a third-degree polynomial and it was parameterized by a coefficient multiplying a cubic polynomial function. It was observed that the fit curves differed from each other in the coefficient only. It was assessed that the multiplying coefficient was affected by the solar UV spectrum at the Earth's surface whilst the polynomial factor depended on the photoinduced reaction of the polysulphone film. The mismatch between the polysulphone spectral curve and the CIE erythemal action spectrum was responsible for the variability among polysulphone calibration curves. The variability of the coefficient was related to the total ozone amount and the solar zenith angle. A mathematical explanation of such a parameterization was also discussed.

  17. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radha Balakrishnan

    2005-04-01

    Using classical differential geometry, we discuss the phenomenon of anholonomy that gets associated with a static and a moving curve. We obtain the expressions for the respective geometric phases in the two cases and interpret them. We show that there is a close connection between anholonomy and nonlinearity in a wide class of nonlinear systems.

  18. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    , learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  19. Discrimination of Natural Fractures Using Well Logging Curve Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongqi; Peng Shimi; Zhou Yongyi; Xue Yongchao

    2004-01-01

    It is very difficult to discriminate natural fractures using conventional well log data, especially for most of the matured oilfields in China, because the raw data were acquired with relatively obsolete tools. The raw data include only GR and SP curves, indicative of lithology, AC curves, used to calculate the porosity of the formation, and a set of logging curves from various electrode length resistivity by laterolog. On the other hand, these oilfields usually have a large amount of core data which directly display the characteristics of the formation, and enough information of injection and production. This paper describes an approach through which logging curves are calibrated in terms of the raw data, and then a prototype model of natural fractures is established based on the investigation of core data from 43 wells, totaling 4 000 m in length. A computer program has been developed according to this method. Through analysis and comparison of the features of logging curves, this paper proposes a new concept, the well logging curve unit. By strictly depicting its shape through mathematical methods, the natural facture can be discriminated. This work also suggests an equation to estimate the probability of fracture occurrence, and finally other fracture parameters are calculated using some experimental expressions. With this methodology, logging curves from 100 wells were interpreted, the results of which agree with core data and field information.

  20. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  1. Creep curve modelling of a conventionally cast nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M. [CNR - IENI, Milan (Italy); Poggio, E.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Constant load creep tests on Rene 80, a nickel base superalloy for gas turbine blade application, were run in the temperature interval 800-950 C with applied stresses producing rupture times up to 1000 h. Creep curves are generally dominated by a long accelerating/tertiary creep that follows a relatively small decelerating/primary creep. No steady state stage has been observed. Analysis of the creep curves has shown that a single damage parameter can describe the long accelerating/tertiary state in the explored temperature range. The damage appears to be dependent on the accumulated creep strain and, as a first approximation, independent on the applied stress and temperature. The whole creep curve, primary and tertiary stages, has been modelled by a simple set of coupled differential equations obtained using the formalism of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The proposed set of equations has an analytical solution, strain vs. time, for creep curves at constant temperature and stress. (orig.)

  2. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  3. Polarization Curve of a Non-Uniformly Aged PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Kulikovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a semi-analytical model for polarization curve of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell with distributed (aged along the oxygen channel MEA transport and kinetic parameters of the membrane–electrode assembly (MEA. We show that the curve corresponding to varying along the channel parameter, in general, does not reduce to the curve for a certain constant value of this parameter. A possibility to determine the shape of the deteriorated MEA parameter along the oxygen channel by fitting the model equation to the cell polarization data is demonstrated.

  4. Gompertz - A program for evaluation and comparison of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    2000-07-01

    Principles, properties and use of a program for evaluation of survival curves are described. Parameters of Gompertzian mortality curves are computed from survival data of two populations by help of nonlinear regression. The differences in parameters of both curves are evaluated statistically. This method evaluates effectively even survival data of very small populations. The results are presented in numeric, verbal and graphic forms. Finally, reading of the results is offered to distinguish changes corresponding to altered aging rate from changes caused by influences not affecting the basic mechanism of aging. Program GOMPERTZ in the form of Microsoft Excel workbook equipped with Visual Basic procedures is offered free through e-mail (klemera@faf.cuni.cz).

  5. Afterglow Light Curves and Broken Power Laws: A Statistical Study

    CERN Document Server

    J'ohannesson, G; Gudmundsson, E H; J\\'ohannesson, Gudlaugur; Bj\\"ornsson, Gunnlaugur; Gudmundsson, Einar H.

    2006-01-01

    In gamma-ray burst research it is quite common to fit the afterglow light curves with a broken power law to interpret the data. We apply this method to a computer simulated population of afterglows and find systematic differences between the known model parameters of the population and the ones derived from the power law fits. In general, the slope of the electron energy distribution is overestimated from the pre-break light curve slope while being underestimated from the post-break slope. We also find that the jet opening angle derived from the fits is overestimated in narrow jets and underestimated in wider ones. Results from fitting afterglow light curves with broken power laws must therefore be interpreted with caution since the uncertainties in the derived parameters might be larger than estimated from the fit. This may have implications for Hubble diagrams constructed using gamma-ray burst data.

  6. WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn, consisting of more than 14000 individual observations, is analyzed for photometric elements using the modeling code of Đurašević (1992. The spectroscopic parameters are adopted from the recent radial velocity work by Pribulla et al. (2009. The results of the study include new times of minimum light, an improved ephemeris, and the updated physical and orbital parameters of the system.

  7. 'Proper acceleration' of a null geodesic in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Gui Hua; Liang Can Bin

    2002-01-01

    Given a null geodesic in Minkowski spacetime, there exists a one-parameter family of observers in 'hyperbolic' motion which approaches the null geodesic as the parameter x sub 0 approaches zero. It is well known that the proper acceleration of the observers in the family approaches infinity as their world line approaches the null geodesic. The main purpose of this paper is to generalize this result to future-complete null geodesics in curved spacetimes.

  8. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  9. Estimation of blocking temperatures from ZFC/FC curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    We present a new method to extract the parameters of a log-normal distribution of energy barriers in an assembly of ultrafine magnetic particles from simple featurees of the zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetisation curves. The method is established using numerical simulations and is tested...

  10. Angular Goos-Hänchen effect in curved dielectric microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N H; Dutriaux, L; Balcou, P; Floch, A L; Bretenaker, F

    1995-06-01

    A macroscopic angular Goos-Hänchen effect at total reflection on curved interfaces is studied experimentally. The results are compared with the complex-angular-momentum model of quasi-critical scattering. An extremum in angular deflection, which has not yet been predicted by any theory other than exact Mie scattering computations, is identified at low size parameters.

  11. Diagnostics of Robust Growth Curve Modeling Using Student's "t" Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Growth curve models with different types of distributions of random effects and of intraindividual measurement errors for robust analysis are compared. After demonstrating the influence of distribution specification on parameter estimation, 3 methods for diagnosing the distributions for both random effects and intraindividual measurement errors…

  12. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only...... in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimize a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend...... from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  13. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  15. The roles of the binodal curve and the spinodal curve in expansions from the supercritical state with flashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Eldon L.; Miller, David R.; Even, Uzi

    2014-12-01

    Data extracted from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements made on steady-state He free jets at Göttingen already in 1986 and for pulsed Ne free jets investigated recently at Tel Aviv have been added to an earlier plot of terminal condensed-phase mass fraction x2∞ as a function of the dimensionless scaling parameter Γ. Γ characterizes the source (fluid species, temperature, pressure and throat diameter); values of x2∞ are extracted from TOF measurements using conservation of energy in the free-jet expansion. For nozzles consisting of an orifice in a thin plate; the extracted data yield 22 data points which are correlated satisfactorily by a single curve. The Ne free jets were expanded from a conical nozzle with a 20° half angle; the three extracted data points stand together but apart from the aforementioned curve, indicating that the presence of the conical wall influences significantly the expansion and hence the condensation. The 22 data points for the expansions via an orifice consist of 15 measurements with expansions from the gas-phase side of the binodal curve which crossed the binodal curve downstream from the sonic point and 7 measurements with expansions of the gas-phase product of the flashing which occurred after an expansion from the liquid-phase side of the binodal curve crossed the binodal curve upstream from the sonic point. The association of these 22 points with a single curve supports the alternating-phase model for flows with flashing upstream from the sonic point proposed earlier. In order to assess the role of the spinodal curve in such expansions, the spinodal curves for He and Ne were computed using general multi-parameter Helmholtz-free-energy equation-of-state formulations. Then, for the several sets of source-chamber conditions used in the free-jet measurements, thermodynamic states at key locations in the free-jet expansions (binodal curve, sonic point and spinodal curve) were evaluated, with the expansion presumed to be metastable

  16. The roles of the binodal curve and the spinodal curve in expansions from the supercritical state with flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Miller, David R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Even, Uzi [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-12-09

    Data extracted from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements made on steady-state He free jets at Göttingen already in 1986 and for pulsed Ne free jets investigated recently at Tel Aviv have been added to an earlier plot of terminal condensed-phase mass fraction x{sub 2∞} as a function of the dimensionless scaling parameter Γ. Γ characterizes the source (fluid species, temperature, pressure and throat diameter); values of x{sub 2∞} are extracted from TOF measurements using conservation of energy in the free-jet expansion. For nozzles consisting of an orifice in a thin plate; the extracted data yield 22 data points which are correlated satisfactorily by a single curve. The Ne free jets were expanded from a conical nozzle with a 20° half angle; the three extracted data points stand together but apart from the aforementioned curve, indicating that the presence of the conical wall influences significantly the expansion and hence the condensation. The 22 data points for the expansions via an orifice consist of 15 measurements with expansions from the gas-phase side of the binodal curve which crossed the binodal curve downstream from the sonic point and 7 measurements with expansions of the gas-phase product of the flashing which occurred after an expansion from the liquid-phase side of the binodal curve crossed the binodal curve upstream from the sonic point. The association of these 22 points with a single curve supports the alternating-phase model for flows with flashing upstream from the sonic point proposed earlier. In order to assess the role of the spinodal curve in such expansions, the spinodal curves for He and Ne were computed using general multi-parameter Helmholtz-free-energy equation-of-state formulations. Then, for the several sets of source-chamber conditions used in the free-jet measurements, thermodynamic states at key locations in the free-jet expansions (binodal curve, sonic point and spinodal curve) were evaluated, with the expansion presumed to be

  17. A Study of Hyperelliptic Curves in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alimoradi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curves are some specific type of curves known as hyper elliptic curves. Compared to the integer factorization problem(IFP based systems, using elliptic curve based cryptography will significantly decrease key size of the encryption. Therefore, application of this type of cryptography in systems that need high security and smaller key size has found great attention. Hyperelliptic curves help to make key length shorter. Many investigations are done with regard to improving computations, hardware and software implementation of these curves, their security and resistance against attacks. This paper studies and analyzes researches done about security and efficiency of hyperelliptic curves.

  18. Accelerating Around an Unbanked Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2006-02-01

    The December 2004 issue of TPT presented a problem concerning how a car should accelerate around an unbanked curve of constant radius r starting from rest if it is to avoid skidding. Interestingly enough, two solutions were proffered by readers.2 The purpose of this note is to compare and contrast the two approaches. Further experimental investigation of various turning strategies using a remote-controlled car and overhead video analysis could make for an interesting student project.

  19. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Numata, Kazutoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hot spot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core $r$-mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending assuming the Schwarzschild metric around the neutron star. We assume that the core $r$-modes penetrate to the surface fluid ocean to have sufficiently large amplitudes to disturb the spot. For a $l'=m$ core $r$-mode, the oscillation frequency $\\omega\\approx2m\\Omega/[l'(l'+1)]$ defined in the co-rotating frame of the star will be detected by a distant observer, where $l'$ and $m$ are respectively the spherical harmonic degree and the azimuthal wave number of the mode, and $\\Omega$ is the spin frequency of the star. In a linear theory of oscillation, using a parameter $A$ we parametrize the mode amplitudes such that ${\\rm max}\\left(|\\xi_\\theta|,|\\xi_\\phi|\\right)/R=A$ at the surface, w...

  20. Galactic rotation curves in brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L Á; Dwornik, M; Kupi, G; Keresztes, Z

    2011-01-01

    In the braneworld scenario the four dimensional effective Einstein equation has extra source terms, which arise from the embedding of the 3-brane in the bulk. These non-local effects, generated by the free gravitational field of the bulk, may provide an explanation for the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, which is usually explained by postulating the existence of the dark matter. In the present paper we consider the asymptotic behavior of the galactic rotation curves in the brane world models, and we compare the theoretical results with observations of both High Surface Brightness and Low Surface Brightness galaxies. For the chosen sample of galaxies we determine first the baryonic parameters by fitting the photometric data to the adopted galaxy model; then we test the hypothesis of the Weyl fluid acting as dark matter on the chosen sample of spiral galaxies by fitting the tangential velocity equation of the combined baryonic-Weyl model to the rotation curve...

  1. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  2. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2015-01-01

    We explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud of fossil relativistic electrons in the cluster periphery. Such a scenario could explain uniformity of the surface brightness and spectral curvature in the integrated spectra of thin arc-like radio relics. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. The surface brightness profile of radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated as well. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed $u_s \\sim 3,000 \\kms$ and sonic Mach number $M_s \\sim 3$. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over $(0.1-10) \

  3. Asteroid taxonomic signatures from photometric phase curves

    CERN Document Server

    Oszkiewicz, D A; Wasserman, L H; Muinonen, K; Penttilä, A; Pieniluoma, T; Trilling, D E; Thomas, C A

    2012-01-01

    We explore the correlation between an asteroid's taxonomy and photometric phase curve using the H, G12 photometric phase function, with the shape of the phase function described by the single parameter G12. We explore the usability of G12 in taxonomic classification for individual objects, asteroid families, and dynamical groups. We conclude that the mean values of G12 for the considered taxonomic complexes are statistically different, and also discuss the overall shape of the G12 distribution for each taxonomic complex. Based on the values of G12 for about half a million asteroids, we compute the probabilities of C, S, and X complex membership for each asteroid. For an individual asteroid, these probabilities are rather evenly distributed over all of the complexes, thus preventing meaningful classification. We then present and discuss the G12 distributions for asteroid families, and predict the taxonomic complex preponderance for asteroid families given the distribution of G12 in each family. For certain ast...

  4. Hyperbolic monopoles, JNR data and spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A large class of explicit hyperbolic monopole solutions can be obtained from JNR instanton data, if the curvature of hyperbolic space is suitably tuned. Here we provide explicit formulae for both the monopole spectral curve and its rational map in terms of JNR data. Examples with platonic symmetry are presented, together with some one-parameter families with cyclic and dihedral symmetries. These families include hyperbolic analogues of geodesics that describe symmetric monopole scatterings in Euclidean space and we illustrate the results with energy density isosurfaces. There is a metric on the moduli space of hyperbolic monopoles, defined using the abelian connection on the boundary of hyperbolic space, and we provide a simple integral formula for this metric on the space of JNR data.

  5. A new approach for constructing derivative type curves for well test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, type curves based on pressure derivatives have become a highly popular method for analyzing well test data. Typically, these type curves represent a log-log plot of dimensionless pressure and the derivative of dimensionless pressure vs. dimensionless time. This work presents a new general procedure for constructing type curves based on a new combination of dimensionless pressure and the derivative of dimensionless pressure. The procedure can be used to construct type curves for all standard problems encountered in well testing. The new type curves always have good character so that nonuniqueness problems sometimes encountered in type-curve matching are eliminated;p thus, the type curves constructed by our method should improve our ability to obtain accurate estimates of reservoir parameters by type-curve matching. The basic procedure is used to construct new type curves for wellbore storage and skin problems and for fractured wells (uniform-flux and infinite-conductivity). These type curves are constructed so that the vertical scale of the dimensionless derivative groups is automatically aligned with the vertical scale of the field-data derivative groups; thus, type-curve matching of field derivative data is accomplished by moving the field data plot only in the horizontal direction. This automatic alignment of the vertical scales simplifies type-curve matching and also is advantageous for determining whether field data actually represent the solution assumed by a given type curve.

  6. Macdonald formula for curves with planar singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Maulik, Davesh

    2011-01-01

    We generalize Macdonald's formula for the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points on a curve from smooth curves to curves with planar singularities: we relate the cohomology of the Hilbert schemes to the cohomology of the compactified Jacobian of the curve. The new formula is a consequence of a stronger identity between certain perverse sheaves defined by a family of curves satisfying mild conditions, whose proof makes an essential use of Ng\\^o's support theorem for compactified Jacobians.

  7. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Scheidegger, A.; Banasik, K.; Rieckermann, J.

    2013-11-01

    Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully demonstrated on a small catchment in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i) enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii) better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  8. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully tested on a small urbanized basin in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  9. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans' bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by Iognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges.The improvement in the fiagility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  10. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

    2002-12-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  11. Analytical reliability analysis of soil-water characteristic curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC, also known as the soil water-retention curve, is an important part of any constitutive relationship for unsaturated soils. Deterministic assessment of SWCC has received considerable attention in the past few years. However the uncertainties of the parameters which affect SWCC dictate that the problem is of a probabilistic nature rather than being deterministic. In this research, a Gene Expression Programming (GEP-based SWCC model is employed to assess the reliability of SWCC. For this purpose, the Jointly Distributed Random Variables (JDRV method is used as an analytical method for reliability analysis. All input parameters of the model which are initial void ratio, initial water content, silt and clay contents are set to be stochastic and modelled using truncated normal probability density functions. The results are compared with those of the Monte Carlo (MC simulation. It is shown that the initial water content is the most effective parameter in SWCC.

  12. Articulatory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  13. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...

  14. Neutron Multiplicity: LANL W Covariance Matrix for Curve Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-08

    In neutron multiplicity counting one may fit a curve by minimizing an objective function, χ$2\\atop{n}$. The objective function includes the inverse of an n by n matrix of covariances, W. The inverse of the W matrix has a closed form solution. In addition W-1 is a tri-diagonal matrix. The closed form and tridiagonal nature allows for a simpler expression of the objective function χ$2\\atop{n}$. Minimization of this simpler expression will provide the optimal parameters for the fitted curve.

  15. CHAOTIC TRANSIENTS IN A CURVED FLUID CONVEYING TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Qiao; Wang Lin; Qian Qin

    2005-01-01

    The chaotic transients of a curved fluid conveying tube subjected to a nonlinear foundation are investigated. The assumption of the inextensibility of the tube is applied to derive the nonlinear differential equation of motion via the Newtonian approach, with the differential quadrature method used to discretize the curved tube model in the spatial domain. And the nonlinear dynamic motion equation is obtained. The numerical analysis shows that, the final steady states are sensitive to the initial system conditions in a large parameter region of the fluid speed. This phenomenon of chaotic transients is infrequent for fluid conveying tubes.

  16. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  17. Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle

    2001-08-01

    Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .

  18. Sound propagation over curved barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Kearns, James A.; Hsieh, H.-A.

    1986-01-01

    Wide barriers with curved tops are studied with emphasis placed on circumstances whereby the local radius of curvature R of the barrier is continuous along the surface and is large compared to a wavelength. Results analogous to those given by Hayek et al. (1978) are reviewed and extended to cases where the radius of curvature and the surface impedance may vary with position. Circumstances not easily interpreted within the framework of the model proposed by Keller (1956) and Hayek et al. are also considered.

  19. Reconfigurable Double-Curved Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Christian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    . This happens fast, automatic and without production of waste, and the manipulated surface is fair and robust, eliminating the need for additional, manual treatment. Limitations to the possibilities of the flexible form are limited curvature and limited level of detail, making it especially suited for larger......, double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. In the proposed dynamic mould system, where only a set of points is defined, a stiff membrane interpolates the surface between points. To function as a surface...

  20. Membranes Wrapped on Holomorphic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    We construct supergravity solutions dual to the twisted field theories arising when M-theory membranes wrap holomorphic curves in Calabi-Yau n-folds. The solutions are constructed in an Abelian truncation of maximal D=4 gauged supergravity and then uplifted to D=11. For four-folds and five-folds we find new smooth AdS/CFT examples and for all cases we analyse the nature of the singularities that arise. Our results provide an interpretation of certain charged topological AdS black holes. We also present the generalised calibration two-forms for the solutions.

  1. An Analysis of the Shapes of Interstellar Extinction Curves. V. The IR-Through-UV Curve Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, E L

    2007-01-01

    We study the IR-through-UV interstellar extinction curves towards 328 Galactic B and late-O stars. We use a new technique which employs stellar atmosphere models in lieu of unreddened "standard" stars. This technique is capable of virtually eliminating spectral mismatch errors in the curves. It also allows a quantitative assessment of the errors and enables a rigorous testing of the significance of relationships between various curve parameters, regardless of whether their uncertainties are correlated. Analysis of the curves gives the following results: (1) In accord with our previous findings, the central position of the 2175 A extinction bump is mildly variable, its width is highly variable, and the two variations are unrelated. (2) Strong correlations are found among some extinction properties within the UV region, and within the IR region. (3) With the exception of a few curves with extreme (i.e., large) values of R(V), the UV and IR portions of Galactic extinction curves are not correlated with each othe...

  2. Construction of Endpoint Constrained Cubic Rational Curve with Chord-Length Parameterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pei-pei; ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Ai-wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem that constructing a curve to satisfy the given endpoint constraints and chord-length parameters. Based on the research of Lu, the curve construction method for the entire tangent angles region 0 1(α,α)∈(-π,π) × (-π,π) is given. Firstly, to ensure the weights are always positive, the three characteristics of cubic rational Bezier curve is proved, then the segment construction idea for the other tangent angles are presented in view of the three characteristics. The curve constructed with the new method satisfies the endpoint constraint and chord-length parameters, it’s G1 continuous in every segment curve, and the shapes of the curve are well.

  3. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  4. Smarandache Curves in Minkowski Space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Melih; Yilmaz, Suha

    2008-01-01

    A regular curve in Minkowski space-time, whose position vector is composed by Frenet frame vectors on another regular curve, is called a Smarandache Curve. In this paper, we define a special case of such curves and call it Smarandache TB2 Curves in the space E41. Moreover, we compute formulas of its Frenet apparatus according to base curve via the method expressed in [3]. By this way, we obtain an another orthonormal frame of E41.

  5. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  6. Capacity theory on algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rumely, Robert S

    1989-01-01

    Capacity is a measure of size for sets, with diverse applications in potential theory, probability and number theory. This book lays foundations for a theory of capacity for adelic sets on algebraic curves. Its main result is an arithmetic one, a generalization of a theorem of Fekete and Szegö which gives a sharp existence/finiteness criterion for algebraic points whose conjugates lie near a specified set on a curve. The book brings out a deep connection between the classical Green's functions of analysis and Néron's local height pairings; it also points to an interpretation of capacity as a kind of intersection index in the framework of Arakelov Theory. It is a research monograph and will primarily be of interest to number theorists and algebraic geometers; because of applications of the theory, it may also be of interest to logicians. The theory presented generalizes one due to David Cantor for the projective line. As with most adelic theories, it has a local and a global part. Let /K be a smooth, complet...

  7. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  8. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  9. Modelling and assessment of urban flood hazards based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves reformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazavi, Reza; Moafi Rabori, Ali; Ahadnejad Reveshty, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Estimate design storm based on rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves is an important parameter for hydrologic planning of urban areas. The main aim of this study was to estimate rainfall intensities of Zanjan city watershed based on overall relationship of rainfall IDF curves and appropriate model of hourly rainfall estimation (Sherman method, Ghahreman and Abkhezr method). Hydrologic and hydraulic impacts of rainfall IDF curves change in flood properties was evaluated via Stormw...

  10. Effect of the interaction among traps on the shape of thermoluminescence glow curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzo, J. [IFAS, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santiago, M. [IFAS, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msantiag@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Spano, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lester, M. [IFAS, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ortega, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Av. del Valle 5737, 7400 Olavarria (Argentina); Molina, P. [IFAS, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Caselli, E. [IFAS, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CICPBA), calle 526 entre 10 y 11, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-09-15

    The effect of the interaction among traps on the structure of thermoluminescence glow curves has been investigated by generating numerically simulated glow curves for a wide range of trap parameters. The results reported in this paper provide useful insights which assist in the analysis of experimental glow curves. The most important result shows that it is incorrect to assume beforehand that each peak is related to a specific trapping state. The validity of the quasiequilibrium approximation is briefly discussed.

  11. The existence of inflection points for generalized log-aesthetic curves satisfying G1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagavalli, R.; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, K. T.; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2015-12-01

    Log-Aesthetic (LA) curves have been implemented in a CAD/CAM system for various design feats. LA curves possess linear Logarithmic Curvature Graph (LCG) with gradient (shape parameter) denoted as α. In 2009, a generalized form of LA curves called Generalized Log-Aesthetic Curves (GLAC) has been proposed which has an extra shape parameter as ν compared to LA curves. Recently, G1 continuous GLAC algorithm has been proposed which utilizes the extra shape parameter using four control points. This paper discusses on the existence of inflection points in a GLAC segment satisfying G1 Hermite data and the effect of inflection point on convex hull property. It is found that the existence of inflection point can be avoided by manipulating the value of α. Numerical experiments show that the increase of α may remove the inflection point (if any) in a GLAC segment.

  12. Melt Quality Evaluation of Ductile Iron by Pattern Recognition of Thermal Analysis Cooling Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenhua; LI Yanxiang; ZHOU Rong

    2008-01-01

    The melt quality of ductile iron can be related to the melt's thermal analysis cooling curve. The freezing zone of the thermal analysis cooling curve was found to indicate the melt quality of the ductile iron. A comprehensive difference parameter, Ω, of the thermal analysis cooling curves was found to be related to the properties of ductile iron melts such as composition, temperature, and graphite morphology. As Ω ap- proached O, the thermal analysis cooling curves were found to come together with all the properties indicat- ing melt quality about the same. A database of thermal analysis cooling curves related to the properties of the ductile iron melts was set up as a basis for a method to accurately evaluate the melt quality of ductile iron by pattern recognition of thermal analysis cooling curves. The quality of a ductile iron melt can then be immediately determined by comparing its thermal analysis cooling curve freezing zone shape to those in the database.

  13. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  14. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S

    2000-01-01

    The tomographic method "Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping" is a tool to reconstruct spatial distributions of physical parameters (like temperatures and surface densities) in accretion discs of cataclysmic variables. After summarizing the method, we apply it to multi-colour eclipse light curves of various dwarf novae and nova-likes like VZ Scl, IP Peg in outburst, UU Aqr, V2051 Oph and HT Cas in order to derive the temperatures (and surface densities) in the disc, the white dwarf temperature, the disc size, the effective temperatures and the viscosities. The results allows us to establish or refine a physical model for the accretion disc. Our maps of HT Cas and V2051 Oph, for example, indicate that the (quiescent) disc must be structured into a cool, optically thick inner disc sandwiched by hot, optically thin chromospheres. In addition, the disc of HT Cas must be patchy with a covering factor of about 40% caused by magnetic activity in the disc.

  15. Dust properties along anomalous extinction sightlines. II. Studying extinction curves with dust models

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzei, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The large majority of extinction sight lines in our Galaxy obey a simple relation depending on one parameter, the total-to-selective extinction coefficient, Rv. Different values of Rv are able to match the whole extinction curve through different environments so characterizing normal extinction curves. In this paper more than sixty curves with large ultraviolet deviations from their best-fit one parameter curve are analyzed. These curves are fitted with dust models to shed light into the properties of the grains, the processes affecting them, and their relations with the environmental characteristics. The extinction curve models are reckoned by following recent prescriptions on grain size distributions able to describe one parameter curves for Rv values from 3.1 to 5.5. Such models, here extended down to Rv=2.0, allow us to compare the resulting properties of our deviating curves with the same as normal curves in a self-consistent framework, and thus to recover the relative trends overcoming the modeling unce...

  16. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  17. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  18. On Correlated-noise Analyses Applied To Exoplanet Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Cubillos, Patricio; Loredo, Thomas J; Lust, Nate B; Blecic, Jasmina; Stemm, Madison

    2016-01-01

    Time-correlated noise is a significant source of uncertainty when modeling exoplanet light-curve data. A correct assessment of correlated noise is fundamental to determine the true statistical significance of our findings. Here we review three of the most widely used correlated-noise estimators in the exoplanet field, the time-averaging, residual-permutation, and wavelet-likelihood methods. We argue that the residual-permutation method is unsound in estimating the uncertainty of parameter estimates. We thus recommend to refrain from this method altogether. We characterize the behavior of the time averaging's rms-vs.-bin-size curves at bin sizes similar to the total observation duration, which may lead to underestimated uncertainties. For the wavelet-likelihood method, we note errors in the published equations and provide a list of corrections. We further assess the performance of these techniques by injecting and retrieving eclipse signals into synthetic and real Spitzer light curves, analyzing the results in...

  19. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...

  20. Constraining brane tension using rotation curves of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We present in this work a study of brane theory phenomenology focusing on the brane tension parameter, which is the main observable of the theory. We show the modifications steaming from the presence of branes in the rotation curves of spiral galaxies for three well known DM density profiles: the pseudo isothermal (PISO), Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Burkert dark matter density profiles. We estimate the brane tension parameter using a sample of high resolution observed rotation curves of low surface brightness spiral galaxies for the three density profiles. Also, the fittings using the brane theory model of the rotation curves are compared with standard Newtonian models. We found that NFW model prefers lower values of the brane tension parameter, on the average $\\lambda \\sim 0.73\\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^4$, therefore showing clear brane effects. Burkert case does prefer higher values of the tension parameter, on the average $\\lambda \\sim 0.93$ eV$^4$, i.e., negligible brane effects. Whereas PISO is an intermediat...

  1. Whitney's formulas for curves on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Burman, Yurii

    2009-01-01

    The classical Whitney formula relates the number of times an oriented plane curve cuts itself to its rotation number and the index of a base point. In this paper we generalize Whitney's formula to curves on an oriented punctured surface. To define analogs of the rotation number and the index of a base point of a curve, we fix an arbitrary vector field on the surface. Similar formulas are obtained for non-based curves.

  2. The Effects of Autocorrelation on the Curve-of-Factors Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2011-01-01

    This simulation study examined the performance of the curve-of-factors model (COFM) when autocorrelation and growth processes were present in the first-level factor structure. In addition to the standard curve-of factors growth model, 2 new models were examined: one COFM that included a first-order autoregressive autocorrelation parameter, and a…

  3. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  4. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  5. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  6. Counting rational points on cubic curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEATH-BROWN; Roger; TESTA; Damiano

    2010-01-01

    We prove upper bounds for the number of rational points on non-singular cubic curves defined over the rationals.The bounds are uniform in the curve and involve the rank of the corresponding Jacobian.The method used in the proof is a combination of the "determinant method" with an m-descent on the curve.

  7. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a s

  8. A STUDY ON JIG DISTRIBUTION CURVE TRANSFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路迈西; 常大山; 郭珍旭

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the errors resulted from distribution curve transformations using six different methods was made on the basis of 61 sets of jig performance test data from the coal preparation plants in China. The results indicate that minimum error occurred when distribution curves were transformed by keeping imperfection I constant. Generalized distribution curves are developed for jigs and their applications are discussed.

  9. The Bezout Number of Piecewise Algebraic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Xuan GONG; Ren Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Based on the discussion of the number of roots of univariate spline and the common zero points of two piecewise algebraic curves,a lower upbound of Bezout number of two piecewise algebraic curves on any given non-obtuse-angled triangulation is found.Bezout number of two piecewise algebraic curves on two different partitions is also discussed in this paper.

  10. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  11. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  12. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results.

  13. [A mathematical analysis of strain-gauge curves in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Alvarez Sánchez, J A; Charles-Edouard Otrante, D; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutierrez Jiménez, O

    1991-01-01

    The plethysmographic strain gauge venous outflow curves were studied by means of an exponential function. The parameters analyzed made possible the establishment of differences between patients with and without DVT.

  14. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila

    2011-01-15

    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  15. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  16. Saturation curves of parallel-plate ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallone, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    A new analytical expression is presented to describe the full saturation curve of parallel-plate ionization chambers. In contrast to the presently known expressions, which hold only for the near saturation region, this empirically determined expression is in excellent agreement with measurements in the whole collection efficiency range from 0 to 1 for x-ray sources with effective energies from 20 to 150 keV and cobalt-60 gamma rays. The dependence of the ion collection efficiency and the extrapolated electric field, which is a parameter in the new saturation curve expression, on electric field, dose, dose rate, beam quality, and chamber volume, is discussed. The effect of photoemission from the chamber polarizing electrode for low-energy x-ray beams on the saturation current is demonstrated. A universal ionization chamber constant is derived experimentally. It is shown that all parameters of the saturation curve equation and thus the saturation curve itself, can be calculated from one single measurement of ionization current at a given electric field and air gap thickness.

  17. Tracking stochastic resonance curves using an assisted reference model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderón Ramírez, Mario; Rico Martínez, Ramiro [Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Av. Tecnológico y A. García Cubas S/N, Celaya, Guanajuato, 38010 (Mexico); Ramírez Álvarez, Elizeth [Nonequilibrium Chemical Physics, Physik-Department, TU-München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Parmananda, P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The optimal noise amplitude for Stochastic Resonance (SR) is located employing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) reference model with a nonlinear predictive capability. A modified Kalman Filter (KF) was coupled to this reference model in order to compensate for semi-quantitative forecast errors. Three manifestations of stochastic resonance, namely, Periodic Stochastic Resonance (PSR), Aperiodic Stochastic Resonance (ASR), and finally Coherence Resonance (CR) were considered. Using noise amplitude as the control parameter, for the case of PSR and ASR, the cross-correlation curve between the sub-threshold input signal and the system response is tracked. However, using the same parameter the Normalized Variance curve is tracked for the case of CR. The goal of the present work is to track these curves and converge to their respective extremal points. The ANN reference model strategy captures and subsequently predicts the nonlinear features of the model system while the KF compensates for the perturbations inherent to the superimposed noise. This technique, implemented in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, enabled us to track the resonance curves and eventually locate their optimal (extremal) values. This would yield the optimal value of noise for the three manifestations of the SR phenomena.

  18. Crack resistance curves determination of tube cladding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, J.; Hoffelner, W.

    2006-06-01

    Zirconium based alloys have been in use as fuel cladding material in light water reactors since many years. As claddings change their mechanical properties during service, it is essential for the assessment of mechanical integrity to provide parameters for potential rupture behaviour. Usually, fracture mechanics parameters like the fracture toughness KIC or, for high plastic strains, the J-integral based elastic-plastic fracture toughness JIC are employed. In claddings with a very small wall thickness the determination of toughness needs the extension of the J-concept beyond limits of standards. In the paper a new method based on the traditional J approach is presented. Crack resistance curves (J-R curves) were created for unirradiated thin walled Zircaloy-4 and aluminium cladding tube pieces at room temperature using the single sample method. The procedure of creating sharp fatigue starter cracks with respect to optical recording was optimized. It is shown that the chosen test method is appropriate for the determination of complete J-R curves including the values J0.2 (J at 0.2 mm crack length), Jm (J corresponding to the maximum load) and the slope of the curve.

  19. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  20. The infrared light curve of Periodic Comet Halley 1986 III and its relationship to the visual light curve, C2, and water production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles S.; Hanner, Martha S.

    1993-01-01

    The near-IR light curve of Periodic Comet Halley 1986 III is analyzed and compared with C2 production, water production, and the visual light curve. This is the most complete IR light curve compiled to date for any comet. The scattering phase function at small sun-comet-earth angles is shown to affect the slope of near-IR light curve significantly. P/Halley's dust production, as inferred from the IR light curve showed an increased production rate near perihelion which appears to be correlated with the onset of significant jet activity. The near-IR light curve, visual light curve, C2, and water production rates displayed different heliocentric variations, suggesting that one parameter cannot be accurately estimated from another. This is particularly true of the early preperihelion visual light curve. A peak of 0.3-0.5 magnitude in the visual magnitude, representing the integrated brightness of the comet's visible coma, lagged the other parameters by about a day. The near-IR color, J-H, was less red during periods of strong dust activity.

  1. Theory of a curved planar waveguide with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, O.; Mikhailovska, L.

    2010-03-01

    A model of a thin straight strip with a uniformly curved section and with boundary requirements zeroing at the edges a linear superposition of the wave function and its normal derivative (Robin boundary condition) is analyzed theoretically within the framework of the linear Schrödinger equation and is applied to the study of the processes in the bent magnetic multilayers, superconducting films and metallic ferrite-filled waveguides. In particular, subband thresholds of the straight and curved parts of the film are calculated and analyzed as a function of the Robin parameter 1/Λ , with Λ being an extrapolation length entering Robin boundary condition. For the arbitrary Robin coefficients which are equal on the opposite interfaces of the strip and for all bend parameters the lowest-mode energy of the continuously curved duct is always smaller than its straight counterpart. Accordingly, the bound state below the fundamental propagation threshold of the straight arms always exists as a result of the bend. In terms of the superconductivity language it means an increased critical temperature of the curved film compared to its straight counterpart. Localized-level dependence on the parameters of the curve is investigated with its energy decreasing with increasing bend angle and decreasing bend radius. Conditions of the bound-state existence for the different Robin parameters on the opposite edges are analyzed too; in particular, it is shown that the bound state below the first transverse threshold of the straight arm always exists if the inner extrapolation length is not larger than the outer one. In the opposite case there is a range of the bend parameters where the curved film cannot trap the wave and form the localized mode; for example, for the fixed bend radius the bound state emerges from the continuum at some nonzero bend angle that depends on the difference of the two lengths Λ at the opposite interfaces. Various transport properties of the film such as

  2. Cubic Curves, Finite Geometry and Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruen, A A; Wehlau, D L

    2011-01-01

    Some geometry on non-singular cubic curves, mainly over finite fields, is surveyed. Such a curve has 9,3,1 or 0 points of inflexion, and cubic curves are classified accordingly. The group structure and the possible numbers of rational points are also surveyed. A possible strengthening of the security of elliptic curve cryptography is proposed using a `shared secret' related to the group law. Cubic curves are also used in a new way to construct sets of points having various combinatorial and geometric properties that are of particular interest in finite Desarguesian planes.

  3. On Self-growing Modeling for Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong-zhao; ZHU Zhi-hong; ZHOU Hui-cheng; SHI Han-min

    2008-01-01

    This paperpresents a novel curoe modeling method based on controlling rules of the shaping technique.The method describes the curve based on steplength and turning angle,and the characteristics of the curve near a point.Then it introduces the process to extract" growing-rules"for 2D and 3D curves described by familiar analytical expressions and curvature-torsion expressions.Examples of selfgrowing modeling for familiar analytical curves are presented.New curves are obtained by designing the grow-rules;corresponding examples are also presented.

  4. Koch Curves: Rewriting System, Geometry and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Rani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, new Koch curves have been generated by dividing the initiator into three unequal parts. There is no formal rewriting system to generate such kind of curves. Approach: It is required to measure the new changed geometrical properties. Generalized rewriting systems for the new Koch curves have been developed. Results: New formulas have been given to measure their geometrical properties. Conclusion/Recommendations: The geometrical properties of new Koch curves make them more suitable as antennas in wireless communication than the conventional Koch curve.

  5. A Grid Algorithm for High Throughput Fitting of Dose-Response Curve Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuhong; Jadhav, Ajit; Southal, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Nguyen, Dac-Trung

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel algorithm, Grid algorithm, and the corresponding computer program for high throughput fitting of dose-response curves that are described by the four-parameter symmetric logistic dose-response model. The Grid algorithm searches through all points in a grid of four dimensions (parameters) and finds the optimum one that corresponds to the best fit. Using simulated dose-response curves, we examined the Grid program’s performance in reproducing the actual values that were used ...

  6. UNSTEADY INTERMITTENT FLOW IN A ROTATING CURVED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian-an; SHEN Xin-rong; CHEN Hua-jun; ZHANG Ben-zhao

    2004-01-01

    The effects of rotation and intermittent fre quency on the flow transition of secondary flow and, main flow were examined in detail. Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns were found. A numerical study was performed to study the characteristics of unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe. Due to the rotation, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force could contribute to the unsteady intermittent flow and some complicated phenomena can be found. The results indicate that the unsteady intermittent flow are mainly characterized by five parameters: the Dean number Dn , the curvatureκ, the maximal force ratio F (of the Coriolis force to the centrifugal force in a cycle), the intermittent frequency parameter η(the ratio of a pulslating time to the cycle period), and the Womersley number α. Present works shows the natures of the unsteady intermittent flow in a rotating curved pipe.

  7. Testing modified gravity at large distances with THINGS' rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Mastache, Jorge; de la Macorra, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new -quantum motivated- theory of gravity has been proposed that modifies the standard Newtonian potential at large distances when spherical symmetry is considered. Accordingly, Newtonian gravity is altered by adding an extra Rindler acceleration term that has to be -phenomenologically- determined. Here we consider a standard and a power-law generalization of the Rindler modified Newtonian potential. The new terms in the gravitational potential are hypothesized to play the role of dark matter in galaxies. Our galactic model includes the mass of the integrated gas, and stars for which we consider three stellar mass functions (Kroupa, diet-Salpeter, and free mass model). We test this idea by fitting rotation curves of seventeen Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). We find that the Rindler parameters do not perform a suitable fit to the rotation curves in comparison to standard dark matter profiles (NFW and Burkert) and, in addition, the computed parameters ...

  8. An image encryption algorithm utilizing julia sets and hilbert curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing

    2014-01-01

    Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets' parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets' properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack.

  9. Transit Light Curves with Finite Integration Time: Fisher Information Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Ellen M

    2014-01-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal-to-noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal-to-noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the tran...

  10. Theoretical Analysis and Derivation of Combustion Wave Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical relations of pressure, density, velocity, temperature and Mach number of combustion waves are built. The parameters' curves with different combustion energy are illustrated in which four zones are pointed out to represent different combustion states. The expressions and curves of parameters are important to analyze the trends of combustion waves, and to determine conditions on which detonation waves or deflagration waves occur.

  11. Factors as predictors for thoracic and thoracolumbar/lumbar structural curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-qiang; ZHAO Yong-fei; HE Shi-sheng; WANG Chuan-feng; ZHANG Jing-tao; ZHAO Ying-chuan; YANG Chang-wei; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that the Lenke system is relatively efficient and consistent in classifying scoliosis curves.Basically,fusion should include the main curve and the structural minor curve.The criteria for defining the structural minor curve were established to help guide these decision-making process.The present study was designed to investigate predictors of the structural curve,and see whether it was possible to prevent the formation of the structural curve by interfering with influencing factors to decrease the fusion level.Methods Age,gender,Cobb angle,Perdriolle rotation,Risser sign and the number of vertebrae included in the curve,brace treatment,and curve location were recorded in 145 idiopathic scoliosis patients from July 2001 to January 2007.The patients were divided into two groups:structural and non-structural groups.Demographics and baseline characteristics were compared between the two groups as an initial screen.Logistic regression was used to analyze factors affecting the minor curve to become the structural curve.Results Compared with the non-structural group,the structural group had a higher Cobb angle ((51.34±13.61)° vs.(34.20±7.21)°,P <0.001),bending angle ((33.94±9.92)° vs.(8.46±5.56)°,P <0.001) and curve rotation ((23.25±12.86)° vs.(14.21±8.55) °,P <0.001),and lower flexibility ((33.48±12.53)% vs.(75.50±15.52)%,P <0.001).There was no significant difference in other parameters between the two groups.The results of the Logistic regression analysis showed that the Cobb angle (OR:9.921,P <0.001) and curve location (OR.4.119,P=0.016) were significant predictors of structural curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Every 10° change of Cobb angle increased the possibility of turning the minor curve into the structural curve by 10-fold.And thoracic curve showed,on the average,the possibility of becoming the structural curve about 4-fold more often than did the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve

  12. Reconstruction of quadratic curves in 3-D from two or more perspective views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in the reconstruction of a quadratic curve in 3-D space from arbitrary perspective projections are described in this paper. Correspondence between the projections of the curve on the image planes is assumed to be established. Equations for reconstruction of the 3-D curve, which give the parameters of the 3-D quadratic curve are determined. Uniqueness of the solution in the process of reconstruction is addressed and solved using additional constraints. As practical examples, reconstruction of circles, parabolas and pair of straight lines in 3-D space are demonstrated.

  13. Improved Nonlinear Equation Method for Numerical Prediction of Jominy End-Quench Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yue-peng; LIU Guo-quan; LIU Sheng-xin; LIU Jian-tao; FENG Cheng-ming

    2007-01-01

    Without considering the effects of alloying interaction on the Jominy end-quench curves, the prediction results obtained by YU Bai-hai's nonlinear equation method for multi-alloying steels were different from those experimental ones reported in literature. Some alloying elements have marked influence on Jominy end-quench curves of steels. An improved mathematical model for simulating the Jominy end-quench curves is proposed by introducing a parameter named alloying interactions equivalent (Le). With the improved model, the Jominy end-quench curves of steels so obtained agree very well with the experimental ones.

  14. Effects of mistuning and matrix structure on the topology of frequency response curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Dare

    1989-01-01

    The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology of the forced response curves, if the mistuning transformation crosses the bifurcation set.

  15. Thermoluminescence glow curve of {gamma}-irradiated calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.D.; Ingotombi, S. [Manipur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1995-07-14

    The trapping parameters, namely the activation energy E, frequency factor s and b order of kinetics of the thermoluminescence (TL) peaks of calcites (brown and colourless varieties) irradiated with 4.08 kGy of {gamma}-rays, are determined using the least-squares curve-fitting technique. The electron lifetime {tau} of the peaks of calcite are calculated in order to estimate the upper limit of their utility in TL dating. (author).

  16. Flat rotation curves using scalar-tensor theories

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Rodriguez-Meza, M. A.; Nunez, Dario

    2007-01-01

    We computed flat rotation curves from scalar-tensor theories in their weak field limit. Our model, by construction, fits a flat rotation profile for velocities of stars. As a result, the form of the scalar field potential and DM distribution in a galaxy are determined. By taking into account the constraints for the fundamental parameters of the theory $(\\lambda, \\alpha)$, it is possible to obtain analytical results for the density profiles. For positive and negative values of $\\alpha$, the DM...

  17. 3D CATENARY CURVE FITTING FOR GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-O. Chan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern road surveys, hanging power cables are among the most commonly-found geometric features. These cables are catenary curves that are conventionally modelled with three parameters in 2D Cartesian space. With the advent and popularity of the mobile mapping system (MMS, the 3D point clouds of hanging power cables can be captured within a short period of time. These point clouds, similarly to those of planar features, can be used for feature-based self-calibration of the system assembly errors of an MMS. However, to achieve this, a well-defined 3D equation for the catenary curve is needed. This paper proposes three 3D catenary curve models, each having different parameters. The models are examined by least squares fitting of simulated data and real data captured with an MMS. The outcome of the fitting is investigated in terms of the residuals and correlation matrices. Among the proposed models, one of them could estimate the parameters accurately and without any extreme correlation between the variables. This model can also be applied to those transmission lines captured by airborne laser scanning or any other hanging cable-like objects.

  18. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C

    2016-01-01

    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  19. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Pedro; de Melo e Souza, Reinaldo; Farina, C.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there are an infinite number of tautochrone curves in addition to the cycloid solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658. We begin by reviewing the inverse problem of finding the possible potential energy functions that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many such solutions, called "sheared" potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a Pöschl-Teller potential and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same oscillation periods for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of a constant gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the oscillation period, there is an infinity of tracks that lead to the same period. As a bonus, we show that there are infinitely many tautochrones.

  20. Algebraic points on meromorphic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Herblot, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    The classic Schneider-Lang theorem in transcendence theory asserts that there are only finitely many points at which algebraically independent complex meromorphic functions of finite order of growth can simultaneously take values in a number field, when satisfying a polynomial differential equation with coefficients in this given number field. In this article, we are interested in generalizing this theorem in two directions. First, instead of considering meromorphic functions on C we consider holomorphic maps on an affine curve over the field C or C_p. This extends a statement of D. Bertrand, which applies to meromorphic functions on P^1(C) or P^1(C_p) minus a finite subset of points. Secondly, we deal with algebraic values taken by the functions, instead of rational values as in the classic setting, inspired by a work of D. Bertrand. We prove a geometric statement extending those two results, using the slopes method, written in the language of Arakelov geometry. In the complex case, we recover a special case...

  1. Quantum fields in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollands, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.hollands@uni-leipzig.de [Universität Leipzig, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Brüderstrasse 16, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wald, Robert M., E-mail: rmwa@uchicago.edu [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-04-16

    We review the theory of quantum fields propagating in an arbitrary, classical, globally hyperbolic spacetime. Our review emphasizes the conceptual issues arising in the formulation of the theory and presents known results in a mathematically precise way. Particular attention is paid to the distributional nature of quantum fields, to their local and covariant character, and to microlocal spectrum conditions satisfied by physically reasonable states. We review the Unruh and Hawking effects for free fields, as well as the behavior of free fields in deSitter spacetime and FLRW spacetimes with an exponential phase of expansion. We review how nonlinear observables of a free field, such as the stress–energy tensor, are defined, as well as time-ordered-products. The “renormalization ambiguities” involved in the definition of time-ordered products are fully characterized. Interacting fields are then perturbatively constructed. Our main focus is on the theory of a scalar field, but a brief discussion of gauge fields is included. We conclude with a brief discussion of a possible approach towards a nonperturbative formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and some remarks on the formulation of quantum gravity.

  2. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-03-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  3. Dependence on supernovae light-curve processing in void models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Rossi, Maria E., E-mail: derossi@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-02

    In this work, we show that when supernova Ia (SN Ia) data sets are used to put constraints on the free parameters of inhomogeneous models, certain extra information regarding the light-curve fitter used in the supernovae Ia luminosity fluxes processing should be taken into account. We found that the size of the void as well as other parameters of these models might be suffering extra degenerations or additional systematic errors due to the fitter. A recent proposal to relieve the tension between the results from Planck satellite and SNe Ia is re-analyzed in the framework of these subjects.

  4. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, M D

    2014-01-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90 degrees value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studie...

  5. A polarimetric study of asteroids: Fitting phase - polarization curves

    CERN Document Server

    Cellino, A; Gil-Hutton, R; Tanga, P; Canada-Assandri, M; Tedesco, E F

    2015-01-01

    By considering all asteroid linear polarization data available in the literature, it is possible to obtain updated phase - polarization curves for several tens of objects. In a separate paper (Cellino et al., 2015a, MNRAS, 451, 3473) we have produced new calibrations of different relations between the geometric albedo and several polarimetric parameters, based on an analysis of a limited sample of asteroids for which the albedo is known with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we present the main polarization parameters and corresponding albedos for a larger dataset of asteroids which we did not use for calibration purposes. We find a good agreement between the albedo values computed using different polarization parameters. Conversely, in the case of the so-called Barbarian asteroids the situation is rather unclear. Moreover, we present an updated analysis of the distributions of different polarimetric parameters, including the so-called inversion angle and the solar phase angle corresponding to the extreme v...

  6. GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 billion simulated microlensing light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Vernardos, Georgios; Bate, Nicholas F; Croton, Darren; Vohl, Dany

    2015-01-01

    In the upcoming synoptic all--sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disc. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated $>2.5$ billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to: train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our ...

  7. Certified Approximation of Parametric Space Curves with Cubic B-spline Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Liyong; Gao, Xiao-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Approximating complex curves with simple parametric curves is widely used in CAGD, CG, and CNC. This paper presents an algorithm to compute a certified approximation to a given parametric space curve with cubic B-spline curves. By certified, we mean that the approximation can approximate the given curve to any given precision and preserve the geometric features of the given curve such as the topology, singular points, etc. The approximated curve is divided into segments called quasi-cubic B\\'{e}zier curve segments which have properties similar to a cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve. And the approximate curve is naturally constructed as the associated cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve of the control tetrahedron of a quasi-cubic curve. A novel optimization method is proposed to select proper weights in the cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve to approximate the given curve. The error of the approximation is controlled by the size of its tetrahedron, which converges to zero by subdividing the curve segments. As an applic...

  8. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Betancourt, M., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  9. Uniform trigonometric polynomial B-spline curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇刚; 汪国昭; 杨勋年

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new kind of uniform spline curve, named trigonometric polynomialB-splines, over space Ω = span{sint, cost, tk-3,tk-4,…,t,1} of which k is an arbitrary integerlarger than or equal to 3. We show that trigonometric polynomial B-spline curves have many similarV properties to traditional B-splines. Based on the explicit representation of the curve we have also presented the subdivision formulae for this new kind of curve. Since the new spline can include both polynomial curves and trigonometric curves as special cases without rational form, it can be used as an efficient new model for geometric design in the fields of CAD/CAM.

  10. Research on physical shape preserving curve reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kelun; ZHANG Xiangwei; CHENG Siyuan; XIONG Hanwei; ZHANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    Fusion of various data is an effective way to improve the precision and efficiency of acquiring information in reverse engineering.A method of physical shape preserving curve reconstruction is proposed to better realize the data fusion of coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and visual information.From the principle of materials mechanics,the strain energy of the curve corresponding to the distortion is advanced as the internal energy,and the elastic potential energy of the curve is established,using a few precise measured data points as the equilibrium position,to be the external energy.On the basis of the principle of variation calculus,the basic spline finite element method (B-spline FEM) is used to determine the equilibrium position of curve deformation.Numerical simulation indicates that there is an extremely good agreement between the new fitted curve and the actual curve.

  11. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two comp...

  12. Conditionally bounding analytic ranks of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, Jonathan W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for bounding the rank of an elliptic curve under the assumptions of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and the generalized Riemann hypothesis. As an example, we compute, under these conjectures, exact upper bounds for curves which are known to have rank at least as large as 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24. For the known curve of rank at least 28, we get a bound of 30.

  13. Riemann Boundary Value Problems for Koch Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshun Ruanand

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, when L is substituted for Koch curve, Riemann boundary value problems was defined, but generally speaking, Cauchy-type integral is meaningless on Koch curve. When some analytic conditions are attached to functions G (z and g (z, through the limit function of a sequence of Cauchytype integrals, the homogeneous and non-homogeneous Riemann boundary problems on Koch curve are introduced, some similar results was attained like the classical boundary value problems for analytic functions.

  14. Skill Acquisition Curves and Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    group acquisition curves had one of two general shapes, either logarithmic (power function) or semi- logarithmic (exponential), including variants...is, so far as we aware, no inherent advantage to the use of equations in linear or logarithmic form other than that the display of fitted curves in...implications for the expected form of the acquisition curve . As Mazur and Hastie (1978) note, accumulation models yield the hyperbola (a power law

  15. A Local Torelli's Theorem for SUSY curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codogni, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    SUSY curves, or super Riemann surfaces, are the generalization of Riemann surfaces in the context of super geometry. The main goal of this paper is to construct some explicit families of SUSY curves with odd moduli and compute their periods. By comparing our result with its classical analogue, we make an educated guess about the tangent space to the period domain and the differential of the Jacobian morphism for SUSY curves.

  16. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  17. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  18. 非等温TG-DTG法确定2,2'-联吡啶-对甲氧基苯甲酸铕(Ⅲ)热分解反应的机理函数和动力学参数%Determination of Mechanism Function and Kinetic Parameters of Thermal Decomposition of the 2,2'-Dipyridine-tris(p-methoxybenzoate) Europium(Ⅲ) with Non-isothermal TG and DTG Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 王瑞芬; 翟学良; 赵建路; 杨惠芳; 默丽萍

    2000-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of the 2,2'-dipyridine-tris(p-methoxybenzoats) europium (Ⅲ) and its kinetics were studied under the non-isothermal condition in air by TG-DTG and DTA methods. The intermediate and residue for each decomposition were identified from TG curve. The non-isothermal kinetic data were analyzed by means of integral and differential methods. The possible reaction mechanisms were investigated by comparing the kinetic parameters. The kinetic equation for the first stage can be expressed as dα/dt =Aexp(-E/RT)2(1-α)1/2.%采用TG-DTG和DTA技术研究了2,2'-联吡啶-对甲氧基苯甲酸铕(Ⅲ)在静态空气中的非等温热分解过程及动力学,根据TG曲线确定了热分解过程中的中间产物及最终产物,运用微分法与积分法对非等温动力学数据进行分析,推断出第一步的动力学方程为dα/dt=Aexp(-E/RT)2(1-α)1/2.

  19. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  20. Orthogonal Polynomials and $S$-curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhmanov, E A

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of $S$-curves, that is systems of curves in the complex plane whose equilibrium potential in a harmonic external field satisfies a special symmetry property ($S$-property). Such curves have many applications. In particular, they play a fundamental role in the theory of complex (non-hermitian) orthogonal polynomials. One of the main theorems on zero distribution of such polynomials asserts that the limit zero distribution is presented by an equilibrium measure of an $S$-curve associated with the problem if such a curve exists. These curves are also the starting point of the matrix Riemann-Hilbert approach to srtong asymptotics. Other approaches to the problem of strong asymptotics (differential equations, Riemann surfaces) are also related to $S$-curves or may be interpreted this way. Existence problem $S$-curve in a given class of curves in presence of a nontrivial external field presents certain challenge. We formulate and prove a version of existence theorem for the case whe...

  1. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  2. PMAnalyzer: a new web interface for bacterial growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Daniel A; Edwards, Robert A

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial growth curves are essential representations for characterizing bacteria metabolism within a variety of media compositions. Using high-throughput, spectrophotometers capable of processing tens of 96-well plates, quantitative phenotypic information can be easily integrated into the current data structures that describe a bacterial organism. The PMAnalyzer pipeline performs a growth curve analysis to parameterize the unique features occurring within microtiter wells containing specific growth media sources. We have expanded the pipeline capabilities and provide a user-friendly, online implementation of this automated pipeline. PMAnalyzer version 2.0 provides fast automatic growth curve parameter analysis, growth identification and high resolution figures of sample-replicate growth curves and several statistical analyses. PMAnalyzer v2.0 can be found at https://edwards.sdsu.edu/pmanalyzer/ . Source code for the pipeline can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzer . Source code for the online implementation can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzerWeb . dcuevas08@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Critical Curves and Caustics of Triple-lens Models

    CERN Document Server

    Danek, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Among the 25 planetary systems detected up to now by gravitational microlensing, there are two cases of a star with two planets, and two cases of a binary star with a planet. Other, yet undetected types of triple lenses include triple stars or stars with a planet with a moon. The analysis and interpretation of such events is hindered by the lack of understanding of essential characteristics of triple lenses, such as their critical curves and caustics. We present here analytical and numerical methods for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of $n$-point-mass lenses. We apply the methods to the analysis of four symmetric triple-lens models, and obtain altogether 9 different critical-curve topologies and 32 caustic structures. While these results include various generic types, they represent just a subset of all possible triple-lens critical curves and caustics. Using the analyzed models, we demonstrate interesting features of triple lenses that do not occur in two-p...

  4. Dust evolution processes constrained by extinction curves in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Michałowski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction curves, especially those in the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), have provided us with a clue to the dust properties in the nearby Universe. We examine whether or not these extinction curves can be explained by well known dust evolution processes. We treat the dust production in stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion and coagulation, and dust disruption by shattering. To make a survey of the large parameter space possible, we simplify the treatment of the grain size distribution evolution by adopting the `two-size approximation', in which we divide the grain population into small ($\\lesssim 0.03~\\mu$m) and large ($\\gtrsim 0.03~\\mu$m) grains. It is confirmed that the MW extinction curve can be reproduced in reasonable ranges for the time-scale of the above processes with a silicate-graphite mixture. This indicates that the MW extinction curve is a natural consequence of the dust evolution through the above proc...

  5. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  6. Supergranular Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  7. First light curve and period study of LO Andromedae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürol, B.; Müyesseroğlu, Z.

    2005-01-01

    New BV light curves and times of minimum light for the short period W UMa system LO And were analyzed to derive the preliminary physical parameters of the system. The light curves were obtained at Ankara University Observatory during 5 nights in 2003. A new ephemeris is determined for the times of primary minimum. The analysis of the light curves is made using the Wilson-Devinney 2003 code. The present solution reveals that LO And has a photometric mass ratio q = 0.371 and is an A-type contact binary. The period of the system is still increasing, which can be attributed to light-time effect and mass transfer between the components. With the assumption of coplanar orbit of the third body the revealed mass is M3 = 0.21M. If the period change dP/dt = 0.0212 sec/yr is caused only by the mass transfer between components (from the lighter component to the heavier) the calculated mass transfer rate is dm/dt = 1.682 10-7M/yr. The absolute radii and masses estimated for the components, based on our photometric solution and the absolute parameters of the systems which have nearly same period are R1 = 1.30R, R2 = 0.85R, M1 = 1.31M, M2 = 0.49M respectively for the primary and secondary components.

  8. Genomic growth curves of an outbred pig population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current post-genomic era, the genetic basis of pig growth can be understood by assessing SNP marker effects and genomic breeding values (GEBV based on estimates of these growth curve parameters as phenotypes. Although various statistical methods, such as random regression (RR-BLUP and Bayesian LASSO (BL, have been applied to genomic selection (GS, none of these has yet been used in a growth curve approach. In this work, we compared the accuracies of RR-BLUP and BL using empirical weight-age data from an outbred F2 (Brazilian Piau X commercial population. The phenotypes were determined by parameter estimates using a nonlinear logistic regression model and the halothane gene was considered as a marker for evaluating the assumptions of the GS methods in relation to the genetic variation explained by each locus. BL yielded more accurate values for all of the phenotypes evaluated and was used to estimate SNP effects and GEBV vectors. The latter allowed the construction of genomic growth curves, which showed substantial genetic discrimination among animals in the final growth phase. The SNP effect estimates allowed identification of the most relevant markers for each phenotype, the positions of which were coincident with reported QTL regions for growth traits.

  9. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  10. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  11. Rotation curve of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Y.S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We use SEGUE and Hipparcos data to restrict the behaviour of the rotation curve of the Milky Way in the solar neighbourhood. Then we construct a density model of the Milky Way which best reproduces the available observations of the rotation curve and is consistent with the density constraints in the solar neighbourhood.

  12. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  13. Tautological Integrals on Symmetric Products of Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Lan WANG

    2016-01-01

    We propose a conjecture on the generating series of Chern numbers of tautological bundles on symmetric products of curves and establish the rank 1 and rank −1 case of this conjecture. Thus we compute explicitly the generating series of integrals of Segre classes of tautological bundles of line bundles on curves, which has a similar structure as Lehn’s conjecture for surfaces.

  14. Green's Conjecture for the generic canonical curve

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidor-I-Bigas, Montserrat

    1998-01-01

    Green's Conjecture states the following : syzygies of the canonical model of a curve are simple up to the p^th stage if and only if the Clifford index of C is greater than p. We prove that the generic curve of genus g satisfies Green's conjecture.

  15. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  16. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Curved Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical-discharge machining (EDM) used to cut deep hole with bends. EDM process done with articulating segmented electrode. Originally straight, electrode curved as it penetrates part, forming long, smoothly curving hole. After hole cut, honed with slurry to remove thin layer of recast metal created by EDM. Breakage of tools, hand deburring, and drilling debris eliminated.

  17. Integrability and the motion of curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuaki; Segur, Harvey; Wadati, Miki

    1992-11-01

    Recently discovered connections between integrable evolution equations and the motion of curves are based on the following fact: The Serret-Frenet equations are equivalent to the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scattering problem at zero eigenvalue. This equivalence identifies those evolution equations, integrable or not, that can describe the motion of curves.

  18. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  19. 47 CFR 80.767 - Propagation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propagation curve. 80.767 Section 80.767... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.767 Propagation curve. The propagation graph, § 80.767 Graph 1, must be used in computing the service area contour. The graph...

  20. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  1. Modeling Start Curves of Bainite Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that calculations with a physically based model give an accurate description of the start curve of bainite formation in a wide range of steels. The temperature dependence of the overall kinetics, which determines the characteristic C shape of the start curve, is controlled by both

  2. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  3. Calculation method of sliding ratios for conjugate-curve gear pair and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁栋; 陈兵奎; 高艳娥

    2015-01-01

    The calculation method of sliding ratios for conjugate-curve gear pair, generated based on the theory of conjugate curves, is proposed. The theoretical model of conjugate-curve gear drive is briefly introduced. The general calculation formulas of sliding ratios are developed according to the conjugate curves. The applications to the circular arc gears based on conjugate curves and the novel involute-helix gears are studied. A comparison on the sliding coefficient with the conventional corresponding gear drive is also carried out. The influences of gear parameters such as spiral parameter, gear ratio and modulus on the sliding ratios of gear drive are discussed. Brief description of manufacturing method for conjugate-curve gear pair is given. The research results show that the sliding ratios of gear pair become smaller with the increase of spiral parameter and gear ratio, respectively. And it will be greater with the increase of modulus for the tooth profiles. The meshing characteristics of conjugate-curve gears are further reflected and the optimization design of tooth profiles with high performance may be obtained.

  4. Estimates for J-curves as submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    Here we develop some basic analytic tools to study compactness properties of $J$-curves (i.e. pseudo-holomorphic curves) when regarded as submanifolds. Incorporating techniques from the theory of minimal surfaces, we derive an inhomogeneous mean curvature equation for such curves, we establish an extrinsic monotonicity principle for non-negative functions $f$ satisfying $\\Delta f\\geq -c^2 f$, we show that curves locally parameterized as a graph over a coordinate tangent plane have all derivatives a priori bounded in terms of curvature and ambient geometry, and we establish $\\epsilon$-regularity for the square length of their second fundamental forms. These results are all provided for $J$-curves either with or without Lagrangian boundary and hold in almost Hermitian manifolds of arbitrary even dimension (i.e. Riemannian manifolds for which the almost complex structure is an isometry).

  5. STATIONARY CONNECTED CURVES IN HILBERT SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Hatamleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the structure of non-stationary curves which are stationary connected in Hilbert space is studied using triangular models of non-self-adjoint operator. The concept of evolutionary representability plays here an important role. It is proved that if one of two curves in Hilbert space is evolutionary representable and the curves are stationary connected, then another curve is evolutionary representable too. These curves are studied firstly. The structure of a cross-correlation function in the case when operator, defining the evolutionary representation, has one-dimensional non-Hermitian subspace (the spectrum is discreet and situated in the upper complex half-plane or has infinite multiplicity at zero (Volterra operator is studied.

  6. Generating artificial light curves: Revisited and updated

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D; Papadakis, I E

    2013-01-01

    The production of artificial light curves with known statistical and variability properties is of great importance in astrophysics. Consolidating the confidence levels during cross-correlation studies, understanding the artefacts induced by sampling irregularities, establishing detection limits for future observatories are just some of the applications of simulated data sets. Currently, the widely used methodology of amplitude and phase randomisation is able to produce artificial light curves which have a given underlying power spectral density (PSD) but which are strictly Gaussian distributed. This restriction is a significant limitation, since the majority of the light curves e.g. active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts show strong deviations from Gaussianity exhibiting `burst-like' events in their light curves yielding long-tailed probability distribution functions (PDFs). In this study we propose a simple method which is able to precisely reproduce light curves which match both the PSD an...

  7. Curved and conformal high-pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Paul F.; Kuczek, Andrzej E.; Zhao, Wenping

    2016-10-25

    A high-pressure vessel is provided. The high-pressure vessel may comprise a first chamber defined at least partially by a first wall, and a second chamber defined at least partially by the first wall. The first chamber and the second chamber may form a curved contour of the high-pressure vessel. A modular tank assembly is also provided, and may comprise a first mid tube having a convex geometry. The first mid tube may be defined by a first inner wall, a curved wall extending from the first inner wall, and a second inner wall extending from the curved wall. The first inner wall may be disposed at an angle relative to the second inner wall. The first mid tube may further be defined by a short curved wall opposite the curved wall and extending from the second inner wall to the first inner wall.

  8. Weak instrument robust tests in GMM and the new Keynesian Phillips curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.; Mavroeidis, S.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss weak instrument robust statistics in GMM for testing hypotheses on the full parameter vector or on subsets of the parameters. We use these test procedures to reexamine the evidence on the new Keynesian Phillips curve model. We find that U.S. postwar data are consistent with the view that

  9. AHT Bézier Curves and NUAHT B-Spline Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xu; Guo-Zhao Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present two new unified mathematics models of conics and polynomial curves, called algebraic hyperbolic trigonometric ( AHT) Bézier curves and non-uniform algebraic hyperbolic trigonometric ( NUAHT) B-sptine curves of order n, which are generated over the space span{sin t, cos t, sinh t, cosh t, 1, t,..., tn-5}, n ≥ 5. The two kinds of curves share most of the properties as those of the Bézier curves and B-spline curves in polynomial space. In particular, they can represent exactly some remarkable transcendental curves such as the helix, the cycloid and the catenary. The subdivision formulae of these new kinds of curves are also given. The generations of the tensor product surfaces are straightforward. Using the new mathematics models, we present the control mesh representations of two classes of minimal surfaces.

  10. Standing sausage modes in curved coronal slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Magnetohydrodynamic waveguides such as dense coronal loops can support standing modes. The ratios of the periods of oscillations for different longitudinal harmonics depend on the dispersive nature of the waveguide and so may be used as a seismological tool to determine coronal parameters. Aims: We extend models of standing sausage modes in low β coronal loops to include the effects of loop curvature. The behaviour of standing sausage modes in this geometry is used to explain the properties of observed oscillations that cannot be accounted for using straight loop models. Methods: We perform 2D numerical simulations of an oscillating coronal loop, modelled as a dense slab embedded in a potential magnetic field. The loop is field-aligned and so experiences expansion with height in addition to being curved. Standing sausage modes are excited by compressive perturbations of the loop and their properties are studied. Results: The spatial profiles of standing sausage modes are found to be modified by the expanding loop geometry typical for flaring loops and modelled by a potential magnetic field in our simulations. Longitudinal harmonics of order n > 1 have anti-nodes that are shifted towards the loop apex and the amplitude of anti-nodes near the loop apex is smaller than those near the loop footpoints. Conclusions: We find that the observation of standing sausage modes by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph in a flaring coronal loop on 12 January 2000 is consistent with interpretation in terms of the global mode (n = 1) and third harmonic (n = 3). This interpretation accounts for the period ratio and spatial structure of the observed oscillations.

  11. Identification of systems containing nonlinear stiffnesses using backbone curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Julián M.; Cooper, Jonathan E.; Neild, Simon A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a method for the dynamic identification of structures containing discrete nonlinear stiffnesses. The approach requires the structure to be excited at a single resonant frequency, enabling measurements to be made in regimes of large displacements where nonlinearities are more likely to be significant. Measured resonant decay data is used to estimate the system backbone curves. Linear natural frequencies and nonlinear parameters are identified using these backbone curves assuming a form for the nonlinear behaviour. Numerical and experimental examples, inspired by an aerospace industry test case study, are considered to illustrate how the method can be applied. Results from these models demonstrate that the method can successfully deliver nonlinear models able to predict the response of the test structure nonlinear dynamics.

  12. A Neophyte's Determination of EY Ceph Curves and Orbital Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    Using amateur level equipment, and with a beginner's knowledge of photometry, I have built the light curve for the eclipsing variable EY Cephei (subject suggested by Claud Lacy). This 10mag star has two 0.6mag eclipses per cycle, with a period of 7.97 days. The good observing news is that it is circumpolar (so easily visible), the bad news is that if the eclipses are not visible at night at your location (or if you miss them), you have to wait 6-8 months before they return. Combine this with only three days notice to start the campaign, no experience in precision photometry, and limited (but good) equipment, the amazing thing is that I achieved success in the first week (then the weather deteriorated...). I will present intensity curve results to date, discuss how I got to them, and provide the results of a preliminary calculation of the system parameters (orbits, sizes, etc).

  13. Chaotic spread spectrum watermark of optimal space-filling curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Guorui [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Room 1908 Haoran High-tech Building, 1954 Hua-shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Jiang Lingge [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Room 1908 Haoran High-tech Building, 1954 Hua-shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); He Chen [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Room 1908 Haoran High-tech Building, 1954 Hua-shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xue Yi [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Room 1908 Haoran High-tech Building, 1954 Hua-shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-02-01

    Spread spectrum watermarking scheme is becoming an important research subject. In this paper, we present a method based on Peano-Hilbert space-filling curves for enhancing the robustness. Peano-Hilbert curve is a continuous mapping from one-dimensional space onto two-dimensional space. It is useful in many applications including quantum mechanics even, and preserves optimal locality. At the same time, we utilize a specified chaotic dynamic system-ICMIC map, which shows lowpass properties when the controlling parameter is devised. In this case, the watermarking detection resorts to the Neyman-Pearson criterion based on some statistical assumptions. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can work well under JPEG compression and resist line-removal test.

  14. Equal autophonic level curves under different room acoustics conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Mendizábal, Oier Fuentes; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The indirect auditory feedback from one’s own voice arises from sound reflections at the room boundaries or from sound reinforcement systems. The relative variations of indirect auditory feedback are quantified through room acoustic parameters such as the room gain and the voice support, rather...... than the reverberation time. Fourteen subjects matched the loudness level of their own voice (the autophonic level) to that of a constant and external reference sound, under different synthesized room acoustics conditions. The matching voice levels are used to build a set of equal autophonic level...... curves. These curves give an indication of the amount of variation in voice level induced by the acoustic environment as a consequence of the sidetone compensation or Lombard effect. In the range of typical rooms for speech, the variations in overall voice level that result in a constant autophonic level...

  15. Explosion models, light curves, spectra and H$_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Höflich, P; Wheeler, J C; Nomoto, K; Thielemann, F K

    1996-01-01

    From the spectra and light curves it is clear that SNIa are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. However, details of the explosion are highly under debate. Here, we present detailed models which are consistent with respect to the explosion mechanism, the optical and infrared light curves (LC), and the spectral evolution. This leaves the description of the burning front and the structure of the white dwarf as the only free parameters. The explosions are calculated using one-dimensional Lagrangian codes including nuclear networks. Subsequently, optical and IR-LCs are constructed. Detailed NLTE-spectra are computed for several instants of time using the density, chemical and luminosity structure resulting from the LCs. The general methods and critical tests are presented (sect. 2). Different models for the thermonuclear explosion are discussed including detonations deflagrations, delayed detonations, pulsating delayed detonations (PDD) and helium detonations (sect.3). Comparisons between theoretical and obs...

  16. Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors - To assume normal distributions in the data analysis is common in different areas of the knowledge. However we can make use of the other distributions that are capable to model the skewness parameter in the situations that is needed to model data with tails heavier than the normal. This article intend to present alternatives to the assumption of the normality in the errors, adding asymmetric distributions. A Bayesian approach is proposed to fit nonlinear models when the errors are not normal, thus, the distributions t, skew-normal and skew-t are adopted. The methodology is intended to apply to different growth curves to the quail body weights. It was found that the Gompertz model assuming skew-normal errors and skew-t errors, respectively for male and female, were the best fitted to the data.

  17. Stochastic simulation of growth curves of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; PENG Hong; QIU Guan-zhou; LIU Jian-she; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    To reveal the low growth rate of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, a stochastic growth model was proposed to analyze growth curves of these bacteria in a batch culture. An algorithm was applied to simulate the bacteria population during lag and exponential phase. The results show that the model moderately fits the experimental data.Further, the mean growth constant (K) of growth curves is obtained by fitting the logarithm of the simulating population data versus the generation numbers with the different initial population number (N0) and initial mean activity of population (A0). When N0 is 300 and 700 respectively, the discrepancy of K value is only 0.91%, however, A0 is 0.34 and 0.38 respectively, the discrepancy of K value is 19.53%. It suggests that the effect of A0 on the lag phase exceeds N0, though both parameters could shorten the lag phase by increasing their values.

  18. Thermogenetic curves and thermokinetics of seed germination of Robinia pseudoacaia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Seed germination process has closely relation with material transformation and energy exchange within the seed. Study on its thermal effect is important for understanding the mechanism and the influencing factors of the seed germination. The thermogenetic curves of seed germination of Robinia pseudoacacia was measured by a new-type conductive microcalo-rimeter made in Wuhan University. The relationship was analyzed between the germination thermogenetic regulation and seed germination physiology. The thermogentic curves were further analyzed by thermokinetic theory to obtain the dynamic parameters and the thermokinetic model on seed germination of Robinia pseudoacacia. The relationship of the thermogenetic power(μw) and the germination time(h) of the germination process of 20 grains Robinia pseudocacia seeds at 25℃ was P=208.77/[0.1937+0.8063exp(-0.06563t)

  19. Simulated Performance of Timescale Metrics for Aperiodic Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Aperiodic variability is a characteristic feature of young stars, massive stars, and active galactic nuclei. With the recent proliferation of time domain surveys, it is increasingly essential to develop methods to quantify and analyze aperiodic variability. We develop three timescale metrics that have been little used in astronomy -- {\\Delta}m-{\\Delta}t plots, peak-finding, and Gaussian process regression -- and present simulations comparing their effectiveness across a range of aperiodic light curve shapes, characteristic timescales, observing cadences, and signal to noise ratios. We find that Gaussian process regression is easily confused by noise and by irregular sampling, even when the model being fit reflects the process underlying the light curve, but that {\\Delta}m-{\\Delta}t plots and peak-finding can coarsely characterize timescales across a broad region of parameter space. We make public the software we used for our simulations, both in the spirit of open research and to allow others to carry out ana...

  20. Unifying representation of Bézier curve and two kinds of generalized ball curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaolin; WANG Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new basis, the WSB basis, which unifies the Bemstein basis, Wang-Ball basis and Said-Ball basis, and therefore the Bézier curve, Wang-Ball curve and Said-Ball curve are the special cases of the WSB curve based on the WSB basis In addition, the relative degree elevation formula, recursive algorithm and conversion formula between the WSB basis and the Bern- stein basis are given.

  1. Heating rate effect on thermoluminescence glow curves of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R., E-mail: pedro.gonzalez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, C.P. 52750, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Division of Touro College New York, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The influence of heating rate on the thermoluminescence (TL) property of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE was analyzed. The activation energy and the frequency factor as a function of the heating rate were determined. The kinetic parameters and their dependence on the heating rate were evaluated using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution (SQPGCD). The results showed that as the heating rate increases, the peak intensity at the maximum (I{sub M}) decreases and shifts to higher temperature; similar behavior of the kinetics parameters was observed. - Highlights: >Heating rate influence on the thermoluminescence (TL) property of LiF:Mg,Cu,P was analyzed. > The kinetic parameters, activation energy and frequency factor were evaluated using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution. > The peak intensity at the maximum (I{sub M}) of the glow curves decreases. > Shifts to higher temperature were observed as the heating rate increased. > Similar behavior of the kinetics parameters was noticed.

  2. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  3. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi [General Education Program Center, Tokai University, 317 Nishino, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki [College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ozaki@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp, E-mail: fukuda@kitasato-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujiwara@kitasato-u.ac.jp

    2009-10-02

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  4. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  5. Soil Water Thermodynamic to Unify Water Retention Curve by Pressure Plates and Tensiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eBraudeau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pressure plate method is a standard method for measuring the pF curves, also called soil water retention curves, in a large soil moisture range from saturation to a dry state corresponding to a tension pressure of near 1500 kPa. However, the pressure plate can only provide discrete water retention curves represented by a dozen measured points. In contrast, the measurement of the soil water retention curves by tensiometer is direct and continuous, but limited to the range of the tensiometer reading: from saturation to near 70-80 kPa. The two methods stem from two very different concepts of measurement and the compatibility of both methods has never been demonstrated. The recently established thermodynamic formulation of the pedostructure water retention curve, will allow the compatibility of the two curves to be studied, both theoretically and experimentally. This constitutes the object of the present article. We found that the pressure plate method provides accurate measurement points of the pedostructure water retention curve h(W, conceptually the same as that accurately measured by the tensiometer. However, contrarily to what is usually thought, h is not equal to the applied air pressure on the sample, but rather, is proportional to its logarithm, in agreement with the thermodynamic theory developed in the article. The pF curve and soil water retention curve, as well as their methods of measurement are unified in a same physical theory. It is the theory of the soil medium organization (pedostructure and its interaction with water. We show also how the hydrostructural parameters of the theoretical curve equation can be estimated from any measured curve, whatever the method of measurement. An application example using published pF curves is given.

  6. Supersonic Flutter of Laminated Curved Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganapathi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic flutter analysis of laminated composite curved panels is investigated using doubly-curved, quadrilateral, shear flexible, shell element based on field-consistency approach. The formulation includes transverse shear deformation, in-plane and rotary inertias. The aerodynamic force is evaluated using two-dimensional static aerodynamic approximation for high supersonic flow. Initially, the model developed here is verified for the flutter analysis of flat plates. Numerical results are presented for isotropic, orthotropic and laminated anisotropic curved panels. A detailed parametric study is carried out to observe the effects of aspect and thickness ratios, number of layers, lamination scheme, and boundary conditions on flutter boundary.

  7. Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors

    CERN Document Server

    Sabín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show how to transform a Dirac equation in curved spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1+1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1+1 dimensions.

  8. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  9. CRC standard curves and surfaces with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    von Seggern, David H

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Mathematica® has matured considerably and the computing power of desktop computers has increased greatly. This enables the presentation of more complex curves and surfaces as well as the efficient computation of formerly prohibitive graphical plots. Incorporating both of these aspects, CRC Standard Curves and Surfaces with Mathematica®, Second Edition is a virtual encyclopedia of curves and functions that depicts nearly all of the standard mathematical functions rendered using Mathematica. While the easy-to-use format remains unchanged from the previ

  10. Curves and surfaces in the context of optometry. Part 1: Curves*

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the differential geom-etry of curves in Euclidean 3-space, the motiva-tion being the writer’s belief that, despite their fundamental importance, curves are inadequate-ly treated in optometric educational programs. Curvature and torsion are defined along a curve. Two  numerical  examples  are  presented.  The fundamental theorem of curves is stated. The relationship of the geometry of varifocal lenses and curves known as involutes are discussed. A brief treatment of the t...

  11. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas;

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring......-of-system components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...... for monitoring single or independent PV strings, and is based on evaluating the ratio of certain operation points on the string I-V curve. The second method is applicable to PV systems with identical strings, and is based on monitoring and inter-comparison of string I-V curve parameters. For PV systems with non...

  12. Constrained Bézier curves' best multi-degree reduction in the L2-norm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Renjiang; WANG Guojin

    2005-01-01

    In computer aided geometric design, the degree reduction of the parameter curve is a key technique in data exchange and data compression. The various existing methods of degree reduction cannot decide whether the degree reduction curve satisfying the given tolerance exists beforehand, cannot give approximation of the best multi-degree reduction, or cannot provide explicit expression and error formula of the degree reduction curve. In this paper, we propose an entirely new method, which can hurdle the above flaws completely.tives with the given curve up to (r-1)-th and (s-1)-th orders (r, s≤m<n) respectively at the endpoints, so the approximating error is less than the given tolerance ε in the L2-norm. If the curve exists, the explicit expression can be given.

  13. On nonlocal characteristics of curved inhomogeneous Euler-Bernoulli nanobeams under different temperature distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, thermo-mechanical buckling analysis of curved functionally graded (FG) nanobeams is carried out via an analytical solution method. Curved FG nanobeam is subjected to uniform, linear and nonlinear temperature distributions across the thickness. Three kinds of boundary condition namely, simply supported-simply supported, simply supported-clamped and clamped-clamped are investigated. Thermo-elastic properties of curved FG beam change in radial direction according to the power-law model. Nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted to capture the size effects. Nonlocal governing equations of curved FG nanobeam are obtained from Hamilton's principle based on Euler-Bernoulli beam model. Finally, the influences of thermal loadings, nonlocal parameter, opening angle, material composition, slenderness ratio and boundary conditions on the thermal buckling behavior of nanosize curved FG beams are explored.

  14. Fractal approximation of the stress-strain curve of frozen soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    令锋; 吴紫汪; 朱元林; 何春雄; 朱林楠

    1999-01-01

    A method to approach the stress-strain curve of frozen soil is presented based on the fact that the stressstrain curve of frozen soil has fractal property. First, a linear hyperbolic iterated function system (LHIFS) in which the perpendicular contraction factors are regarded as parameters is established using fractal geometry theories. Secondly, a method to calculate the best point which makes the attractor of the LHIFS an optimal approximation of the stress-strain curve of frozen soil is presented. Then, a method for calculating the fractal dimension of the stress-strain curve of frozen soil is obtained. Finally, a simple example is provided. The method presented in this paper provides a new method for simulating the stress-strain curve and calculating its fractal dimension of geomaterials that have the fractal feature by using computer.

  15. Application of computerized glow curve deconvolution to determine the spectroscopy of traps in colorless microcline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B. Arunkumar [Department of Radiotherapy, RIMS, Lamphel, Imphal 795004, Manipur (India)], E-mail: arunsb2000@yahoo.co.uk; Singh, A. Nabachandra [Department of Physics, Thoubal College, Thoubal 795138, Manipur (India); Singh, S. Nabadwip [Department of Physics, Kumbi College, Kumbi 795133, Manipur (India); Singh, O. Binoykumar [Department of Physics, Y.K. College, Wangjing 795148, Manipur (India)

    2009-01-15

    Kinetic parameters of glow peaks (as many as 14 in the range of 75-575 deg. C) of colorless microcline have been successfully achieved to a high degree of certainty by resorting to computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) in the framework of kinetics formalism. The second derivative plot of the experimental glow curve is used to locate the hidden glow peaks. The criteria to accept the goodness of fit between the experimental glow curve and the numerically generated best fit curve is judged by statistical test namely, {chi}{sup 2}-test. As a cross check, figure of merit (FOM) is also evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the higher temperature trap electrons of colorless microcline are determined by using lower heating rates.

  16. A semi-analytical light curve model and its application to type IIP supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Andrea P; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a semi-analytical light curve modeling code which can be used for estimating physical properties of core collapse supernovae (SNe) in a quick and efficient way. To verify our code we fit light curves of Type II SNe and compare our best parameter estimates to those from hydrodynamical calculations. For this analysis we use the quasi-bolometric light curves of five different Type IIP supernovae. In each case we get appropriate results for the initial pre-supernova parameters. We conclude that this semi-analytical light curve model is useful to get approximate physical properties of Type II SNe without using time-consuming numerical hydrodynamic simulations.

  17. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  18. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Ellen M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rogers, Leslie A. [California Institute of Technology, MC249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  19. Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Athanasios; Kleftogiannis, Georgios; Christopoulou, Panagiota-Eleftheria

    2017-09-01

    The O'Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.

  20. Well test analysis results interpretation: Combined type curve and pressure derivative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, P.; Matteotti, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Idraulica)

    In reviewing theoretical concepts forming the basis for the interpretation of well test analyses, this paper focusses on the 'theoretical model' for the determination of the parameters and variables. It then applies this theory to the combined type curve and pressure derivative interpretation approaches. Finally, the paper illustrates an approach combining the combined type curve and pressure derivative methods for homogeneous and isotropic conditions in a thermal aquifer and in the presence of the skin effect and wellbore storage.