WorldWideScience

Sample records for flow-sensitive pointer analysis

  1. Sparse Dataflow Analysis with Pointers and Reachability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    for a sparse analysis framework that supports pointers and reachability. We present such a framework, which uses static single assignment form for heap addresses and computes def-use information on-the-fly. We also show that essential information about dominating definitions can be maintained efficiently using...... quadtrees. The framework is presented as a systematic modification of a traditional dataflow analysis algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique for a suite of JavaScript programs. By also comparing the performance with an idealized staged approach that computes...

  2. A New Approach to Pointer Analysis for Assignments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bo; ZANG Binyu; LI Jing; ZHU Chuanqi

    2001-01-01

    Pointer analysis is a technique to identify at compile-time the po tential values of the pointer expressions in a program, which promises significant benefits for optimizing and parallelizing compilers. In this paper, a new approach to pointer analysis for assignments is presented. In this approach, assignments are clas sified into three categories: pointer assignments, structure (union) assignments and normal assignments which don't affect the point-to information. Pointer analyses for these three kinds of assignments respectively make up the integrated algorithm. When analyzing a pointer assignment, a new method called expression expansion is used to calculate both the left targets and the right targets. The integration of recursive data structure analysis into pointer analysis is a significant originality of this paper, which uniforms the pointer analysis for heap variables and the pointer analysis for stack variables. This algorithm is implemented in Agassiz, an analyzing tool for C programs developed by Institute of Parallel Processing, Fudan University. Its accuracy and effectiveness are illustrated by experimental data.

  3. A New Approach to Pointer Analysis for Assignments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 臧斌宇; 等

    2001-01-01

    Pointer analysis is a technique to identify at copile-time the potential values of the pointer expressions in a program,which promises significant benefits for optimzing and parallelizing complilers.In this paper,a new approach to pointer analysis for assignments is presented.In this approach,assignments are classified into three categories:pointer assignments,structure(union)assignents and normal assignments which don't affect the point-to information.Pointer analyses for these three kinds of assignments respectively make up the integrated algorithm.When analyzing a pointer assigemtn.a new method called expression expansion is used to calculate both the left targets and the right targets.The integration of recursive data structure analysis into pointer analysis is a significant originality of this paper,which uniforms the pointer analysis for heap variables and the pointer analysis for stack variables.This algorithm is implemented in Agassiz,an analyzing tool for C programs developed by Institute of Parallel Processing,Fudan University,Its accuracy and effectiveness are illustrated by experimental data.

  4. Program Optimization Based Pointer Analysis and Live Stack-Heap Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A El-Zawawy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present type systems for flow-sensitive pointer analysis, live stack-heap (variables analysis, and program optimization. The type system for live stack-heap analysis is an enrichment of that for pointer analysis; the enrichment has the form of a second component being added to types of the latter system. Results of pointer analysis are proved useful via their use in the type system for live stack-heap analysis. The type system for program optimization is also an augmentation of that for live stack-heap analysis, but the augmentation takes the form of a transformation component being added to inference rules of the latter system. The form of program optimization being achieved is that of dead-code elimination. A form of program correction may result indirectly from eliminating faulty code (causing the program to abort that is dead. Therefore program optimization can result in program correction. Our type systems have the advantage of being compositional and relatively-simply structured. The novelty of our work comes from the fact that our type system for program optimization associates the optimized version of a program with a justification (in the form of a type derivation for the optimization. This justification is pretty much appreciated in many research areas like certified code (proof-carrying code which is the motivation of this work.

  5. Program Optimization Based Pointer Analysis and Live Stack-Heap Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present type systems for flow-sensitive pointer analysis, live stack-heap (variables) analysis, and program optimization. The type system for live stack-heap analysis is an enrichment of that for pointer analysis; the enrichment has the form of a second component being added to types of the latter system. Results of pointer analysis are proved useful via their use in the type system for live stack-heap analysis. The type system for program optimization is also an augmentation of that for live stack-heap analysis, but the augmentation takes the form of a transformation component being added to inference rules of the latter system. The form of program optimization being achieved is that of dead-code elimination. A form of program correction may result indirectly from eliminating faulty code (causing the program to abort) that is dead. Therefore program optimization can result in program correction. Our type systems have the advantage of being compositional and relatively-simply structured. The...

  6. Sparse Dataflow Analysis with Pointers and Reachability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    quadtrees. The framework is presented as a systematic modification of a traditional dataflow analysis algorithm. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique for a suite of JavaScript programs. By also comparing the performance with an idealized staged approach that computes...

  7. A Flow-Sensitive Analysis of Privacy Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    that information I send to some service never is leaked to another service? - unless I give my permission? We shall develop a static program analysis for the pi- calculus and show how it can be used to give privacy guarantees like the ones requested above. The analysis records the explicit information flow...

  8. Precise Interprocedural Analysis in the Presence of Pointers to the Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Pascal; Jeannet, Bertrand

    In a language with procedures calls and pointers as parameters, an instruction can modify memory locations anywhere in the call-stack. The presence of such side effects breaks most generic interprocedural analysis methods, which assume that only the top of the stack may be modified. We present a method that addresses this issue, based on the definition of an equivalent local semantics in which writing through pointers has a local effect on the stack. Our second contribution in this context is an adequate representation of summary functions that models the effect of a procedure, not only on the values of its scalar and pointer variables, but also on the values contained in pointed memory locations. Our implementation in the interprocedural analyser PInterproc results in a verification tool that infers relational properties on the value of Boolean, numerical and pointer variables.

  9. Automated verification of pointer programs in pointer logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang WANG; Yiyun CHEN; Zhenming WANG; Baojian HUA

    2008-01-01

    Reasoning about pointer programs is difficult and challenging, while their safety is critical in software engineering. Storeless semantics pioneered by Jonkers provides a method to reason about pointer programs. However, the representation of memory states in Jonkers' model is costly and redundant. This paper pre-sents a new framework under a more efficient storeless model for automatically verifying properties of pointer programs related to the correct use of dynamically allo-cated memory such as absence of null dereferences, absence of dangling dereferences, absence of memory leaks, and preservation of structural invariants. The intro-duced logic-Pointer Logic, is developed to achieve such goals. To demonstrate that Pointer Logic is a useful store-less approach to verification, the Schorr-Waite tree-tra-versal algorithm which is always considered as a key test for pointer formalizations was verified via our analysis. Moreover, an experimental tool-plcc was implemented to automatically verify a number of non-trivial pointer programs.

  10. 浅析C++程序设计中指针的应用%Analysis of Pointer Application in C++ Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晨

    2011-01-01

    Pointer is the core of the C++ programming,to correct and flexible use of function pointers is the premise to achieve the transfer of information,to design a efficient programs,need to combined the pointer to the ordinary variables,arrays,functions.In this paper, to the understanding of pointers,pointers' some common uses for C++ programming in the application as well as a detailed analysis in order to show pointer is the key of C++ programming.%指针是c++程序设计的核心,能够正确而灵活地运用指针是实现函数间信息传递的前提,要设计高校的程序,需把指针与普通变量、数组、函数结合。本文针对指针的理解,指针在c++程序设计中的应用方面以及一些常见用法进行了具体分析,从而显示出c++程序设计中指针的关键性。

  11. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Program Recommendations It's the Law Poster REGULATIONS Law and Regulations Standard Interpretations Training Requirements ... when evaluating your computer workstation. Pointer Placement Pointer Size, Shape, and Settings Pointer/Mouse Quick Tips Keep ...

  12. Pointer Sentinel Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Merity, Stephen; Xiong, Caiming; Bradbury, James; Socher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Recent neural network sequence models with softmax classifiers have achieved their best language modeling performance only with very large hidden states and large vocabularies. Even then they struggle to predict rare or unseen words even if the context makes the prediction unambiguous. We introduce the pointer sentinel mixture architecture for neural sequence models which has the ability to either reproduce a word from the recent context or produce a word from a standard softmax classifier. O...

  13. A Green Laser Pointer Hazard

    CERN Document Server

    Galang, Jemellie; Hagley, Edward W; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

  14. Optimizing pointer linked data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Carl Wilhelm Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The thesis explores different ways of optimizing pointer linked data structures, and especially restructuring them. The mechanisms are based on compiler technology, theory, computer languages and hardware architecture that are capable of optimizing the memory layout of complex pointer linked data st

  15. Infrared Risley beam pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Steven T.; Gutierrez, Homero; Newman, Michael; Pierce, Robert; Quakenbush, Tim; Wallace, John; Bornstein, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) has developed a Risley Beam Pointer (RBP) mechanism capable of agile slewing, accurate pointing and high bandwidth. The RBP is comprised of two wedged prisms that offer a wide Field of Regard (FOR) and may be manufactured and operated with diffraction limited optical quality. The tightly packaged mechanism is capable of steering a 4 inch beam over a 60° half angle cone with better than 60 μrad precision. Absolute accuracy of the beam steering is better than 1 mrad. The conformal nature of the RBP makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) thermal compliance to maintain bearing preload and optical figure over a wide temperature range; and ii) packaging of a remote infrared sensor that periodically reports the temperature of both prisms for accurate determination of the index of refraction. The pointing control system operates each prism independently and employs an inner rate loop nested within an outer position loop. Mathematics for the transformation between line-of-sight coordinates and prism rotation are hosted on a 200 MHz microcontroller with just 516 KB of RAM.

  16. The Megalithic Lunar Season Pointer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Claus

    are concentrated in the east, east- southeast and southeast. This orientation points to specific full moons during the summer period – the lunar season pointer, where the rising points of the full moons, at the horizon concentrate around a few specific directions in the Southeastern quadrant, which specially...

  17. Safety and Liveness in Concurrent Pointer Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distefano, Dino; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Rensink, Arend; Boer, de Frank S.; Bonsangue, Marcello M.; Graf, Susanne; Roever, de Willem-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The incorrect use of pointers is one of the most common source of software errors. Concurrency has a similar characteristic. Proving the correctness of concurrent pointer manipulating programs, let alone algorithmically, is a highly non-trivial task. This paper proposes an automated verification tec

  18. A pointer logic and certifying compiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yiyun; GE Lin; HUA Baojian; LI Zhaopeng; LIU Cheng; WANG Zhifang

    2007-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code brings two big challenges to the research field of programming languages.One is to seek more expressive logics or type systems to specify or reason about the properties of low-level or high-level programs.The other is to study the technology of certifying compilation in which the compiler generates proofs for programs with annotations.This paper presents our progress in the above two aspects.A pointer logic was designed for PointerC (a C-like programming language) in our research.As an extension of Hoare logic,our pointer logic expresses the change of pointer information for each statement in its inference rules to support program verification.Meanwhile,based on the ideas from CAP (Certified Assembly Programming) and SCAP (Stack-based Certified Assembly Programming),a reasoning framework was built to verify the properties of object code in a Hoare style.And a certifying compiler prototype for PointerC was implemented based on this framework.The main contribution of this paper is the design of the pointer logic and the implementation of the certifying compiler prototype.In our certifying compiler,the source language contains rich pointer types and operations and also supports dynamic storage allocation and deallocation.

  19. Laser Pointer and the Tyndall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eugene

    1996-05-01

    Laser pointers provide a convenient way to demonstrate the Tyndall effect to beginning students. Since my class is at 8:00 a.m. I like to use coffee and milky water parts as part of the demonstration.

  20. Balloon borne arcsecond pointer feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip R.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2003-08-01

    A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which balloon vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. In this paper, the foundation for a high fidelity controller simulation is presented and it is shown that sub-arcsecond pointing stability can be achieved for a large instrument pointing at an inertial target. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is introduced with a coarse azimuth pointer and a pitch-yaw gimbal mount for fine pointing. An analysis and demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided along with a solution to eliminate static friction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. This paper establishes that the proposed control strategy can be made robustly stable with significant design margins. Also demonstrated is the efficacy of the proposed system in rejecting disturbances larger than those considered realistic.

  1. Mastering C pointers tools for programming power

    CERN Document Server

    Traister, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    If you don't fully understand C pointers and how they are used, you're not getting the most out of C programming. This book features complete coverage on using and controlling C language pointers to make C applications more powerful and expressive. This new edition is completely updated and revised to reflect the changes that have been brought about with the full adoption of ANSI C. All discussions and program examples have been updated, and reading materials necessary for any modern ANSI C programmer have also been added.Includes one 3 1/2"" disk containing all of the working programs and m

  2. Elastic pointer directory organization for scalable shared memory multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhang Liu; Mingfa Zhu; Limin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In the field of supercomputing, one key issue for scal-able shared-memory multiprocessors is the design of the directory which denotes the sharing state for a cache block. A good direc-tory design intends to achieve three key attributes: reasonable memory overhead, sharer position precision and implementation complexity. However, researchers often face the problem that gain-ing one attribute may result in losing another. The paper proposes an elastic pointer directory (EPD) structure based on the analysis of shared-memory applications, taking the fact that the number of sharers for each directory entry is typical y smal . Analysis re-sults show that for 4 096 nodes, the ratio of memory overhead to the ful-map directory is 2.7%. Theoretical analysis and cycle-accurate execution-driven simulations on a 16 and 64-node cache coherence non uniform memory access (CC-NUMA) multiproces-sor show that the corresponding pointer overflow probability is reduced significantly. The performance is observed to be better than that of a limited pointers directory and almost identical to the ful-map directory, except for the slight implementation complex-ity. Using the directory cache to explore directory access locality is also studied. The experimental result shows that this is a promis-ing approach to be used in the state-of-the-art high performance computing domain.

  3. Financial Development and Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwon Suh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using firm-level data from thirty-five countries around the world, this paper empirically examines whether investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints. Recent US studies have raised questions on the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity is a measure of financial constraints. Looking at thirty-five countries with varying degrees of financial development, this study tests whether investment-cash flow sensitivity is in fact related to financial constraints. In most countries, the evidence supporting the argument that firms likely facing financially constraints display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is weak. Moreover, the evidence that firms in the absence of developed financial markets display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is also weak. Overall, the results from this international investigation do not support the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints.

  4. Laser Pointers Can Cause Serious Eye Damage in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160743.html Laser Pointers Can Cause Serious Eye Damage in Kids ... 1, 2016 THURSDAY, Sept. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Laser pointers may look harmless enough, but when children ...

  5. PENGENDALI POINTER DENGAN GAZE TRACKING MENGGUNAKAN METODE HAAR CLASSIFIER SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PRESENTASI (EYE POINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Satriyanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The application that builded in this research is a pointer controller using eye movement (eye pointer. This application is one of image processing applications, where the users just have to move their eye to control the computer pointer. This eye pointer is expected able to assist the usage of manual pointer during the presentation. Since the title of this research is using gaze tracking that follow the eye movement, so that is important to detect the center of the pupil. To track the gaze, it is necessary to detect the center of the pupil if the eye image is from the input camera. The gaze tracking is detected using the three-step hierarchy system. First, motion detection, object (eye detection, and then pupil detection. For motion detection, the used method is identify the movement by dynamic compare the pixel ago by current pixel at t time. The eye region is detected using the Haar-Like Feature Classifier, where the sistem must be trained first to get the cascade classifier that allow the sistem to detect the object in each frame that captured by camera. The center of pupil is detect using integral projection.The final step is mapping the position of center of pupil to the screen of monitor using comparison scale between eye resolution with screen resolution. When detecting the eye gaze on the screen, the information (the distance and angle between eyes and a screen is necessary to compute pointing coordinates on the screen. In this research, the accuracy of this application is equal to 80% at eye movement with speed 1-2 second. And the optimum mean value is between 5 and 10. The optimum distance of user and the webcam is 40 cm from webcam.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  7. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  8. Transparent restructuring of pointer-linked data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Harmen Laurens Anne van der

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary computer systems, data layout has great influence on performance. Traditionally, automatic restructuring in type-unsafe languages has been hard, especially in the presence of pointers. In this thesis, the foundations are laid for successful restructuring of pointer linked data struct

  9. Advantages of nonclassical pointer states in postselected weak measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Yusuf; Shikano, Yutaka; Sun, Chang-Pu; Al-Amri, M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, within the weak measurement theory, the advantages of non-classical pointer states over semi-classical ones for coherent, squeezed vacuum, and Schr\\"{o}inger cat states. These states are utilized as pointer state for the system operator $\\hat{A}$ with property $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{I}$, where $\\hat{I}$ represents the identity operator. We calculate the ratio between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of non-postselected and postselected weak measurements. The latter is used to find the quantum Fisher information for the above pointer states. The average shifts for those pointer states with arbitrary interaction strength are investigated in detail. One key result is that we find the postselected weak measurement scheme for non-classical pointer states to be superior to semi-classical ones. This can improve the precision of measurement process.

  10. Proving Correctness for Pointer Programs in a Verifying Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Gregory; Singh, Amrinder

    2008-01-01

    This research describes a component-based approach to proving the correctness of programs involving pointer behavior. The approach supports modular reasoning and is designed to be used within the larger context of a verifying compiler. The approach consists of two parts. When a system component requires the direct manipulation of pointer operations in its implementation, we implement it using a built-in component specifically designed to capture the functional and performance behavior of pointers. When a system component requires pointer behavior via a linked data structure, we ensure that the complexities of the pointer operations are encapsulated within the data structure and are hidden to the client component. In this way, programs that rely on pointers can be verified modularly, without requiring special rules for pointers. The ultimate objective of a verifying compiler is to prove-with as little human intervention as possible-that proposed program code is correct with respect to a full behavioral specification. Full verification for software is especially important for an agency like NASA that is routinely involved in the development of mission critical systems.

  11. Weak measurements with orbital angular momentum pointer states

    CERN Document Server

    Puentes, G; Torres, J P

    2012-01-01

    Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back-action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations which can be of relevance for quantum information applications. In this paper, we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract second-order weak values of single particle operators, an unaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. An important application of the results presented here is in the non-destructive measurement of single-particle operator weak variances, via two-dimensional pointer displacements.

  12. Evidence on the dynamics of investment-cash flow sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Vikash

    2011-01-01

    An important debate in the literature relates to the use of investment-cash flow sensitivity (ICFS) to measure finance constraint faced by firms. This debate is grounded on four prominent issues: a priori sorting of firms, treatment of distressed firms, use of cash flow to represent only internal liquidity of firms and restricting firms to a single regime. In this paper we investigate these issues using a sample of 2676 Indian manufacturing firms over the period 1994 to 2009. We use firm leve...

  13. Weak measurements with orbital-angular-momentum pointer states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, G; Hermosa, N; Torres, J P

    2012-07-27

    Weak measurements are a unique tool for accessing information about weakly interacting quantum systems with minimal back action. Joint weak measurements of single-particle operators with pointer states characterized by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution can provide, in turn, key information about quantum correlations that can be relevant for quantum information applications. Here we demonstrate that by employing two-dimensional pointer states endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM), it is possible to extract weak values of the higher order moments of single-particle operators, an inaccessible quantity with Gaussian pointer states only. We provide a specific example that illustrates the advantages of our method both in terms of signal enhancement and information retrieval.

  14. Implementation of Binary Search Trees Via Smart Pointers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Donchev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of binary trees has prominent place in the training course of DSA (Data Structures and Algorithms. Their implementation in C++ however is traditionally difficult for students. To a large extent these difficulties are due not so much to the complexity of algorithms as to language complexity in terms of memory management by raw pointers – the programmer must consider too many details to ensure a reliable, efficient and secure implementation. Evolution of C++ regarded to automated resource management, as well as experience in implementation of linear lists by means of C++ 11/14 lead to an attempt to implement binary search trees (BST via smart pointers as well. In the present paper, the authors share experience in this direction. Some conclusions about pedagogical aspects and effectiveness of the new classes, compared to traditional library containers and implementation with built-in pointers, are made.

  15. Implementation of ADS Linked List Via Smart Pointers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Donchev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Students traditionally have difficulties in implementing abstract data structures (ADS in C++. To a large extent, these difficulties are due to language complexity in terms of memory management with raw pointers – the programmer must take care of too many details to provide reliable, efficient and secure implementation. Since all these technical details distract students from the essence of the studied algorithms, we decided to use in the course in DSA (Data Structures and Algorithms an automated resource management, provided by the C++ standard ISO/IEC 14882:2011. In this work we share experience of using smart pointers to implement linked lists and discuss pedagogical aspects and effectiveness of the new classes, compared to the traditional library containers and implementation via built-in pointers.

  16. An aggressive location restoration proposal based on pointer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yimin; Huang Zailu; Tian Chen; Zhou Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    A proposal for smooth aggressive location restoration by forwarding pointer is given in this paper. A mobile communication system's robustness in case of a location-database failure is improved without the need for periodic location update operations. Radio resources would be saved at the cost of wire signal and operation of location databases. Meanwhile, a chain of forwarding location pointers has been used during the period of HLR failure. So mobile stations are unconscious of the failure of HLR, and mobile subscribers can always make outgoing call.

  17. Transport Infrastructure Planning: Assessment of Strategic Mobility by Use of the POINTER Impact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Leleur, Steen

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating large infrastructure projects one point to be made is the importance of supplementing the more traditional effects captured by a cost-benefit analysis as presented for example by use of the benefit cost ratio (BCR) with strategic effect modelling to obtain a more comprehensive view...... of the societal importance of the examined project. The focus of this paper is to present the first results of a comparison of the use of a strategic impact measurement (the POINTER index) for road traffic on the Great Belt Link, the Øresund Link and the proposed Fehmarn Belt link. Specifically a number...... of calculation scenarios have been made to assess the possibility of the POINTER approach to indicate the changes in strategic mobility (accessibility) associated with the implementing of one or more of the three fixed links. Finally, conclusions and a research perspective are outlined....

  18. Optimal Finger Search Trees in the Pointer Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Makris, Christos

    2003-01-01

    We develop a new finger search tree with worst-case constant update time in the Pointer Machine (PM) model of computation. This was a major problem in the field of Data Structures and was tantalizingly open for over twenty years while many attempts by researchers were made to solve it. The result...

  19. An Approach for Search Based Testing of Null Pointer Exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Di Penta, M.; Antoniol, G.

    2011-01-01

    Uncaught exceptions, and in particular null pointer exceptions (NPEs), constitute a major cause of crashes for software systems. Although tools for the static identification of potential NPEs exist, there is need for proper approaches able to identify system execution scenarios causing NPEs. This

  20. [Laser pointers are not toys; eye injury with permanent loss of visual acuity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keunen, Jan E E; Delbecq, Ann-Laure M H; Cruysberg, J R M Hans; van Meurs, Jan C; Gan, Ivan M; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteen-nineties, there was much hype in the European media about presumed laser pointer maculopathy. However, the recent introduction of more powerful and therefore more dangerous laser pointers and their easy availability on the internet necessitates vigilance on the issue. This is an urgent matter, as here we report three cases of proven maculopathy due to an unsafe laser pointer. Three boys aged 13, 9 and 12 years used an unsafe laser pointer as a toy and looked repeatedly into the pointer, resulting in a permanent reduction in visual acuity due to macular damage. Laser pointers are not designed to be children's toys or instruments to annoy people in a crowd. Health authorities and the ophthalmic community should be aware of the potential danger of improper use of high-output laser pointers and warn the general public before the widespread availability of unsafe laser pointers and consequently laser pointer-induced macular damage becomes a true social problem.

  1. Flow-sensitive in-vivo 4D MR imaging at 3T for the analysis of aortic hemodynamics and derived vessel wall parameters; Die Analyse aortaler Haemodynamik und Gefaesswandparameter mittels fluss-sensitiver in-vivo 4D-MRT bei 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydrychowicz, A.; Markl, M.; Stalder, A.F.; Bock, J.; Bley, T.A.; Berger, A.; Russe, M.F.; Hennig, J.; Langer, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Harloff, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Klinische Neurologie und Neurophysiologie; Schlensak, C. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2007-05-15

    Modern phase contrast MR imaging at 3 Tesla allows the depiction of 3D morphology as well as the acquisition of time-resolved blood flow velocities in 3 directions. In combination with state-of-the-art visualization and data processing software, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemodynamic changes associated with vascular pathologies is possible. The 4D nature of the acquired data permits free orientation within the vascular system of interest and offers the opportunity to quantify blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters at any desired location within the data volume without being dependent on predefined 2D slices. The technique has the potential of overcoming the limitations of current diagnostic strategies and of implementing new diagnostic parameters. In light of the recent discussions regarding the influence of the wall shear stress and the oscillatory shear index on the genesis of arteriosclerosis and dilatative vascular processes, flow-sensitive 4D MRI may provide the missing diagnostic link. Instead of relying on experience-based parameters such as aneurysm size, new hemodynamic considerations can deepen our understanding of vascular pathologies. This overview reviews the underlying methodology at 3T, the literature on time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping, and presents case examples. By presenting the pre- and postoperative assessment of hemodynamics in a thoracic aortic aneurysm and the detailed analysis of blood flow in a patient with coarctation we underline the potential of time-resolved 3D phase contrast MR at 3T for hemodynamic assessment of vascular pathologies, especially in the thoracic aorta. (orig.)

  2. A robust pointer segmentation in biomedical images toward building a visual ontology for biomedical article retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Simpson, Matthew; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Pointers (arrows and symbols) are frequently used in biomedical images to highlight specific image regions of interest (ROIs) that are mentioned in figure captions and/or text discussion. Detection of pointers is the first step toward extracting relevant visual features from ROIs and combining them with textual descriptions for a multimodal (text and image) biomedical article retrieval system. Recently we developed a pointer recognition algorithm based on an edge-based pointer segmentation method, and subsequently reported improvements made on our initial approach involving the use of Active Shape Models (ASM) for pointer recognition and region growing-based method for pointer segmentation. These methods contributed to improving the recall of pointer recognition but not much to the precision. The method discussed in this article is our recent effort to improve the precision rate. Evaluation performed on two datasets and compared with other pointer segmentation methods show significantly improved precision and the highest F1 score.

  3. Investment - Cash Flow Sensitivity and Financing Constraints: New Evidence from Indian Business Group Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallathitta, Rejie; Kabir, Rezaul; Qian, Jing

    2010-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment – cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms. We re-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment – cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independ

  4. Investment–cash flow sensitivity and financing constraints: new evidence from Indian business group firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Qian, J.

    2011-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment–cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms.Were-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment–cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independent fi

  5. Transport Infrastructure Planning: Assessment of Strategic Mobility by Use of the POINTER Impact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Leleur, Steen

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating large infrastructure projects one point to be made is the importance of supplementing the more traditional effects captured by a cost-benefit analysis as presented for example by use of the benefit cost ratio (BCR) with strategic effect modelling to obtain a more comprehensive view...... of the societal importance of the examined project. The focus of this paper is to present the first results of a comparison of the use of a strategic impact measurement (the POINTER index) for road traffic on the Great Belt Link, the Øresund Link and the proposed Fehmarn Belt link. Specifically a number...

  6. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  7. Direct state reconstruction with coupling-deformed pointer observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuanmin; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Shengjun

    2016-06-01

    Direct state tomography (DST) using weak measurements has received wide attention. Based on the concept of coupling-deformed pointer observables presented by Zhang et al. [Y.-X. Zhang, S. Wu, and Z.-B. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 93, 032128 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032128], a modified direct state tomography (MDST) is proposed, examined, and compared with other typical state tomography schemes. MDST has exact validity for measurements of any strength. We identify the strength needed to attain the highest efficiency level of MDST by using statistical theory. MDST is much more efficient than DST in the sense that far fewer samples are needed to reach DST's level of reconstruction accuracy. Moreover, MDST has no inherent bias when compared to DST.

  8. Open quantum dots in graphene: Scaling relativistic pointer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, D. K.; Huang, L.; Yang, R.; Lai, Y.-C.; Akis, R.

    2010-04-01

    Open quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly through the decoherence theory, in which an important set of quantum states are not "washed out" through interaction with the environment-the pointer states provide connection to trapped classical orbits which remain stable in the dots. Graphene is a recently discovered material with highly unusual properties. This single layer, one atom thick, sheet of carbon has a unique bandstructure, governed by the Dirac equation, in which charge carriers imitate relativistic particles with zero rest mass. Here, an atomic orbital-based recursive Green's function method is used for studying the quantum transport. We study quantum fluctuations in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine the scaling of the domiant fluctuation frequency with dot size.

  9. [Chronic thallium intoxication in five German pointers of one litter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, G; Tholen, V; Ternes, W

    2000-01-01

    The difficulty of diagnosis and therapy of chronic thallium intoxication is described in five German Pointers with the same skin disease. The detection of thallium in cases of skin lesions like the cutaneous erythema with oedema and crusts or in chronic cases with multifocal alopecia is difficult. The first diagnostic information was gathered in this case from the high thallium level in the urine. The thallium concentration in the hair is subject to great variations, even in physiologic conditions. The trichogramme showed in this case pathognomonic changes like adhesion of the hair follicles. Differential diagnosis for this symmetric alopezia without pruritus are hormonal disturbances or, in puppies, the generalized form of demodicosis. The five affected dogs were treated with Fe III-Hexacyanoferrat. The clinical appearance of the skin improved slowly during a period of 1-2 months.

  10. Pointer Analysis for JavaScript Programming Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthaus, Asger

    Tools that can assist the programmer with tasks, such as, refactoring or code navigation, have proven popular for Java, C#, and other programming languages. JavaScript is a widely used programming language, and its users could likewise benefit from such tools, but the dynamic nature of the langua...... can provide for tools that are less powerful in theory, but more practical for use under real-world conditions. We also point out some opportunities for future work in both areas, motivated by our successes and difficulties with the two techniques....

  11. Flow-sensitive type recovery in linear-log time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Michael D.; Keep, Andrew W.; Midtgaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The flexibility of dynamically typed languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and Scheme comes at the cost of run-time type checks. Some of these checks can be eliminated via control-flow analysis. However, traditional control-flow analysis (CFA) is not ideal for this task as it ignores flow...... a novel combination of data structures and algorithms....

  12. Automated sub-5 nm image registration in integrated correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence pointers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Martijn T.; Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Voortman, Lenard M.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2017-03-01

    In the biological sciences, data from fluorescence and electron microscopy is correlated to allow fluorescence biomolecule identification within the cellular ultrastructure and/or ultrastructural analysis following live-cell imaging. High-accuracy (sub-100 nm) image overlay requires the addition of fiducial markers, which makes overlay accuracy dependent on the number of fiducials present in the region of interest. Here, we report an automated method for light-electron image overlay at high accuracy, i.e. below 5 nm. Our method relies on direct visualization of the electron beam position in the fluorescence detection channel using cathodoluminescence pointers. We show that image overlay using cathodoluminescence pointers corrects for image distortions, is independent of user interpretation, and does not require fiducials, allowing image correlation with molecular precision anywhere on a sample.

  13. Automated sub-5 nm image registration in integrated correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence pointers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Martijn T.; Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Voortman, Lenard M.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    In the biological sciences, data from fluorescence and electron microscopy is correlated to allow fluorescence biomolecule identification within the cellular ultrastructure and/or ultrastructural analysis following live-cell imaging. High-accuracy (sub-100 nm) image overlay requires the addition of fiducial markers, which makes overlay accuracy dependent on the number of fiducials present in the region of interest. Here, we report an automated method for light-electron image overlay at high accuracy, i.e. below 5 nm. Our method relies on direct visualization of the electron beam position in the fluorescence detection channel using cathodoluminescence pointers. We show that image overlay using cathodoluminescence pointers corrects for image distortions, is independent of user interpretation, and does not require fiducials, allowing image correlation with molecular precision anywhere on a sample. PMID:28252673

  14. CASH-FLOW SENSITIVITY TO PAYMENTS FOR MATERIAL RESSOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Elena BRÎNDESCU OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The financing decision is taken based on the expectations concerning the future cash-flows generated in the operating activity, which should provide coverage for the debt service and allow for an increase of the shareholders’ wealth. Still, the future cash-flows are affected by risk, which makes the sensitivity analysis a very important part of the decision process. The current research sets to evaluate the sensitivity of the payment capacity to variations of the payments for raw materials and consumables. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flow statements collected from 50 companies together with detailed information concerning the hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study allow for the establishment of benchmarks for the payment capacity’s sensitivity, the determination of the mechanisms through which the variation of payments for raw materials and consumables impacts the payment capacity, as well as the identification of the possible causes of such a variation.

  15. Exact Pointer Properties for Quantum System Projector Measurements with Application to Weak Measurements and Their Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2010-01-01

    Exact pointer states are obtained for projection operator measurements performed upon pre-selected (PS) and upon pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum systems. These states are used to provide simple exact expressions for both the pointer spatial probability distribution profiles and the mean values of arbitrary pointer observables associated with PS and PPS projection operator measurements that are valid for any strength of the interaction which couples a measurement pointer to the quantum system. These profiles and mean values are compared in order to identify the effects of post-selection upon projector measurement pointers. As a special case, these mean value results are applied to the weak measurement regime - yielding PS and PPS mean value expressions which are valid for any operator (projector or non-projector). Measurement sensitivities which are useful for estimating weak measurement accuracies for PS and PPS systems are also obtained and discussed.

  16. Air-flow sensitive hairs: boundary layers in oscillatory flows around arthropod appendages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmann, T.; Casas, J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Dangles, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the boundary layer over small appendages in insects in longitudinal and transverse oscillatory flows. The problem of immediate interest is the early warning system in crickets perceiving flying predators using air-flow-sensitive hairs on cerci, two long

  17. Air-flow sensitive hairs: boundary layers in oscillatory flows around arthropod appendages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmann, T.; Casas, J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Dangles, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the boundary layer over small appendages in insects in longitudinal and transverse oscillatory flows. The problem of immediate interest is the early warning system in crickets perceiving flying predators using air-flow-sensitive hairs on cerci, two long append

  18. Coupling-Induced Bipartite Pointer States in Arrays of Electron Billiards: Quantum Darwinism in Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R.; Akis, R.; Ferry, D. K.; Kuchar, F.; Meisels, R.

    2008-07-01

    We discuss a quantum system coupled to the environment, composed of an open array of billiards (dots) in series. Beside pointer states occurring in individual dots, we observe sets of robust states which arise only in the array. We define these new states as bipartite pointer states, since they cannot be described in terms of simple linear combinations of robust single-dot states. The classical existence of bipartite pointer states is confirmed by comparing the quantum-mechanical and classical results. The ability of the robust states to create “offspring” indicates that quantum Darwinism is in action.

  19. The Measurement of the Speed of Light Using a Laser Pointer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    2000-01-01

    Presents a method for measuring the speed of light using a laser pointer with adjustable focus as the signal carrier, a signal generator to modulate the light beam, and a student oscilloscope to detect the phase shift. (Author/CCM)

  20. The Measurement of the Speed of Light Using a Laser Pointer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    2000-01-01

    Presents a method for measuring the speed of light using a laser pointer with adjustable focus as the signal carrier, a signal generator to modulate the light beam, and a student oscilloscope to detect the phase shift. (Author/CCM)

  1. Augmenting a Laser Pointer with a Diffraction Grating for Monoscopic 6DOF Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Bomberg

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the detection of 6 degrees of freedom (DOF for Virtual Environment interactions using a modified simple laser pointer device and a camera. The laser pointer is combined with a diffraction grating to project a unique laser grid onto the projection planes used in projection-based immersive VR setups. The distortion of the projected grid is used to calculate the translational and rotational degrees of freedom required for human-computer interaction purposes.

  2. Is Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity Caused by the Agency Costs or Asymmetric Information? Evidence from the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the investment-cash flow sensitivity of a large sample of the UK listed firms and confirm that investment is strongly cash flow-sensitive.Is this suboptimal investment policy the result of agency problems when managers with high discretion overinvest, or of asymmetric information when

  3. Investment cash flow sensitivity under managerial optimism: new evidence from NYSE panel data firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Ben Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment cash flow sensitivity constitutes one important block of the corporate financial literature. While it is well documented in standard corporate finance, it is still young under behavioral corporate finance. In this paper, we test the investment cash flow sensitivity among panel data of American industrial firms during 1999-2010. Using Q-model of investment (Tobin, 1969, we construct and introduce a proxy of managerial optimism following Malmendier and Tate (2005a to show the impact of CEOs’ optimism in the relationship between investment and internal cash flow. Our results report a positive and significant coefficient of investment to cash flow for the full sample. While, on estimations of our model using sub-sample of more and less constrained firms, we find that the sensitivity exists stronger only for totally constrained group. We find also that board characteristics can reduce investment policy’s distortions.

  4. A General Low-Cost Indirect Branch Prediction Using Target Address Pointers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢子超; 佟冬; 黄明凯

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays energy-efficiency becomes the first design metric in chip development. To pursue higher energy efficiency, the processor architects should reduce or eliminate those unnecessary energy dissipations. Indirect-branch pre-diction has become a performance bottleneck, especially for the applications written in object-oriented languages. Previous hardware-based indirect-branch predictors are generally inefficient, for they either require significant hardware storage or predict indirect-branch targets slowly. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient indirect-branch prediction technique called TAP (target address pointer) prediction. Its key idea includes two parts: utilizing specific hardware pointers to accelerate the indirect branch prediction flow and reusing the existing processor components to reduce additional hardware costs and power consumption. When fetching an indirect branch, TAP prediction first gets the specific pointers called target address pointers from the conditional branch predictor, and then uses such pointers to generate virtual addresses which index the indirect-branch targets. This technique spends similar time compared to the dedicated storage techniques without requiring additional large amounts of storage. Our evaluation shows that TAP prediction with some representative state-of-the-art branch predictors can improve performance significantly over the baseline processor. Compared with those hardware-based indirect-branch predictors, the TAP-Perceptron scheme achieves performance improvement equivalent to that provided by an 8 K-entry TTC predictor, and also outperforms the VPC predictor.

  5. Pointer years in the growth of beech trees of the NP "Đerdap" area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Branko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines pointer years and years with distinctive tree rings in the growth of beech in 3 sites (ecological units-EU of the area of Đerdap, in order to observe the reactions of trees to the effects of various factors of growth. The pointer years were determined by the Schweingruber (1983 methodology. The years with distintive tree rings were defined as the years of beech growth with very pronounced distinctive growth rings (annual ring width at least ± 2 standard deviations higher or lower than the arithmetic mean and pronounced typical growth rings (annual ring width at least ± 1.5 standard deviation higher or lower than the arithmetic mean. The common pointer years for the growth of beech in the site conditions of all three ecological units are 1977 and 1988 (negative pointer years. A particular pointer year is 1988, when in more than 90% of trees under the analyzed environmental conditions the marked reduction of tree rings width of the trees (EUB or very pronounced reduction in the width of tree rings (EUA and ESV were observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  6. Demonstration of a Balloon Borne Arc-second Pointer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, K.; Ward, P.

    Many designs for utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments have been proposed throughout the years A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement The test results of a demonstration prototype of the design with similar ability are also presented Discussion of a high fidelity controller simulation for design analysis is presented The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis A multiple controller scheme is utilized for coarse and fine pointing Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system with extensive flight history residing above the gondola structure A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors eliminating backlash problems An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static friction are provided A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static friction from the system dynamics A control scheme involving linear

  7. Balloon Borne Arc-Second Pointer Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip R.; DeWeese, Keith D.

    2003-01-01

    For many years scientists have been utilizing stratospheric balloons as low-cost platforms on which to conduct space science experiments. A major hurdle in extending the range of experiments for which these vehicles are useful has been the imposition of the gondola dynamics on the accuracy with which an instrument can be kept pointed at a celestial target. A significant number of scientists have sought the ability to point their instruments with jitter in the arc-second range. This paper presents the design and analysis of a stratospheric balloon borne pointing system that is able to meet this requirement. The foundation for a high fidelity controller simulation is presented. The flexibility of the flight train is represented through generalized modal analysis. A multiple controller scheme is introduced for coarse and fine pointing. Coarse azimuth pointing is accomplished by an established pointing system, with extensive flight history, residing above the gondola structure. A pitch-yaw gimbal mount is used for fine pointing, providing orthogonal axes when nominally on target. Fine pointing actuation is from direct drive dc motors, eliminating backlash problems. An analysis of friction nonlinearities and a demonstration of the necessity in eliminating static fiction are provided. A unique bearing hub design is introduced that eliminates static fiction from the system dynamics. A control scheme involving linear accelerometers for enhanced disturbance rejection is also presented. Results from a linear analysis of the total system and the high fidelity simulation are given. This paper establishes that the proposed control strategy can be made robustly stable with significant design margins. Also demonstrated is the efficacy of the proposed system in rejecting disturbances larger than those considered realistic. Finally, we see that sub arc-second pointing stability can be achieved for a large instrument pointing at an inertial target.

  8. The Trainee Teacher and His Practice Class. Fifty Pointers for the Student-Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alun L. W.

    1969-01-01

    This handbook, based on the author's experience of supervising the English practice-classes of trainee teachers, was originally compiled for the specific use of students at the National University of Trujillo, Peru, and consists of a list of pointers embracing the most prevalent of trainees' shortcomings observed over a period of years at all…

  9. Who is pointing when to whom: on model-checking pointer structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distefano, Dino; Rensink, Arend; Katoen, Joost-Pieter

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model to reason about systems composed by entities that can refer to each other via pointers, such as objects in an object-based system. The model, based on History-Dependent Automata, treats particular cases of unboundedness by a special layered mechanism of abstraction.

  10. Wearable Laser Pointer Versus Head-mounted Display for Tele-guidance Applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas; Houben, Steven

    2014-01-01

    alternatives to Head-Mounted Displays for indicating where in the physical environment the local agent should direct her/his attention. The potential benefit of the laser pointer would be reduced eye fatigue, due to the fact that the documented refocusing challenges associated with HMD use would be completely...

  11. Pointer Animation Implementation at Development of Multimedia Learning of Java Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Muhammad; Atmojo, Yohanes Priyo

    2015-01-01

    This research represents the development research using the references of previous research results related to the development of interactive multimedia learning (learner controlled), specially about the effectiveness and efficiency of multimedia learning of a content that developed by pointer animation implementation showing the content in…

  12. A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    A laser spectrometer for the ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) titration of magnesium or calcium ions that is designed around a handheld laser pointer as the source and a photoresistor as the detector is developed. Findings show that the use of the spectrometer reduces the degree of uncertainty and error in one part of the EDTA titrations,…

  13. Laser Pointers: Low-Cost, Low-Tech Innovative, Interactive Instruction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovska, Nevenka; Cech, Maureen; Beygo, Pinar; Kackley, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of laser pointers at the Engineering and Physical Sciences Library, University of Maryland, College Park, as a personal response system (PRS) tool to encourage student engagement in and interactivity with one-shot, lecture-based information literacy sessions. Unlike more sophisticated personal response systems like…

  14. Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian pointer states

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Yusuf; Akutsu, Tomotada; Sun, Chang-Pu; Shikano, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Through the von Neumann interaction followed by post-selection, we can extract not only the eigenvalue of an observable of the measured system but also the weak value. In this post-selected von Neumann measurement, the initial pointer state of the measuring device is assumed to be a fundamental Gaussian wave function. By considering the optical implementation of the post-selected von Neumann measurement, higher-order Gaussian modes can be used. In this paper, we consider the Hermite--Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre--Gaussian (LG) modes as pointer states and calculate the average shift of the pointer states of the post-selected von Neumann measurement by assuming the system observable $\\hat{A}$ with $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{I}$ and $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{A}$ for an arbitrary interaction strength, where $\\hat{I}$ represents the identity operator. Our results show that the HG and LG pointer states for a given coupling direction have advantages and disadvantages over the fundamental Gaussian mode in improving the signal-to-noise ...

  15. Using Local Perturbations To Manipulate and Control Pointer States in Quantum Dot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akis, Richard; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, David; Brunner, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Recently, scanning gate microscopy (SGM) was used to image scarred wave functions in an open InAs quantum dot[1]. The SGM tip provides a local potential perturbation and imaging is performed by measuring changes in conductance. Scarred wave functions, long associated with quantum chaos, have been shown in open dots to correspond to pointer states[2], eigenstates that survive the decoherence process that occurs via coupling to the environment. Pointer states modulate the conductance, yielding periodic fluctuations and the scars, normally thought unstable, are stabilized by quantum Darwinism [3]. We shall show that, beyond probing, pointer states can be manipulated by local perturbations. Particularly interesting effects occur in coupled quantum dot arrays, where a pointer state localized in one dot can be shifted over into another with a perturbation in a completely different part of the system. These nonlocal effects may perhaps be exploited to give such systems an exotic functionality. [1] A. M. Burke, R. Akis, T. E. Day, Gil Speyer, D. K. Ferry, and B. R. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2010). [2] D. K. Ferry, R. Akis, and J. P. Bird, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2004). [3] R. Brunner, R. Akis,D. K. Ferry, F. Kuchar,and R. Meisels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 024102 (2008).

  16. Tremor side effects of salbutamol, quantified by a laser pointer technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor side effects of salbutamol an easily applicable, quick and low-priced method is needed. A new method using a commercially available, pen-shaped laser pointer was developed. Aim of the study was to determine sensitivity, reproducibility, reference values and the agreement w

  17. Wearable Laser Pointer Versus Head-mounted Display for Tele-guidance Applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas; Houben, Steven

    2014-01-01

    alternatives to Head-Mounted Displays for indicating where in the physical environment the local agent should direct her/his attention. The potential benefit of the laser pointer would be reduced eye fatigue, due to the fact that the documented refocusing challenges associated with HMD use would be completely...

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Gaseous [I[subscript]2] Excited with a Green Laser Pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A green laser pointer could be used in a flashy demonstration of laser-induced fluorescence in the gas phase by directing the beam of the laser through a cell containing [I[subscript]2] at its room temperature vapor pressure. The experiment could be used to provide valuable insight into the requirements for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and the…

  19. 基于污点指针的二进制代码缺陷检测%Binary Code Defect Detection Based on Taint Pointer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 王嘉捷; 欧阳永基; 王清贤

    2012-01-01

    Taint pointers are serious threats to the security of data flow and control flow. A method for binary defect detection is proposed, which is based on dynamic taint propagation, dynamic symbolic execution and bound constraint analysis, including introduction of the pointer propagation rules, generation of trigger condition by combing path constraints with bound constraints. It can generate inputs for four types of code defects caused by taint pointer. Test results show that this method reduces the number of test case generation effectively, and a virtual function call hijack and two pointer memory corruption defects are found in the test of Linux system tools.%污点指针严重影响二进制代码数据流和控制流的安全.为此,提出一种二进制代码缺陷检测方法.引入指针污点传播规则,结合路径约束条件和边界约束条件得到缺陷引发条件,构造能够引发4类污点指针代码缺陷的输入数据.在Linux系统下实现ELF二进制代码缺陷检测工具,测试结果表明,该方法能降低测试用例生成数量,并发现Linux系统工具的1个虚函数调用控制缺陷和2个指针内存破坏缺陷.

  20. The source of investment cash flow sensitivity in manufacturing firms: Is it asymmetric information or agency costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Makina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, positive investment cash flow sensitivity is attributed to either asymmetric information induced financing constraints or the agency costs of free cash flow. Using data from a sample of 68 manufacturing firms listed on the South African JSE, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the source of investment cash flow sensitivity. We have found that asymmetric information explains the positive investment cash flow sensitivity better than agency costs. Furthermore, asymmetric information has been observed to be more pronounced in low-dividend-paying firms and small firms. Despite South Africa’s having a developed financial system by international standards, small firms are seen to be financially constrained. We attribute the absence of investment cash flow sensitivity due to agency costs to good corporate governance of South African listed firms. Thus the paper provides further evidence in support of the proposition in the literature that the source of investment cash flow sensitivity may depend on the institutional setting of a country, such as its corporate governance.

  1. Certified Absence of Dangling Pointers in a Language with Explicit Deallocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Javier; Montenegro, Manuel; Peña, Ricardo

    Safe is a first-order eager functional language with facilities for programmer controlled destruction of data structures. It provides also regions, i.e. disjoint parts of the heap, where the program allocates data structures, so that the runtime system does not need a garbage collector. A region is a collection of cells, each one big enough to allocate a data constructor. Deallocating cells or regions may create dangling pointers. The language is aimed at inferring and certifying memory safety properties in a Proof Carrying Code like environment. Some of its analyses have been presented elsewhere. The one relevant to this paper is a type system and a type inference algorithm guaranteeing that well-typed programs will be free of dangling pointers at runtime.

  2. CORBA中的C++灵巧指针%Learners' Garden C++ Smart Pointer in CORBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣云; 赖国民

    2001-01-01

    分析了CORBA开发中的-var灵巧指针,示例说明了它的特点与不足,最后讨论了CORBA的本地动态内存管理。%This paper introduces the smart pointer type of -var in CORBA. Some examples are illustrated to show its features and limitations. At last, dynamic management of local memory in CORBA is detailed.

  3. Large Display Interaction via Multiple Acceleration Curves and Multifinger Pointer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Esakia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large high-resolution displays combine high pixel density with ample physical dimensions. The combination of these factors creates a multiscale workspace where interactive targeting of on-screen objects requires both high speed for distant targets and high accuracy for small targets. Modern operating systems support implicit dynamic control-display gain adjustment (i.e., a pointer acceleration curve that helps to maintain both speed and accuracy. However, large high-resolution displays require a broader range of control-display gains than a single acceleration curve can usably enable. Some interaction techniques attempt to solve the problem by utilizing multiple explicit modes of interaction, where different modes provide different levels of pointer precision. Here, we investigate the alternative hypothesis of using a single mode of interaction for continuous pointing that enables both (1 standard implicit granularity control via an acceleration curve and (2 explicit switching between multiple acceleration curves in an efficient and dynamic way. We evaluate a sample solution that augments standard touchpad accelerated pointer manipulation with multitouch capability, where the choice of acceleration curve dynamically changes depending on the number of fingers in contact with the touchpad. Specifically, users can dynamically switch among three different acceleration curves by using one, two, or three fingers on the touchpad.

  4. SWIP Prediction: Complexity-Effective Indirect-Branch Prediction Using Pointers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Chao Xie; Dong Tong; Ming-Kai Huang; Qin-Qing Shi; Xu Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Predicting indirect-branch targets has become a performance bottleneck for many applications.Previous highperformance indirect-branch predictors usually require significant hardware storage or additional compiler support,which increases the complexity of the processor front-end or the compilers.This paper proposes a complexity-effective indirectbranch prediction mechanism,called the Set-Way Index Pointing (SWIP) prediction.It stores multiple indirect-branch targets in different branch target buffer (BTB) entries,whose set indices and way locations are treated as set-way index pointers.These pointers are stored in the existing branch-direction predictor.SWIP prediction reuses the branch direction predictor to provide such pointers,and then accesses the pointed BTB entries for the predicted indirect-branch target.Our evaluation shows that SWIP prediction could achieve attractive performance improvement without requiring large dedicated storage or additional compiler support.It improves the indirect-branch prediction accuracy by 36.5% compared to that of a commonly-used BTB,resulting in average performance improvement of 18.56%.Its energy consumption is also reduced by 14.34% over that of the baseline.

  5. Is Investment-Cash flow Sensitivity a Good Measure of Financing Constraints? New Evidence from Indian Business Group Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Qian, J.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies use the investment - cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints while some others disagree.The source of this disparity lies mostly in differences in opinion regarding the segregation of severely financially constrained firms from less constrained ones.We examine thi

  6. Quantification of cerebral blood flow by flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery exempting separate T1 measurement in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jiang-xi; ZHANG Xue-hui; XIE Sheng; ZOU Run-lei

    2006-01-01

    Background The feasibility of the mapping of quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) named flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery exempting separate T1 measurement (FAIREST) is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of FAIREST in the measurement of regional CBF (rCBF) in healthy volunteers.Methods Eighteen healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance (MR) scanning with the sequence of FAIREST. While they were at rest, rCBF values were obtained in various brain regions of interest (ROIs). The same scheme was repeated on every subject after two weeks. Statistical analysis was made to determine the effect of location, scan and side on the measurement of rCBF.Results The mean CBF values were (122 ± 28) ml · (100 g)-1 · min-1 and (43 ±10) ml · (100 g)-1 · min-1 in the gray and white matter respectively. There was significant main effect of location (t=-12.5, P<0.01), but no significant effect of side. Paired t-test of ROIs in the same slice showed no significant difference in most sites between two scans, except in the gray matter of the bilateral frontal lobes (t=2.18-2.34, P <0.05). However, the rCBF values of the same structure obtained from different slices showed a significant difference (t=-3.49,P<0.01).Conclusion FAIREST is a reliable technique in the measurement of rCBF, but different imaging slice may affect the agreement of rCBF across the scans.

  7. Structural features of a potential gas hydrate area in the Pointer Ridge off southwest Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Fen; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Song-Chuen; Liu, Char-Shine; Lin, Hsiao-Shan

    2015-04-01

    The offshore area of the southwest Taiwan is located in the oblique convergence zone between the northern continental margin of South China Sea and the Manila accretionary wedge. To the west of the deformation front offshore southwestern Taiwan, the Pointer Ridge is located in the passive South China Sea continental margin. The continental margin is compose of extensional horst-and-graben structures. There are numerous submarine channels and linear ridge, formed due to the submarine erosion across the continental slope region. According to geophysical research off SW Taiwan, abundant gas hydrate may exist. In this study, our purpose is to understand the relationship between the near-seafloor structures of the Pointer Ridge and the gas hydrate formation off SW Taiwan. The data we used include multi-beam echo sounder (MBES), side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP) and the multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) data. Our results show the pockmark and gas seepage structures mainly appear in the place where the gradient of the BSR thickness is maximum. Those sites contain authigenic carbonate signature shown in the sub-bottom profiler. We also observe several folds and faults structures in this extensional background; however, these compressional features need further studies.

  8. Controlling mouse pointer position using an infrared head-operated joystick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G; Drew, R; Blenkhorn, P

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the motivation for and the design considerations of a low-cost head-operated joystick. The paper briefly summarizes the requirements of head-operated mouse pointer control for people with disabilities before discussing a set of technological approaches that can be used to satisfy these requirements. The paper focuses on the design of a head-operated joystick that uses infrared light emitting diodes (LED's) and photodetectors to determine head position, which is subsequently converted into signals that emulate a Microsoft mouse. There are two significant findings. The first is that, while nonideal device characteristics might appear to make the joystick difficult to use, users naturally compensate for nonlinearities, in a transparent manner, because of visual feedback of mouse pointer position. The second finding, from relatively informal, independent trials, indicates that disabled users prefer a head-operated device that has the characteristics of a joystick (a relative pointing device) to those of a mouse (an absolute pointing device).

  9. Traversal Caches: A Framework for FPGA Acceleration of Pointer Data Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coole

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs and other reconfigurable computing (RC devices have been widely shown to have numerous advantages including order of magnitude performance and power improvements compared to microprocessors for some applications. Unfortunately, FPGA usage has largely been limited to applications exhibiting sequential memory access patterns, thereby prohibiting acceleration of important applications with irregular patterns (e.g., pointer-based data structures. In this paper, we present a design pattern for RC application development that serializes irregular data structure traversals online into a traversal cache, which allows the corresponding data to be efficiently streamed to the FPGA. The paper presents a generalized framework that benefits applications with repeated traversals, which we show can achieve between 7x and 29x speedup over pointer-based software. For applications without strictly repeated traversals, we present application-specialized extensions that benefit applications with highly similar traversals by exploiting similarity to improve memory bandwidth and execute multiple traversals in parallel. We show that these extensions can achieve a speedup between 11x and 70x on a Virtex4 LX100 for Barnes-Hut n-body simulation.

  10. Environmental Fate Data Base (ENVIROFATE): data pointer file (DATALOG), February 1987. Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethling, R.

    1987-02-01

    DATALOG is a bibliographic pointer file of environmental fate data and each record contains a chemical CAS registry number (9 bytes), one of 18 data types (9 bytes), and a reference number (6 bytes) to the full citation in the XREF file. The data types identify physical properties, degradation and transport studies, and food, occupational and ambient monitoring data. The file should be used with CASLST (in order to link the chemical name and formula) and XREF (in order to link the full reference citation). A list of possible data types and their abbreviations are: Adsorption (ADSORP), Bioconcentration (BIOCON), Biodegradation (BIODEG), Dissociation constant (DISS CON), Ecosystem (ECOS), Effluent concentrations (EFFL), Evaporation from water (EVAP), Food and crop concentrations (FOOD), Field studies (FIELD), Henry's Law constant (HENRY CON), Hydrolysis (HYDROL), Monitoring (MONIT), Occupational concentrations (OCCUP), Octanol/water partition coefficient (O/W PART), Photoxidation (PHOTOOXID), UV Spectra (UV), Vapor pressure (UP) and Water solubility (WATER SOL).

  11. Effect of laser pointer on students\\\\\\' levels of technical errors during intraoral radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Shams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: According to concerns of technical errors in intraoral radiographs and reports of positive effects of central ray laser pointer on the students, technical errors and shortcomings of earlier research, this study was conducted at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of Tehran Azad University to determine the role and use of laser pointer in the technical error made by students. Materials and Methods: This clinical trials study was carried out at the Department of Radiology, Dental School of Azad Tehran University. A total of eighty students were divided into two groups of forty. In the first group the periapical technique was taught without laser guided indicator, while in the second group laser guided indicator was applied in training the students. All students took X-rays from the phantoms. Laser guided indicator is made of one low power red laser diodes.Totally 560 X-rays were taken and the technical errors and the quality of X-rays were evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney and Chi Square tests (&alpha=0.05. Results: The X-rays taken by students showed significant differences in cone cutting (P<0.001, and overlapping (P<0.001 between the two study groups. In the subjective review of X-ray quality, the difference was also significant (P=0.03. Conclusion: The use of laser guided indicator as a training aid seems to be practical for easier learning of central ray adjustment and reduction of technical errors in taking X-rays by dental students.

  12. Visualization of periventricular collaterals in moyamoya disease with flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Araki, Yoshio; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Fragile abnormal collaterals in moyamoya disease, known as "moyamoya vessels," have rarely been defined. While flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography (FSBB-MRA) is a promising technique for visualizing perforating arteries, as of this writing no other reports exist regarding its application to moyamoya disease. Six adults with moyamoya disease underwent FSBB-MRA. It depicted abnormal collaterals as extended lenticulostriate, thalamic perforating, or choroidal arteries, which were all connected to the medullary or insular artery in the periventricular area and supplied the cortex. This preliminary case series illustrates the potential for FSBB-MRA to reveal abnormal moyamoya vessels, which could be reasonably defined as periventricular collaterals.

  13. Research on Dynamic Memory Faults Testing Method Based on Pointer Mapping Sets%基于指针映射集的动态内存故障测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 宫云战; 卢庆龄; 万琳

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic memory faults are ubiquitous in the program with pointers. It is difficult to locate faults sources adopting dynamic testing method. Static analysis methods nowadays often miss some faults and produce too many false alarms. Considering of these problems, this paper puts forward the notion of pointer mapping algebra system that reflects the mapping relationship of pointer and memory completely, and gives the construction rules of pointer mapping sets for different faults class, and then establishes dynamic memory faults model. Through pointer map-ping sets and fault model, it can detect bad deallocation, memory leak and null pointer derefer-ence faults automatically and increase the testing efficiency. In the process of analyzing, it adopts synthetically control flow chart and path condition in order to increase the precision of testing re-sults. Results of experimentation show that this method can detect dynamic memory faults effec-tively. Since rule definition is general, the probability of missing faults and producing false alarms is lower.%动态内存故障在使用指针的程序中是普遍存在的,采用动态测试方法进行测试难以准确定位故障源.而现有的静态分析方法主要存在漏报和误报过多的情况.针对这些问题,提出了指针映射代数系统的概念,全面地反映了指针与内存之间的映射关系,并给出了面向不同故障的指针映射集的构造规则,以此为基础建立了动态内存故障模型.通过指针映射集和故障模型,可以自动检测内存释放异常、内存泄露和空指针引用等动态内存故障,提高了测试效率.在分析过程中,还综合应用了控制流图和路径条件,提高了测试结果的精度.实验结果表明,该方法能够有效检测动态内存故障,而且出于规则定义较为全面,漏报和误报率也较低.

  14. Peace and Conflict Research in the Age of the Cholera: Ten Pointers to the Future of Peace Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Presents 10 pointers that can lead to constructive peace making. Covers issues such as a definition of peace; the training of peace workers; the role of the state system in creating conflict; legitimizing peace actions; and suggestions for future peace creation. Discusses the links between direct, structural, and cultural violence. (DSK)

  15. Analogue mouse pointer control via an online steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John J.; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2011-04-01

    The steady state visual evoked protocol has recently become a popular paradigm in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Typically (regardless of function) these applications offer the user a binary selection of targets that perform correspondingly discrete actions. Such discrete control systems are appropriate for applications that are inherently isolated in nature, such as selecting numbers from a keypad to be dialled or letters from an alphabet to be spelled. However motivation exists for users to employ proportional control methods in intrinsically analogue tasks such as the movement of a mouse pointer. This paper introduces an online BCI in which control of a mouse pointer is directly proportional to a user's intent. Performance is measured over a series of pointer movement tasks and compared to the traditional discrete output approach. Analogue control allowed subjects to move the pointer faster to the cued target location compared to discrete output but suffers more undesired movements overall. Best performance is achieved when combining the threshold to movement of traditional discrete techniques with the range of movement offered by proportional control.

  16. Peace and Conflict Research in the Age of the Cholera: Ten Pointers to the Future of Peace Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    1996-01-01

    Presents 10 pointers that can lead to constructive peace making. Covers issues such as a definition of peace; the training of peace workers; the role of the state system in creating conflict; legitimizing peace actions; and suggestions for future peace creation. Discusses the links between direct, structural, and cultural violence. (DSK)

  17. Is There a Difference in Credit Constraints Between Private and Listed Companies in Brazil? Empirical Evidence by The Cash Flow Sensitivity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Nader Ackel Ghani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the credit constraints, using the cash flow sensitivity approach, of private and listed companies between 2007 and 2010. According to this approach, the econometric results show that the credit constraints are the same for either private or listed companies. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature because the study of credit constraints of private companies based on cash flow sensitivity in Brazil has been rare.

  18. Widening access to un dergraduate physiotherapy education in South Africa - pointers from students’ records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amosun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the state mandate to improve access and equityin higher education, the admission policy of universities in South Africa (SAcurrently employs measures for the redress of past inequalities and racialinjustices. As there is no information on the processes to widen access toundergraduate physiotherapy education program in SA, the aim of this reportedstudy was to search for pointers from students’ records in one local university,situated in the Western Province of SA, that would inform the development ofstrategies that will widen the access for previously disadvantaged populationgroups and ensure successful academic outcomes. The records of six cohorts of students who earlier applied for andlater enrolled in the undergraduate physiotherapy program between the years 2000 and 2005 were retrospectivelyreviewed. Information pertaining to access, student characteristics, and academic persistence was extracted, reviewedand analysed descriptively. During the period reviewed, approximately equal numbers of Black and non-Black studentsapplied for admission to the program. The proportion of Black applicants meeting minimum admission requirementswas less than half of the White/Asian applicants. Less than 50% (105/212 of the offers made to Black applicantswere accepted. Forty one percent (43/105 of the enrolled Black students successfully completed the program withinthe minimum 4 years compared to 75.5% (145/192 of the White/Asian students. Strategies should be implementedto increase awareness and recruitment, improve enrolment rates, and improve retention and throughput for Blackstudents in the undergraduate physiotherapy program of a historically “white” SA university.

  19. Usage of the Pointer Variable in C Language%C语言中指针变量的用法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周二强; 张妍琰

    2014-01-01

    C语言中使用指针变量时通常需两步:第一步为指针变量赋值,把某个存储单元的地址存入与指针变量相关的存储单元中,即让指针变量指向某个存储单元;第二步以间接引用的方式使用指针变量指向的存储单元。利用变量直接使用存储单元时,存储单元的使用范围受限于变量的作用域,而通过指针变量以间接引用的方式可以扩展存储单元的使用范围。以间接引用方式使用的存储单元不仅可以是基本数据类型的、数组等,而且可以是没有变量标识的堆空间上的存储单元,甚至还可以是与代码相关的“函数类型”的存储单元。%Uses a pointer variable in C programming language need to take two steps:the first step is to assign the pointer variable a value, stores the address of the storage unit into place that is associated with the pointer variable, makes the pointer variable pointing to a storage unit; the second step is to use the storage unit which is pointed by the pointer variable in an indirect way. When uses a storage unit directly by the variable, the range of the storage unit is limited by the scope of the variable. By contrast,it can extend the range of the storage unit by using a pointer variable in the indirect way. The storage unit used in an indirect way can not only be the basic types or arrays, but also can be the storage unit that is not signed as a variable on the heap space, even can be the function type storage unit that is related to the code.

  20. Assessment of intracardiac flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot by flow-sensitive 4D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology (Heart Center, University of Freiburg), Freiburg (Germany); Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Geiger, Julia [University Childrens' Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    To comprehensively and quantitatively analyse flow and vorticity in the right heart of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) compared with healthy volunteers. Time-resolved flow-sensitive 4D MRI was acquired in 24 rTOF patients and 12 volunteers. Qualitative flow evaluation was based on consensus reading of two observers. Quantitative analysis included segmentation of the right atrium (RA) and ventricle (RV) in a four-chamber view to extract volumes and regional haemodynamic information for computation of regional mean and peak vorticity. Right heart intra-atrial, intraventricular and outflow tract flow patterns differed considerably between rTOF patients and volunteers. Peak RA and mean RV vorticity was significantly higher in patients (p = 0.02/0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between patients' maximum and mean RV and RA vorticity and ventricular volumes (p < 0.05). The main pulmonary artery (MPA) regurgitant flow was associated with higher RA and RV vorticity, which was significant for RA maximum and RV mean vorticity (p = 0.01/0.03). The calculation of vorticity based on 4D flow data is an alternative approach to assess intracardiac flow changes in rTOF patients compared with qualitative flow visualization. Alterations in intracardiac vorticity could be relevant with regard to the development of RV dilation and impaired function. (orig.)

  1. Cost-effective handoff scheme based on mobility-aware dual pointer forwarding in proxy mobile IPv6 networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seungsik; Jeong, Jongpil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mobility-aware Dual Pointer Forwarding scheme (mDPF) is applied in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) networks. The movement of a Mobile Node (MN) is classified as intra-domain and inter-domain handoff. When the MN moves, this scheme can reduce the high signaling overhead for intra-handoff/inter-handoff, because the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) and Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) are connected by pointer chains. In other words, a handoff is aware of low mobility between the previously attached MAG (pMAG) and newly attached MAG (nMAG), and another handoff between the previously attached LMA (pLMA) and newly attached LMA (nLMA) is aware of high mobility. Based on these mobility-aware binding updates, the overhead of the packet delivery can be reduced. Also, we analyse the binding update cost and packet delivery cost for route optimization, based on the mathematical analytic model. Analytical results show that our mDPF outperforms the PMIPv6 and the other pointer forwarding schemes, in terms of reducing the total cost of signaling.

  2. Improving interaction in navigated surgery by combining a pan-tilt mounted laser and a pointer with triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojdanic, D.; Chen, L.; Peitgen, H.-O.

    2012-02-01

    User interaction during navigated surgery is often a critical issue in the overall procedure, as several complex aspects must be considered, such as sterility, workflow, field of view, and cognitive load. This work introduces a new approach for intraoperative interaction that seamlessly fits the high surgical requirements. A navigation system, typically consisting of a tracking system and a monitor for 3D virtual models, is augmented with a tracked pointer with triggering functionality and a pan-tilt mounted laser. The pointer, which is sterile and can be applied for landmark-based organ registration, is used for wireless interaction with the monitor scene. The laser system enables the calibration of the monitor, which is out of the tracking system's range. Moreover, the laser beam can focus on any organ point defined on the virtual model, which improves targeting or visual feedback during intervention. The calibration of the laser system, monitor, and triggered pointer is achieved by an effective procedure, which can be easily repeated in operating room. The mathematical background of the calibration is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt and Umeyama's algorithms.

  3. VIRTUAL POINTER UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI ISYARAT TANGAN SEBAGAI PENGENDALI GERAKAN ROBOT SECARA REAL-TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isa Irawan

    2008-01-01

    segmentasi warna kulit dan bukan kulit secara real-time dengan tingkat keberhasilan. 90.2834% Identifikasi pola isyarat tangan dengan rule base tingkat keberhasilannya 86.67%. Identifikasi hasil virtual hand writing menggunakan jaringan syaraf tiruan metode LVQ sebagai perintah untuk mengendalikan robot tingkat keberhasilannya mencapai 79.2%. Kata Kunci : virtual pointer , Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM, jaringan syaraf tiruan LVQ

  4. Pointer Mechanism and Source Files Association's Visualization in C++%C++指针机制与源文件关联关系的可视化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古辉; 乔凯旋

    2012-01-01

    Source code as object for research in this paper, mechanism of pointer and relation of association about pointer type object (variable) within multiple source files is studied. Based on the extraction of message and packing up the results, automatically visualize the elation about source files and mechanism of pointer in C plusplus. The storage mechanism on extraction and an algorithm of automatically disposing the include-relation on files are proposed. As a supplement, an algorithm of manual adjustment for meta-graph is introduced. The actual analysis results on codes show that the research is conducive to support for program analysis and understanding of source code.%研究了C++中的指针机制、以及指针类型对象(变量)在多个源程序代码文件中关联关系.基于信息提取和结果整理,计算机可视化实现和表示C++中的指针机制和多源程序代码文件的关联关系.研究了抽取结果的存储机制和基于该机制的自动排序源文件引用关系的方法,最后提出了一种手工调整图元布局的算法,作为自动排序算法的补充.对实际代码分析的结果表明该方法利于程序分析并支持对源代码的辅助理解.

  5. Effects of Image and Layered Structure on Web Search Performance -Evaluation on the Basis of Movement Distance of Mouse Pointer-

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Atsuo; Hayami, Takehito; Moriwaka, Makoto; Takahashi, Rina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of image addition and layered structure on Web search performance on the basis of the search time and the movement trajectory of mouse pointer. The difference of search characteristics between young and older adults was also examined. Older adults tended to take more time to search for the linked item especially when the layered structure was deep. For the deep layered structure, both young and older adults allocate more time to think which ite...

  6. C语言中指针教学的研究与探讨%The Research and Discussion on Pointer in C Programming Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤涛

    2014-01-01

    指针是C语言的一个重点和难点,初学时常会出错。该文结合作者多年的教学实践,对C语言中指针的教学过程以及如何让学生更好地掌握指针进行了较为深入的研究探讨。%Pointer is an important and difficult, C beginners often will go wrong. In this paper, in combination with the authors years of teaching practice, the pointer in C programming language teaching process and how to make students better grasp the pointer has carried on the thorough research.

  7. The Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivity of Internet Innovation%互联网式创新的投资-现金流敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白骏骄; 李芮

    2015-01-01

    互联网企业创新投入的不确定性非常强,因而内部现金流的支持非常重要。不同模式创新的投资-现金流敏感性不同。狭义的互联网式创新不同于传统的科技式创新,主要以商业模式创新为主,这种创新形式的特殊性决定了其创新投资与现金流敏感性的独特关系。根据系统GM M法,上市互联网企业的创新投资与现金流之间存在显著正向关系,而且不同创新模式具有不同的创新投资-现金流敏感性,中外互联网企业的资金使用情况也有所不同。在互联网式创新理论分析和实证数据检验的基础上,应当看到中国目前典型的互联网式创新在利用现金流和中国人力资源等方面的优势,通过基础设施、政策法规、人才培养、管理体制四个方面,加快发展中国式互联网创新。%Internet companies'investment on innovation of is supported by cash flow .But different innovation models have distinct Innovative investment‐cash flow sensitivities . T he narrow definition of internet innovation is one kind of business model innovation and systematically differentiated with the technical innovation .Based on system GMM method ,publicly traded Internet firms have positive relation between innovative investment and cash flow and the difference between two models of internet innovations .Based on the internet innovation theory and empirical analysis ,it is clear that the China's unique version of internet innovation is good at using its current advantage in cash and human capital and other areas ,which further suggested that China should actively facilitate Internet innovation with stronger basic facilities ,law s regulations ,and human resources .

  8. Investigative Studies of Refractive Indices of Liquids and a Demonstration of Refraction by the Use of a Laser Pointer and a Lazy Susan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design of a simple homemade apparatus for the measurement of the refractive indices of liquids and demonstration of refraction. A circular transparent plastic tank and a lazy Susan are held concentrically. A laser pointer is mounted on the lazy Susan with its laser beam pointing radially through the centre of the plastic tank.…

  9. Improving core outcome set development: qualitative interviews with developers provided pointers to inform guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargon, Elizabeth; Williamson, Paula R; Young, Bridget

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study was to explore core outcome set (COS) developers' experiences of their work to inform methodological guidance on COS development and identify areas for future methodological research. Semistructured, audio-recorded interviews with a purposive sample of 32 COS developers. Analysis of transcribed interviews was informed by the constant comparative method and framework analysis. Developers found COS development to be challenging, particularly in relation to patient participation and accessing funding. Their accounts raised fundamental questions about the status of COS development and whether it is consultation or research. Developers emphasized how the absence of guidance had affected their work and identified areas where guidance or evidence about COS development would be useful including, patient participation, ethics, international development, and implementation. They particularly wanted guidance on systematic reviews, Delphi, and consensus meetings. The findings raise important questions about the funding, status, and process of COS development and indicate ways that it could be strengthened. Guidance could help developers to strengthen their work, but over specification could threaten quality in COS development. Guidance should therefore highlight common issues to consider and encourage tailoring of COS development to the context and circumstances of particular COS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the health risks of using ecstasy warrant intervention development, a recent meta-analysis of determinants of ecstasy use identified a number of lacunae in the literature. Specifically, no studies were included that address behaviours other than 'using ecstasy' (e.g. 'trying out ecstasy' or 'ceasing ecstasy use'. However, because meta-analyses aim to integrate study results quantitatively, the resulting rigid exclusion criteria cause many studies to be discarded on the basis of their qualitative methodology. Such qualitative studies may nonetheless provide valuable insights to guide future research. To provide an overview of these insights regarding ecstasy use, the current study summarizes and combines what is known from qualitative and exploratory quantitative literature on ecstasy use. Methods The databases PsycINFO and MedLine were searched for publications reporting reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviour, and the results were structured and discussed per behaviour and compared over behaviours. Results Two main categories of reasons were found. The first category comprised reasons to start using ecstasy, use ecstasy, use ecstasy more often, and refrain from ceasing ecstasy use. The second category comprised reasons to refrain from starting to use ecstasy, use less ecstasy, and cease using ecstasy. Reasons for related behaviours within each of these two categories appear to differ, but not as substantially as between the two categories. A large number of reasons that were not yet explored in quantitative research emerged. Conclusion The current summary and combination of exploratory studies yields useful lists of reasons for each behaviour. Before these lists can inform interventions, however, they beg quantitative verification. Also, similarity of determinant configurations of different behaviours can be assessed by addressing determinants of several behaviours in one study. Another important finding is that

  11. Pointers from the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem.

  12. CLEAR INDICATORS AND POINTERS FOR MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACHIEVMENTS IN THE STATE SERVICE BASIS FOR MOTIVATED ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Denkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With ambiguous authorizations and responsibilities there are no precise and measurable pointers for the efficiency and effectiveness of the public administration. The authorizations and responsibilities of the administration are measureable if there isprecise information supported with measurable indicators. The final result of such setting will influence the motivation of the public administration that is to say, increasing of its effectiveness and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to analyze the states regarding the measuring and the evaluation of the work of the civil servants, the procedures for evaluation and if there are clear indicators though which the achievements of the workers can be measured and their influence to the motivation of the employees in public sector. The main direction in the process of reformation of the administration in Macedonia is creation of professional depoliticized, effective and efficiently civil oriented administration in accordance to theprinciple parliament democracy and responsibility.Suchdetermination means strengthening of the principle of the law ruling and working according to the law. Beside that it is necessary to strengthen the formal rules and the formal working and management to press the informal public and administrative section, culture and habits, then establishment of more flexible type of management in public administration oriented to results and aims, larger autonomy as larger responsibility in order to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the public administration. The significant basis for achievements of these aims is the establishment of public authorizations and responsibilities and precise indicators for measurement of the work that will influence to effectiveness and motivation of the state administration.

  13. Gyroscope-Driven Mouse Pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG Headset and Data Analysis Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reyes-Garcia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user’s blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD. EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented.

  14. Gyroscope-Driven Mouse Pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG Headset and Data Analysis Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Cholula, Gerardo; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user's blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented. PMID:23948873

  15. Gyroscope-driven mouse pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG headset and data analysis based on Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Cholula, Gerardo; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user's blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented.

  16. Meter reading recognition method via the pointer region feature%基于指针区域特征的仪表读数识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 张文杰; 张家齐; 王玉平; 周庆; 石为人

    2014-01-01

    Reading recognition algorithms for pointer type meter are vulnerable to illumination, and recognition rate for thicker pointer is not high. In this paper, we propose a reading recognition method based on pointer region. In detail, this approach can be divided into two phases: in the first phase, the proposed method designs Gaussian homomorphic high-pass filter to enhance the adaptability to the illumination change for instrument image, and utilizes image preprocessing methods (including image subtraction, binarization, median filter, image morphology processing et al.) to reduce noise interference, suppress of background region, outstand pointer region. In the second phase, the presented method firstly rotates the meter image, and computes projection of the rotated image on the vertical axis in each rotation angle, then calculates the rotated angle which rotate the pointer of meter image to parallel to the horizontal axis. Whereafter, the deflection angle of pointer can be derived for combining the projection of rotated image on the horizontal axis which the pointer of rotated image parallels to the horizontal axis. Finally, reading recognition is identified by the relation between the pointer angle and the corresponding instruments scale. This approach is simple and stable, the error between the reading of the proposed approach and artificial reading is small, and it can better adapt to illumination changes.%针对目前指针式仪表读数识别算法易受光照影响,并且对较粗指针的仪表识别率不高的问题,本文提出一种基于指针区域的仪表读数识别算法。本文方法可分为两个阶段:第一阶段设计高斯型同态高通滤波器,增强仪表图像对光照变化的适应性;并通过减影法、二值化、中值滤波、图像形态学处理等预处理方法减缓噪声、仪表非指针区域的干扰,突出仪表图像指针区域。第二阶段本文通过计算指针图像旋转不同角度后在纵轴

  17. Recognition of Instrument Color Pointer Based on Color Extracting Method%基于颜色提取方法的仪表彩色指针识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀辰宇; 阚一凡; 焦圣喜

    2012-01-01

    主要论述了利用颜色提取及图像分割技术对汽车仪表指针位置进行识别处理的原理、步骤以及具体的实现过程。通过使用彩色提取和形态学图像处理技术,成功地提取了仪表盘中红色的指针,确定圆心并利用角度法计算出指针仪表读数。颜色提取方法为HIS颜色空间的坐标区域表示法,与常见的先把仪表图像转化成灰度图再进行处理的方法比较,此方法对于彩色指针仪表的识别更简单有效。%This thesis mostly discusses the image processing and recognition means of the dial pointer position using the technology of color extracting and image segmentation. The red pointer on the dashboard has extracted successfully and confirm the central point of automobile dashboard with the technology of color extracting and image segmentation. Then calculate pointer numerical using angle method. The method of color extracting is coordinate regional representation of color space, and the common method is doing image processing after turning instrument image into grayimage. For the recognition of color pointer, coordinate regional representation of color space is more effective.

  18. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Génova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of pointer years of numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 yr. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths and 34 positive (representing maximum growths, the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation was found to be the most limiting factor for the growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, these pointer years and intervals are not evenly distributed throughout time. Both in the first half of the 17th and in the second half of 20th, they were more frequent and more extreme and these periods are the most notable for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. The interval 1600–1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. We infer that this special minimum annual increase was the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of Southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  19. Comparison of increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using phase-sensitive MR imaging with perfusion changes on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Eijiro; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide (Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan)), email: eyamashi-ttr@umin.ac.jp; Tanaka, Takuro; Hirata, Yoshiharu (Div. of Clinical Radiology, Tottori Univ. Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan))

    2011-10-15

    Background Increased venous contrast in ischemic stroke using susceptibility-weighted imaging has been widely reported, although few reports have compared increased venous contrast areas with perfusion change areas. Purpose To compare venous contrast on phase-sensitive MR images (PSI) with perfusion change on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) images, and to discuss the clinical use of PSI in ischemic stroke. Material and Methods Thirty patients with clinically suspected acute infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory within 7 days of onset were evaluated. Phase-sensitive imaging (PSI), flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were obtained using 3 Tesla scanner. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed the MR images, as well as the PSI, DWI, and FAIR images. They were blinded to the clinical data and to each other's findings. The abnormal area of each image was ultimately identified after both neuroradiologists reached consensus. We analyzed areas of increased venous contrast on PSI, perfusion changes on FAIR images and signal changes on DWI for each case. Results Venous contrast increased on PSI and hypoperfusion was evident on FAIR images from 22 of the 30 patients (73%). The distribution of the increased venous contrast was the same as that of the hypoperfused areas on FAIR images in 16 of these 22. The extent of these lesions was larger than that of lesions visualized by on DWI in 18 of the 22 patients. Hypointense signals reflecting hemorrhage and no increased venous contrast on PSI and hyperperfusion on FAIR images were found in six of the remaining eight patients (20%). Findings on PSI were normal and hypoperfusion areas were absent on FAIR images of two patients (7%). Conclusion Increased venous contrast on PSI might serve as an index of misery perfusion and provide useful information

  20. Comparative efficacy of new interfaces for intra-procedural imaging review: the Microsoft Kinect, Hillcrest Labs Loop Pointer, and the Apple iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cherng; Tan, Justin; Castillo, Edward M; Zawaideh, Mazen; Roberts, Anne C; Kinney, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    We adapted and evaluated the Microsoft Kinect (touchless interface), Hillcrest Labs Loop Pointer (gyroscopic mouse), and the Apple iPad (multi-touch tablet) for intra-procedural imaging review efficacy in a simulation using MIM Software DICOM viewers. Using each device, 29 radiologists executed five basic interactions to complete the overall task of measuring an 8.1-cm hepatic lesion: scroll, window, zoom, pan, and measure. For each interaction, participants assessed the devices on a 3-point subjective scale (3 = highest usability score). The five individual scores were summed to calculate a subjective composite usability score (max 15 points). Overall task time to completion was recorded. Each user also assessed each device for its potential to jeopardize a sterile field. The composite usability scores were as follows: Kinect 9.9 (out of 15.0; SD = 2.8), Loop Pointer 12.9 (SD = 13.5), and iPad 13.5 (SD = 1.8). Mean task completion times were as follows: Kinect 156.7 s (SD = 86.5), Loop Pointer 51.5 s (SD = 30.6), and iPad 41.1 s (SD = 25.3). The mean hepatic lesion measurements were as follows: Kinect was 7.3 cm (SD = 0.9), Loop Pointer 7.8 cm (SD = 1.1), and iPad 8.2 cm (SD = 1.2). The mean deviations from true hepatic lesion measurement were as follows: Kinect 1.0 cm and for both the Loop Pointer and iPad, 0.9 cm (SD = 0.7). The Kinect had the least and iPad had the most subjective concern for compromising the sterile field. A new intra-operative imaging review interface may be near. Most surveyed foresee these devices as useful in procedures, and most do not anticipate problems with a sterile field. An ideal device would combine iPad's usability and accuracy with the Kinect's touchless aspect.

  1. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y., E-mail: toh.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [University of Fukui, Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui City, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Hara, K.; Kin, T.; Nakamura, S.; Harada, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen contents were analyzed by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of neutron scattering was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein content can be calculated by nitrogen content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein contents of standard materials agreed with the certified values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is a rapid, non-destructive, feasible method to quantify protein.

  2. Research on fitting method of pointer meters scales center straight-line%指针表刻度中心直线拟合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学聪; 汪仁煌; 刘洪江

    2012-01-01

    重点研究直线图像的直线方程拟合方法,提出了一种基于最小距离直线拟合新方法,用于拟合指针表刻度直线.对采集的仪表图像做预处理后,获得仪表各刻度直线的二值图像.使用最小距离直线拟合方法拟合各刻度中心直线,使用刻度拟合直线相交点对拟合直线进行最小二乘修正,提高刻度中心直线的拟合精度.仿真结果表明,该直线拟合方法能快速确定高精度指针表刻度线图像的精确直线方程,有利于提高指针表读数的精度.%The straight-line equation fitting method of the straight-line image is researched in detail, and a straight-line fitting method is proposed based on the least distance for fitting pointer meters scales center straight-line. After pre-processing of pointer meters image, the meter scale linear binary image is obtained. Firstly, the least distance straight-line fitting method is used to fitting each scale center straight-line, then the crosspoints of the scale fitting straight-line is used to fix the fitting line on the least-square correction, and the scale center straight-line fitting precision is improved. Simulation results show that the linear fitting method can rapidly determine the precise equation of the scale center straight-line of the high-precision pointer meters and improve effectively the accuracy of meter readout.

  3. Nonenhanced MR Angiography of the Hand with Flow-Sensitive Dephasing–prepared Balanced SSFP Sequence: Initial Experience with Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Davarpanah, Amir H.; Hodnett, Philip A.; Varga, John; Carr, James C.; Li, Debiao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the image quality and degree of vessel narrowing at flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the hands with those at contrast material–enhanced MR angiography of the hands in patients with systemic sclerosis. Materials and Methods: In a single-center study with institutional review board approval and HIPAA compliance, six healthy volunteers and six patients with systemic sclerosis were imaged at 1.5-T nonenhanced FSD MR angiography followed by contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Sixteen vascular segments in four vessel groups were evaluated for image quality and assessed semiquantitatively for stenosis degree by using Likert scales. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to perform pairwise comparisons of the MR angiographic techniques. P MR angiography, as compared with time-resolved MR angiography and high-spatial-resolution MR angiography, improved the image quality for all arterial segments combined in the control (mean score, 2.9 [FSD] vs 3.7 [time-resolved technique] and 3.1 [high-spatial-resolution technique]) and patient (mean score, 4.0 [FSD] vs 4.2 [time-resolved technique] and 4.3 [high-spatial-resolution technique]) groups. In the control subjects, FSD angiography depicted proper digital artery stenosis that was less severe (mean grade, 0.7) than that seen with the time-resolved (mean grade, 1.6) and high-spatial-resolution (mean grade, 1.0) techniques. In the patient group, FSD angiography depicted lower degrees of stenosis, with a lower mean grade for all segments combined (1.3) compared with the corresponding mean grades for time-resolved (1.5) and high-spatial-resolution (1.8) MR angiography. Conclusion: Preliminary data indicate that the proposed nonenhanced FSD MR angiographic technique is an improvement over existing contrast-enhanced techniques for evaluation of the hand vasculature in vasospastic disorders of the hand. Further technical improvements and a systematic clinical study

  4. Unenhanced MR Angiography of the Foot: Initial Experience of Using Flow-Sensitive Dephasing–prepared Steady-State Free Precession in Patients with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Na; Yang, Qi; Feng, Fei; Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Debiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with use of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)–prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) of the foot arteries in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Thirty-two healthy volunteers and 38 diabetic patients who had been scheduled for lower-extremity contrast material–enhanced MR angiography were recruited to undergo unenhanced MR angiography with a 1.5-T MR unit. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography in the detection of significant arterial stenosis (≥50%) were assessed by two independent reviewers. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used as the reference standard. The difference in the percentage of diagnostic arterial segments at unenhanced MR angiography between healthy volunteers and diabetic patients was evaluated with the McNemar test and generalized estimating equation for correlated data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of pedal arteries were measured and compared between the two MR angiography techniques by using the paired t test. Results All subjects successfully underwent unenhanced MR angiography of the foot. Unenhanced MR angiography yielded a high percentage of diagnostic arterial segments in both healthy volunteers (303 of 320 segments, 95%) and patients (341 of 370 segments, 92%), and there was no difference in the percentage between the two populations (P = .195). In patients, the average SNR and CNR at unenhanced MR angiography were higher than those at contrast-enhanced MR angiography (SNR: 90.7 ± 38.1 vs 81.7 ± 34.7, respectively, P = .023; CNR: 85.2 ± 33.2 vs 76.6 ± 33.5, respectively, P = .013). The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography

  5. Unenhanced MR angiography of the foot: initial experience of using flow-sensitive dephasing-prepared steady-state free precession in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Na; Yang, Qi; Feng, Fei; Liu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Debiao

    2014-09-01

    To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with use of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) of the foot arteries in patients with diabetes. This prospective study was approved by institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Thirty-two healthy volunteers and 38 diabetic patients who had been scheduled for lower-extremity contrast material-enhanced MR angiography were recruited to undergo unenhanced MR angiography with a 1.5-T MR unit. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography in the detection of significant arterial stenosis (≥50%) were assessed by two independent reviewers. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used as the reference standard. The difference in the percentage of diagnostic arterial segments at unenhanced MR angiography between healthy volunteers and diabetic patients was evaluated with the McNemar test and generalized estimating equation for correlated data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of pedal arteries were measured and compared between the two MR angiography techniques by using the paired t test. All subjects successfully underwent unenhanced MR angiography of the foot. Unenhanced MR angiography yielded a high percentage of diagnostic arterial segments in both healthy volunteers (303 of 320 segments, 95%) and patients (341 of 370 segments, 92%), and there was no difference in the percentage between the two populations (P = .195). In patients, the average SNR and CNR at unenhanced MR angiography were higher than those at contrast-enhanced MR angiography (SNR: 90.7 ± 38.1 vs 81.7 ± 34.7, respectively, P = .023; CNR: 85.2 ± 33.2 vs 76.6 ± 33.5, respectively, P = .013). The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography were 88% (35 of 40 segments), 93% (107 of

  6. 步进电机式汽车电子仪表的装针过程设计与控制%Process Design and Control of Pointer Installation of Auto Electronic Instrument Based on Stepper Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦平

    2012-01-01

    对步进电机式电子仪表的工作过程进行简要介绍,详细阐述其装针过程设计与控制。%The author briefly introduces the working process of electronic instrument based on stepper motor, elaborates the process design and control of its pointer installation.

  7. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  8. A Scalable IP Packet Classification Algorithm Using Indexed Pointers%一种基于索引指针的可扩展IP包分类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金库; 马建峰; 张德运

    2012-01-01

    设计并实现了一种基于索引指针的可扩展IP包分类算法.该算法通过分析源/目的端口号和协议类型字段在实际应用中的分布特性,将这3个字段映射到一个8比特元组上,压缩了分类维数;算法依据压缩后的8比特元组将分类规则集划分为256个子集,并为每个子集建立一个索引指针,指向该子集的存贮起始地址;算法通过计算IP包中"源/目的IP地址联合字段"中各个比特的信息熵值,找出最优的比特序列作为根和子节点,为每个规则子集建立一棵Tries查找树,既保证了存贮空间和查找时间最小,而且不存在回溯问题.实验结果证明,该算法分类效率高.%In this paper,a scalable IP packet classification algorithm using indexed pointers has been proposed.According to the distribution of source port,destination port and protocol type fields in the real applications,the algorithm maps the three fields to an eight-bit value and divides the whole rule set into 256 subsets.It assigns each subset an indexed pointer that points to the starting address of its storage space.The algorithm finds the best bit sequence and uses them as root and child nodes by calculating each bit's information entropy value of the combined field of source IP address and destination IP address,then it establishes a Tries lookup tree for each rule subset.By doing so,it requires the least storage space and lookup time without retrospect.The experimental results indicate that the new algorithm is highly efficient.

  9. Cycling and walking to work in New Zealand, 1991-2006: regional and individual differences, and pointers to effective interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornley Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active commuting increases levels of physical activity and is more likely to be adopted and sustained than exercise programmes. Despite the potential health, environmental, social and economic benefits, cycling and walking are increasingly marginal modes of transport in many countries. This paper investigated regional and individual differences in cycling and walking to work in New Zealand over the 15-year period (1991-2006. Methods New Zealand Census data (collected every five years were accessed to analyse self-reported information on the "main means of travel to work" from individuals aged 15 years and over who are usually resident and employed in New Zealand. This analysis investigated differences in patterns of active commuting to work stratified by region, age, gender and personal income. Results In 2006, over four-fifths of New Zealanders used a private vehicle, one in fourteen walked and one in forty cycled to work. Increased car use from 1991 to 2006 occurred at the expense of active means of travel as trends in public transport use remained unchanged during that period. Of the 16 regions defined at meshblock and area unit level, Auckland had the lowest prevalence of cycling and walking. In contrast to other regions, walking to work increased in Wellington and Nelson, two regions which have made substantial investments in local infrastructure to promote active transport. Nationally, cycling prevalence declined with age whereas a U-shaped trend was observed for walking. The numbers of younger people cycling to work and older people walking to work declined substantially from 1991 to 2006. Higher proportions of men compared with women cycled to work. The opposite was true for walking with an increasing trend observed in women aged under 30 years. Walking to work was less prevalent among people with higher income. Conclusion We observed a steady decline in cycling and walking to work from 1991 to 2006, with two regional

  10. The Pointer Assertion Logic Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2001-01-01

    We present a new framework for verifying partial specifications of programs in order to catch type and memory errors and check data structure invariants. Our technique can verify a large class of data structures, namely all those that can be expressed as graph types. Earlier versions were restric...

  11. The Megalithic Lunar Season Pointer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Claus

    A data set of 163 Danish megalithic passage tombs including 27 passage graves from Skåne (Sweden), believed to be built within a century, around 3200 BCE., were measured in terms of their location and orientation. The result of this work has provided important new knowledge on the Danish megalithic...... monuments. They have likely served as landscape markers, as there is documented intervisibilitet between most of the graves. The determined distribution of passage directions were the basis for developing a new and more general hypothesis concerning the orientation of megalithic monuments: Directions...... and these showed a statistical similar orientation and distribution. The current conclusion of the thesis based on these results is that the megalithic passage graves are oriented towards the moon, or a moon/ sun relationship throughout the period with megalithic monuments in Europe and adjacent areas...

  12. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  13. 高阻指针式检流计的设计%Design of the High-resistance Pointer Type Galvanometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋霞

    2012-01-01

    在分析传统检流计的基础上,采用恒流源式场效应管差分放大电路作为前级放大路以放大信号,2级运算放大电路作为后级放大电路,多电阻分两级调零,表头串接一电阻并在2端加装1个双向稳压管组成保护电路,传统检流计表头接保护电路完成指示功能,6节5号电池为电路供电,对传统的检流计进行了改进.结果表明,该设计提高了系统的测量精度和灵敏度,而且结构简单、稳定.%In our report, the traditional galvanometer was modified by increasing two cascade amplifying circuits and other circuits, the differential amplifying circuit was used as preamp to amplify signals, at the same time, input resistance was increased, the measured circuit was protected, and the measuring precision was improved. Two cascade op-amp circuits were used as the latter grade amplifier circuit to stabilize the circuit and raise the system sensibility. Two cascade ZA circuits were used to complete the function of ZA. The protecting circuit was made of gauge outfit, resistance and dual stability, the pointer adding the protecting circuit completes the display function, moreover, we used input batteries as power source. The results indicated that circuit is simple and visual display.

  14. 指针式压力表自动检定系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of fully automatic calibration system for pressure gauges with pointers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟丽; 周寰; 徐保国

    2009-01-01

    A fully automatic calibration system for pressure gauges with pointers is presented, including a calibration management system of pressure gauges and an automatic reading system of pointer readings. The operation is very convenient with the use of visual interface in this system. The operator only needs to input several necessary coefficients such as range, accuracy and so on, the pointer reading of pressure gauges will be read automatically. The automatic reading method will be used to calibrate for almost all kinds of pointer gauges. The accuracy is decided by resolution and processing time. This automatic calibration system improves the present state of pressure calibration, and enhances the automation level of calibration to some extent.%设计并开发了一种指针式压力表自动检定系统.该系统包括压力表检定/校准管理系统和仪表示值自动判读系统两部分.系统的可视化界面使得操作非常简单,操作人员只需输入量程、精度等必要参数,压力表的指针读数即可自动读出.给出的自动判读方法可用于各种指针式仪表精度的自动检测、判读,其精度取决于图像的分辨率和限定的处理时间.本系统可较大地改善压力表人工检定工作的落后状况,在一定程度上提高了检定工作的自动化水平和检定结果的稳定性.

  15. Teuchos::RefCountPtr beginner's guide : an introduction to the Trilinos smart reference-counted pointer class for (almost) automatic dynamic memory management in C++.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe A

    2004-06-01

    Dynamic memory management in C++ is one of the most common areas of difficulty and errors for amateur and expert C++ developers alike. The improper use of operator new and operator delete is arguably the most common cause of incorrect program behavior and segmentation faults in C++ programs. Here we introduce a templated concrete C++ class Teuchos::RefCountPtr<>, which is part of the Trilinos tools package Teuchos, that combines the concepts of smart pointers and reference counting to build a low-overhead but effective tool for simplifying dynamic memory management in C++. We discuss why the use of raw pointers for memory management, managed through explicit calls to operator new and operator delete, is so difficult to accomplish without making mistakes and how programs that use raw pointers for memory management can easily be modified to use RefCountPtr<>. In addition, explicit calls to operator delete is fragile and results in memory leaks in the presents of C++ exceptions. In its most basic usage, RefCountPtr<> automatically determines when operator delete should be called to free an object allocated with operator new and is not fragile in the presents of exceptions. The class also supports more sophisticated use cases as well. This document describes just the most basic usage of RefCountPtr<> to allow developers to get started using it right away. However, more detailed information on the design and advanced features of RefCountPtr<> is provided by the companion document 'Teuchos::RefCountPtr : The Trilinos Smart Reference-Counted Pointer Class for (Almost) Automatic Dynamic Memory Management in C++'.

  16. 非均匀光照下指针式仪表自动判读算法设计%AUTOMATIC INTERPRETATION ALGORITHM FOR POINTER INSTRUMENTS BASED ON NON-UNIFORM ILLUMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪; 毕笃彦; 李权合; 刘楠

    2013-01-01

    拟合人眼视觉机制提出了非均匀光照下指针仪表图像的预处理算法,在此基础上进一步设计了座舱指针式仪表自动判读算法。首先对仪表盘图像进行亮度均衡、二值化变换,再将指针细化,然后根据改进的Hough变换提取目标信息,确定座舱指针式仪表的读数。实验结果表明,该算法有效地解决了在非均匀光照情况下的飞机座舱指针式仪表自动判读,降低了判读误差。%the human visual mechanism , based on that we further design the automatic interpretation algorithm for cockpit pointer instruments .Firstly the algorithm conducts the lightness balance and binarisation transform on instruments panel images , and then makes the pointer needles thinning down;afterwards , it extracts the object information according to the modified Hough transformation and determines the readings of cockpit index instruments.Experimental results prove that the algorithm effectively solves the issue of automatic interpretation of cockpit pointer instruments in circumstance of non-uniform lightness , reduces the reading error .

  17. Hybrid Information Flow Analysis for Programs with Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergö Barany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information flow analysis checks whether certain pieces of (confidential data may affect the results of computations in unwanted ways and thus leak information. Dynamic information flow analysis adds instrumentation code to the target software to track flows at run time and raise alarms if a flow policy is violated; hybrid analyses combine this with preliminary static analysis. Using a subset of C as the target language, we extend previous work on hybrid information flow analysis that handled pointers to scalars. Our extended formulation handles arrays, pointers to array elements, and pointer arithmetic. Information flow through arrays of pointers is tracked precisely while arrays of non-pointer types are summarized efficiently. A prototype of our approach is implemented using the Frama-C program analysis and transformation framework. Work on a full machine-checked proof of the correctness of our approach using Isabelle/HOL is well underway; we present the existing parts and sketch the rest of the correctness argument.

  18. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting the logi......We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  19. Robotic hand-eye calibration based on active vision with laser pointer%带激光笔的机器人主动视觉手眼标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝兴; 陈丹; 唐旭晟

    2015-01-01

    以固高 GRB-400机器人和摄像机组成手眼系统,在手眼关系旋转矩阵的标定方面,分析了基于主动视觉的标定方法。为实现手眼关系平移向量的标定,提出以固定于机械臂末端的激光笔来获取工件平台上特征点的基坐标,并结合已标定的旋转矩阵来标定平移向量。最后,从图像求取多个特征点之间的距离并与实际值进行误差比较,平面特征点间的长度测量误差在±0.8 mm 之间,表明手眼标定精度较高,可满足机器人进行工件定位与自动抓取的要求。%In terms of the rotation matrix calibration of the hand-eye relation, the calibration method based on active vision for eye-in-hand system which is consisted of Googol GRB-400 robot and camera is analyzed. The world coordinates of the feature point on the workpiece platform are obtained by laser pointer mounted on the mechanical arm which is proposed for the calibration of translation vector of the hand-eye relation combined with the calibrated rotation matrix. Finally , the result can be get that the measurement error range of the lengths between the plane feature points is ±0 . 8 mm, which indicates the hand-eye calibration precision is high, through calculating the distances between multiple feature points from the image and comparing the error with the actual values, and it can meet the requirements of workpiece positioning and automatic grabbing for robot.

  20. Indicadores de bem-estar baseados em reações comportamentais de matrizes pesadas Welfare pointers in function of behavior reactions of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dada a importância da avicultura de corte para a economia brasileira, este trabalho buscou compreender e identificar novos indicadores de bem-estar inerentes ao animal que contribuíssem para o aumento da eficácia produtiva, estudando-se diferentes reações comportamentais de matrizes de frango de corte, em câmara climática. O experimento foi delineado como um Quadrado Latino 3x3x3, em que as variáveis temperatura do ar, ração e idade das aves foram controladas, sendo as aves de diferentes idades alojadas em boxes distintos. Foram feitas observações do comportamento das aves em dois horários do dia, sendo uma observação na parte da manhã e outra na parte da tarde, durante períodos de 15 minutos cada, por meio de câmeras de vídeo instaladas no teto da câmara climática, não havendo interferência humana no registro das informações. Constatou-se, nos dados, a influência das variáveis controladas em diversos comportamentos observados, concluindo-se que a presença do alimento é um fator experimental relevante, pois aumenta as reações comportamentais agressivas.Knowing the importance that the poultry industry represents for the Brazilian economy, this work, searched to understand and to identify new welfare pointers inherent to the animal that contributed for the increase of the productive effectiveness, studying different behavior reactions in broiler breeders, in climatic chamber. The experiment was delineated as a Latin Square 3x3x3, where the variable: temperature of air, birds ration and birds age had been controlled. The birds of different ages had been lodged in distinct boxes. Observations of the behavior of the birds in two schedules of the day had been made, being one in the morning and the other one in the afternoon, during a period of 15 minutes each through video cameras, installed in the ceiling of the climatic chamber, having no interference of human being in the register of the data. It was verified the

  1. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  2. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  3. 一种基于改进角度法的指针式仪表图像自动读数方法%An Automatic Reading Method of Pointer Instrument′s Images Based on Improved Angle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 李琦; 方彦军

    2013-01-01

    利用计算机进行指针式仪表的检定技术日趋成熟,其中仪表数值的判读算法还有一定缺陷,对读数精度造成影响。针对基于机器视觉的指针式仪表检定对高精度的要求,着重研究了计算机自动读数过程中的读数算法环节,提出了基于角度法和距离法的改进角度法,该方法结合了角度法和距离法的优点,进一步提高了基于机器视觉的指针式仪表自动读数的精度。%The verification technology of pointer instruments, which uses computers, has become ripe. The interpretation arithmetic of instruments still has some drawbacks, which causes bad effects to the accuracy. This paper focused on the demand for the high accuracy of pointer instrument′s verification based on computer vision. It studies the reading arithmetic of automatic reding, and puts forwards the improved angle method which is based on the angle method and distance method. The improved angel method includes the advantages of angle method and distance method, which improve the accuracy of pointer instrument′s automatic reading based on computer vision.

  4. The Pointer Optimization Strategy Based on the distributed RSs in the Mobile IP Network%移动IP中基于分布式注册服务器的指针优化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    Mobility management is one of the key problems in the mobile communication techniques. The performance of the mobile communication networks is heavily depended on the effectiveness of the mobility management. In this paper, we have presented a protocol of the mobility management in the mobile IP networks, based on the distributed RSs. When the mobile user in the inactive connection handoffs, some pointers are constructed and modified by the RSs and routers. It can realize the local registration; only when a call arrives, the possible update operations of the mobile database are needed. Consequently, the access of the RS is limited, and the cost of the mobility management is also reduced.

  5. Atomistic Galois insertions for flow sensitive integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Several program verification techniques assist in showing that software adheres to the required security policies. Such policies may be sensitive to the flow of execution and the verification may be supported by combinations of type systems and Hoare logics. However, this requires user assistance...

  6. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range. METHODS: Five Neopuffs were set up to provide a PEEP of 5 cm H(2) O. The number of clockwise revolutions to complete occlusion of the PEEP valve and the mean and range of pressures at each quarter clockwise revolution were recorded at gas flow rates between 5 and 15 L\\/min. Results: At 5, 10 and 15 L\\/min, 0.5, 1.7 and 3.4 full clockwise rotations were required to completely occlude the PEEP valve, and pressures rose from 5 to 11.4, 18.4 and 21.5 cm H(2) O, respectively. At a flow rate of 5 L\\/min, half a rotation of the PEEP dial resulted in a rise in PEEP from 5 to 11.4cm H(2) O. At 10 L\\/min, half a rotation resulted in a rise from 5 to 7.7cm H(2) O, and at 15 L\\/min PEEP rose from 5 to 6.8cm H(2) O. CONCLUSION: Users of the Neopuff should be aware that the PEEP valve is more sensitive at lower flow rates and that half a rotation of the dial at 5 L\\/min gas flow can more than double the PEEP.

  7. The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2011-03-01

    The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range.

  8. Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shu; Jia Jian; Gao Xiaoguang; He Xiuli [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Jianping, E-mail: jpli@mail.ie.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L{sup -1} (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

  9. Review on recent advances in the analysis of isolated organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satori, Chad P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kostal, Vratislav [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno 616 00 (Czech Republic); Arriaga, Edgar A., E-mail: arriaga@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advancements in organelle release. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approaches to fractionate organelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Updates on new techniques to characterize isolated organelles. - Abstract: The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices.

  10. 基于程序流敏感的自修改代码混淆方法%A Program Flow-Sensitive Self-Modifying Code Obfuscation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎祥; 陈勇; 吴伟; 陈念; 徐超; 刘健博; 苏雯

    2012-01-01

    自修改代码混淆方法是一种隐藏程序重要信息的有效技术.为减少代码混淆造成的额外开销而又不影响代码混淆的质量,利用程序流敏感分析方法选择比较重要的指令进行混淆.为提高代码混淆的质量,有效地防止反汇编,提出一个二步比较混淆模型.该模型包括两个子混淆器,混淆器1采用程序流敏感分析方法获得混淆的指令并产生两个混淆代码文件和一个混淆代码映射文件.混淆器2通过比较两个混淆代码文件精确地定位混淆指令在二进制代码中的位置,然后利用混淆代码映射文件对二进制代码进行混淆,以进一步提高代码混淆的质量.通过实验分析,混淆后二进制文件的额外开销只占整个代码的3%左右,并且混淆后的反汇编代码明显异于原始的反汇编代码,甚至出现了一些无法识别的错误指令.%Self-modifying code obfuscation is an effective technique to hide the important information of programs. In this paper, we focus on reducing the cost of obfuscated codes and enhancing the degree of obfuscation to use a flow-sensitive method to select the obfuscated codes that are important relatively such as control instruction and propose a two-step comparing obfuscation model that can locate the obfuscated instructions in binary codes precisely that can help change these codes to illegal codes to defense the disassembly. The model contains two parts. The first part uses the flow-sensitive analyses to get the obfuscated instructions and generate two obfuscated codes and one obfuscated code mapping file. Then, the second part compares these two obfuscated codes to generate the final obfuscated codes containing the illegal instruction codes based on the obfuscated code mapping file. Through the experiments, the obfuscated instructions are about 3% of the whole codes and the disassemble codes are much different with the source codes and even some error instructions appear.

  11. Noncontrast MR Angiography (MRA) of Infragenual Arteries Using Flow-Sensitive Dephasing (FSD)-Prepared Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) at 3.0T: Comparison with Contrast-Enhanced MRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Bi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yike; An, Jing; Liu, Jiayi; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR angiography (MRA) for imaging infragenual arteries at 3.0T, with contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) as reference. Materials And Methods Twenty consecutive patients with suspicion of lower extremity arterial disease undergoing routine CE MRA were recruited. FSD MRA was performed at calf before CE MRA. Image quality and stenosis degree of infragenual arteries from both techniques were independently evaluated and compared. Six patients in this study underwent DSA examination. Results Three undiagnostic segments were excluded with severe venous contamination in CE MRA. A total of 197 calf arterial segments images were analyzed. No significant difference existed in the relative signal intensity (rSI) of arterial segments between FSD MRA and CE MRA techniques (0.92±0.09 vs. 0.93±0.05; P=0.207). However, the subjective image quality score was slightly higher in FSD MRA (3.66±0.81 vs. 3.49±0.87; P=0.050). With CE MRA images as reference standard, slight overestimation existed in FSD MRA (2.19±1.24 vs. 2.09±1.18; P=0.019), with total agreement of 84.3% on the basis of all arterial segments. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of FSD MRA was 96.4%, 93.0%, 98.5%, and 84.1%. No significant difference in the stenosis degree score was detected between MRA (FSD MRA and CE MRA) and DSA (P > 0.05). Conclusion FSD MRA performed on at 3.0Twithout the use of contrast medium provides diagnostic images allowing for arterial stenosis assessment of calf arteries that was highly comparable with CE MRA. Moreover, venous contamination was less problematic with FSD MRA. PMID:26185106

  12. Automatically Charging Blast Furnace by SIEMENS S7-400PLC Via Pointer Programming%西门子S7-400PLC指针编程实现高炉自动装料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁戎; 洪志祥

    2015-01-01

    介绍了当前比较通用的一种有料车高炉的自动装料方式,并详细解释了如何通过西门子S7-400PLC指针编程的形式,使用一个关联的数据区,一个动态的巡检字,三套并联的程序结构,实现高炉自动装料的方法。%This paper introduces a common kind of blast furnace with skip car that can automatic charging, and explain how to use the SIEMENS S7-400PLC with pointer program-ming, using a relational data area, a dynamic inspection of words, three sets of parallel pro-gram structure,to achieve automatic charging of blast furnace automatically.

  13. Fundamental parameter based quantification algorithm for confocal nano-X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonjans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Schoonjans@UGent.be [X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group (XMI), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart [X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group (XMI), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schmitz, Sylvia [Geosciences Institute/Mineralogy, Goethe University Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brenker, Frank E. [Geosciences Institute/Mineralogy, Goethe University Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Vincze, Laszlo, E-mail: Laszlo.Vincze@UGent.be [X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group (XMI), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    A new method for the quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was derived based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM). The FPM equations were adapted to accommodate the special case of confocal nano-XRF, i.e. X-ray nano-beam excitation coupled with confocal detection, taking into account the special characteristics of the detector channel polycapillary. A thorough error estimation algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method was applied, producing a detailed analysis of the uncertainties of the quantification results. The new FPM algorithm was applied on confocal nano-XRF data obtained from cometary dust returned by NASA's Stardust mission, recorded at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new method for the quantification of confocal XRF is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantification is based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new FPM algorithm was applied for the analysis of unique cometary dust particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cometary particles were returned by NASA's Stardust mission in 2006. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Error estimation is based on the Monte Carlo method.

  14. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to the analysis of algal biomass for industrial biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porizka, P.; Prochazka, D. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pilat, Z. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Krajcarova, L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Kaiser, J., E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Malina, R.; Novotny, J. [X-ray micro CT and nano CT research group, CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Zemanek, P.; Jezek, J.; Sery, M.; Bernatova, S.; Krzyzanek, V.; Dobranska, K. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic); Novotny, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 611 37 (Czech Republic); Trtilek, M. [Photon Systems Instruments, Drasov 470, 664 24 Drasov (Czech Republic); Samek, O. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, Brno 61669 (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the determination of elements distinctive in terms of their biological significance (such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium) and to the monitoring of accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metal ions in living microorganisms (algae), in order to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure and other cultivation and biological factors having an impact on them. Algae cells were suspended in liquid media or presented in a form of adherent cell mass on a surface (biofilm) and, consequently, characterized using their spectra. In our feasibility study we used three different experimental arrangements employing double-pulse LIBS technique in order to improve on analytical selectivity and sensitivity for potential industrial biotechnology applications, e.g. for monitoring of mass production of commercial biofuels, utilization in the food industry and control of the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial waste waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We realized laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of algal biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used water jet setup, bulk liquid arrangement and algal biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS analysis of macro- and micro-element concentrations in algae was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be of assistance in research of sustainable biofuel generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS can be used in research of algal food applications and bioremediation.

  15. Delta-Sigma调制器在空间指向镜位置伺服系统中的应用%Application of Delta-Sigma Modulator in Space Pointer Mirror Position Servo System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淳; 谢妮慧; 林喆

    2014-01-01

    在目前的空间指向镜位置伺服系统中,数字控制器输出脉宽调制(PWM)的量化误差会导致指向出现小幅角度振荡,使得指向的稳定性降低,进而导致光学遥感成像质量发生退化。针对航天器工程实现的特点,将 Delta-Sigma 调制器引入到数控软件中,在不改变硬件电路与系统参数的前提下,显著的降低了输出量化误差对伺服系统的影响。Matlab仿真结果表明,该方法可使指向镜的指向角度振荡幅值衰减至原来的1/5以下,有效地提高了指向镜的指向稳定性。%The quantization error of DPWM causes slight angle oscillation and stability decrease in pointer mirror position servo system, which results in degradation of optical imaging quality in space remote sensor. On the premise of changing no circuit and system parameters, Delta-Sigma modulator is applied to the software of products in this paper, which significantly lessens the impact of DPWM quantization error on the servo system. A Matlab simulation of pointer mirror position servo system is presented, with the result of more than 5 times attenuation of the amplitude of the angle oscillation by using Delta-Sigma modulator.

  16. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated ...

  17. Non-Contrast Enhanced MR Angiography (NCE-MRA) of the Calf: A Direct Comparison between Flow-Sensitive Dephasing (FSD) Prepared Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP) and Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS) in Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zou, Liqiu; Huang, Yi; Liu, Dexiang; Tang, Yukuan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Chen, Hanwei; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of two non-contrast enhanced MR angiography (NCE-MRA) techniques using flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD) prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) and quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) for the calf arteries in patients with diabetes. Twenty six patients underwent the two NCE-MRA techniques followed by contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) of lower extremity on a 1.5T MR system. Image quality scores, arterial stenosis scores, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), vessel sharpness, and diagnostic accuracy for detecting more than 50% arterial stenosis were evaluated and statistically compared using CE-MRA as the reference standard. All examinations were performed successfully. Of the total 153 calf arterial segments obtained in the 26 patients, FSD and QISS showed no significant difference in the number of diagnostic arterial segments (151 [98%] vs. 147 [96%], respectively, P>0.05). The image quality of FSD was higher than that of QISS in the peroneal artery and posterior tibial artery (P0.05). SNR and CNR of FSD were higher than those of QISS (P0.05). The time efficiency of SNR and CNR between FSD and QISS showed no significant difference when taking into account the times for FSD-related scout scans. There was no difference in sensitivity (95% vs. 93%, P>0.05) and negative predictive value (98% vs. 97%, P>0.05) between FSD and QISS for detecting stenosis greater than 50%. However, FSD showed higher specificities (99% vs. 92%, P<0.05) and diagnostic accuracy (98% vs. 92%, P<0.05) compared to QISS. Both FSD and QISS had similar high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting calf arteries with over 50% stenosis, but FSD showed slightly higher diagnostic specificity and better depiction of arterial lesions due to its isotropic submillimeter spatial resolution. QISS, being an easier to use and less time-consuming technique, could be a method of choice for rapid screening of arterial

  18. Non-Contrast Enhanced MR Angiography (NCE-MRA of the Calf: A Direct Comparison between Flow-Sensitive Dephasing (FSD Prepared Steady-State Free Precession (SSFP and Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS in Patients with Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    Full Text Available To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of two non-contrast enhanced MR angiography (NCE-MRA techniques using flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP and quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS for the calf arteries in patients with diabetes.Twenty six patients underwent the two NCE-MRA techniques followed by contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA of lower extremity on a 1.5T MR system. Image quality scores, arterial stenosis scores, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, vessel sharpness, and diagnostic accuracy for detecting more than 50% arterial stenosis were evaluated and statistically compared using CE-MRA as the reference standard.All examinations were performed successfully. Of the total 153 calf arterial segments obtained in the 26 patients, FSD and QISS showed no significant difference in the number of diagnostic arterial segments (151 [98%] vs. 147 [96%], respectively, P>0.05. The image quality of FSD was higher than that of QISS in the peroneal artery and posterior tibial artery (P0.05. SNR and CNR of FSD were higher than those of QISS (P0.05. The time efficiency of SNR and CNR between FSD and QISS showed no significant difference when taking into account the times for FSD-related scout scans. There was no difference in sensitivity (95% vs. 93%, P>0.05 and negative predictive value (98% vs. 97%, P>0.05 between FSD and QISS for detecting stenosis greater than 50%. However, FSD showed higher specificities (99% vs. 92%, P<0.05 and diagnostic accuracy (98% vs. 92%, P<0.05 compared to QISS.Both FSD and QISS had similar high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting calf arteries with over 50% stenosis, but FSD showed slightly higher diagnostic specificity and better depiction of arterial lesions due to its isotropic submillimeter spatial resolution. QISS, being an easier to use and less time-consuming technique, could be a method of choice for rapid screening of

  19. Noncontrast MR angiography (MRA) of infragenual arteries using flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) at 3.0 Tesla: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Bi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yike; An, Jing; Liu, Jiayi; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR angiography (MRA) for imaging infragenual arteries at 3.0T, with contrast enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) as reference. Twenty consecutive patients with suspicion of lower extremity arterial disease undergoing routine CE MRA were recruited. FSD MRA was performed at calf before CE MRA. Image quality and stenosis degree of infragenual arteries from both techniques were independently evaluated and compared. Six patients in this study underwent DSA examination. Three undiagnostic segments were excluded with severe venous contamination in CE MRA. A total of 197 calf arterial segments images were analyzed. No significant difference existed in the relative signal intensity (rSI) of arterial segments between FSD MRA and CE MRA techniques (0.92 ± 0.09 versus 0.93 ± 0.05; P = 0.207). However, the subjective image quality score was slightly higher in FSD MRA (3.66 ± 0.81 versus 3.49 ± 0.87; P = 0.050). With CE MRA images as reference standard, slight overestimation existed in FSD MRA (2.19 ± 1.24 versus 2.09 ± 1.18; P = 0.019), with total agreement of 84.3% on the basis of all arterial segments. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of FSD MRA was 96.4%, 93.0%, 98.5%, and 84.1%. No significant difference in the stenosis degree score was detected between MRA (FSD MRA and CE MRA) and DSA (P > 0.05). FSD MRA performed on at 3.0T without the use of contrast medium provides diagnostic images allowing for arterial stenosis assessment of calf arteries that was highly comparable with CE MRA. Moreover, venous contamination was less problematic with FSD MRA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Experience of a Highly Skilled Student during Handball Lessons in Physical Education: A Relevant Pointer to the Gap between School and Sports Contexts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…

  1. Thick activation detectors for neutron spectrometry using different unfolding methods: sensitivity analysis and dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medkour Ishak-Boushaki, Ghania, E-mail: gmedkour@yahoo.com [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Boukeffoussa, Khelifa [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Idiri, Zahir [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Boulevard Frantz-Fanon, BP 399, Algiers (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the use of threshold detectors of extended sizes for low intensity neutron fields' characterization. The detectors were tested by the measurement of the neutron spectrum of an {sup 241}Am-Be source. Integral quantities characterizing the neutron field, required for radiological protection, have been derived by unfolding the measured data. A good agreement is achieved between the obtained results and those deduced using Bonner spheres. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the results to the deconvolution procedure is given. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low intensity neutron fields' characterization using thick threshold detectors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low activity {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source spectrum measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral quantities required for radiological protection have been derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results are in good agreement with those deduced using Bonner spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results are not very sensitive to the chosen deconvolution procedure.

  2. Modular Control Flow Analysis for Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2002-01-01

    One problem in analyzing object oriented languages is that the exact control flow graph is not known statically due to dynamic dispatching. However, this is needed in order to apply the large class of known interprocedural analysis. Control Flow Analysis in the object oriented setting aims at det...... at determining run-time types of variables, thus allowing to possibly targeted method implementations. We present a flow sensitive analysis that allows separate handling of libraries and thereby efficient analysis of whole programs....

  3. Study on silk anti-crease finishing with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives by surface analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoshan [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xing Tieling [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu Dongmei, E-mail: xdm.sd@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Chen Guoqiang [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silk fabric was modified with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treated fabric exhibited high wet resiliency and strength retention rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treated fabric showed good whiteness and washing durability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification process could be carried out at lower temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface analysis methods were employed to study the anticreasing mechanism. - Abstract: The natural silk fabric was finished with polycarboxyl-terminated trichlorotriazine derivatives for anticreasing purpose. The treated fabric exhibited better wet resiliency, higher strength retention rate and whiteness than those treated with 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) under the same conditions, and they also have similar good washing durability to those treated with BTCA. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated the crosslinking reaction between the chlorine atom, the carboxyl in the trichlorotriazine derivatives and the amino, the hydroxyl on the surface of the silk fabric. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the surface of the treated fabric became a little rough. The chlorine atom and the carboxyl in the trichlorotriazine derivatives, and the surface roughness of the treated silk fabric were all contributive to the wrinkle resistance of silk.

  4. Therapy of Acupressure Pointer before Intravenous Infusion in Cephalic Vein Applied Nursing Research%穴位指针疗法在头静脉输液前应用的护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋应玲; 刘倩; 冯珏; 肖艳平; 郭庆; 乔艾春; 邓玲华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cephalic vein puncture on hand in three acupressure pointer therapy intervention on the comfortable degree of infusion nursing. Methods In 2010 March to 2012 March in hospitalized patients with standard 160 patients according to the time of admission, were randomLy divided into experimental group and control group, 80 cases in each group. The control group in the"new"basis of nursing science"for the standard, using conventional intravenous infusion method. In experimental group received puncture side hand in three acupressure pointer therapy after routine intravenous infusion, observe two groups of patients in the cephalic vein puncture disposable puncture success rate, pain response and transfusion puncture nursing satisfaction were compared. Results The patients in the experimental group received acupuncture needle therapy, cephalic vein puncture success rate of puncture, disposable transfusion puncture pain reaction and nursing satisfaction compared with the control group had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion The cephalic vein puncture on hand in three acupressure pointer therapy intervention, can significantly reduce the puncture pain, so that patients can cooperate smoothly infusion operation, improve the success rate of puncture and intravenous transfusion of patients satisfaction.%  目的探讨头静脉穿刺前行手三里穴位指针疗法干预对输液护理舒适度的影响.方法将2010年3月至2012年3月住院患者中符合标准的160例患者按照入院时间,随机分成实验组和对照组,每组80例.对照组以《新编护理学基础》为标准,采用常规静脉输液法.实验组在接受穿刺侧手三里穴位指针疗法后按常规静脉输液法,观察两组患者在头静脉穿刺的一次性穿刺成功率、疼痛反应及输液穿刺满意度等进行比较.结果实验组患者在接受穴位指针疗法后,头静脉穿刺的一次性穿刺成功率、疼痛反应及

  5. EEL spectroscopic tomography: Towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Lluis, E-mail: llyedra@el.ub.es [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eljarrat, Alberto [Laboratory of Electron Nanoscopies (LENS)-MIND/IN2UB, Dept. d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Arenal, Raul [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moises [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lopez-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta [CIN2(CIN-CSIC) and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sort, Jordi [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Baro, Maria Dolors [Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe{sub x}Co{sub (3-x)}O{sub 4}@Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS-SI tomography was performed at low voltage and low acquisition times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MVA has been applied for noise reduction and information extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic reconstruction has been achieved for chemical information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental distribution extraction in 3D has been proved.

  6. Stretching Labour Historiography: Pointers from South Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of working people have long been framed by the concepts of "free" and "unfree" labour, a pair that distinguishes workers who are fully proletarianized from those who are not. Proletarians are working people without property, and therefore compelled to sell their capacities for money, but at

  7. Point-to Analysis for Object-Oriented Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rajasekhara Babu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pointer analysis is the problem of statically determining the runtime targets of pointer variables in a program. This information has a wide variety of client applications in optimizing compilers and software engineering tools. This paper focuses on precise pointsto analysis for Object Oriented Languages (OOL such as Java, C#, Scala, etc based on Andersen's points-to analysis for C language, which validates the performance of the analysis on a large set of Java programs. Implementation of this analysis is done by using a subset-based approach which is done by using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs. This paper first introduces BDDs and operations on BDDs using some simple points-to examples. Then, a complete subsetbased points-to algorithm is presented, expressed completely using BDDs and BDD operations.

  8. 數位課程圖像引導游標對學習注意力與學習成效影響之研究Effect of e-Learning Course Design with Guided Pointer on Students’ Locus of Attention and Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    潘鈺筠Yu-Yun Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用眼動儀觀察學習者於觀看數位課程圖像與閱讀過程中,眼睛觀看位置與眼球運動的情形。透過不同設計的數位課程介面,探討學習者於數位課程學習時的狀況與學習成效,輔以問卷評量與訪談。研究結果顯示:數位課程使用移動指示游標,對學習者的注意力分布具有顯著影響,並且會影響學習者觀看課程時的平均掃視幅度,對學習成效則不具影響。整體而言,學習者對數位課程畫面的滿意度除「訊息配置」之外,其他各項有指標組都高於無指標組。An eye tracker was used in this study to detect the effect of instruction design of e-Learning with or without using the guided pointer on learner’s locus of attention and learning achievement. The results of the experiment found e-Learning instruction with guided pointer would significantly increase learner’s locus of attention, but have no effect on learning achievement. However, the learning attitudes of the deceptive data revealed that learners in the indexing pointer group have higher scores than that of in the group without indexing pointer.

  9. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraetschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA) Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Herter, K.-H., E-mail: herter@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA) Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simplified as well as a general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F{sub en} are shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  10. Structural phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films detected by photoacoustic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Argelia Perez, E-mail: ekargy@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes de Oca, C. Oliva; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Garcia, A. Esparza [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied by photoacoustic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition in WO{sub 3} thin films was induced by laser irradiation fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The onset and end of the phototransformation in the thin films was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold for each sample was identified. - Abstract: The photoacoustic technique (PA) was used to detect the phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline state of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films induced by UV pulsed laser radiation at low energy (<1.5 mJ). The evolution of photoacoustic signal was studied by a correlation analysis, comparing successive signals at fluences ranging from 0 to 20 mJ/cm{sup 2}. In this interval, it was possible to observe structural changes and the ablation threshold in films due to incident laser fluence effect. Thin films of WO{sub 3} were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering over glass substrates at different deposition times. The results obtained by correlation analysis were compared with Raman spectroscopy data.

  11. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  12. Maximum likelihood-based analysis of photon arrival trajectories in single-molecule FRET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waligorska, Marta [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Molski, Andrzej, E-mail: amolski@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study model selection and parameter recovery from single-molecule FRET experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the maximum likelihood-based analysis of two-color photon trajectories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The number of observed photons determines the performance of the method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times. -- Abstract: When two fluorophores (donor and acceptor) are attached to an immobilized biomolecule, anti-correlated fluctuations of the donor and acceptor fluorescence caused by Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) report on the conformational kinetics of the molecule. Here we assess the maximum likelihood-based analysis of donor and acceptor photon arrival trajectories as a method for extracting the conformational kinetics. Using computer generated data we quantify the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates and the efficiency of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in selecting the true kinetic model. We find that the number of observed photons is the key parameter determining parameter estimation and model selection. For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times.

  13. De novo analysis of electron impact mass spectra using fragmentation trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufsky, Franziska, E-mail: franziska.hufsky@uni-jena.de [Chair of Bioinformatics, Friedrich Schiller University, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, Jena (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany); Rempt, Martin [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Bioorganic Analytics, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 8, Jena (Germany); Rasche, Florian [Chair of Bioinformatics, Friedrich Schiller University, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, Jena (Germany); Pohnert, Georg [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Bioorganic Analytics, Friedrich Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 8, Jena (Germany); Boecker, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.boecker@uni-jena.de [Chair of Bioinformatics, Friedrich Schiller University, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for de novo analysis of accurate mass EI mass spectra of small molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method identifies the molecular ion and thus the molecular formula where the molecular ion is present in the spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fragmentation trees are constructed by automated signal extraction and evaluation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These trees explain relevant fragmentation reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method will be very helpful in the automated analysis of unknown metabolites. - Abstract: The automated fragmentation analysis of high resolution EI mass spectra based on a fragmentation tree algorithm is introduced. Fragmentation trees are constructed from EI spectra by automated signal extraction and evaluation. These trees explain relevant fragmentation reactions and assign molecular formulas to fragments. The method enables the identification of the molecular ion and the molecular formula of a metabolite if the molecular ion is present in the spectrum. These identifications are independent of existing library knowledge and, thus, support assignment and structural elucidation of unknown compounds. The method works even if the molecular ion is of very low abundance or hidden under contaminants with higher masses. We apply the algorithm to a selection of 50 derivatized and underivatized metabolites and demonstrate that in 78% of cases the molecular ion can be correctly assigned. The automatically constructed fragmentation trees correspond very well to published mechanisms and allow the assignment of specific relevant fragments and fragmentation pathways even in the most complex EI-spectra in our dataset. This method will be very helpful in the automated analysis of metabolites that are not included in common libraries and it thus has the potential to support the explorative character of metabolomics studies.

  14. Spectral mixture analysis of EELS spectrum-images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobigeon, Nicolas [University of Toulouse, IRIT/INP-ENSEEIHT, 2 rue Camichel, 31071 Toulouse Cedex 7 (France); Brun, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.brun@u-psud.fr [University of Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2012-09-15

    Recent advances in detectors and computer science have enabled the acquisition and the processing of multidimensional datasets, in particular in the field of spectral imaging. Benefiting from these new developments, Earth scientists try to recover the reflectance spectra of macroscopic materials (e.g., water, grass, mineral types Horizontal-Ellipsis ) present in an observed scene and to estimate their respective proportions in each mixed pixel of the acquired image. This task is usually referred to as spectral mixture analysis or spectral unmixing (SU). SU aims at decomposing the measured pixel spectrum into a collection of constituent spectra, called endmembers, and a set of corresponding fractions (abundances) that indicate the proportion of each endmember present in the pixel. Similarly, when processing spectrum-images, microscopists usually try to map elemental, physical and chemical state information of a given material. This paper reports how a SU algorithm dedicated to remote sensing hyperspectral images can be successfully applied to analyze spectrum-image resulting from electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). SU generally overcomes standard limitations inherent to other multivariate statistical analysis methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA), that have been previously used to analyze EELS maps. Indeed, ICA and PCA may perform poorly for linear spectral mixture analysis due to the strong dependence between the abundances of the different materials. One example is presented here to demonstrate the potential of this technique for EELS analysis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS spectrum images are identical to hyperspectral images for Earth science. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral unmixing algorithms have proliferated in the remote sensing field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These powerful techniques can be successfully applied to EELS mapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential

  15. Double pulse spectrochemical analysis using orthogonal geometry with very low ablation energy and He ambient gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Hidayah, Affi Nur; Pardede, Marincan; Jobiliong, Eric; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Lie, Tjung Jie; Hedwig, Rinda; Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Lie, Zener Sukra; Niki, Hideaki [Program of Nuclear Power and Energy Safety Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kagawa, Kichiro [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    An experimental study of double pulse LIBS is performed for the development of highly sensitive and quantitative analysis of Cl and Ca for the strength evaluation of concrete. The two lasers employed are arranged in orthogonal geometry and operated for delayed ablation with delay time of 10 {mu}s, using He ambient gas at atmospheric pressure. The very large intensity enhancement is obtained over those detected with single pulse operation without generating the He plasma. It is most remarkable that the same sharpness and intensity enhancement observed in the previous double pulse experiment with 37 mJ laser ablation energy is achieved in the present experiment with much lower ablation energy of merely 2.5 mJ, resulting in average crater size of about 10 {mu}m in diameter. Further, a linear relation is obtained between the Cl concentration and its emission intensity in alumina samples, while an estimated limit of detection of 80 ppm is obtained by using concrete sample, which is adequate for highly sensitive quantitative Cl analysis in concrete. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double pulse LIBS is used for sensitive and quantitative analysis of Cl and Ca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2 lasers employed in orthogonal geometry and with delay of 10 {mu}s for ablation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer He ambient gas was used at atmospheric pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong Ca and Cl emissions were detected at 2.5 mJ laser energy with small crater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear calibration for Cl was obtained with detection limit of 80 ppm.

  16. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun [Physics Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Hagen, Stephen J., E-mail: sjhagen@ufl.edu [Physics Department, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for extracting gene expression data from images of bacterial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method does not employ cell segmentation and does not require high magnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence and phase contrast images of the cells are correlated through the physics of phase contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the method by characterizing noisy expression of comX in Streptococcus mutans. -- Abstract: Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on a segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly.

  17. Analysis of the thermal behavior of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Salvatore, E-mail: salvatore.russo3@unina.it [Department of Biomedical, Electronics, and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); D' Alessandro, Vincenzo; Costagliola, Maurizio; Sasso, Grazia; Rinaldi, Niccolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics, and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of advanced multifinger AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on SiC is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study is performed through accurate FEM simulations and DC/dynamic measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FEM analysis is supported by an in-house tool devised for a smart mesh generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Illustrative technology/layout guidelines to minimize the thermal issues are provided. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of state-of-the-art multifinger AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on SiC is thoroughly analyzed under steady-state and dynamic conditions. Accurate 3-D FEM simulations - based on a novel in-house tool devised to automatically build the device mesh - are performed using a commercial software to explore the influence of various layout and technological solutions on the temperature field. An in-house routine is employed to determine the Foster/Cauer networks suited to describe the dynamic heat propagation through the device structure. To conclude, various experimental techniques are employed to assess the thermal resistance and to allow the monitoring of the thermal impedance versus time of the transistors under test.

  18. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osoba, L.O. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ding, R.G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ojo, O.A., E-mail: ojo@cc.umanitoba.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of {gamma}-{gamma}' eutectic in {gamma}' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO{sub 2} laser beam joining technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  19. Más allá de la tarea: pistas para una redefinición del concepto de Motivación Escolar Beyond the task: pointers for a redefinition of the concept of School Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Carreño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se recogen las distintas aproximaciones al fenómeno de la motivación, y en dicho contexto, se constata y cuestiona aquella conceptualización de la Motivación Escolar que pone su acento en el nivel de la tarea, haciendo de ésta una motiva-ción por realizar ciertas actividades que le son demandadas por la Escuela, pero no necesariamente, una motivación por aprender. En este marco, se proponen pistas sobre algunos elementos o variables que debieran ser considerados en el constructo de la Motivación Escolar. Estas pistas tienen que ver específicamente con la incorporación, dentro del constructo, de los motivos que los alumnos tienen para aprender en la Escuela y que dan sentido a su aprendizaje escolar; y que complementan las variables vinculadas a la tarea. Así, sin olvidar que el alumno debe poner su empeño en realizar las tareas diseñadas para su aprendizaje, debemos volver a mirar las características de la Motivación Escolar, es decir, en aquello que impulsa, conduce y mantiene el esfuerzo del alumno y activa recursos cognitivos para aprender. Aprendizaje que, como es de consenso entre los educadores, no puede limitarse a la mera adquisición de información sino que debe procesada. Así, el conocimiento construido (Pozo, 2003 se hace significativo (Ausubel, 1978 y profundo (Beas, 1994; Beas et al., 2001.The work investigates the various approaches to the issue of motivation, and in this context observes and questions the idea of School Motivation that emphasizes the role of tasks, turning the completion of the latter into the motivation to carry out the activities required by the school, instead of stressing the motivation to learn. The author indicates some aspects or variables that should be considered when building up School Motivation. These pointers are specifically related to the incorporation inside this construct of the reasons pupils have to attend school, and which give meaning to their school

  20. A experiência do corpo na dança butô: indicadores para pensar a educação The body experience in the Butoh dance: pointers to reflect on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Petrucia da Nóbrega

    2004-12-01

    the educational process, and such conception is still predominant. Our reflection attempts to point to other ways of understanding the body in education, starting from an attitude that seeks to overcome instrumentalism and to expand educational references by considering the phenomenology of the body and its relation to sensitive knowledge as capable of amplifying the corporeal texture of the knowledge processes. Considering the body experience in the Butoh dance, we present pointers to reflect on education related to the aesthetic experience. Among them we highlight: the plasticity of the body, its incessant production of resignifications, its openness to innovation, its mutant condition, its rupture with gestural mechanization, its avoidance of the man-world and thought-feeling fragmentations, all those aspects that bring together the recursive, integrative and creative knowledge of the body are indicators to help us think on education, because their represent new possibilities for reading the real starting from the language of the gesture, effecting dialogues between knowledges and practices in the corporeal experience.

  1. Deep Analysis and Application of the Function Pointer in the C/C++ Language Programming%C/C++语言中函数指针的深入分析与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海平

    2009-01-01

    对C/C++语言程序设计中函数指针进行了详细的分析与研究,包括函数指针的概念、定义和调用,并着重通过回调函数与简单消息映射实例阐述函数指针的使用方法和技巧.

  2. 冉氏“益气通经”指针结合阿是穴苍龟探穴法治疗慢性非特异性下腰痛%Treatment of Chronic and Non-specific Low Back Pain through“the Rans” Pointer with Ashi Canggui Tanxue Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕迎春; 于冬冬; 关伟强; 郑若楠; 路玫

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察冉氏“益气通经”指针法结合阿是穴苍龟探穴针法治疗慢性非特异性下腰痛的临床疗效,为慢性非特异性下腰痛提供新的临床思路和治疗方法。方法:将符合入选标准的慢性非特异性腰痛患者60例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例,分别采用冉氏“益气通经”指针与阿是穴苍龟探穴针法、常规推拿针刺法,每组各治疗1个疗程,观察临床综合疗效。结果:从临床症状方面评价,冉氏“益气通经”指针结合阿是穴苍龟探穴法均优于常规推拿针刺法。结论:冉氏“益气通经”指针结合阿是穴苍龟探穴法治疗慢性非特异性下腰痛效显便廉,值得临床推广。%Objective:To provide new clinical thinking and therapies through observation of“ the Rans” Pointer with Ashi Canggui Tanxue therapy .Methods:Randomly allocate 60 patients with chronic and non -specific low back pain matched with the inclusion criteria into treatment group and control group ,each group with 30 cases and the treatment group was treated with “the Rans”Pointer with Ashi Canggui Tanxue therapy and the control group received regular massage and acupuncture .Observe the comprehensive clinical effects after one course of treatment in each group .Resulst :Evaluated from clinical symptoms ,“the Rans”Pointer with Ashi Canggui Tanx-ue therapy was superior to the regular massage .Conclusion:The treatment of chronic and non -specific low back pain through “the Rans”Pointer with Ashi Canggui Tanxue therapy is more effective ,convenient and eco-nomical ,and is worth popularizing clinically .

  3. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi, E-mail: ohtsuki@nihs.go.jp [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko [National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method using qHNMR was applied and validated to determine SA in processed foods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method has good accuracy, precision, selectiveness, and linearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method is more rapid and simple than the conventional method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that the proposed method is reliable for the accurate determination of SA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method can be used for the monitoring of SA in processed foods. - Abstract: An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.013 g kg{sup -1}) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg{sup -1} (beverage: 0.0063 g kg{sup -1}) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg{sup -1} for foods (and 0.0063 g kg{sup -1} for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method.

  4. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  5. Dilatometric analysis on shrinkage behavior during non-isothermal sintering of nanocrystalline tungsten mechanically alloyed with molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastav, Ajeet K., E-mail: ajeetshri@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying with Mo reduces the WC contamination during milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kirkendall effect assisted enhanced diffusion influences the densification of W-Mo alloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Densification kinetics improved with Mo alloying in nanocrystalline tungsten. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Densification starts with Mo diffusion and later W and Mo both diffuse along the grain boundaries. - Abstract: The paper attempts to study the shrinkage behavior of nanocrystalline tungsten mechanically alloyed with molybdenum (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%). The dilatometric analysis was performed by Setsys Evolution TMA (ambient to 1600 Degree-Sign C) using constant heating rate (CHR) method. The significant improvement in shrinkage with alloying of molybdenum is attributed to reduced grain size, lowered tungsten carbide contamination and enhanced diffusion kinetics. The initial stage sintering kinetics of W-20Mo alloy has been investigated. The densification starts with Mo diffusion (calculated activation energy = 128 kJ/mol) and proceeds with the diffusion of both along the grain boundaries (calculated activation energy = 307 {+-} 1 kJ/mol).

  6. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Aaron B; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Wong, Eric C; Buxton, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP) estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  7. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B Simon

    Full Text Available Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2 that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  8. Validation of statistical models for creep rupture by parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65, Fisher Ave., Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Statistical analysis is an efficient method for the optimisation of any candidate mathematical model of creep rupture data, and for the comparative ranking of competing models. However, when a series of candidate models has been examined and the best of the series has been identified, there is no statistical criterion to determine whether a yet more accurate model might be devised. Hence there remains some uncertainty that the best of any series examined is sufficiently accurate to be considered reliable as a basis for extrapolation. This paper proposes that models should be validated primarily by parametric graphical comparison to rupture data and rupture gradient data. It proposes that no mathematical model should be considered reliable for extrapolation unless the visible divergence between model and data is so small as to leave no apparent scope for further reduction. This study is based on the data for a 12% Cr alloy steel used in BS PD6605:1998 to exemplify its recommended statistical analysis procedure. The models considered in this paper include a) a relatively simple model, b) the PD6605 recommended model and c) a more accurate model of somewhat greater complexity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper discusses the validation of creep rupture models derived from statistical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It demonstrates that models can be satisfactorily validated by a visual-graphic comparison of models to data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method proposed utilises test data both as conventional rupture stress and as rupture stress gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is shown to be more reliable than a well-established and widely used method (BS PD6605).

  9. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyuz, Sevim, E-mail: s.akyuz@iku.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Akyuz, Tanil [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 702132, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu [Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts, Letters Faculty, Istanbul University, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INAA was performed to determine elemental compositions of ancient glass fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic, coloring/discoloring elements and impurities have been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA discriminated the glasses depending on their chronological order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  10. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento Municipal de Agua e Esgoto de Uberlandia (DMAE) (Brazil); Filho, Guimes Rodrigues, E-mail: guimes@ufu.br [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Julia Graciele [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Alves Cerqueira, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1} was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  11. Effect of C16TMA contents on the thermal stability of organo-bentonites: In situ X-ray diffraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooli, Fethi, E-mail: fkooli@taibahu.edu.sa [Taibah University, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 30002, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organo-bentonites were prepared at C16TMABr/CEC ratios up to 11. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disorder configuration of C16TMA cations was observed at higher C16TMABr/CEC ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolved gases during the calcinations of organoclays were analyzed by MS-TG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ XRD technique detected clearly the phase disorder in the range 50-150 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collapse of organoclays depended on the temperature and the used atmospheres. - Abstract: Different concentrations of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide solutions were cation exchanged with bentonite clay mineral, at room temperature. The resulting organoclays were characterized by elemental analysis C and N, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. The evolved gases during the calcination of organoclays were identified by online mass spectrometry coupled with thermal gravimetry technique. Meanwhile, in situ X-ray diffraction was used to have insight on the thermal stability of the organoclays in air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction at room temperature indicated that a disorder transition phase from bilayer to paraffin configuration occurred at higher surfactant-cation exchange capacity ratios, with two phases at 3.25 and 2.00 nm, respectively. The in situ X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of these two phases with improved reflections intensities in the range of 100-200 Degree-Sign C. Above this temperature, both phases collapsed due to the decomposition of the surfactants as recorded by mass spectrometry thermal gravimetric analysis.

  12. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method developed for estimating the stoichiometric ratio of solid-state {alpha}-cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Wang, Jinpeng; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Feng, Tao [School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Xueming [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jin, Zhengyu, E-mail: jinlab2008@yahoo.com [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tian, Yaoqi, E-mail: yqtian@jiangnan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a TGA method for the measurement of the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of formulas are deduced to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method is applicable. - Abstract: An approach mainly based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was developed to evaluate the stoichiometric ratio (SR, guest to host) of the guest-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (Guest-{alpha}-CD) inclusion complexes (4-cresol-{alpha}-CD, benzyl alcohol-{alpha}-CD, ferrocene-{alpha}-CD and decanoic acid-{alpha}-CD). The present data obtained from Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared in a solid-state form. The stoichiometric ratios of {alpha}-CD to the relative guests (4-cresol, benzyl alcohol, ferrocene and decanoic acid) determined by the developed method were 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. These SR data were well demonstrated by the previously reported X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the NMR confirmatory experiments, except the SR of decanoic acid with a larger size and longer chain was not consistent. It is, therefore, suggested that the TGA-based method is applicable to follow the stoichiometric ratio of the polycrystalline {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes with smaller and shorter chain guests.

  13. Monte Carlo analysis of the long-lived fission product neutron capture rates at the Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense, 40, Ed. 17, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ismailov, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lafuente, A. [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nishihara, K. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Sugawara, T. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TARC experiment benchmark capture rates results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of updated databases, included ADSLib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-shielding effect in reactor design for transmutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Lead nuclear data. - Abstract: The design of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) requires the development of simulation tools that are able to describe in a realistic way their nuclear performance and transmutation rate capability. In this publication, we present an evaluation of state of the art Monte Carlo design tools to assess their performance concerning transmutation of long-lived fission products. This work, performed under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency, analyses two important aspects for transmutation systems: moderation on Lead and neutron captures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I. The analysis of the results shows how shielding effects due to the resonances at epithermal energies of these nuclides affects strongly their transmutation rate. The results suggest that some research effort should be undertaken to improve the quality of Iodine nuclear data at epithermal and fast neutron energy to obtain a reliable transmutation estimation.

  14. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  15. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, N. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Leardi, R. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P., E-mail: oliveri@dictfa.unige.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iniguez-Crespo, M. [Gobierno de la Rioja, Consejeria de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Estacion Enologica, Breton de los Herreros 4, 26200 Haro, La Rioja (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC-MS and UV-visible data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  16. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  17. Geographical analysis of 'conflict minerals' utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hark, Richard R., E-mail: hark@juniata.edu [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Remus, Jeremiah J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); East, Lucille J. [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Harmon, Russell S. [Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Wise, Michael A. [Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013 (United States); Tansi, Benjamin M.; Shughrue, Katrina M. [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Dunsin, Kehinde S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Liu, Chunyi [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides information on the chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a geomaterial. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of 'conflict minerals' such as columbite-tantalite ('coltan'). Following a successful pilot study of a columbite-tantalite suite from North America, a more geographically diverse set of 57 samples from 37 locations around the world was analyzed using a commercially available LIBS system. The LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates above 90%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REEs) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. These results provide additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time screening tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of different provenance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of columbite-tantalite using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemometric analysis (PLSDA) affords 90-100% correct sample classification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Possible role of rare-earth elements in the high level of sample discrimination.

  18. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight analysis for the identification and the determination of resveratrol and its metabolites in mouse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menet, M.C., E-mail: marie-claude.menet@parisdescartes.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Cottart, C.H. [APHP, Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Charles Foix, Service de Biochimie, 7 avenue de la Republique, Ivry sur Seine 94205 (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4466, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Taghi, M. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); Nivet-Antoine, V. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4466, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); APHP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Biochimie, 20 rue Leblanc, Paris 75015 (France); Dargere, D. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris cite, EA 4463, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, Paris 75270 (France); and others

    2013-01-25

    Graphical abstract: Simultaneous identification and determination of new resveratrol metabolites in mice by UHPLC-Q-TOF in full scan mode. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast method to quantify resveratrol and its main metabolites in the mouse plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope-labeled standards to build a linear calibration curve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear calibration curve on a wide range of concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous identification and quantification of metabolites by using full scan mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of uncommon metabolites not yet described in mice. - Abstract: Resveratrol is a polyphenol that has numerous interesting biological properties, but, per os, it is quickly metabolized. Some of its metabolites are more concentrated than resveratrol, may have greater biological activities, and may act as a kind of store for resveratrol. Thus, to understand the biological impact of resveratrol on a physiological system, it is crucial to simultaneously analyze resveratrol and its metabolites in plasma. This study presents an analytical method based on UHPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometry for the quantification of resveratrol and of its most common hydrophilic metabolites. The use of {sup 13}C- and D-labeled standards specific to each molecule led to a linear calibration curve on a larger concentration range than described previously. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry in the full scan mode enabled simultaneous identification and quantification of some hydrophilic metabolites not previously described in mice. In addition, UHPLC separation, allowing run times lower than 10 min, can be used in studies that requiring analysis of many samples.

  19. Shot planning and analysis tools on the NIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, A., E-mail: casey20@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Conder, A.; Fallejo, R.; Flegel, M.; Hutton, M.; Jancaitis, K.; Lakamsani, V.; Potter, D.; Reisdorf, S.; Tappero, J.; Whitman, P.; Carr, W.; Liao, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target shots in NIF, dozens a month, vary widely in laser and target configuration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A planning tool helps select shot sequences that optimize valuable facility time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication and supply of targets, diagnostics, etc. are integrated into the plan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive modeling of aging parts (e.g., optics) aids maintenance decision support. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe the planning/analysis tool and its use in NIF experimental operations. - Abstract: Shot planning and analysis tools (SPLAT) integrate components necessary to help achieve a high over-all operational efficiency of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by combining near and long-term shot planning, final optics demand and supply loops, target diagnostics planning, and target fabrication requirements. Currently, the SPLAT project is comprised of two primary tool suites for shot planning and optics demand. The shot planning component provides a web-based interface to selecting and building a sequence of proposed shots for the NIF. These shot sequences, or 'lanes' as they are referred to by shot planners, provide for planning both near-term shots in the Facility and long-term 'campaigns' in the months and years to come. The shot planning capabilities integrate with the Campaign Management Tool (CMT) for experiment details and the NIF calendar for availability. Future enhancements will additionally integrate with target diagnostics planning and target fabrication requirements tools. The optics demand component is built upon predictive modeling of maintenance requirements on the final optics as a result of the proposed shots assembled during shot planning. The predictive models integrate energetics from a Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM), the status of the deployed optics as provided by the online Final Optics Inspection system, and physics

  20. 自由现金流代理成本假说还是过度自信假说?——中国上市公司投资——现金流敏感性的实证研究%Free Cash Flow Agency Hypothesis or Managerial Overconfidence Hypothesis:Empirical research on Investment-cash Flow Sensitivities of Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云鹤; 李湛

    2011-01-01

    As one of the more focus issues of corporate finance today, corporate investment cash flow sensitivity is the important manifestation of corporate inefficiency capital allocation, and it also reflects the governing efficiency of corporate governance. There are two main different explanations to corporate investment-cash flow sensitivity from perspective of managerial behavior; those are Free Cash Flow Agency Cost Hypothesis and Managerial Overconfidence Hypothesis. However, the existing researches on corporate investment-free cash flow sensitivity are most tested from one angel of managerial behavior, as from managerial agency or managerial overconfidence, and the testing results are all significant. This makes the improvement of corporate governance which was designed on managerial behavior in trouble. So, it is essential for distinguishing the managerial behavior drivers of corporate investment-cash flow sensitivity.The paper grouped the China' s listed firm sample by making pair of the indexes of corporate free cash and firm growth, that is, the group charactering with higher free cash flow and lower growth opportunities will be more likely trapped by managerial agency, then, we definite such the group as free cash flow agency cost group; meanwhile, the group charactering with higher free cash flow and higher growth opportunities will be more likely trapped by managerial overconfidence, then, we definite such group as the managerial overconfidence group. Hereafter, we distinguish the two hypothesizes by empirically testing the hypothesis of free cash flow managerial agency cost and managerial overconfidence based on the structured empirical model.The testing outcomes indicate that the relationship between the cash flow and overinvestment is positive, and the relationship between managerial overconfidence and overinvestment is also positive, and the relationship is invariant even it being tested in the mixed model of the cash flow agency cost and managerial

  1. Reaction mechanism and influence factors analysis for calcium sulfide generation in the process of phosphogypsum decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Liping, E-mail: lpma2522@hotmail.com [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Niu, Xuekui; Hou, Juan; Zheng, Shaocong; Xu, Wenjuan [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2011-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusing phosphogypsum is to decompose and recycle Ca and sulfur. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FactSage6.1 software was used to simulate the decomposition reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments had been taken with high sulfur concentration coal as reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism of CaS generation had been analysis, 1100 Degree-Sign C could be the best temperature for PG decomposition. - Abstract: FactSage6.1 software simulation and experiments had been used to analysis the reaction mechanism and influence factors for CaS generation during the process of phosphogypsum decomposition. Thermodynamic calculation showed that the reaction for CaS generation was very complex and CaS was generated mainly through solid-solid reaction and gas-solid reaction. The proper CO and CO{sub 2} have benefit for improving the decomposition effects of phosphogypsum and reducing the generation of CaS at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Using high sulfur concentration coal as reducer, the proper reaction conditions to control the generation of CaS were: the coal particle size was between 60 mesh and 100 mesh, reaction temperature was above 1100 Degree-Sign C and the heating rate was 5 Degree-Sign C/min. Experimental and theoretical calculation indicated that the concentration of CaS was only ten percents in the solid product at 1100 Degree-Sign C, which is favorable for the further cement producing using solid production.

  2. Investigation of magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} by magnetic, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparnadevi, M.; Barik, S.K. [Department of Physics, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore-117 452 (Singapore); Mahendiran, R., E-mail: phyrm@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore-117 452 (Singapore)

    2012-10-15

    We investigated magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} by direct methods (changes in temperature and latent heat) and indirect method (magnetization isotherms). This compound undergoes a first-order paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with T{sub C}=200 K upon cooling. The paramagnetic phase becomes unstable and it transforms into a ferromagnetic phase under the application of magnetic field, which results in a field-induced metamagnetic transition (FIMMT). The FIMMT is accompanied by release of latent heat and temperature of the sample as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis experiments. A large magnetic entropy change of {Delta}S{sub m}=-7.2 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} at T=212.5 K and refrigeration capacity of 228 J kg{sup -1} are found for a field change of {Delta}H=5 T. It is suggested that destruction of magnetic polarons and growth of ferromagnetic phase accompanied by a lattice volume change with increasing magnetic field is responsible for the large magnetocaloric effect in this compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report magnetic entropy change measured by indirect and direct methods in La{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3.} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous field-induced induced metamagnetic transition is found in the paramagnetic state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large reversible magnetic entropy change ({Delta}S{sub m}=7.2 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} for {Delta}H=5 T). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large refrigeration capacity (RC=228 J kg{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collapse of magnetic polarons is suggested as possible origin of the large MCE.

  3. Analysis of the magnetic corrosion product deposits on a boiling water reactor cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, Andrey [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Degueldre, Claude, E-mail: claude.degueldre@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Wilfried [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt, Leibstadt (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The buildup of corrosion product deposits (CRUD) on the fuel cladding of the boiling water reactor (BWR) before and after zinc injection has been investigated by applying local experimental analytical techniques. Under the BWR water chemistry conditions, Zn addition together with the presence of Ni and Mn induce the formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}] spinel solid solutions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion ratios of cation distribution in spinels deposited from the solid solution. Based on this information, a two-site ferrite spinel solid solution model is proposed. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) findings suggest the zinc-rich ferrite spinels formation on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin. - Graphical Abstract: Analysis of spinels in corrosion product deposits on boiling water reactor fuel rod. Combining EPMA and XAFS results: schematic representation of the ferrite spinels in terms of the end members and their extent of inversion. Note that the ferrites are represented as a surface between the normal (upper plane, M[Fe{sub 2}]O{sub 4}) and the inverse (lower plane, Fe[MFe]O{sub 4}). Actual compositions red Black-Small-Square for the specimen at low elevation (810 mm), blue Black-Small-Square for the specimen at mid elevation (1800 mm). The results have an impact on the properties of the CRUD material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Buildup of corrosion product deposits on fuel claddings of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under BWR water conditions, Zn addition with Ni and Mn induced formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-Ray Adsorption Spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion of cations in spinel solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-rich ferrite spinels are formed on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin elevations.

  4. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Deqi [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan Liangming, E-mail: cneng@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ren Song [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  5. Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Hua-Shan; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A separation and isotopic analysis method was developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with three to six substituted bromine atoms in fish samples. Sample extracts were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove lipids, purified using complex silica gel column chromatography, and finally processed using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel column chromatography. The purities of extracts were verified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the full-scan mode. The average recoveries of all compounds across the purification method were between 60% and 110%, with the exception of BDE-154. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDEs can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . No significant isotopic fraction was found during the purification of the main PBDE congeners. A significant change in the stable carbon isotope ratio of BDE-47 was observed in fish carcasses compared to the original isotopic signatures, implying that PBDE stable carbon isotopic compositions can be used to trace the biotransformation of PBDEs in biota. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for the purification of PBDEs for CSIA was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {delta}{sup 13}C of PBDE congeners can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common carp were exposed to a PBDE mixture to investigate debromination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of the {delta}{sup 13}C values can be used to trace the debromination of PBDE in fish.

  6. Mechanical properties and microstructure analysis of fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X.S. [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Collins, F.G.; Zhao, X.L. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Wang, Q.Y., E-mail: wangqy@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide solution were used to activate fly ash, which substitute cement totally in the concrete. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilizing two kinds of waste materials (fly ash and recycled aggregates) at the same time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical properties and microstructures were studied and compared with different recycled aggregates replacement ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such concrete has greater compressive strength and better microstructure than ordinary concrete and also geopolymer concrete. - Abstract: Six mixtures with different recycled aggregate (RA) replacement ratios of 0%, 50% and 100% were designed to manufacture recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) and alkali-activated fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete (GRC). The physical and mechanical properties were investigated indicating different performances from each other. Optical microscopy under transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out in this study in order to identify the mechanism underlying the effects of the geopolymer and RA on concrete properties. The features of aggregates, paste and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were compared and discussed. Experimental results indicate that using alkali-activated fly ash geopolymer as replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) effectively improved the compressive strength. With increasing of RA contents in both RAC and GRC, the compressive strength decreased gradually. The microstructure analysis shows that, on one hand, the presence of RA weakens the strength of the aggregates and the structure of ITZs; on the other hand, due to the alkali-activated fly ash in geopolymer concrete, the contents of Portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) and voids were reduced, as well as improved the matrix homogeneity. The microstructure of GRC was changed by different reaction products, such

  7. Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of urea-formaldehyde/nanoSiO{sub 2} resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumeli, E. [Solid State Physics Dept., School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, E. [Chimar Hellas S.A., Sofouli 88, 55131 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pavlidou, E.; Vourlias, G. [Solid State Physics Dept., School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bikiaris, D. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Solid State Physics Dept., School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, K., E-mail: hrisafis@physics.auth.gr [Solid State Physics Dept., School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UF/nanosilica resins have been produced using the minimum cost method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new resins had good dispersion and enhanced properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosilica interacts with polymer chains as was proved by FTIR and DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosilica does not affect the resin's thermal stability but enhances its mechanical properties. - Abstract: In the present work urea-formaldehyde resins (UF) containing different amounts of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and studied in depth. All the hybrids were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), while the dispersion of nanoparticles was studied with scanning electron microscopy with associated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). It was found that even though silanol groups of SiO{sub 2} can interact with UF resin and form hydrogen bonds, aggregates of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles can still be formed in UF resin. Their size increases as SiO{sub 2} content is increased. The curing reactions were examined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and it was revealed that curing temperature of UF resin is slightly affected by the addition of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the activation energy of the curing reactions, for every hybrid, was calculated using the Kissinger's method, which implied the existence of interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymer chain. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles do not have an effect in the thermal stability of the resin. From the application of the prepared UF/SiO{sub 2} resins in wood panels it was found that the mechanical properties of the panels, like the internal bond and the modulus of rapture, are enhanced with increasing nanoSiO{sub 2} concentration.

  8. Analysis of the anisotropy, stoichiometry and polytypes in pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Honorato, E., E-mail: eddie.lopez@cinvestav.edu.mx [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zhang, H.; Shatwell, R.A. [Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Guillermier, P. [AREVA Lyon, Rue Juliette Recamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Manara, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Xiao, P. [Materials Science Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have compared the values of anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon measured by Raman spectroscopy and 2MGEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of anisotropy depend on the sampling area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of diattenuation for SiC measured by 2MGEM were affected by the content of stacking faults. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman spectroscopy can be used as a semi-quantitative tool for the characterisation of excess carbon and silicon in SiC. - Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) and pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coatings in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles were characterised by a combination of 2-modulator generalised ellipsometry microscopy (2-MGEM), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We compared the values of anisotropy obtained from 2-MGEM and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the effect of sampling area and microstructure. No linear correlation in anisotropy was found between these two techniques despite both sampling areas of 2-5 {mu}m. The largest deviations were observed for highly anisotropic samples with optical anisotropy factors (OPTAFs) above 1.1. For medium and low anisotropy samples (OPTAF < 1.1) the relationship is close to linear. The limited use of only the average value of diattenuation does not give an accurate representation of the characteristics of the coatings as significant areas can exist with considerably higher diattenuations that could increase the probability of failure under neutron irradiation. We also observe a change in the diattenuation of SiC due to the presence of stacking faults as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was also used to perform semiquantitative analysis of the Si and carbon excess in SiC in four TRISO particles.

  9. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: dkocaefe@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  10. 宏观经济运行对企业投资现金流敏感性有影响吗?——基于1993至2004面板数据的实证研究%Does macro-economy have any effect on firm investment-cash flow sensitivities?——An empirical study based on panel data, 1993-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应惟伟

    2007-01-01

    对1993-2004年的上市公司投资现金流敏感性进行实证研究,发现宏观经济运行对企业投资现金流敏感性有显著影响.还发现样本公司在经济不景气的1998-2001年阶段,为了保持一定水平的固定资产投资,大幅度减少营运资本,即通过调整营运资本水平来使固定资产投资平滑化,而经济不景气阶段企业固定投资对现金和销售收入的敏感性系数并没有系统性地高于经济景气的阶段.%We conduct an empirical study on Chinese listed firms' investment- cash flow sensitivities in different stages of the macroeconomic cycle during 1993-2004, and find that macro-economy has a significant effect on investment- cash flow sensitivities. When economic slowdown occurred between 1998 and 2001, sample firms reduced working capital substantially to maintain some necessary investment level of fixed assets, that is, firms stabilized fixed assets investment by adjusting working capital. However, the sensitivity coefficients of fixed assets investment to cash or sales revenue were not systematically higher in the depressed stage than in the booming stage.

  11. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: jconde@uvigo.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  12. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Saleem, E-mail: ullah19488@itc.nl [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Skidmore, Andrew K. [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naeem, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), KPK (Pakistan); Schlerf, Martin [Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann (CRPGL), L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2012-10-15

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 {mu}m) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R{sup 2} = 0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R{sup 2} = 0.88, RMSE = 8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mid and thermal infrared spectra are sensitive to variation in leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous wavelet analysis detected the variation caused by leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selected wavelet features are highly correlated with leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mid wave and thermal infrared spectra have the potential to estimate leaf water content.

  13. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages....... This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  14. Increasing Transparency Through a Multiverse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, Sara; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Gelman, Andrew; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2016-09-01

    Empirical research inevitably includes constructing a data set by processing raw data into a form ready for statistical analysis. Data processing often involves choices among several reasonable options for excluding, transforming, and coding data. We suggest that instead of performing only one analysis, researchers could perform a multiverse analysis, which involves performing all analyses across the whole set of alternatively processed data sets corresponding to a large set of reasonable scenarios. Using an example focusing on the effect of fertility on religiosity and political attitudes, we show that analyzing a single data set can be misleading and propose a multiverse analysis as an alternative practice. A multiverse analysis offers an idea of how much the conclusions change because of arbitrary choices in data construction and gives pointers as to which choices are most consequential in the fragility of the result.

  15. Melanogenesis stimulation in B16-F10 melanoma cells induces cell cycle alterations, increased ROS levels and a differential expression of proteins as revealed by proteomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elizabeth S.; Kawahara, Rebeca [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kadowaki, Marina K. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Amstalden, Hudson G.; Noleto, Guilhermina R.; Cadena, Silvia Maria S.C.; Winnischofer, Sheila M.B. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martinez, Glaucia R., E-mail: grmartinez@ufpr.br [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    Considering that stimulation of melanogenesis may lead to alterations of cellular responses, besides melanin production, our main goal was to study the cellular effects of melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results show increased levels of the reactive oxygen species after 15 h of melanogenesis stimulation. Following 48 h of melanogenesis stimulation, proliferation was inhibited (by induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase) and the expression levels of p21 mRNA were increased. In addition, melanogenesis stimulation did not induce cellular senescence. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the involvement of proteins from other pathways besides those related to the cell cycle, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, heat-shock protein 70, and fructose biphosphate aldolase A (all up-regulated), and lactate dehydrogenase (down-regulated). In RT-qPCR experiments, the levels of pyruvate kinase M2 mRNA dropped, whereas the levels of ATP synthase (beta-F1) mRNA increased. These data indicate that melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 cells leads to alterations in metabolism and cell cycle progression that may contribute to an induction of cell quiescence, which may provide a mechanism of resistance against cellular injury promoted by melanin synthesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis stimulation by L-tyrosine+NH{sub 4}Cl in B16-F10 melanoma cells increases ROS levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis inhibits cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteomic analysis showed alterations in proteins of the cell cycle and glucose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT-qPCR analysis confirmed alterations of metabolic targets after melanogenesis stimulation.

  16. Reactor physics analysis for the design of nuclear fuel lattices with burnable poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Guzman, Juan R., E-mail: maestro_juan_rafael@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Adolfo Lopez Mateos, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fuel rod optimization for the coupled bundle-core design in a BWR is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An algorithm to minimize the rod power peaking factor is used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fissile content is divided in two factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reactor physics analysis of these factors is performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The algorithm is applied to a typical BWR fuel lattice. - Abstract: The main goals in nuclear fuel lattice design are: (1) minimizing the rod power peaking factor (PPF) in order that the power level distribution is the most uniform; (2) obtaining a prescribed target value for the multiplication factor (k) at the end of the irradiation in order that the fuel lattice reaches the desired reactivity; and (3) obtaining a prescribed target value for the k at the beginning of the irradiation in order that the reactivity excess is neither a high value (to ease the maneuvering of the control systems) nor a low value (to avoid the penalization of the high cost of the burnable poison content). In this work a simple algorithm to design the burnable poison bearing nuclear fuel lattice is presented. This algorithm is based on a reactor physics analysis. The algorithm is focused on finding the radial distribution of the fuel rods having different fissile and burnable poison contents in order to obtain: (1) an adequate minimum PPF; (2) a prescribed target value of the k at the end of the irradiation; and (3) a prescribed target value of the k at the beginning of the irradiation. This algorithm is based on the factorization of the fissile and burnable poison contents of each fuel rod and on the application of the first-order perturbation theory. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with the design of a fuel lattice composed of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) and gadolinium dioxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for boiling water reactors (BWR). This algorithm has been accomplished

  17. Imaging properties of bright-field and annular-dark-field scanning confocal electron microscopy: II. Point spread function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuishi, K., E-mail: Mitsuishi.Kazutaka@nims.go.jp [Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hashimoto, A.; Takeguchi, M. [Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Shimojo, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Ishizuka, K. [Surface Physics and Structure Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); HREM Research Inc., 14-48 Matsukazedai, Higashimatsuyama, Saitama 355-0055 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The imaging properties of bright field and annular dark field scanning confocal electron microscopy (BF-SCEM and ADF-SCEM) are discussed based on their point spread functions (PSFs) in comparison with multislice simulations. Although the PSFs of BF-SCEM and ADF-SCEM show similar hourglass shapes, their numerical distributions are quite different: BF-SCEM PSF is always positive and shows a center of symmetry whereas the ADF-SCEM PSF is complex and has Hermitian symmetry. These PSF properties explain the large elongation effect in BF-SCEM for laterally extended object and almost no-elongation in ADF-SCEM, illustrating the importance of the numerical analysis of PSFs. The Hermitian symmetry of the ADF-SCEM PSF results in an interesting 'edge enhancement effect' at the interface. Simulation using the PSF and the multislice method verified this effect at GaAs surfaces and InAs interfaces embedded in GaAs. This unique feature of ADF-SCEM can potentially be useful for depth sectioning. It is also pointed out that a PSF imaging model cannot be applicable for BF-SCEM of a phase object, when the system is symmetric and aberration free. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) are discussed by PSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSFs of BF- and ADF-SCEM show similar shapes, but values are quite different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This explains the large elongation effect in BF and no-elongation in ADF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ADF-SCEM PSF shows 'edge enhancement effect' that is useful for depth sectioning.

  18. Quantitative compositional analysis of organic thin films using transmission NEXAFS spectroscopy in an X-ray microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Brian A. [Department of Physics, NCSU, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ade, Harald, E-mail: harald_ade@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, NCSU, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common sources of error in transmission NEXAFS spectra in a STXM identified and shown to be significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three facile methods to characterize and eliminate or limit errors are detailed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate spectra processing methods are discussed and demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative compositional analysis of organic thin films is conducted and shown to be robust. -- Abstract: Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is well suited for the quantitative determination of the composition of soft matter thin films. Combined with the high spatial resolution of a scanning transmission X-ray microscope, compositional maps of submicron morphologies can be derived and have been used successfully to characterize a number of materials systems. However, multiple sources of known systematic errors limit the accuracy and are frequently not taken into account. We show that these errors can be significant (more than 10%) and demonstrate simple methods to eliminate them. With suitable precautions, a compositional measurement can be made on a thin film sample in a matter of minutes with sub-micron spatial resolution and sub-percent compositional precision. NEXAFS measurements are furthermore known to be sensitive to anisotropic molecular orientation and a strategy to account for that and extract preferential molecular orientation relative to a reference is presented. The spatial resolution of the measurement can be increased to below 100 nm at the expense of compositional precision, depending on the point spread function of the zone plate focusing optics of the microscope.

  19. Molecular dynamics analysis of conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein during the initial steps of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Garcia, Fernando; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesus Ignacio; Mendieta, Jesus [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' (CSIC/UAM), C/ Nicolas Cabrera, 1, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Biomol-Informatics SL, Parque Cientifico de Madrid, C/ Faraday, 7, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Puertas, Paulino, E-mail: pagomez@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' (CSIC/UAM), C/ Nicolas Cabrera, 1, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein is caused only by mechanical forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRA region undergoes a structural change from a beta + alpha conformation to an extended coil and then to an all-alpha conformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRS domains of F protein form three single {alpha}-helices prior to generation of the coiled coil. -- Abstract: The fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell membrane is mediated by fusion protein (F protein) present in the virus envelope, which undergoes a dramatic conformational change during the process. Unlike hemagglutinin in orthomyxovirus, this change is not mediated by an alteration of environmental pH, and its cause remains unknown. Steered molecular dynamics analysis leads us to suggest that the conformational modification is mediated only by stretching mechanical forces once the transmembrane fusion peptide of the protein is anchored to the cell membrane. Such elongating forces will generate major secondary structure rearrangement in the heptad repeat A region of the F protein; from {beta}-sheet conformation to an elongated coil and then spontaneously to an {alpha}-helix. In addition, it is proposed that the heptad repeat A region adopts a final three-helix coiled coil and that this structure appears after the formation of individual helices in each monomer.

  20. Effects of laser focusing and fluence on the analysis of pellets of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Campus Diadema, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lidiane Cristina [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gomes, Marcos da Silva [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Leme, Flavio de Oliveira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco Jose, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    The effects of laser focusing and fluence on LIBS analysis of pellets of plant leaves was evaluated. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 10 Hz, 1064 nm) was used and the emission signals were collected by lenses into an optical fiber coupled to a spectrometer with Echelle optics and ICCD. Data were acquired from the accumulation of 20 laser pulses at 2.0 {mu}s delay and 5.0 {mu}s integration time gate. The emission signal intensities increased with both laser fluence and spot size. Higher sensitivities for Ca, K, Mg, P, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn determinations were observed for fluences in the range from 25 to 60 J cm{sup -2}. Coefficients of variation of site-to-site measurements were generally lower than 10% (n = 30 sites, 20 laser pulses/site) for a fluence of 50 J cm{sup -2} and 750 {mu}m spot size. For most elements, there is an indication that accuracy is improved with higher fluences. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser focusing and fluence affect the quality of LIBS results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvements on sensitivity and precision were observed for most analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix effects can be minimized by choosing the most appropriate fluence.

  1. Design, performance and manufacturing analysis for a compact permeator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacristan, R., E-mail: mrosa.sacristan@sener.es [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenza 392, 5a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Veredas, G. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., BBTU, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Bonjoch, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenza 392, 5a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Fernandez, I. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., BBTU, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martin, G. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenza 392, 5a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sanmarti, M. [b-FUS, Jardins de les Dones de Negre, 08930 Santa Adria de Besos, Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., BBTU, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Not a single manufacturing option fulfills fully all the requirements that the PAV needs due to complicated manufacturing geometry and materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To avoid permeation in piping joints is a challenge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD sensibility analysis and efficiency analysis show that the aim of the experiment can be accomplished. - Abstract: A fast and efficient recovery of bred tritium is a major milestone of tritium breeding technologies R and D for the demonstration of a fusion reactor tritium self-sufficiency. Permeator against vacuum (PAV) runs as a single-step process for tritium on-line recovery, acts as passive systems allowing to be thermally governed can be easily in-pipe integrated in LiPb loop systems and can be conceived with high compactness. An optimal PAV design is proposed with detailed design parameterization of tritium recovery efficiency at different velocity ranges from numerical simulation based on properly developed Openfoam{sup Registered-Sign} CFD code BelFoam{sup Registered-Sign} customized solver. Diverse structural design options are being considered to manufacture the PAV component that presents diverse manufacturing concerns. Fabrication options are exploring rolling of thin plate with internal armor in the vacuum gap up to the coating of a porous controlled thick wall. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the advanced performance of the PAV proposed concept, to present and discuss the different technical solutions that have been studied as well as the fabrication tests carried out.

  2. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouw, Peter; Solodkin, Eugene; Thagard, Paul; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The reconciliation of theories of concepts based on prototypes, exemplars, and theory-like structures is a longstanding problem in cognitive science. In response to this problem, researchers have recently tended to adopt either hybrid theories that combine various kinds of representational structure, or eliminative theories that replace concepts…

  3. Technology, Work and Society: Some Pointers from ILO Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Francis

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the causes of the failure of rural development projects in developing countries and concludes that governments and agencies providing assistance need to devote more attention to land reform, improvement of rural institutions and delivery systems, and adjustments in economic policies. (JOW)

  4. Quantum Theory A Pointer To An Independent Reality

    CERN Document Server

    d'Espagnat, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    While philosophy of science is the study of problems of knowledge concerning science in general, there also exists - or should exist - a '' philosophy in science'' directed at finding out in what ways our actual scientific knowledge may validly contribute to the basic philosophical quest. Contrary to philosophy of science, which is a subject for philosophers, philosophy in science calls on the services of physicists. When, in its spirit, quantum theory and Bell's theorem are used as touchstones, the two main traditional philosophical approaches, realism and idealism, are found wanting. A more suitable conception seems to be an intermediate one, in which the mere postulated existence of a holistic and hardly knowable Mind-Independent Reality is found to have an explaining power. Some corrections to comments by Schins of a previous work on the same subject are incorporated.

  5. Towards Responsible Massification: Some Pointers for Supporting Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, Ruth M; Machika, Pauline; Troskie-de Bruin, Christel

    2016-01-01

    Teaching large classes poses many challenges to lecturers where massification is a reality in higher education. There are implications for both teaching and effective learning in this context. The need for accountability to learners in education provision served as motivation for a study of large classes in the largest faculty of one university…

  6. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  7. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  8. Polygraphic recordings of respiration in neonates: a pointer to SIDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua A

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Polygraphic respiratory recordings of 60 neonates were obtained from the infants in paediatric intensive care unit of a large public hospital. Thirty infants were pre-term and thirty infants were in the term (control group. The recordings were analysed for periodic breathing and apnoeic episodes. Results were also determined for apnoeic density in pre-term and term Infants. Apnoeic episodes were found to be statistically significant in the pre-term infants over term Infants.

  9. Anaesthesia for the child with congenital heart disease: pointers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associate Professor and Head of the Clinical Unit of Paediatric Anaesthesia, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, and University of Cape Town .... the bone marrow to increase red cell ... cerebral infarction causing neurological.

  10. Directions in healthcare research: pointers from retailing and services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Thomas L J; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of the environment in relation to healing processes has been well established, empirical evidence for environmental effects on patient well-being and behavior is sparse. In addition, few attempts have been made to integrate insights from related fields of research such as retailing and services marketing with findings from healthcare studies. In this paper, relevant findings and insights from these domains are discussed. What insights and findings from retailing and services marketing are (potentially) of interest to the healthcare context, and how should one interpret and follow up on these results in healthcare environments? Research in retailing and services marketing indicates that physical environmental factors (i.e., music and scent) and social environmental factors (i.e., crowded conditions) may affect consumer satisfaction and well-being. In addition, environmental effects have been shown to vary with contextual factors (e.g., the type of environment) and consumer needs (e.g., the extent to which consumers value social contact or stimulation in a specific setting). Although the evidence base for environmental factors in health environments is steadily growing, few attempts have been made to integrate findings from both domains. The findings presented indicate that environmental variables such as music and scent can contribute to patient well-being and overall satisfaction. In addition, findings suggest that these variables may be used to counteract the negative effects resulting from crowded conditions in different healthcare units. Taking into account recent developments in the healthcare industry, the importance of creating memorable and pleasant patient experiences is likely to grow in the years to come. Hence, the finding that subtle and relatively inexpensive manipulations may affect patient well-being in profound ways should inspire follow-up research aimed at unraveling the specifics of environmental influences in health environments.

  11. Immobilization of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium with graphene oxide for electrochemiluminescent analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yali; Li Haijuan; Han Shuang; Hu Lianzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); Parveen, Saima [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); Department of Chemistry, Baghdad-ul-Jadeed Campus, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Cai Haoran [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Xu Guobao, E-mail: guobaoxu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+}-based regenerable ECL sensor has been demonstrated for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} has better adsorbability than Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is readily and strongly immobilized on graphene oxide by adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+}/GO regenerable sensor has excellent long-term stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is an attractive alternative to Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} for regenerable ECL sensors. - Abstract: Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of ruthenium complexes has broad applications and the immobilization of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} has received extensive attention. In comparison with Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} can be immobilized more easily because of its better adsorbability. In this study, immobilization of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} for ECL analysis has been demonstrated for the first time by using graphene oxide (GO) as an immobilization matrix. The immobilization of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is achieved easily by mixing Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} with GO without using any ion exchange polymer or covalent method. The strong binding of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} with GO is attributed to both the {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction and the electrostatic interaction. The Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+}/GO modified electrode was characterized by using tripropylamine (TPA) as the coreactant. The linear range of TPA is from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} with the detection limit of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}. The ECL sensor demonstrates outstanding long-term stability. After the storage in the ambient environment for 90 days, the ECL response remains comparable with its original signal.

  12. Thermal analysis of activated carbons modified with silver metavanadate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscianska, Joanna; Nowicki, Piotr; Nowak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Pietrzak, Robert, E-mail: pietrob@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of the activated carbons from waste materials as new supports for AgVO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} to V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sup 0} for the samples 1 and 3 wt.% Ag-V is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples containing 5 wt.% Ag-V decompose to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds. - Abstract: The effect of silver metavanadate doping on physicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of the activated carbons obtained from waste materials was investigated. The carbonaceous supports were subjected to carbonisation at 400 or 600 Degree-Sign C. The samples carbonised at 600 Degree-Sign C have much more developed surface area and porous structure than the analogous samples obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C. Impregnation of activated carbons with silver metavanadate leads to a decrease in their surface area and pore volume. According to thermal analysis (TG, DTG) in the samples containing 1 and 3 wt.% of silver metavanadate, AgVO{sub 3} is fully decomposed to do vanadium oxide and Ag, with no intermediate products, while in the samples containing 5 wt.% AgVO{sub 3}, this salt is decomposed to vanadyl species as intermediate compounds at 350 Degree-Sign C before the formation of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at 500 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in all samples impregnated with silver metavanadate the nanoparticles of silver undergo crystallisation leading to reduction of Ag{sup +} ions from the vanadium salt to Ag{sup 0}.

  13. Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukreti, B.M., E-mail: bharatkuk@gmail.com [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India); Sharma, G.K. [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}. This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrical enhancement for ppm range primordial radio elemental determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental constraints include detector setup, background and counting time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma spectrometric performance monitored on digital and analog MCA systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study indicates higher variance of Compton stripping constants on digital MCA system.

  14. Amortised Resource Analysis with Separation Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Atkey, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Type-based amortised resource analysis following Hofmann and Jost---where resources are associated with individual elements of data structures and doled out to the programmer under a linear typing discipline---have been successful in providing concrete resource bounds for functional programs, with good support for inference. In this work we translate the idea of amortised resource analysis to imperative pointer-manipulating languages by embedding a logic of resources, based on the affine intuitionistic Logic of Bunched Implications, within Separation Logic. The Separation Logic component allows us to assert the presence and shape of mutable data structures on the heap, while the resource component allows us to state the consumable resources associated with each member of the structure. We present the logic on a small imperative language, based on Java bytecode, with procedures and mutable heap. We have formalised the logic and its soundness property within the Coq proof assistant and extracted a certified ver...

  15. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaru, E-mail: murata@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Akazawa, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido Research Organization, Nishi-11, Kita-19, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A titanium fixture is implanted into palatal bone of an 18-year-old patient as the unmoved anchorage for the orthodontic treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fixture is integrated with compact bone with cortical bone-like osteon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbeam X-ray diffraction denotes the crystallinity and orientation of HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray images of c-face in HAp reveal functionally graded distribution of bone quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth of c-face is caused by propagation of the continuous lateral stress. - Abstract: A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem{sup Registered-Sign }, Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the

  16. Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor for the analysis of vitamin B{sub 12} in energy drinks: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, L.S. [Fermentation Technology and Bioengineering Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute (a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR), Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Thakur, M.S., E-mail: msthakur@cftri.res.in [Fermentation Technology and Bioengineering Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute (a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR), Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India)

    2012-04-13

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic representation of immunochemiluminescence based dipstick technique for detection of vitamin B{sub 12}. (b) Enzymatic dephosphorylation of dioxetane by alkaline phosphatase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor proposed for vitamin B{sub 12} analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limit of detection of vitamin B{sub 12} is 1 ng mL{sup -1} and applied in energy drinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemiluminescence generated was inversely proportional to vitamin B{sub 12} concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemiluminescence analytical procedure was compared with ELISA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline phosphatase was stable chemiluminescent enzyme than Horse Radish Peroxidase. - Abstract: In this article, we describe a dipstick based immunochemiluminescence (immuno-CL) biosensor for the detection of vitamin B{sub 12} in energy drinks. The method is a direct competitive type format involving the immobilization of vitamin B{sub 12} antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) followed by treatment with vitamin B{sub 12} and vitamin B{sub 12}-alkaline phosphatase conjugate to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with substrate disodium 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro {l_brace}1,2-dioxetane-3,2 Cent-Sign -(5 Cent-Sign -chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan{r_brace}-4-yl)-1-phenyl phosphate (CDP-Star) to generate chemiluminescence (CL). The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the vitamin B{sub 12} concentration. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection was 1 ng mL{sup -1}. The coefficient of variation was below 0.2% for both intra- and inter-assay precision. Vitamin B{sub 12} was extracted from energy drinks with recovery ranged from 90 to 99.4%. Two different energy drinks samples were analyzed, and a good correlation was observed when the data were compared with a reference enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA

  17. Human reliability analysis data obtainment through fuzzy logic in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN - SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Error Probability estimates from operator's reactions to emergency situations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Reliability Analysis input data obtainment through fuzzy logic inference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance Shaping Factors evaluation influence level onto the operator's actions. - Abstract: Human error has been recognized as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents occurrence. Human error data is scarcely available for different reasons among which, lapses in historical database registry methodology is an important one. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an usual tool employed to estimate the probability that an operator will reasonably perform a system required task in required time without degrading the system. This meta-analysis requires specific Human Error Probability estimates for most of its procedure. This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN, Brazil. Through this proposed methodology HRA should be able to be performed even with shortage of related human error statistical data. A Performance Shaping Factors (PSF's) evaluation in order to classify and estimate their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine their actual state over the plant was also done. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on expert judgment using interviews and questionnaires. Expert group was established based on selected IEA-R1 operators, and their evaluation were put into a knowledge representation system which used linguistic variables and group evaluation values that were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on HRA.

  18. High-throughput analysis for preparation, processing and analysis of TiO{sub 2} coatings on steel by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado Gil, Marcos, E-mail: Marcos.cuadradogil@ugent.be [SCRIPTS - Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3) (Belgium); Van Driessche, Isabel, E-mail: Isabel.VanDriessche@ugent.be [SCRIPTS - Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3) (Belgium); Van Gils, Sake, E-mail: Sake.Vangils@arcelormittal.com [OCAS - ArcelorMittal Gent R and D Centre, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, Zelzate B-9060 (Belgium); Lommens, Petra, E-mail: Petra.Lommens@ugent.be [SCRIPTS - Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3) (Belgium); Castelein, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Castelein@flamac.be [Flamac - A Division of SIM, Technologiepark 903, Zwijnaarde 9052 (Belgium); De Buysser, Klaartje, E-mail: Klaartje.DeBuysser@ugent.be [SCRIPTS - Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S3) (Belgium)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-throughput preparation of TiO{sub 2} aqueous precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of stability and surface tension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition of TiO{sub 2} coatings. - Abstract: A high-throughput preparation, processing and analysis of titania coatings prepared by chemical solution deposition from water-based precursors at low temperature ( Almost-Equal-To 250 Degree-Sign C) on two different types of steel substrates (Aluzinc Registered-Sign and bright annealed) is presented. The use of the high-throughput equipment allows fast preparation of multiple samples saving time, energy and material; and helps to test the scalability of the process. The process itself includes the use of IR curing for aqueous ceramic precursors and possibilities of using UV irradiation before the final sintering step. The IR curing method permits a much faster curing step compared to normal high temperature treatments in traditional convection devices (i.e., tube furnaces). The formulations, also prepared by high-throughput equipment, are found to be stable in the operational pH range of the substrates (6.5-8.5). Titanium alkoxides itself lack stability in pure water-based environments, but the presence of the different organic complexing agents prevents it from hydrolysis and precipitation reactions. The wetting interaction between the substrates and the various formulations is studied by the determination of the surface free energy of the substrates and the polar and dispersive components of the surface tension of the solutions. The mild temperature program used for preparation of the coatings however does not lead to the formation of pure crystalline material, necessary for the desired photocatalytic and super-hydrophilic behavior of these coatings. Nevertheless, some activity can be reported for these amorphous coatings by monitoring the discoloration of methylene blue in water under UV irradiation.

  19. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5Ca-xZn alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza, E-mail: Rezabakhsheshi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Idris, Mohd Hasbullah [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implants Technology Group, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Biomechanics and Biomedical Materials, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni [Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Ourdjini, Ali [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T{sub N}-T{sub DCP} increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg-Ca-Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new peak Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} was identified in Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5%Ca-xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg{sub 2}Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 Degree-Sign C in addition to {alpha}-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg-0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to {alpha}-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg{sub 2}Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 Degree-Sign C for Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn which was identified as Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20}. Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T{sub N}-T{sub DCP}) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn systems.

  20. Desalting of phosphopeptides by tandem polypyrrole-c18 reverse phase micropipette tip (TMTip{sub PPY-C18}) based on hybrid electrostatic, {Pi}-{Pi} stacking and hydrophobic interactions for mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Shi; Wang Xiaoli; Fu Jieying; Hu Xuejiao; Xiao Xiao; Huang Lulu; Zhou Youe [Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Zhong Hongying, E-mail: hyzhong@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2012-04-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new micropipette tip TMTip{sub PPY-C18} was developed for desalting of phosphopeptides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} is based on polypyrrole in tandem with C18 chromatographic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} combines electrostatic, {Pi}-{Pi} stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} can be used in both acidic and basic experimental conditions. - Abstract: Desalting and concentration of peptides using reverse phase (RP) C18 chromatographic material based on hydrophobic interaction is a routine approach used in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. However, MS detection of small hydrophilic peptides, in particular, phosphopeptides that bear multiple negative charges, is challenging due to the insufficient binding to C18 stationary phase. We described here the development of a new desalting method that takes the unique properties of polypyrrole (PPY). The presence of positively charged nitrogen atoms under acidic conditions and polyunsaturated bonds in polypyrrole provide a prospect for enhanced adsorption of phosphopeptides or hydrophilic peptides through extra electrostatic and {Pi}-{Pi} stacking interactions in addition to hydrophobic interactions. In tandem with reversed phase C18 chromatographic material, the new type of desalting method termed as TMTip{sub PPY-C18} can significantly improve the MS detection of phosphopeptides with multiple phosphate groups and other small hydrophilic peptides. It has been applied to not only tryptic digest of model proteins but also the analysis of complex lysates of zebrafish eggs. The number of detected phosphate groups on a peptide ranged from 1 to 6. Particularly, polypyrrole based method can also be used in basic condition. Thus it provides a useful means to handle peptides that may not be detectable in acidic condition. It can be envisioned that the TMTip{sub PPY-C18} should be able to

  1. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same...... representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our...... parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in....

  2. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  3. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  4. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Marta; Perez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Farre, Marinella, E-mail: mfuqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Agramunt, Silvia [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Kogevinas, Manolis [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); National School of Public Health, Athens (Greece); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-01

    A fast on-line analytical method based on turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time for the analysis of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in cord blood. A simple and rapid sample pre-treatment was optimised consisting on protein precipitation of 100 {mu}L of sample with acetonitrile (1:1) followed by centrifugation during 10 min. The method was adapted to be sensitive enough and robust with minimum sample injection volume requirements (20 {mu}L). The optimised methodology presented method limits of detection (MLOD) between 0.031 and 0.76 {mu}g/L, detection capabilities (CC{alpha}) in the range between 0.005 and 0.99 {mu}g/L and decision limits (CC{beta}) ranging from 0.006 to 1.16 {mu}g/L. The recoveries in blank blood were calculated by spiking experiments with a mixture of 18 PFASs and established between 70 and 126% for most of compounds. Isotopic dilution was carried out for quantification of selected analytes. In-house validation of this new approach was carried out according to the requirements in the 2002/657/EC Decision. Finally the good applicability of this new approach was proved by the analysis of 60 cord blood samples from two different Mediterranean cities, Barcelona (Spain) and Heraklion (Greece). Ions perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were found at highest concentration and the more frequently compounds were PFHxS, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The newly developed method proved to be suitable for large-scale epidemiologic studies, and to the data on PFASs exposure during pregnancy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An on-line method has been developed for the analysis of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on turbulent flow chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied in 60 cord blood samples from 2 Mediterranean cities

  5. Simultaneous analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and estrogenic hormones in water and wastewater samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migowska, Natalia; Caban, Magda; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta, E-mail: kumirska@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2012-12-15

    analyzing selected pharmaceuticals in wastewaters and river waters in Poland. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new SPE-GC-ECD method for the determination of pharmaceuticals in water samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of SPE-GC-MS(SIM) method in highly complex wastewater matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of time windows to improve GC-MS(SIM) measurement sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reliable confirmation of the presence of pharmaceuticals using ion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the proposed methods to the analysis of real samples from Poland.

  6. Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for analysis of {beta}-caryophyllene in a nanoemulsion dosage form prepared with copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Daiane de O; Colombo, Mariana; Kelmann, Regina G. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); De Souza, Tatiane P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Bassani, Valquiria L.; Teixeira, Helder F. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); Veiga, Valdir F. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, UFAM, Av. Gal. Rodrigo Octavio, 6.200 - Japiim, 69.079-000, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Limberger, Renata P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, CEP 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A SPME-CG method is proposed for {beta}-caryophyllene assay in nanoemulsions containing copaiba oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPME parameters were optimized for efficient {beta}-caryophyllene extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability-indicating capability and specificity of the method were satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoemulsions partially protected {beta}-caryophyllene under stressing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method presents linearity, lows LOD and LOQ, good precision, accuracy and robustness. - Abstract: Recent studies have shown the anti-inflammatory activity of Copaiba oils may be addressed to the high content of {beta}-caryophyllene, the most common sesquiterpene detected, especially in the Copaifera multijuga Hayne species. In the present study, nanoemulsions were proposed as a delivery system for copaiba oil in view to treat locally inflamed skin. This article describes the optimization and validation of a stability-indicating SPME-GC method, for {beta}-caryophyllene analysis in the nanoemulsions produced by high pressure homogenization. SPME methods are performed with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) fiber (100 {mu}m). Three SPME parameters were evaluated by a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken factorial design as potentially affecting the technique efficiency. According to the results obtained, the best conditions to extract {beta}-caryophyllene were: (i) sampling temperature of 45 Degree-Sign C, (ii) sampling time of 20 min and (iii) no NaCl addition. Results coming from the forced degradation tests showed a reduction of {beta}-caryophyllene peak area when both caryophyllene methanolic solution and nanoemulsions were exposed to acid hydrolysis, UV-A irradiation, oxidative (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and thermolitic (60 Degree-Sign C) conditions. Such reduction occurred in lower extent in the nanoemulsions, suggesting a protective effect of the formulation to {beta

  7. Synthesis, measurements, and theoretical analysis of carbazole derivatives with high-triplet-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianli; Mi Xiaoyun; Wan Yuchun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Si Zhenjun, E-mail: szj@cust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czech Academy of Science, Praha 6 16610 (Czech Republic); Sun Haiying; Duan Qian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); He Xingquan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Yan Dong; Wan Sha [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-05-15

    In order to obtain the blue light-emitting organic materials with high triplet state energy, two 3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole (Tz) containing carbazole (Cz) derivatives of 9-(4-(3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole (TzCz1) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-9-(4-(3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl) -9H-carbazole (TzCz2) are synthesized using Cz acting as the starting material, as well as characterized by the {sup 1}H NMR spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and the IR absorption spectra. The luminescence quantum yields (LQYs) of TzCz1 and TzCz2 are measured in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution to be 32.1% and 47.5%, respectively. The electrochemical analysis and the photophysical measurements suggest that the triplet energy levels and the energy gaps of the highest-occupied orbital and the lowest-unoccupied orbital are 2.83 eV and 3.59 eV for TzCz1, and 2.80 eV and 3.43 eV for TzCz2. At last, the theoretical analyses of their ground state geometries and the simulated UV-vis absorption spectra are carried out at B3LYP1/6-31G Low-Asterisk level. The studies mentioned above indicate that both TzCz1 and TzCz2 are suitable for the host materials of blue light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of two blue light-emitting Carbazole derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photophysical and electrochemical properties are systematically studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical analysis of geometry of the ground states and the UV-vis absorption are performed with Firefly package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The triplet energy levels are measured to be ca. 2.83 eV.

  8. Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in energy production, and the replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, the analysis of these systems must include strategies for integrating renewable sources...

  9. Synthesis and TL glow curve analysis of BaSO{sub 4}:Eu,Dy phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangeela Devi, Y. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram (India); Dorendrajit Singh, S., E-mail: dorendrajit@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 1-x-y}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub x},Dy{sub y} (0{<=}x{<=}1, 0{<=}y{<=}1) have been prepared using the chemical co-precipitation technique. The thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity of the samples have been found changing with the value of x and y and the highest TL intensity is for Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02}. The sample has been characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The samples are found to have orthorhombic structure. For TL analysis Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02} is annealed at different temperatures ranging from 873 to 1173 K. Kinetic parameters of all the TL glow curves of Ba{sub 1-x-y}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub x},Dy{sub y} for different values of x and y and also for the TL glow curves Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02} annealed at different temperatures have been found out using computerised glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method. The activation energy for the most intense TL peak at (444-453 K) is found out to be 1.26 eV and order of kinetics is 1.35. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TL study of BaSO{sub 4}:Eu,Dy is reported for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetic parameters are evaluated by CGCD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of concentration, annealing temperature and dose response curve discussed.

  10. Compositional analysis and depth profiling of thin film CrO{sub 2} by heavy ion ERDA and standard RBS: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: skhamlich@gmail.com [Nano-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X 680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); The African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Msimanga, M., E-mail: mandla@tlabs.ac.za [Nano-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); iThemba LABS Gauteng, Private Bag 11, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [Nano-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, C.P.U.T., P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [Nano-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); McCrindle, R. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X 680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Maaza, M. [Nano-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X 680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); The African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-08-15

    Chromium dioxide (CrO{sub 2}) thin film has generated considerable interest in applied research due to the wide variety of its technological applications. It has been extensively investigated in recent years, attracting the attention of researchers working on spintronic heterostructures and in the magnetic recording industry. However, its synthesis is usually a difficult task due to its metastable nature and various synthesis techniques are being investigated. In this work a polycrystalline thin film of CrO{sub 2} was prepared by electron beam vaporization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} onto a Si substrate. The polycrystalline structure was confirmed through XRD analysis. The stoichiometry and elemental depth distribution of the deposited film were measured by ion beam nuclear analytical techniques heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), which both have relative advantage over non-nuclear spectrometries in that they can readily provide quantitative information about the concentration and distribution of different atomic species in a layer. Moreover, the analysis carried out highlights the importance of complementary usage of the two techniques to obtain a more complete description of elemental content and depth distribution in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) both have relative advantage over non-nuclear spectrometries in that they can readily provide quantitative information about the concentration and distribution of different atomic species in a layer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of CrO{sub 2} have been grown by e-beam evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} target in vacuum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition was determined by heavy ion-ERDA and RBS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HI-ERDA and RBS provided information on the light and heavy elements, respectively.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis study of the TiH{sub 2} foaming agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrino, Djordje, E-mail: djordje.mandrino@imt.si [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Paulin, Irena [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Skapin, Sreco D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-10-15

    The decomposition of commercially available TiH{sub 2} was investigated while performing different thermal treatments. TiH{sub 2} powder, which is widely used as a foaming agent, was heat treated at 450 Degree-Sign C for various times, from 15 min to 120 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the surfaces at different magnifications were obtained and interpreted. A Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer was used to measure the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra on all five samples. A close examination of the diffraction spectra showed that for an as-received sample and samples undergoing the longest thermal treatment (1 and 2 h) these spectra can be explained as deriving from cubic TiH{sub 1.924}, while for the other two samples they can be explained as deriving from tetragonal TiH{sub 1.924}. A constant-unit-cell-volume phase transition between the cubic and tetragonal phases in TiH{sub 2-y}-type compounds had been described in the literature. The unit-cell parameters obtained from measured spectra confirm that within the measurement uncertainty the unit-cell volume is indeed constant in all five samples. Thermo-gravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements were performed on all the samples, showing that the intensity of the dehydrogenation depends on the previous treatment of the TiH{sub 2}. After the thermal analysis XRD of the samples was performed again and the material was found to exhibit a Ti-like unit cell, but slightly enlarged due to the unreleased hydrogen. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiH{sub 2} samples were cubic or tetragonal TiH{sub 1.924} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Onset of the hydrogen release temperature increases with the pre-treatment time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal dehydrogenation for the as-prepared TiH{sub 2} is a three-step process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After thermal analysis 2 residual hydrogen TiH{sub x} phases, close to {alpha}Ti, appeared.

  12. Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, Krzysztof

    1980-01-01

    The extraordinarily rapid advances made in mathematics since World War II have resulted in analysis becoming an enormous organism spread­ ing in all directions. Gone for good surely are the days of the great French "courses of analysis" which embodied the whole of the "ana­ lytical" knowledge of the times in three volumes-as the classical work of Camille Jordan. Perhaps that is why present-day textbooks of anal­ ysis are disproportionately modest relative to the present state of the art. More: they have "retreated" to the state before Jordan and Goursat. In recent years the scene has been changing rapidly: Jean Dieudon­ ne is offering us his monumentel Elements d'Analyse (10 volumes) written in the spirit of the great French Course d'Analyse. To the best of my knowledge, the present book is the only one of its size: starting from scratch-from rational numbers, to be precise-it goes on to the theory of distributions, direct integrals, analysis on com­ plex manifolds, Kahler manifolds, the theory of sheave...

  13. Arsenic speciation and trace element analysis of the volcanic rio Agrio and the geothermal waters of Copahue, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnfield, Hannah R. [ICP-MS Facility, Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Marcilla, Andrea L. [Patagonia BBS, General Roca, Rio Negro (Argentina); Ward, Neil I., E-mail: n.ward@surrey.ac.uk [ICP-MS Facility, Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    Surface water originating from the Copahue volcano crater-lake was analysed for total arsenic and four arsenic species: arsenite (iAs{sup III}), arsenate (iAs{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MA{sup V}) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) and other trace elements (Fe, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Zn). A novel in-field technique for the preconcentration and separation of four arsenic species was, for the first time, used for the analysis of geothermal and volcanic waters. Total arsenic levels along the rio Agrio ranged from < 0.2-3783 {mu}g/l As{sub T}. The highest arsenic levels were recorded in the el Vertedero spring (3783 {mu}g/l As{sub T}) on the flank of the Copahue volcano, which feeds the acidic rio Agrio. Arsenite (H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}) predominated along the upper rio Agrio (78.9-81.2% iAs{sup III}) but the species distribution changed at lago Caviahue and arsenate (H{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}{sup -}) became the main species (51.4-61.4% iAs{sup V}) up until Salto del Agrio. The change in arsenic species is potentially a result of an increase in redox potential and the formation of iron-based precipitates. Arsenic speciation showed a statistically significant correlation with redox potential (r = 0.9697, P = 0.01). Both total arsenic and arsenic speciation displayed a statistically significant correlation with vanadium levels along the river (r = 0.9961, P = 0.01 and r = 0.8488, P = 0.05, respectively). This study highlights that chemical speciation analysis of volcanic waters is important in providing ideas on potential chemical toxicity. Furthermore there is a need for further work evaluating how arsenic (and other trace elements), released in volcanic and geothermal streams/vents, impacts on both biota and humans (via exposure in thermal pools or consuming commercial drinking water). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of a novel field-based method for the separation of arsenic species in a volcanic surface water system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First

  14. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Xavier de la, E-mail: xavier.delatorre@gmail.com [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Management, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC-IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  15. Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Maha; El-Sawy, El-Sawy K.; Gobashy, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    Ar Rika fault zone constitutes one of the two major parts of the NW-SE Najd fault system (NFS), which is one of the most prominent structural features located in the east of the center of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia. By using Enhancement Thematic Mapper data (ETM+) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA), surface geological characteristics, distribution of rock types, and the different trends of linear features and faults are determined in the study area. First and second order magnetic gradients of the geomagnetic field at the North East of Wadi Ar Rika have been calculated in the frequency domain to map both surface and subsurface lineaments and faults. Lineaments as deduced from previous studies, suggest an extension of the NFS beneath the cover rocks in the study area. In the present study, integration of magnetic gradients and remote sensing analysis that resulted in different valuable derivative maps confirm the subsurface extension of some of the surface features. The 3D Euler deconvolution, the total gradient, and the tilt angle maps have been utilized to determine accurately the distribution of shear zones, the tectonic implications, and the internal structures of the terranes in the Ar Rika quadrangle in three dimensions.

  16. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena, E-mail: yelena.sapozhnikova@ars.usda.gov [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States)

    2013-01-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5 ng g{sup -1} for PCBs, 0.5-10 ng g{sup -1} for PBDEs, 0.5-5 ng g{sup -1} for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10 ng g{sup -1} for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples

  17. 4D-MR flow analysis in patients after repair for tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Markl, M.; Jung, B.; Langer, M. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Grohmann, J.; Stiller, B.; Arnold, R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Comprehensive analysis of haemodynamics by 3D flow visualisation and retrospective flow quantification in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Time-resolved flow-sensitive 4D MRI (spatial resolution {proportional_to} 2.5 mm, temporal resolution = 38.4 ms) was acquired in ten patients after repair of TOF and in four healthy controls. Data analysis included the evaluation of haemodynamics in the aorta, the pulmonary trunk (TP) and left (lPA) and right (rPA) pulmonary arteries by 3D blood flow visualisation using particle traces, and quantitative measurements of flow velocity. 3D visualisation of whole heart haemodynamics provided a comprehensive overview on flow pattern changes in TOF patients, mainly alterations in flow velocity, retrograde flow and pathological vortices. There was consistently higher blood flow in the rPA of the patients (rPA/lPA flow ratio: 2.6 {+-} 2.5 vs. 1.1 {+-} 0.1 in controls). Systolic peak velocity in the TP was higher in patients (1.9 m/s {+-} 0.7 m/s) than controls (0.9 m/s {+-} 0.1 m/s). 4D flow-sensitive MRI permits the comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics in patients after repair of TOF. Altered flow patterns for different surgical techniques in the small patient cohort may indicate its value for patient monitoring and potentially identifying optimal surgical strategies. (orig.)

  18. Quantification of myocardial perfusion based on signal intensity of flow sensitized MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeykoon, Sumeda B.

    The quantitative assessment of perfusion is important for early recognition of a variety of heart diseases, determination of disease severity and their cure. In conventional approach of measuring cardiac perfusion by arterial spin labeling, the relative difference in the apparent T1 relaxation times in response to selective and non-selective inversion of blood entering the region of interest is related to perfusion via a two-compartment tissue model. But accurate determination of T1 in small animal hearts is difficult and prone to errors due to long scan times. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast, robust and simple method to quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion using arterial spin labeling. The proposed method is based on signal intensities (SI) of inversion recovery slice-select, non-select and steady-state images. Especially in this method data are acquired at a single inversion time and at short repetition times. This study began by investigating the accuracy of assessment of perfusion using a two compartment system. First, determination of perfusion by T1 and SI were implemented to a simple, two-compartment phantom model. Mathematical model developed for full spin exchange models (in-vivo experiments) by solving a modified Bloch equation was modified to develop mathematical models (T1 and SI) for a phantom (zero spin exchange). The phantom result at different flow rates shows remarkable evidence of accuracy of the two-compartment model and SI, T1 methods: the SI method has less propagation error and less scan time. Next, twelve healthy C57BL/6 mice were scanned for quantitative perfusion assessment and three of them were repeatedly scanned at three different time points for a reproducibility test. The myocardial perfusion of healthy mice obtained by the SI-method, 5.7+/-1.6 ml/g/min, was similar (p=0.38) to that obtained by the conventional T1 method, 5.6+/- 2.3 ml/g/min. The reproducibility of the SI method shows acceptable results: the maximum percentage deviation is about 5%. Then the SI-method was used in comparison to a delayed enhanced method to qualitatively and quantitatively assess perfusion deficits in an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) mouse model. The infarcted region of the perfusion map is comparable to the hyper intense region of the delayed enhanced image of the IR mouse. The SI method also used to record a chronological comparison of perfusion on delta sarcoglycan null (DSG) mice. Perfusion of DSG and wild-type (WT) mice at ages of 12 weeks and 32 weeks were compared and percentage change of perfusion was estimated. The result shows that in DSG mice perfusion changes considerably. Finally, the SI method was implemented on a 3 Tesla Philip scanner by modifying to data acquisition method. The perfusion obtained in this is consistent with literature values but further adjustment of pulse sequence and modification of numerical solution is needed. The most important benefit of the SI method is that it reduces scan time 30%--40% and lessens motion artifacts of images compared to the T1 method. This study demonstrates that the signal intensity-based ASL method is a robust alternative to the conventional T1-method.

  19. Responses of Artificial Flow-Sensitive Hair for Raider Detection via Bio-Inspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kyu; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Filiform hairs that respond to movements of the surrounding medium are the mechanoreceptors commonly found in arthropods and vertebrates. In these creatures, the filiform hairs function as a sensory system for raider detection. Parametric analyses of the motion response of filiform hairs are conducted by using a mathematical model of an artificial flow sensor to understand the possible operating ranges of a microfabricated device. It is found that the length and diameter of the sensory hair are the major parameters that determine the mechanical sensitivities and responses in a mean flow with an oscillating component. By changing the hair length, the angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration could be detected in a wide range of frequencies. Although the torques due to drag and virtual mass are very small, they are also very influential factors on the hair motion. The resonance frequency of the hair decreases as the length and diameter of the hair increase.

  20. Debris flow sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change - supply vs transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models suggest that small mountain catchment-alluvial fan systems might be sensitive to climate changes over glacial-interglacial cycles, and record these palaeoclimate signals in the sedimentology of their deposits. However, these models are still largely untested, and the propagation of climate signals through simple sediment routing systems remains contentious. Here, we present detailed sedimentological records from 8 debris flow fan systems in Owens Valley, California, that capture the past ~ 120 ka of deposition. We identify a strong and sustained relationship between deposit grain size and palaeoclimate records over a full glacial-interglacial cycle, with significantly coarser-grained deposits found in warm and dry periods. Our data show that these systems are highly sensitive to climate with a rapid response timescale of debris flows are triggered by surface runoff during intense storms, we interpret that enhanced runoff rates in warm and stormy conditions are responsible for entraining larger clasts during debris flow initiation. This implies that debris flow fans might record signals of past storm intensity. Our study utilises field sedimentology and focuses on short transport distances (~ 10 km) and climate changes over ~ 1-100 ka timespans, but could additionally have important implications for how eroding landscapes might respond to future warming scenarios. We address the importance of extreme events (such as storms and debris flows) for determining how sensitive landscapes are to climate variability.

  1. A proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling responses to 3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, a bacterial quorum-sensing signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chunjuan, E-mail: chunjuanjay@163.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Liu, Fang, E-mail: liufang830818@126.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Zhao, Qian, E-mail: zhqbluesea@163.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Jia, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhenhuaj@hotmail.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Song, Shuishan, E-mail: shuishans@hotmail.com [Biology Institute, Hebei Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China); Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL can change the expression of diverse proteins in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant could have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHL. -- Abstract: N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a class of bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals that are commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria for cell-to-cell communication. Recently, it has become evident that AHLs can regulate plant root growth and trigger plant defense responses; however, little is known about the plant response mechanisms to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL), a bacterial QS signal. The results revealed that the abundance of 53 protein spots was significantly altered; two thirds of these proteins were found to be up-regulated after 3OC8-HSL treatment. Thirty-four proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. These 3OC8-HSL-responsive proteins, in addition to one protein of unknown function, are implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism of carbohydrate and energy, protein biosynthesis and quality control systems, defense response and signal transduction and cytoskeleton remodeling. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that the chloroplasts are the intracellular organelles most influenced by the exposure to 3OC8-HSL. Our data indicate that plants have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHLs that may play important roles in the interaction between plants and bacteria.

  2. OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Lenzmann, Frank O.; Ryley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic modules have been evaluated for their integration in mobile electronic applications such as a laser pointer. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells has been carried out from different perspectives: life cycle assessment, cost analysis...... and layer quality evaluation using inline optical and functional inspection tools. The polymer solar cells were fabricated in credit card sized modules by three routes, and several encapsulation alternatives have been explored, with the aim to provide the simplest but functional protection against moisture...

  3. Multidirectional flow analysis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in aneurysm development following repair of aortic coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalder Aurelien F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aneurysm formation is a life-threatening complication after operative therapy in coarctation. The identification of patients at risk for the development of such secondary pathologies is of high interest and requires a detailed understanding of the link between vascular malformation and altered hemodynamics. The routine morphometric follow-up by magnetic resonance angiography is a well-established technique. However, the intrinsic sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR towards motion offers the possibility to additionally investigate hemodynamic consequences of morphological changes of the aorta. We demonstrate two cases of aneurysm formation 13 and 35 years after coarctation surgery based on a Waldhausen repair with a subclavian patch and a Vosschulte repair with a Dacron patch, respectively. Comprehensive flow visualization by cardiovascular MR (CMR was performed using a flow-sensitive, 3-dimensional, and 3-directional time-resolved gradient echo sequence at 3T. Subsequent analysis included the calculation of a phase contrast MR angiography and color-coded streamline and particle trace 3D visualization. Additional quantitative evaluation provided regional physiological information on blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. The results highlight the individual 3D blood-flow patterns associated with the different vascular pathologies following repair of aortic coarctation. In addition to known factors predisposing for aneurysm formation after surgical repair of coarctation these findings indicate the importance of flow sensitive CMR to follow up hemodynamic changes with respect to the development of vascular disease.

  4. Crystal structures and high-temperature phase-transitions in SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni) new double perovskites studied by symmetry-mode analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Zabalo, E., E-mail: iturbe@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Igartua, J.M. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Faik, A. [CICEnergigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava (Spain); Larranaga, A. [X-Izpien Zerbitzu Orokorra, SGIKer, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hoelzel, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TUM, 85747 Garching (Germany); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-02-15

    Crystal structures of SrNdZnRuO{sub 6}, SrNdCoRuO{sub 6}, SrNdMgRuO{sub 6} and SrNdNiRuO{sub 6} double perovskites have been studied by X-ray, synchrotron radiation and neutron powder diffraction method, at different temperatures, and using the symmetry-mode analysis. All compounds adopt the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n at room-temperature, and contain a completely ordered array of the tilted MO{sub 6} and RuO{sub 6} octahedra, whereas Sr/Nd cations are completely disordered. The analysis of the structures in terms of symmetry-adapted modes of the parent phase allows the identification of the modes responsible for the phase-transition. The high-temperature study (300-1250 K) has shown that the compounds present a temperature induced structural phase-transition: P2{sub 1}/n{yields}P4{sub 2}/n{yields}Fm3{sup Macron }m. - Graphical abstract: Representation of the dominant distortion modes of the symmetry mode decomposition of the room-temperature (P2{sub 1}/n), intermediate (P4{sub 2}/n) and cubic (Fm-3m) phase SrNdMRuO{sub 6} (M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni), with respect to the parent phase Fm-3m. The dominant distortion modes are: in the monoclinic phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (blue arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (green arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (red arrow); in the tetragonal phase-GM{sub 4}{sup +} (pink arrow), X{sub 3}{sup +} (light blue arrow) and X{sub 5}{sup +} acting on A-site cations (brown arrow). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural study of four ruthenate double perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature structural determination using symmetry-mode procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of temperature induced structural phase-transitions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Symmetry adapted-mode analysis.

  5. AN ANALYSIS ON MONETARY CONDITION INDEX IN TURKEY BY USING STRUCTURAL VAR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus AÇCI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Turkey (TCMB has a significant power on aggregate demand and inflation expectation via monetary policy tools. While deciding monetary policies it’s a crucial question and a discussion topic for TCMB (Turkish Republic Central Bank if the policy makers should take into consideration Taylor Rule that mainly depends on the interest rate or Monetary Condition Index (MCI. The MCI that is a popular tool in the last decades that is calculated as a weighted average of the real short-term interest rate and the real effective exchange rate relative to their value in a base period. MCI also is a pointer that explains if the central banks policies expansionary or tight. The reality that MCI can have influence on the domestic currency and the foreign currency together is an advantage for MCI. This study aims to explain the possible effects of MCI on the aggregate demand in Turkey. Structural VAR analysis will be used for the analysis. The period for the analysis covers a period of starting from M1:2003 till M8:2015

  6. Extraction of Protein Interaction Data: A Comparative Analysis of Methods in Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several natural language processing tools, both commercial and freely available, are used to extract protein interactions from publications. Methods used by these tools include pattern matching to dynamic programming with individual recall and precision rates. A methodical survey of these tools, keeping in mind the minimum interaction information a researcher would need, in comparison to manual analysis has not been carried out. We compared data generated using some of the selected NLP tools with manually curated protein interaction data (PathArt and IMaps to comparatively determine the recall and precision rate. The rates were found to be lower than the published scores when a normalized definition for interaction is considered. Each data point captured wrongly or not picked up by the tool was analyzed. Our evaluation brings forth critical failures of NLP tools and provides pointers for the development of an ideal NLP tool.

  7. Performance modeling & simulation of complex systems (A systems engineering design & analysis approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laverne

    1995-01-01

    Modeling of the Multi-mission Image Processing System (MIPS) will be described as an example of the use of a modeling tool to design a distributed system that supports multiple application scenarios. This paper examines: (a) modeling tool selection, capabilities, and operation (namely NETWORK 2.5 by CACl), (b) pointers for building or constructing a model and how the MIPS model was developed, (c) the importance of benchmarking or testing the performance of equipment/subsystems being considered for incorporation the design/architecture, (d) the essential step of model validation and/or calibration using the benchmark results, (e) sample simulation results from the MIPS model, and (f) how modeling and simulation analysis affected the MIPS design process by having a supportive and informative impact.

  8. Proteomic analysis of hippocampal proteins of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenlie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Toxicology, Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Ichihara, Sahoko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Chang, Jie [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Zhang, Lingyi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Masahide [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Subramanian, Kaviarasan; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Wang, Yun [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is a compound used as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents and is neurotoxic both in experimental animals and human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the neurotoxic effects of 1-BP are not well known. To identify the molecular mechanisms of 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, we analyzed quantitatively changes in protein expression in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-BP. Male F344 rats were exposed to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks by inhalation. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) were conducted to detect and identify protein modification. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by western blot. 2D-DIGE identified 26 proteins with consistently altered model (increase or decrease after both 1- and 4-week 1-BP exposures) and significant changes in their levels (p < 0.05; fold change {>=} {+-} 1.2) at least at one exposure level or more compared with the corresponding controls. Of these proteins, 19 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Linear regression analysis of 1-BP exposure level identified 8 differentially expressed proteins altered in a dose-dependent manner both in 1- and 4-week exposure experiments. The identified proteins could be categorized into diverse functional classes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, immunity and defense, energy metabolism, ubiquitination-proteasome pathway, neurotransmitter and purine metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves oxidative stress, loss of ATP production, neurotransmitter dysfunction and inhibition of ubiquitination-proteasome system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-BP modified hippocampal proteome in rat and 19 altered proteins were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Ran, TPI, HSP60, PSMA1, ECH1, TPI, B-CK and DJ-1 was changed by 1-BP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer

  9. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2015-02-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as Alter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.

  10. Thermochemical analysis on rare earth complex of gadolinium with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Sheng-Xiong, E-mail: 54xsx@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Ai-Tao; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Huang, Shuang; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Qiang-Guo [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new novel rare earth complex Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO) was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dissolution enthalpies of the relevant substances were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enthalpy change of the reaction was determined to be (211.54 {+-} 0.69) kJ mol{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The standard molar enthalpy of formation of complex was -(1890.7 {+-} 3.1) kJ mol{sup -1}. - Abstract: The rare earth complex, Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO), was synthesized by the reaction of Gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate with salicylic acid (C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O{sub 3}) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO). And it was characterized by elemental analysis, UV spectra, IR spectra, molar conductance and thermogravimetric analysis. In a optimalizing calorimetric solvent, the dissolution enthalpies were determined by an advanced solution-reaction isoperibol microcalorimeter, respectively: {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [2 C{sub 7}H{sub 6}O{sub 3}(s) + C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO(s), 298.15 K] = 41.95 {+-} 0.44 kJ mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O(s), 298.15 K] = -29.11 {+-} 0.39 kJ mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 6}NO)(s), 298.15 K] = -46.99 {+-} 0.39 kJ mol{sup -1} and {Delta}{sub s}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Solution D(aq), 298.15 K] = -90.33 {+-} 0.37 kJ mol{sup -1}. The enthalpy change of the synthesized reaction was estimated to be {Delta}{sub r}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}}=211.54{+-}0.69 kJ mol{sup -1}. From data in the literature, through Hess' law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H{sub 7}NO)(s) was calculated to be {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup {Theta}} [Gd(C{sub 7}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}(C{sub 9}H

  11. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinsberg, K.-G. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Schumacher, C. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Tempez, A. [HORIBA Jobin Yvon, 16-18 rue du Canal, F-91160 Longjumeau (France); Nielsch, K. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS Trade-Mark-Sign )) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s{sup -1} and 3 nm s{sup -1}, respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  12. Efficacy of patient discharge instructions: A pointer toward caregiver friendly communication methods from pediatric emergency personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Al-Harthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discharge instructions are vital in postemergency patient care to help the caregiver understand the diagnosis and identify symptoms which require prompt readmission. In general, oral or written instructions are provided on discharge. However, there is a dearth of information on the efficacy of discharge instructions provided by physicians in KSA. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of discharge instructions for postpediatrics emergency visit. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional survey conducted in the Department of Paediatric Emergency at King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA, included 173 literate adult caregivers who had given their consent. Those who had been on admission earlier and been discharged from the emergency department were excluded. Demographic data and variables like knowledge of medicine and treatment follow-up were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Verbal only, written only, or both verbal and written discharge instructions were provided. Written and verbal instructions, when provided together, were the most effective modes of communication with caregivers. The majority of the respondents were unaware of the follow-up plan (64.16%, unable to identify problems that would necessitate a follow-up (58.96%, and unable to identify the signs and symptoms that would require a revisit (62.43% irrespective of the mode of instruction. However, more attention is necessary because of the 34.68% of the subjects who left the hospital without discharge instructions. Conclusions: Instructions given both verbally and in writing were observed to be more effective than verbal only or written only. The effectiveness of discharge instructions was highly influenced by the level of education of the caregivers. Improved caregiver friendly methods of communication from the pediatric emergency health-care team are necessary for the delivery of discharge instructions.

  13. Can Bibliographic Pointers for Known Biological Data Be Found Automatically? Protein Interactions as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blaschke

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dictionary of Interacting Proteins (DIP (Xenarios et al., 2000 is a large repository of protein interactions: its March 2000 release included 2379 protein pairs whose interactions have been detected by experimental methods. Even if many of these correspond to poorly characterized proteins, the result of massive yeast two-hybrid screenings, as many as 851 correspond to interactions detected using direct biochemical methods.

  14. Children's Experiences of Disability: Pointers to a Social Model of Childhood Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Clare; Stalker, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The social model of disability has paid little attention to disabled children, with few attempts to explore how far it provides an adequate explanatory framework for their experiences. This paper reports findings from a two-year study exploring the lived experiences of 26 disabled children aged 7-15. They experienced disability in four ways--in…

  15. Scaling and laws of DC discharges as pointers for HiPIMS plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim; Störi, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Scaling or smiliarity laws of plasmas are of interest if lab size plasma sources are to be scaled for industrial processes. Ideally, the discharge parameters of the scaled plasmas are predictable and the fundamental physical processes are unaltered. Naturally, there are limitations and ranges of validity. Scaling laws for direct current glow discharges are well known. If a well diagnosed discharge is scaled, the field strength in the positive column, the gas amplification and the normal current density can easily be estimated. For non-stationary high power discharges like high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasmas, scaling is not as straight forward. Here, one deals with a non-stationary complex system with strong changes in plasma chemistry and symmetry breaks during the pulses. Because of the huge parameter space no good parameters are available to define these kind of discharges unambiguous at the moment. In this contribution we will discuss the scaling laws for DC glow discharges briefly and...

  16. Intention, emotion, and action: a neural theory based on semantic pointers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Tobias; Stewart, Terrence C; Thagard, Paul

    2014-06-01

    We propose a unified theory of intentions as neural processes that integrate representations of states of affairs, actions, and emotional evaluation. We show how this theory provides answers to philosophical questions about the concept of intention, psychological questions about human behavior, computational questions about the relations between belief and action, and neuroscientific questions about how the brain produces actions. Our theory of intention ties together biologically plausible mechanisms for belief, planning, and motor control. The computational feasibility of these mechanisms is shown by a model that simulates psychologically important cases of intention. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. The Pointer of C Programming%C语言的指针

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华时

    2002-01-01

    本文从程序设计角度,分析C语言指针,以揭示指针的概念,使用背景,常用方法,以及应注意的问题;同时本文也提及一些C语言程序设计的规范方法,其中许多功能必须用指针来完成.

  18. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  19. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-03-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  20. "Snap me" as a pointer to "rabbit holes" in the Singa environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available that are not in a position to self-protect themselves. This includes orphans, street children, child labourers, children who are sexually exploited, children in child-headed households, child soldiers, refugees, children from poor households and children who...

  1. Volatile displacement of Meghalaya coals – A pointer to explore low sulphur coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Behera

    2007-04-01

    Volatile displacement, which measures the difference between calculated and experimental volatile matter, is indicative of abnormality in coals which may be related to petrological or chemical parameters. The volatile displacement () values of Meghalaya coals were calculated from their chemical analyses. Correlations of volatile displacement () with parameters such as carbon, hydrogen, moisture, oxygen, oxygen plus sulphate sulphur, oxygen plus pyritic sulphur, oxygen plus organic sulphur and total sulphur were studied. An approximately linear relationship exists only between and moisture, and and total sulphur, and not between other parameters. Plots on Seyler’s chart indicate the coals as perhydrous to orthohydrous. The linear relationship with total sulphur indicates that the coals may have become abnormal mainly due to the marine environment of deposition and weathering.

  2. Aircrew exposure to handheld laser pointers: the potential for retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Stephen

    2011-09-01

    Aviation authorities around the world continue to report substantial growth in the incidence of laser devices being aimed at aircraft in flight. Despite government restrictions, affordable handheld laser devices, with a power of up to several thousand mW, are now easily obtainable via the Internet. Lasers of this power output and wavelength have a nominal ocular hazard distance of around 1000 ft (304.8 m). Aviation medical specialists should be aware these lasers have the potential to cause retinal damage when aircrew operating at low altitudes are exposed.

  3. Diversitet og struktureret kompleksitet som pointer i inklusions- og AKT-arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, René

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver en kvadrant model og en hierarkisk skolemodel til overordnet strukturering af inklusionsarbejdet over tid. Inspireret af Ken Wilber, Jan Tønnesvang, Barnett Pearce og Peter Lang......Artiklen beskriver en kvadrant model og en hierarkisk skolemodel til overordnet strukturering af inklusionsarbejdet over tid. Inspireret af Ken Wilber, Jan Tønnesvang, Barnett Pearce og Peter Lang...

  4. Accurate external localization of the left frontal cortex in dogs by using pointer based frameless neuronavigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dockx

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In humans, non-stereotactic frameless neuronavigation systems are used as a topographical tool for non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. TMS studies in dogs may provide treatment modalities for several neuropsychological disorders in dogs. Nevertheless, an accurate non-invasive localization of a stimulation target has not yet been performed in this species. Hypothesis This study was primarily put forward to externally locate the left frontal cortex in 18 healthy dogs by means of a human non-stereotactic neuronavigation system. Secondly, the accuracy of the external localization was assessed. Animals A total of 18 healthy dogs, drawn at random from the research colony present at the faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University, were used. Methods Two sets of coordinates (X, Y, Z and X″, Y″, Z″ were compared on each dog their tomographical dataset. Results The non-stereotactic neuronavigation system was able to externally locate the frontal cortex in dogs with accuracy comparable with human studies. Conclusion and clinical importance This result indicates that a non-stereotactic neuronavigation system can accurately externally locate the left frontal cortex and paves the way to use guided non-invasive brain stimulation methods as an alternative treatment procedure for neurological and behavioral disorders in dogs. This technique could, in analogy with human guided non-invasive brain stimulation, provide a better treatment outcome for dogs suffering from anxiety disorders when compared to its non-guided alternative.

  5. Could the changes in regional crop yields be a pointer of climatic change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, M; Brázdil, R; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2012-01-01

    by a factor of 2–3 since the late 19th century, whereas the temperature and precipitation patterns showed trends toward warmer and drier conditions. There was a considerable increase in the inter-annual variability of the absolute yields in the districts. When the variability was evaluated in relative terms...

  6. Nearby galaxies as pointers to a better theory of cosmic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J E; Nusser, Adi

    2010-06-01

    The great advances in the network of cosmological tests show that the relativistic Big Bang theory is a good description of our expanding Universe. However, the properties of nearby galaxies that can be observed in greatest detail suggest that a better theory would describe a mechanism by which matter is more rapidly gathered into galaxies and groups of galaxies. This more rapid growth occurs in some theoretical ideas now under discussion.

  7. Digital histologic images: practical pointers for successful electronic submission to biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N; Sun, Y

    2009-12-01

    The advent of digital imaging and online submission of manuscripts has created new challenges for authors using histological images. Digital images are used routinely in today's histology research lab and authors must prepare illustrations that meet standards for resolution, color modes, image size, and digital file types for successful online submission to biomedical journals. Because authors may not be familiar with these requirements, our objective here is to present practical guidelines and information for successful image submission online. Ethical issues related to digital imaging and other current topics also are discussed with reference to available online resources.

  8. India’s Disarmament Initiative 1988: Continuing Relevance, Valid Pointers for an NWFW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Sethi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The run up to the NPT Review Conference in 2010 brought nuclear disarmament into focus. Transitory though this trend turned out to be, it nevertheless became a trigger for India to re-examine its own position on disarmament. In order to take a considered view on the subject, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh instituted an Informal Group in October 2010 with the specific mandate to examine the relevance of the Action Plan that had been presented by Rajiv Gandhi in 1988. Were there any specific elements of that plan that were worth pursuing in the new security environment? What role could and should India play as a state with nuclear weapons in the pursuit of disarmament? Should India make the drive towards universal nuclear disarmament a priority in its diplomatic initiatives? Did India have the moral standing to do so after she herself had acquired the weapon? Has anything changed in the international climate to suggest that the Indian lead would attract like-minded nations? How should India approach other nations on this issue? These were some of the questions that the Informal Group considered before presenting its report to the Prime Minister in August 2011. It firmly conveyed the conviction that “India can and must play an effective and credible role as the leader of a campaign for the goal of universal nuclear disarmament, both because India can bring to the campaign its moral strength deriving from six decades of consistently campaigning for nuclear disarmament but also now the weight of its growing presence in the international system.”

  9. Students' Fraction Comparison Strategies as a Window into Robust Understanding and Possible Pointers for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug M.; Roche, Anne

    2009-01-01

    As part of individual interviews incorporating whole number and rational number tasks, 323 grade 6 children in Victoria, Australia were asked to nominate the larger of two fractions for eight pairs, giving reasons for their choice. All tasks were expected to be undertaken mentally. The relative difficulty of the pairs was found to be close to that…

  10. Study of near infra red femtosecond laser induced particles using transmission electron microscopy and low pressure impaction: Implications for laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of natural monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abzac, Francois-Xavier, E-mail: dabzac@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Chmeleff, Jerome [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Datas, Lucien [TEMSCAN - CIRIMAT - Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, 31400 Toulouse (France); Poitrasson, Franck [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-15

    The characteristics of infra red femtosecond laser-induced aerosols are studied for monazite (LREE, Th(PO{sub 4})) ablation and correlations are established with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signals. Critical parameters are tested within wide ranges of values in order to cover the usual laser ablation -ICP-MS analysis conditions: pulse energy (0.15 < E{sub 0} < 1 mJ/pulse), pulse width (60 < {tau} < 3000 fs), ablation time (t {<=} 10 min) and transport length (l {<=} 6.3 m). Transmission electron microscopy reveals that aerosols are made of agglomerates of {approx} 10 nm particles and 20-300 nm phosphorus depleted condensed spherical particles. These structures are not affected by any laser ablation parameter. Particle counting is performed using electronic low pressure impaction. Small changes on particle size distribution are noticed. They may be induced either by a peak of ablation rate in the first 15 s at high fluence (larger particles) or the loss of small particles during transport. We found a positive correlation between I (ICP-MS mean signal intensity in cps) and N (particle density in cm{sup -3}) when varying E{sub 0} and t, suggesting that N is controlled by the irradiance (P{sub 0} in W{center_dot}cm{sup -2}). Elemental ratio measurements show a steady state signal after the initial high ablation rate (mass load effect in the plasma torch) and before a late chemical fractionation, induced by poor extraction of bigger, early condensed spherical particles from the deepening crater. Such chemical fractionation effects remain within uncertainties, however. These effects can be limited by monitoring E{sub 0} to shorten the initial transient state and delay the attainment of an unfavorable crater aspect ratio. Most adopted settings are for the first time deduced from aerosol characteristics, for infra red femtosecond laser ablation. A short transport (l < 4.0 m) limits the agglomeration of particles by collision process along the tube

  11. An analysis framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries-Illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: akolhoff@eia.nl [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    framework may also assist actors involved in the development of EIA legislation in setting ambitions for EIA legislation that are feasible within the context in which it will be developed and implemented. Application of a country-specific EIA model would seem to be the preferred model to develop EIA legislation because by taking capacities of actors and context factors as a starting point, it offers more potential to well-performing EIA systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA systems develop from less to high ambitious and sometimes vice versa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambitions in EIA legislation are determined by the capacity of environment- and sector authority. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The political system is the most important context factor explaining the ambitions of an EIA system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analysis framework developed to measure EIA system ambitions might help to setambitions.

  12. Noninvasive Measurement of Perfusion in Rabbit VX2 Tumors Using Flow sensitive Alternting Inversing Recovery with an Extra Radiofrequency Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction:MR arterial spin-labeling technique is useful to measure tissue perfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a novel arterial spin-labeling technique to characterize regions of hyper and hypovascularity in experimental tumors in rabbits.

  13. Pressure fields by flow-sensitive, 4D, velocity-encoded CMR in patients with aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Fernandes, Joao Filipe; Meier, Sebastian; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kropf, Siegfried; Schubert, Stephan; Berger, Felix; Hennemuth, Anja; Henneumuth, Anja; Kuehne, Titus

    2014-09-01

    This study compared pressure fields by 4-dimensional (4D), velocity-encoded cine (VEC) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with pressures measured by the clinical gold standard catheterization. Thirteen patients (n = 7 male, n = 6 female) with coarctation were studied. The 4D-VEC-CMR pressure fields were computed by solving the Pressure-Poisson equation. The agreement between catheterization and CMR-based methods was determined at 5 different measurement sites along the aorta. For all sites, the correlation coefficients between measures varied between 0.86 and 0.97 (p coarctation. The nonsignificant (p > 0.2) bias was +2.3 mm Hg (± 6.4 mm Hg, 2 SDs) for calibration with dynamic pressures and +1.5 mm Hg (± 4.6 mm Hg, 2 SDs) for calibration with static pressure. In a clinical setting of coarctation, pressure fields can be accurately computed from 4D-VEC-CMR-derived flows. In patients with coarctation, this noninvasive technique might evolve to an alternative to invasive catheterization.

  14. Structure-Based Phylogenetic Analysis of the Lipocalin Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Lakshmi

    Full Text Available Lipocalins constitute a superfamily of extracellular proteins that are found in all three kingdoms of life. Although very divergent in their sequences and functions, they show remarkable similarity in 3-D structures. Lipocalins bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules. Earlier sequence-based phylogenetic studies of lipocalins highlighted that they have a long evolutionary history. However the molecular and structural basis of their functional diversity is not completely understood. The main objective of the present study is to understand functional diversity of the lipocalins using a structure-based phylogenetic approach. The present study with 39 protein domains from the lipocalin superfamily suggests that the clusters of lipocalins obtained by structure-based phylogeny correspond well with the functional diversity. The detailed analysis on each of the clusters and sub-clusters reveals that the 39 lipocalin domains cluster based on their mode of ligand binding though the clustering was performed on the basis of gross domain structure. The outliers in the phylogenetic tree are often from single member families. Also structure-based phylogenetic approach has provided pointers to assign putative function for the domains of unknown function in lipocalin family. The approach employed in the present study can be used in the future for the functional identification of new lipocalin proteins and may be extended to other protein families where members show poor sequence similarity but high structural similarity.

  15. A software framework for the analysis of complex microscopy image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jerry; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J

    2010-07-01

    Technological advances in both hardware and software have made possible the realization of sophisticated biological imaging experiments using the optical microscope. As a result, modern microscopy experiments are capable of producing complex image datasets. For a given data analysis task, the images in a set are arranged, based on the requirements of the task, by attributes such as the time and focus levels at which they were acquired. Importantly, different tasks performed over the course of an analysis are often facilitated by the use of different arrangements of the images. We present a software framework that supports the use of different logical image arrangements to analyze a physical set of images. This framework, called the Microscopy Image Analysis Tool (MIATool), realizes the logical arrangements using arrays of pointers to the images, thereby removing the need to replicate and manipulate the actual images in their storage medium. In order that they may be tailored to the specific requirements of disparate analysis tasks, these logical arrangements may differ in size and dimensionality, with no restrictions placed on the number of dimensions and the meaning of each dimension. MIATool additionally supports processing flexibility, extensible image processing capabilities, and data storage management.

  16. Segregation analysis of cryptogenic epilepsy and an empirical test of the validity of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottman, R.; Hauser, W.A.; Barker-Cummings, C.; Lee, J.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We used POINTER to perform segregation analysis of crytogenic epilepsy in 1,557 three-generation families (probands and their parents, siblings, and offspring) ascertained from voluntary organizations. Analysis of the full data set indicated that the data were most consistent with an autosomal dominant (AD) model with 61% penetrance of the susceptibility gene. However, subsequent analyses revealed that the patterns of familial aggregation differed markedly between siblings and offspring of the probands. Risks in siblings were consistent with an autosomal recessive (AR) model and inconsistent with an AD model, whereas risks in offspring were inconsistent with an AR model and more consistent with an AD model. As a further test of the validity of the AD model, we used sequential ascertainment to extend the family history information in the subset of families judged likely to carry the putative susceptibility gene because they contained at least three affected individuals. Prevalence of idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy was only 3.7% in newly identified relatives expected to have a 50% probability of carrying the susceptibility gene under an AD model. Approximately 30% (i.e., 50% X 61%) were expected to be affected under the AD model resulting from the segregation analysis. These results suggest that the familial distribution of cryptogenic epilepsy is inconsistent with any conventional genetic model. The differences between siblings and offspring in the patterns of familial risk are intriguing and should be investigated further. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Dipole Analysis of 249 High-Z SCP Union Supernovae According to the Expansion Center Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the paper is a preliminary analysis of 1743 data calculated for 249 High-z SCP Union supernovae, according to the expansion center model. The analysis of the ECM data set in Hubble units begins with 13 listed normal points corresponding to 13 z-bin samples at as many Hubble depths. Here the novel finding is a resulting clear drop in the average scattering of the SNe Ia absolute magnitudes M with the ECM Hubble depth D, after using the average trend computed in paper IX and here reconfirmed. Other correlations of the M scattering with the position in the sky are proposed as pointers for future investigations. Consequently, 13 ECM dipole tests on the 13 z-bin samples were carried out both with unweighed and weighed fittings. A further check was made through another ECM dipole test on the same 13 z bins, with Hubble depths D obtained by assuming M= according to paper IX and X. In conclusion the analysis of 249 SCP SNe confirms once again the expansion center model at any Hubble depth, including a s...

  18. Symbolic Optimization and Analysis of Numerical Dynamics Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    pointers. Using a reference instead would satisfy the requirements for arithmetic operator overloading but constructors and assignments would...Autolev user’s manual . Online Dynamics, 1988. [3] Shi, Pengfei, and John McPhee. "DynaFlex Users Guide." Systems Design Engineering

  19. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  20. Laser Spot Tracking Based on Modified Circular Hough Transform and Motion Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Krstinić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas–Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development.

  1. Laser spot tracking based on modified circular Hough transform and motion pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-10-27

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas-Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development.

  2. Buckling analysis of a cylindrical shell, under neutron radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, M. [School of Research and Development of Nuclear Reactors and Accelerators, Nuclear Science and Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, A. [Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastgoo, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepyani, H.A., E-mail: hosepiani@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The work investigates the buckling of a shell in the neutron radiation environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced porosity in elastic materials affects the material's properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data based technique was used to determine the volume fraction porosity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The theoretical formulations are presented based on the classical shell theory (CST). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that both T and neutron induced swelling have significant effects. - Abstract: This research investigates the buckling of a cylindrical shell in the neutron radiation environment, subjected to combined static and periodic axial forces. Radiation induced porosity in elastic materials affects the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the materials. In this study, the data based technique was used to determine the volume fraction porosity, P, of shell material. A least-squares fit of the Young's module data yielded the estimated Young's modulus. The shell assumed made of iron irradiated in the range of 2-15e-7 dPa/s at 345-650 Degree-Sign C and theoretical formulations are presented based on the classical shell theory (CST). The research deals with the problem theoretically; keeping in mind that one means of generating relevant design data is to investigate prototype structures. A parametric study is followed and the stability of shell is discussed. It is concluded that both temperature and neutron induced swelling have significant effects on the buckling load.

  3. The Old Army in War and Peace: West Pointers and the Civil War Era, 1814-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    genre of Civil War tactical history, see Mark Grimsley, "Review Essay: The Continuing Battle of Gettysburg," Civil War History 49, no. 2 (2003): 185...both nations over military affairs tended to be marked by a romantic conception of war: charges on horse and foot, cold steel flashing right-and

  4. "Will the US Take Mexico for Granted Too?": Pointers on Doing Business with Our New NAFTA Neighbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Kerry E.; Peterson, Roger A.

    This paper reviews the conduct of United States-based businesses and their executives in foreign countries, and views Americans as ill-prepared to integrate their business with Mexican culture. The economic importance of Mexico is analyzed in view of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and expansion of Japanese and European companies…

  5. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  6. 初探Xcode中指针和数组的使用%The Use of Xcode Pointer &Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳琳

    2010-01-01

    苹果电脑公司为用户提供了全套免费的Cocoa程序开发工具,这套工具就是我们所说的Xcode.本文中所有的例子都将使用Objective-C语言来编写.Objective-C语言是C语言简单而优雅的扩充.

  7. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    . The recoveries of three Chinese rice wine samples ranged between 95.5 and 102.8%. Furthermore, the determined contents of Cd and Pb in a certified reference material of red wine (GBW 10031) and a quality control test material of wine (FAPAS T07163QC) by the proposed method were in fairly good accordance with the certified/assigned values. All results verified the accuracy of our method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system was developed for ICP-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No carbon deposit or matrix effect from Chinese rice wine was observed.

  8. A conformal approach for the analysis of the non-linear stability of radiation cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbe, Christian, E-mail: c.luebbe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, University of Leicester, University Road, LE1 8RH (United Kingdom); Valiente Kroon, Juan Antonio, E-mail: j.a.valiente-kroon@qmul.ac.uk [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    The conformal Einstein equations for a trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid are derived in terms of the Levi-Civita connection of a conformally rescaled metric. These equations are used to provide a non-linear stability result for de Sitter-like trace-free (radiation) perfect fluid Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological models. The solutions thus obtained exist globally towards the future and are future geodesically complete. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the Einstein-Euler system in General Relativity using conformal methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the structural properties of the associated evolution equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We establish the non-linear stability of pure radiation cosmological models.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Hydrological Parameters in Modeling Flow and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Zhang; Y.S. Wu; J.E. Houseworth

    2006-03-21

    The unsaturated fractured volcanic deposits at Yucca Mountain have been intensively investigated as a possible repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. Field studies at the site have revealed that there exist large variabilities in hydrological parameters over the spatial domain of the mountain. This paper reports on a systematic analysis of hydrological parameters using the site-scale 3-D unsaturated zone (UZ) flow model. The objectives of the sensitivity analyses are to evaluate the effects of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters on modeled UZ flow and contaminant transport results. Sensitivity analyses are carried out relative to fracture and matrix permeability and capillary strength (van Genuchten a), through variation of these parameter values by one standard deviation from the base-case values. The parameter variation results in eight parameter sets. Modeling results for the eight UZ flow sensitivity cases have been compared with field observed data and simulation results from the base-case model. The effects of parameter uncertainties on the flow fields are discussed and evaluated through comparison of results for flow and transport. In general, this study shows that uncertainties in matrix parameters cause larger uncertainty in simulated moisture flux than corresponding uncertainties in fracture properties for unsaturated flow through heterogeneous fractured rock.

  10. Automated Cache Performance Analysis And Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    , cache behavior could only be measured reliably in the ag- gregate across tens or hundreds of thousands of instructions. With the newest iteration of PEBS technology, cache events can be tied to a tuple of instruction pointer, target address (for both loads and stores), memory hierarchy, and observed latency. With this information we can now begin asking questions regarding the efficiency of not only regions of code, but how these regions interact with particular data structures and how these interactions evolve over time. In the short term, this information will be vital for performance analysts understanding and optimizing the behavior of their codes for the memory hierarchy. In the future, we can begin to ask how data layouts might be changed to improve performance and, for a particular application, what the theoretical optimal performance might be. The overall benefit to be produced by this effort was a commercial quality easy-to- use and scalable performance tool that will allow both beginner and experienced parallel programmers to automatically tune their applications for optimal cache usage. Effective use of such a tool can literally save weeks of performance tuning effort. Easy to use. With the proposed innovations, finding and fixing memory performance issues would be more automated and hide most to all of the performance engineer exper- tise ”under the hood” of the Open|SpeedShop performance tool. One of the biggest public benefits from the proposed innovations is that it makes performance analysis more usable to a larger group of application developers. Intuitive reporting of results. The Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool has a rich set of intuitive, yet detailed reports for presenting performance results to application developers. Our goal was to leverage this existing technology to present the results from our memory performance addition to Open|SpeedShop. Suitable for experts as well as novices. Application performance is getting more difficult

  11. People searching for people: analysis of a people search engine log

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Berendsen, R.; Kovachev, B.; Meij, E.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years show an increasing interest in vertical search: searching within a particular type of information. Understanding what people search for in these "verticals" gives direction to research and provides pointers for the search engines themselves. In this paper we analyze the search logs of o

  12. X-Ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of Roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); El Hassan, A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale Firenze (Italy); Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Diaz Pace, D. [Institute of Physics ' Arroyo Seco' , Faculty of Science, Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scuotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we present the results of a study performed on a large collection of silver Roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking connection between the 'quality' of the silver alloy and some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used to classify a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The comparison with other contemporary denarii disproves a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied a large collection of Roman republican silver denarii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF and LIBS allowed to determine the precious metal content of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation of the 'quality' of the alloy with some contemporary events was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study allowed to controvert a recent theory on the so called 'serrated' denarii.

  13. isolation of symbionts and gc-ms analysis of lichens collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of Resorcinol, (a dye-producing compound) in Parmelia reticulata is a pointer to the various ways in which this lichen can be utilized in Nigeria for the production of dyes for use in the manufacturing ... rocks or trees and their colours can range from green .... pure preparation of fungal cells. .... Lichens Naturally Science and.

  14. FORC analysis of Ni(SiO{sub 2}) nanogranular film in the blocked regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, UDP, Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Farias, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, UDP, Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C., E-mail: juliano.denardin@usach.cl [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    In this work the magnetic and structural properties of granular Ni(SiO{sub 2}) films are studied by means of FORCs diagrams and microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy images show that the sample is composed of a fine dispersion of Ni nanoparticles with 3.7 nm in average sizes. Magnetic measurements as function of temperature show that the nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature and are blocked at 5 K. The FORCs diagrams obtained below the blocking temperature allow us to determine the average size of the nanoparticles and the distribution of sizes in a very good agreement with TEM images. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC study of Ni nanoparticles in the blocked regime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample is composed of Ni nanoparticles with 3.7 nm in average size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dispersion of sizes of nanoparticles is wide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams show a distribution of coercivity consistent with the distribution of sizes.

  15. Breakthrough analysis for water disinfection using silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthombeni, Nomcebo H. [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Onyango, Maurice S., E-mail: OnyangoMS@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Momba, Maggie N.B. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance of silver nanoparticles coated resin in water disinfection is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigmoidal models are used to describe breakthrough curves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of the media in water disinfection is affected by process variables. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test with environmental water shows the media is effective in water disinfection. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in deactivating microbes in drinking water in a column filtration system. The coated resin beads are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the functional groups, morphology and the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the resin. The performance of the coated resin is evaluated as a function of bed mass, initial bacterial concentration and flow rate using Escherichia coli as model microbial contaminant in water. The survival curves of E. coli are expressed as breakthrough curves (BTCs), which are modeled using sigmoidal regression equations to obtain relevant rate parameters. The number of bed volumes processed at breakthrough point and capacity of the bed are used as performance indicators. Results show that performance increases with a decrease in initial bacterial concentration, an increase in flow rate and an increase in bed mass.

  16. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qiao, Shouyi, E-mail: syqiao@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhuawu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  18. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  19. OPV for mobile applications. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinos, N.; Angmo, D.; Hoesel, M.; Soendergaard, R.R.; Joergensen, M.; Krebs, F.C. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lenzmann, F.O. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ryley, S. [UK Materials Technology Research Institute, Nottingham Road, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Huss, D.; Dafinger, S.; Gritsch, S. [Dr. Schenk GmbH Industriemesstechnik, Einsteinstrasse 37, D-82152 Planegg (Germany); Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, High Tech Campus 5 P-61, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-05-08

    Organic photovoltaic modules have been evaluated for their integration in mobile electronic applications such as a laser pointer. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells has been carried out from different perspectives: life cycle assessment, cost analysis and layer quality evaluation using inline optical and functional inspection tools. The polymer solar cells were fabricated in credit card sized modules by three routes, and several encapsulation alternatives have been explored, with the aim to provide the simplest but functional protection against moisture and oxygen, which could deteriorate the performance of the cells. The analysis shows that ITO- and silver-free options are clearly advantageous in terms of energy embedded over the traditional modules, and that encapsulation must balance satisfying the protection requirements while having at the same time a low carbon footprint. From the economic perspective there is a huge reduction in the cost of the ITO- and silver-free options, reaching as low as 0.25 euro for the OPV module. We used inspection tools such as a roll-to-roll inspection system to evaluate all processing steps during the fabrication and analyse the layers' quality and forecast whether a module will work or not and establish any misalignment of the printed pattern or defects in the layers that can affect the performance of the devices. This has been found to be a good tool to control the process and to increase the yield.

  20. Development of suitable potting material for dispenser cathodes of a high power microwave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kalyan S.; Ghosh, Sumana; Dandapat, Nandadulal [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Datta, Someswar, E-mail: sdatta@cgcri.res.in [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bio-Ceramics and Coating Division, CSIR - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Raju, R.S. [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doped alumina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-shrinkable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispenser cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave tube. - Abstract: The present study aims to develop suitable advanced potting material for modern high performance dispenser cathodes for high power microwave tube through refinement of the alumina microstructure by using suitable dopant. Calcium oxide was selected as a dopant material and the resultant materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and the microstructure monitored by SEM study and EDX analysis. The shrinkage, thermal and electrical properties of the resultant material was evaluated to establish its suitability to function as an advanced potting material.

  1. Ecological requirements of Abies alba in the French Alps derived from dendro-ecological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, C.; Michalet, R.; Desplanque, C.; Petetin, A.; Aime, S. [Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Centre de Biologie Alpine

    1999-06-01

    We used dendro-ecological techniques to investigate fundamental relationships between climate and growth of Abies alba (silver fir) in eastern France. Seven Abies forests in the Trieves region of the French Alps were chosen to represent a wide range of ecological conditions based on the results of previous forest vegetation surveys. In each forest, four trees were sampled in each of five different stands with two cores per tree. These 280 cores were studied using two separate dendro-ecological methods: the pointer years method (based on extreme growth events), and correlation functions between tree ring-widths and monthly climatic data. Data from 11 meteorological stations were combined to provide a regional analysis of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures. The two dendro-ecological methods appear to be complementary, as the first technique emphasizes common and low intensity linear correlations between ring-widths and climatic variations, and the second method emphasizes extreme and unusual climatic events such as exceptionally cold or dry years. Across all sites, drought in the previous year was consistently correlated with a low growth rate; however, other climatic variables varied substantially among sites. For example, drought in the current year reduced growth more in the low elevation sites than in the high elevation sites and severe winter frost reduced growth the most in the high altitude sites and the driest site. Moreover, certain growth responses are better correlated with the age of the stands, the canopy closure and the floristic composition of the community than the abiotic factors, emphasizing the value of dendro-ecological sampling based on phytosociological units 63 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Needs analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静雅

    2009-01-01

    Though needs analysis has been seen as one of the fundamental defining characteristics of ESP,it is not unknown in GPE.it is a salient stage,especially for the task option and syllabus evaluation.In this essay,the meaning of needs,the importance of needs analysis,and the way to implement needs analysis are subject to analysis.

  3. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as filter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because...... the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same...

  4. Analysis of phase formation in multi-component alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, R.; Hari Kumar, K.C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Murty, B.S., E-mail: murty@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CALPHAD approach appears to predict BCC phase formation more accurately than FCC phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solution is favored when the {Delta}S{sub config}/{Delta}S{sub fusion} > 1 for equiatomic alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solution is favored when the {Delta}S{sub config}/{Delta}S{sub fusion} > 1.2 for non-equiatomic alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BCC phase is favored when atomic size difference is larger, as reflected by a higher value of {Delta}S{sub {sigma}}/k. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FCC and BCC phase formation appears to be governed mainly by {Delta}H{sub mix} and {Delta}S{sub {sigma}}/k, respectively. - Abstract: An attempt has been made to predict phase formation using a CALPHAD-based approach for a large number of compositions that are known to form FCC, BCC and a mixture of FCC and BCC phases. The stable phase is assumed to be the first phase that is formed upon cooling from liquid state with the highest driving force. The driving force for other phases at the transition for various compositions is also presented. A comparison between the parametric approach of phase prediction by study of thermodynamic and topological parameters on one hand and the CALPHAD approach on the other is also presented. CALPHAD approach appears to predict BCC phase formation much more accurately than the FCC phase formation. The results indicate that solid solution formation in multicomponent alloys is favored when the ratio of {Delta}S{sub config}/{Delta}S{sub fusion} is greater than 1 and 1.2 for equiatomic and non-equiatomic alloys, respectively. The results also point out that BCC phase is favored when the atomic size difference is larger, which is reflected by a higher value of {Delta}S{sub {sigma}}/k. Formation of FCC phase appears to be governed mainly by {Delta}H{sub mix}, while BCC phase governed by {Delta}S{sub {sigma}}/k, which is representative of strain in the structure.

  5. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  6. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    McShane, Edward James

    2013-01-01

    This text surveys practical elements of real function theory, general topology, and functional analysis. Discusses the maximality principle, the notion of convergence, the Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral, function spaces and harmonic analysis. Includes exercises. 1959 edition.

  7. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  8. CSF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis ... Analysis of CSF can help detect certain conditions and diseases. All of the following can be, but ... An abnormal CSF analysis result may be due to many different causes, ... Encephalitis (such as West Nile and Eastern Equine) Hepatic ...

  9. Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP rs22114085 Associated with Canine Atopic Dermatitis by PCR-RFLP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD is a common inflammatory skin disease that is considered to be a naturally occurring, spontaneous model of human atopic dermatitis (eczema. The aim of the paper was to identify of the SNP rs22114085 in different dog breeds. The material involved 52 dogs from 5 different breeds. Canine genomic DNA was isolated from saliva by modified method with using DNAzol® and linear polyacrylamide (LPA carrier and from blood by using commercial kit NucleospinBlood and used in order to estimate rs22114085 SNP genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. The C allele was distributed in Czech Pointer, Chihuahua, German Wirehaired Pointer with an allele frequency ranging from 0.4545 to 1.00. In the population of Czech Pointer we detected all genotypes CC, CT and TT with frequency in male 0.25, 0.5833 and 0.1667, and in female 0.2728, 0.3636 and 0.3636, subsequently. In German Wirehaired Pointer was detected homozygote genotype CC in male and heterozygote genotype CT in female with frequency 1 and 1. In Chihuahua was observed homozygote genotype CC and heterozygote genotype CT with frequency 0.3333 and 0.6667, subsequently. In Golden retriever and Pincher we detected genotype TT with frequency 1.

  10. Nanomechanical measurements of hair as an example of micro-fibre analysis using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, Charles A., E-mail: charles.clifford@npl.co.uk [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Sano, Naoko [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Doyle, Peter [Unilever R and D, Port Sunlight, Wirral, Merseyside, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom); Seah, Martin P. [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    The characterisation of nanoscale surface properties of textile and hair fibres is key to developing new effective laundry and hair care products. Here, we develop nanomechanical methods to characterise fibres using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to give their nanoscale modulus. Good mounting methods for the fibre that are chemically inert, clean and give strong mechanical coupling to a substrate are important and here we detail two methods to do this. We show, for elastic nanoindentation measurements, the situation when the tip radius significantly affects the result via a function of the ratio of the radii of the tip and fibre and indicate the importance of using an AFM for such work. A valid method to measure the nanoscale modulus of fibres using AFM is thus detailed and exampled on hair to show that bleaching changes the nanoscale reduced modulus at the outer surface. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valid AFM nanomechanical characterisation of fibres developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good mounting methods detailed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Errors of not taking the fibre radius into account in indentation theory highlighted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulus of bleached and unbleached hair compared.

  11. Functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, L V

    1982-01-01

    Functional Analysis examines trends in functional analysis as a mathematical discipline and the ever-increasing role played by its techniques in applications. The theory of topological vector spaces is emphasized, along with the applications of functional analysis to applied analysis. Some topics of functional analysis connected with applications to mathematical economics and control theory are also discussed. Comprised of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the elements of the theory of topological spaces, the theory of metric spaces, and the theory of abstract measure space

  12. Grey analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, G.D.

    1996-12-01

    Grey logic is not another name for fuzzy logic. Grey logic--also called grey analysis or grey system theory--is a new technology, a group of techniques for system analysis and modeling. Like fuzzy logic, grey logic is useful in situations with incomplete and uncertain information. Grey analysis is particularly applicable in instances with very limited data and in cases with little system knowledge or understanding. In this paper, a summary of the basic concepts of grey analysis is provided, with descriptions of its application to several classes of problems. Calculations methods are provided for grey relation analysis, and for modeling and prediction using grey methods.

  13. Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stade, Eric

    2005-01-01

    A reader-friendly, systematic introduction to Fourier analysis Rich in both theory and application, Fourier Analysis presents a unique and thorough approach to a key topic in advanced calculus. This pioneering resource tells the full story of Fourier analysis, including its history and its impact on the development of modern mathematical analysis, and also discusses essential concepts and today's applications. Written at a rigorous level, yet in an engaging style that does not dilute the material, Fourier Analysis brings two profound aspects of the discipline to the forefront: the wealth of ap

  14. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A., E-mail: jose.rodriguez@tsolar.eu [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain); Fortes, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Computacion, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J. [Dept. Technology, Development and Innovation, T-Solar Global S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Galicia, Avda. de Vigo 5, E-32900 San Cibrao das Vinas (Ourense) (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J{sub sc}. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2-4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  15. A new strategy for pressed powder eye shadow analysis: Allergenic metal ion content and particle size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contado, Catia, E-mail: Catia.Contado@unife.it; Pagnoni, Antonella

    2012-08-15

    Nine cheap eye shadow products were analyzed through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) to quantify their Cr, Co and Ni contents, all known to be skin sensitizers. In many cases, the concentrations were higher than 1 or 5 ppm ({mu}g/g), i.e. the limits recommended in the scientific literature to minimize the risk of reaction in particularly sensitive subjects. In most cases, the concentration of Cr was higher than that of Ni and Co, up to a limit case of 150 mg/g. In this particular sample, the potential amount of Cr that could be released in ionic form was determined in sweat simulating solutions by GF-AAS and confirmed through a specific spectrofluorimetric method; the results indicated the presence of approximately 80-90 ppb (ng/g) of Cr{sup 3+}. The water dispersible particles were isolated from the eye shadow powders through a simple solvent extraction procedure. The aqueous suspensions were then sorted through sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) and the particles sizes were calculated from experimental fractograms using theory. For the most part, the computed sizes were in the micron range, as confirmed by some SEM photographs taken on fractions collected during the separations. The SdFFF coupled off-line with the GFAAS enabled elemental characterization of pigment particles as a function of size. This finding reduces the concern that the ingredients of such makeup formulations may contain nanoparticles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr, Co and Ni content in eye shadow products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration levels higher than 1 or 5 ppm ({mu}g/g), Cr up to 150 mg/g Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr released as Cr{sup 3+} determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water dispersible particles sized by sedimentation field flow fractionation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eye shadow Cr concentration as a function of particle sizes.

  16. Applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lanczos, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Basic text for graduate and advanced undergraduate deals with search for roots of algebraic equations encountered in vibration and flutter problems and in those of static and dynamic stability. Other topics devoted to matrices and eigenvalue problems, large-scale linear systems, harmonic analysis and data analysis, more.

  17. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...

  18. Scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Braat, L.C.; Lei, G.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, L.; Fan, Z.; Liu, W.; He, H.; Sun, X.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of the scenario analysis of China’s ecosystems focusing on forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems. The analysis was undertaken using Conversion of Land Use Change and its Effects (CLUE) modeling and an ecosystem service matrix (as explained below) complemented by

  19. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  20. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  1. 4-D MRI flow analysis in the course of interrupted aortic arch reveals complex morphology and quantifies amount of collateral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Freiburg (Germany); Geiger, Julia; Jung, Bernd [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Arnold, Raoul [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    We present findings in a 17-year-old with interrupted aortic arch, in whom standard imaging techniques missed functional and morphological problems. Flow-sensitive four-dimensional magnetic resonance (4-D MR) enabled assessment of the complex anatomy and blood-flow characteristics in the entire aorta and direct quantification of blood flow in collateral vessels. Our findings highlight the entire morphological and functional problem of interrupted aortic arch and illustrate the potential of flow-sensitive 4-D MR for surgical planning in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  2. Recursive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    2010-01-01

    Recursive analysis develops natural number computations into a framework appropriate for real numbers. This text is based upon primary recursive arithmetic and presents a unique combination of classical analysis and intuitional analysis. Written by a master in the field, it is suitable for graduate students of mathematics and computer science and can be read without a detailed knowledge of recursive arithmetic.Introductory chapters on recursive convergence and recursive and relative continuity are succeeded by explorations of recursive and relative differentiability, the relative integral, and

  3. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  4. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...

  5. Analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This is part two of a two-volume book on real analysis and is intended for senior undergraduate students of mathematics who have already been exposed to calculus. The emphasis is on rigour and foundations of analysis. Beginning with the construction of the number systems and set theory, the book discusses the basics of analysis (limits, series, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration), through to power series, several variable calculus and Fourier analysis, and then finally the Lebesgue integral. These are almost entirely set in the concrete setting of the real line and Euclidean spaces, although there is some material on abstract metric and topological spaces. The book also has appendices on mathematical logic and the decimal system. The entire text (omitting some less central topics) can be taught in two quarters of 25–30 lectures each. The course material is deeply intertwined with the exercises, as it is intended that the student actively learn the material (and practice thinking and writing ri...

  6. Analysis I

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This is part one of a two-volume book on real analysis and is intended for senior undergraduate students of mathematics who have already been exposed to calculus. The emphasis is on rigour and foundations of analysis. Beginning with the construction of the number systems and set theory, the book discusses the basics of analysis (limits, series, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration), through to power series, several variable calculus and Fourier analysis, and then finally the Lebesgue integral. These are almost entirely set in the concrete setting of the real line and Euclidean spaces, although there is some material on abstract metric and topological spaces. The book also has appendices on mathematical logic and the decimal system. The entire text (omitting some less central topics) can be taught in two quarters of 25–30 lectures each. The course material is deeply intertwined with the exercises, as it is intended that the student actively learn the material (and practice thinking and writing ri...

  7. Biorefinery Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Fact sheet summarizing NREL's techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment capabilities to connect research with future commercial process integration, a critical step in the scale-up of biomass conversion technologies.

  8. CSF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a chronic disease, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer disease . Depending on a person's history, a healthcare provider may order CSF analysis when some combination of the following signs and symptoms appear, especially when accompanied by flu-like symptoms ...

  9. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  10. Hydroeconomic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Hydroeconomic analysis and modeling provides a consistent and quantitative framework to assess the links between water resources systems and economic activities related to water use, simultaneously modeling water supply and water demand. It supports water managers and decision makers in assessing...... trade-offs between different water uses, different geographic regions, and various economic sectors and between the present and the future. Hydroeconomic analysis provides consistent economic performance criteria for infrastructure development and institutional reform in water policies and management...... organizations. This chapter presents an introduction to hydroeconomic analysis and modeling, and reviews the state of the art in the field. We review available economic water-valuation techniques and summarize the main types of decision problems encountered in hydroeconomic analysis. Popular solution strategies...

  11. Surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, T

    2006-10-01

    Surface analysis techniques are important tools to use in the verification of surface cleanliness and medical device functionality. How these techniques can be employed and some example applications are described.

  12. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  13. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from m

  14. Link Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  15. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  16. Situational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Situational analysis (also known as situational logic) was popularized by Karl Popper as an appropriate method for the interpretation of history and as a basis for a scientific social science. It seeks an objective posit ive explanation of behavior through imputing a dominant goal or motive to individuals and then identifying the action that would be objectively appropriate to the situation as the action actually taken. Popper regarded situational analysis as a generalization to all of social...

  17. On the structural analysis and magnetic behavior of heavily doped Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O nanopowders synthesized by wet chemistry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, J.; Cordoba, C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Paucar, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Laboratorio de caracterizacion de materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O(x=0-0.1) powders are prepared by polymeric precursor method and their structural and magnetic properties carefully studied. X-ray diffraction studies and Raman spectroscopy reveal that Mn{sup 2+} ions have substituted the Zn{sup 2+} ion without changing the wuertzite structure of pristine ZnO up to Mn concentrations x{<=}0.05. The presence of a secondary phase, related to the solubility of Mn in ZnO is evident for higher Mn-doping concentrations. The negative value obtained for the Curie-Weiss temperature indicates that the interactions between the Mn ions are predominantly antiferromagnetic. Thus, no bulk ferromagnetism is evident in any of the studied samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 2+} ions are able to substitute Zn{sup 2+} ions in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O lattice up to x{<=}0.05. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For Mn concentration x>0.05 additional peaks appear on the XRD patter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The additional peaks on the XRD patter seem to correspond to secondary phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetism in ZnO seems not to stem from trace concentrations of magnetic contaminants.

  18. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Agnes, E-mail: molnar.agnes@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Adam, Balazs, E-mail: adam.balazs@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Antova, Temenujka, E-mail: t.antova@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bosak, Lubos, E-mail: bosak@centrum.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Dimitrov, Plamen, E-mail: p.dimitrov@ncphp.government.bg [National Center of Public Health Protection, 15, Ivan Ev. Geshov blvd, 1431 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mileva, Hristina, E-mail: hmileva@yahoo.com [Ministry of Health, 5 Sveta Nedelya Square, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Pekarcikova, Jarmila, E-mail: jkorcova@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work, Trnava University, 1 Univerzitne namestie, 917 00 Trnava (Slovakia); Zurlyte, Ingrida, E-mail: ingrida@post.omnitel.net [State Environmental Health Center, Kalvariju str. 153, 08221 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gulis, Gabriel, E-mail: GGulis@health.sdu.dk [Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Adany, Roza, E-mail: adany.roza@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary); Kosa, Karolina, E-mail: karolina.kosa@sph.unideb.hu [Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, PO Box 2, H-4012 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  19. Implementation and analysis of ITER strand test of CNDA for world-wide benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fang, E-mail: fangliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), Hefei 230031 (China); Long Feng; Liu Bo; Lei Lei; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activities of CNDA for superconducting strand benchmarking were summarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Details of the tests facility and process were described and analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The test items include room temperature and low temperature measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of the two round benchmarking were shown and the deviation of each item was summarized. - Abstract: According to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Procurement Arrangement (PA) of Cable-In-Conduit Conductor unit lengths for the magnet systems, at the start of process qualification, the Domestic Agency (DA) shall be required to conduct a benchmarking of the room and low temperature acceptance tests carried out at the strand suppliers and/or at its reference laboratories designated by the ITER Organization (IO). The first benchmarking was carried out successfully in 2009 and the second round in 2010. Bronze-Route (BR) Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and samples prepared by CERN were sent out to each participant in the first round. The second round was referred to the Internal-Tin(IT) Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi strand. The two rounds of benchmarking included tests for critical current, hysteresis loss, residual resistance ratio, strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, and plating thickness. As the referenced lab of Chinese DA (CNDA), the superconducting strand test lab from Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) participated in the Benchmarking. The feedback from IO showed good results and high coherence. The test facility and test results for benchmarking of CNDA were presented in this paper.

  20. A Monadic Slicing Algorithm for a Program with Pointers%含指针程序的单子切片方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎周; 吴重强; 钱巨; 张卫丰; 徐宝文

    2010-01-01

    传统的含指针程序切片方法将指向分析与切片计算分开,增加了一定系统开销,为此文中提出一种可同时进行切片计算和指向分析的单子切片算法.该算法将程序正向切片思想与数据流迭代分析相结合,它是流敏感的,具有一定的精度,而且因指向分析和切片计算同时进行,故不需要像一般的流敏感分析方法那样记录每一个程序点的指向信息,而只需记录当前所分析的程序点处指向信息,从而节省了存储空间.此外,它还继承了原有单子切片方法所具有的强语言适应性和组合性.

  1. Pointer forwarding strategy for location management in LEO satellite network%LEO卫星网络指针转发位置管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑾; 朱立东; 吴诗其

    2005-01-01

    针对LEO卫星网络移动用户在全球范围内活动,其注册的VLR与HLR距离很远,信令代价大,如果MT的每次位置注册都要更新HLR中的记录,将会导致大量的信令开销.提出的一步指针转发策略,其主要思想是MT的位置更新信息不告知HLR,而在旧VLR中建立一指针指向新VLR,从而大大降低了MT位置更新代价.仿真结果显示此策略特别适用于MT来回注册现象频繁的LEO卫星网络,性能改善非常明显.

  2. The Skill Of Using Array and Pointer in C Programming%C语言中数组与指针的使用技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2009-01-01

    指针是C语言的精华亦是难点,数组与指针又是指针应用上的一个难点,尤其是二维数组与指针.文中介绍了数组的存储方式与地址,分析了指针与数组的关系,指向数组的指针的应用,二维数组中行指针与列指针的概念与区别,并总结了使用行指针、列指针的技巧,探讨了指针的使用方法.

  3. Scattering by Atmospheric Particles: From Aerosols to Clouds with the Point-Spread Function ... using Water, Milk, Plastic Cups, and a Laser Pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary atmospheres are made primarily of molecules, and their optical properties are well known. They scatter sunlight across the spectrum, but far more potently at shorter wavelengths. Consequently, they redden the Sun as it sets and, at the same time, endow the daytime sky with its characteristic blue hue. There are also microscopic atmospheric particulates that are equally omnipresent because small enough (up to ~10s of microns) to remain lofted for long periods of time. However, in contrast with molecules of the major gases, their concentrations are highly variable in space and time. Their optical properties are also far more interesting. These airborne particles are either solid---hence the word "aerosols"---or liquid, most notably in the form of cloud droplets. Needless to say that both aerosols and clouds have major impacts on the balance of the Earth's climate system. Harder to understand, but nonetheless true, is that their climate impacts are much harder to assess by Earth system modelers than those of greenhouse gases such as CO2. That makes them prime targets of study by multiple approaches, including ground- and space-based remote sensing. To characterize aerosols and clouds quantitatively by optical remote sensing methods, either passive (sunlight-based) or active (laser-based), we need predictive capability for the signals recorded by sensors, whether ground-based, airborne, or carried by satellites. This in turn draws on the physical theory of "radiative transfer" that describes how the light propagates and scatters in the molecular-and-particulate atmosphere. This is a challenge for remote sensing scientists. I will show why by simulating with simple means the point spread function or "PSF" of scattering particulate atmospheres with varying opacity, thus covering tabletop analogs of the pristine air, the background aerosol, all the way to optically thick cloudy airmasses. I will also show PSF measurements of real clouds over New Mexico and Oklahoma. These were used as a piece of the Multiple Scattering Cloud Lidar (MuSCL) observations from which cloud properties where derived and compared against independent determinations. For the STEM-hungry, I will show how to derive the dependence of the cloud PSF on cloud geometry and opacity.

  4. Design of the wireless pointer based on micro-accelerometer%基于微加速度计的无线教鞭的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 张持健

    2014-01-01

    为弥补多媒体教学中激光笔的不足,提出了一种基于微加速度计的无线教鞭系统,它不仅具有激光笔上下翻页的功能,而且能在空中自由灵活移动实现高精度点击的功能,该系统以微加速度计ADXL345作为信号检测元件,并采用低功耗低成本微控制器AT89S52和RF芯片nRF24L01进行信息处理与无线传输,符合人体工程学设计,最大限度地满足人们使用鼠标时在手感以及舒适度和使用习惯方面的要求.

  5. Pointer Strategy Optimized Scheduling Algorithm for Input Queued Switches%一种优化指针策略的输入排队调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宁; 李俊; 倪宏

    2010-01-01

    针对FIRM(fcfs in round-robin matching)算法在处理非均匀业务时,延时和丢包性能出现缺陷的问题,在FIRM算法的基础上设计并实现了一种优化指针策略的low-FIRM(longest oldest weighted FIRM)算法.该算法根据队列长度和队首信元等待时间的权值修改输入端口的轮询指针,使得权值大的队列趋于优先服务,从而优化了在非均匀业务下的调度性能.接着给出了low-FIRM算法的性能分析和仿真,与iSLIP(iterative round-robin matching with slip)算法、FIRM算法进行了比较.仿真结果表明,low-FIRM与经典算法相比,在均匀业务下的性能近似,而在非均匀业务下性能有了较大的提升.

  6. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  7. Structural analysis of nitride layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma surface nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kezhao, E-mail: liukz@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Bin Ren [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Xiao Hong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Long Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hong Zhanglian, E-mail: hong_zhanglian@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu Sheng [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitride layer was formed on uranium by glow plasma surface nitriding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four zones were observed in the nitride layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical states of uranium, nitrogen, and oxygen were identified by AES. - Abstract: The nitride layer was formed on uranium metal by a glow plasma surface nitriding method. The structure and composition of the layer were investigated by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The nitride layer mainly consisted of {alpha}-phase U{sub 2}N{sub 3} nanocrystals with an average grain size about 10-20 nm. Four zones were identified in the layer, which were the oxide surface zone, the nitride mainstay zone, the oxide-existence interface zone, and the nitrogen-diffusion matrix zone. The gradual decrease of binding energies of uranium revealed the transition from oxide to nitride to metal states with the layer depth, while the chemical states of nitrogen and oxygen showed small variation.

  8. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Emmanuele

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this classic textbook presents a rigorous and self-contained introduction to real analysis with the goal of providing a solid foundation for future coursework and research in applied mathematics. Written in a clear and concise style, it covers all of the necessary subjects as well as those often absent from standard introductory texts. Each chapter features a “Problems and Complements” section that includes additional material that briefly expands on certain topics within the chapter and numerous exercises for practicing the key concepts. The first eight chapters explore all of the basic topics for training in real analysis, beginning with a review of countable sets before moving on to detailed discussions of measure theory, Lebesgue integration, Banach spaces, functional analysis, and weakly differentiable functions. More topical applications are discussed in the remaining chapters, such as maximal functions, functions of bounded mean oscillation, rearrangements, potential theory, a...

  9. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  10. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  11. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is designed for a year-long course in real analysis taken by beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematics and other areas such as statistics, engineering, and economics. Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, it elegantly explores the core concepts in real analysis and introduces new, accessible methods for both students and instructors. The first half of the book develops both Lebesgue measure and, with essentially no additional work for the student, general Borel measures for the real line. Notation indicates when a result holds only for Lebesgue measure. Differentiation and absolute continuity are presented using a local maximal function, resulting in an exposition that is both simpler and more general than the traditional approach. The second half deals with general measures and functional analysis, including Hilbert spaces, Fourier series, and the Riesz representation theorem for positive linear functionals on continuous functions with compact support....

  12. Automated Cache Performance Analysis And Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    , cache behavior could only be measured reliably in the ag- gregate across tens or hundreds of thousands of instructions. With the newest iteration of PEBS technology, cache events can be tied to a tuple of instruction pointer, target address (for both loads and stores), memory hierarchy, and observed latency. With this information we can now begin asking questions regarding the efficiency of not only regions of code, but how these regions interact with particular data structures and how these interactions evolve over time. In the short term, this information will be vital for performance analysts understanding and optimizing the behavior of their codes for the memory hierarchy. In the future, we can begin to ask how data layouts might be changed to improve performance and, for a particular application, what the theoretical optimal performance might be. The overall benefit to be produced by this effort was a commercial quality easy-to- use and scalable performance tool that will allow both beginner and experienced parallel programmers to automatically tune their applications for optimal cache usage. Effective use of such a tool can literally save weeks of performance tuning effort. Easy to use. With the proposed innovations, finding and fixing memory performance issues would be more automated and hide most to all of the performance engineer exper- tise ”under the hood” of the Open|SpeedShop performance tool. One of the biggest public benefits from the proposed innovations is that it makes performance analysis more usable to a larger group of application developers. Intuitive reporting of results. The Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool has a rich set of intuitive, yet detailed reports for presenting performance results to application developers. Our goal was to leverage this existing technology to present the results from our memory performance addition to Open|SpeedShop. Suitable for experts as well as novices. Application performance is getting more difficult

  13. Radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana, E-mail: lucibn19@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Propedeutica Complementar, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha 31270901, BH/MG (Brazil); Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha 31270901, BH/MG (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In the present study, the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was investigated for future applications in brachytherapy. The main goal was to determine the radiological viability of ceramic and polymeric devices in vitro by performing simple radiological diagnostic methods such as conventional X-ray analysis and mammography due to its easy access to the population. The radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was determined using conventional X-ray, mammography and CT analysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barium incorporation in the seed improves the radiological contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiological monitoring shows the position, orientation and degradation of devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple radiological methods such as X-ray and mammography were used for radiological monitoring.

  14. Piping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  15. Elementary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

    1966-01-01

    Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

  16. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  17. Outlier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing advances in hardware technology for data collection, and advances in software technology (databases) for data organization, computer scientists have increasingly participated in the latest advancements of the outlier analysis field. Computer scientists, specifically, approach this field based on their practical experiences in managing large amounts of data, and with far fewer assumptions- the data can be of any type, structured or unstructured, and may be extremely large.Outlier Analysis is a comprehensive exposition, as understood by data mining experts, statisticians and

  18. Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 19th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis was held at the IT University of Copenhagen in Denmark during June 15-17, 2015. The SCIA conference series has been an ongoing biannual event for more than 30 years and over the years it has nurtured a world-class regional research and development....... The topics of the accepted papers range from novel applications of vision systems, pattern recognition, machine learning, feature extraction, segmentation, 3D vision, to medical and biomedical image analysis. The papers originate from all the Scandinavian countries and several other European countries...

  19. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  20. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  1. Poetic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this article presents the characteristics of Hebrew poetry: features associated with rhythm and phonology, grammatical features, structural elements like parallelism, and imagery and intertextuality. The second part consists of an analysis of Psalm 121. It is argued that assonan...

  2. Learner Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Xuexia

    2005-01-01

    @@ In the past, more attempts had been made to explore the ways for teachers to teach English but fewer for learners to learn the language. Learner analysis is to analyze "What the learner is", including age, attitude, motivation, intelligence,aptitude, personality , and etc, with the purpose to realize the transition from "teacher-centered" into "learner-oriented".

  3. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  4. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studie....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  5. Exergy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dovjak, M.; Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Exergy analysis enables us to make connections among processes inside the human body and processes in a building. So far, only the effect of different combinations of air temperatures and mean radiant temperatures have been studied, with constant relative humidity in experimental conditions...

  6. Frontier Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    and macro applications of these approaches, summarizing and critically reviewing the characteristics of the existing studies. We also conduct a meta-analysis to create an overview of the efficiency results of frontier applications. This allows for an investigation of the impact of frontier methodology...

  7. Poetic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this article presents the characteristics of Hebrew poetry: features associated with rhythm and phonology, grammatical features, structural elements like parallelism, and imagery and intertextuality. The second part consists of an analysis of Psalm 121. It is argued that assonance...

  8. Genre Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    Swales' CARS model is a robust method of genre analysis.The model is first designed for article introductions; its application covers a wide range from academic to non-academic. The present paper is completely a theoretical framework.At last,future research is proposed.

  9. Genre Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    Swales’ CARS model is a robust method of genre analysis.The model is first designed for article introductions; its application covers a wide range from academic to non-academic.The present paper is completely a theoretical framework.At last,future research is proposed.

  10. Regression Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Sa, Ping

    2006-01-01

    The book provides complete coverage of the classical methods of statistical analysis. It is designed to give students an understanding of the purpose of statistical analyses, to allow the student to determine, at least to some degree, the correct type of statistical analyses to be performed in a given situation, and have some appreciation of what constitutes good experimental design

  11. Inclusion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Colver, David

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion analysis is the name given by Operis to a black box testing technique that it has found to make the checking of key financial ratios calculated by spreadsheet models quicker, easier and more likely to find omission errors than code inspection.

  12. Quantitative analysis of the effect of zidovudine, efavirenz, and ritonavir on insulin aggregation by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares of infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Aluja, Idoia; Ruisanchez, Itziar [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Larrechi, M. Soledad, E-mail: mariasoledad.larrechi@urv.cat [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of insulin can be changed via interaction with antiretroviral drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical interaction promotes the formation of aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This drug effect was evaluated by MCR-ALS coupled to IR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of aggregates was favourable if drugs were able to form hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher drug concentrations favoured formation of amorphous aggregates. - Abstract: Quantification of the effect of antiretroviral drugs on the insulin aggregation process is an important area of research due to the serious metabolic diseases observed in AIDS patients after prolonged treatment with these drugs. In this work, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to infrared monitoring of the insulin aggregation process in the presence of three antiretroviral drugs to quantify their effect. To evidence concentration dependence in this process, mixtures at two different insulin:drug molar ratios were used. The interaction between insulin and each drug was analysed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. In all cases, the aggregation process was monitored during 45 min by infrared spectroscopy. The aggregates were further characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MCR-ALS provided the spectral and concentration profiles of the different insulin-drug conformations that are involved in the process. Their feasible band boundaries were calculated using the MCR-BANDS methodology. The kinetic profiles describe the aggregation pathway and the spectral profiles characterise the conformations involved. The retrieved results show that each of the three drugs modifies insulin conformation in a different way, promoting the formation of aggregates. Ritonavir shows the strongest promotion of aggregation, followed by efavirenz and zidovudine. In the studied concentration range, concentration

  13. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  14. CMB Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, J R; Crittenden, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the subject of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) analysis - its past, present and future. The theory of Gaussian primary anisotropies, those arising from linear physics operating in the early Universe, is in reasonably good shape so the focus has shifted to the statistical pipeline which confronts the data with the theory: mapping, filtering, comparing, cleaning, compressing, forecasting, estimating. There have been many algorithmic advances in the analysis pipeline in recent years, but still more are needed for the forecasts of high precision cosmic parameter estimation to be realized. For secondary anisotropies, those arising once nonlinearity develops, the computational state of the art currently needs effort in all the areas: the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, inhomogeneous reionization, gravitational lensing, the Rees-Sciama effect, dusty galaxies. We use the Sunyaev-Zeldovich example to illustrate the issues. The direct interface with observations for these non-Gaussian signals is much more compl...

  15. Wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Lizhi; Luo, Yong; Chen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This book could be divided into two parts i.e. fundamental wavelet transform theory and method and some important applications of wavelet transform. In the first part, as preliminary knowledge, the Fourier analysis, inner product space, the characteristics of Haar functions, and concepts of multi-resolution analysis, are introduced followed by a description on how to construct wavelet functions both multi-band and multi wavelets, and finally introduces the design of integer wavelets via lifting schemes and its application to integer transform algorithm. In the second part, many applications are discussed in the field of image and signal processing by introducing other wavelet variants such as complex wavelets, ridgelets, and curvelets. Important application examples include image compression, image denoising/restoration, image enhancement, digital watermarking, numerical solution of partial differential equations, and solving ill-conditioned Toeplitz system. The book is intended for senior undergraduate stude...

  16. Mathematical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Simple continuum models used in the design, analysis, and control of large space structures are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on boundary value problems associated with the Load Correction Method and control problems involving partial differential equations for the large space structure models. Partial differential equations will be used to model a large space structure, base the design of an optimal controller on this model, approximate the resulting optimal control model, and compare the results with data from other methods.

  17. Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cecconi, Jaures

    2011-01-01

    G. Bottaro: Quelques resultats d'analyse spectrale pour des operateurs differentiels a coefficients constants sur des domaines non bornes.- L. Garding: Eigenfuction expansions.- C. Goulaouic: Valeurs propres de problemes aux limites irreguliers: applications.- G. Grubb: Essential spectra of elliptic systems on compact manifolds.- J.Cl. Guillot: Quelques resultats recents en Scattering.- N. Schechter: Theory of perturbations of partial differential operators.- C.H. Wilcox: Spectral analysis of the Laplacian with a discontinuous coefficient.

  18. Mathematical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Simple continuum models used in the design, analysis, and control of large space structures are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on boundary value problems associated with the Load Correction Method and control problems involving partial differential equations for the large space structure models. Partial differential equations will be used to model a large space structure, base the design of an optimal controller on this model, approximate the resulting optimal control model, and compare the results with data from other methods.

  19. Elastodynamic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    This book contains the lecture notes for the 9th semester course on elastodynamics. The first chapter gives an overview of the basic theory of stress waves propagating in viscoelastic media. In particular, the effect of surfaces and interfaces in a viscoelastic material is studied, and different ....... Thus, in Chapter 3, an alternative semi-analytic method is derived, which may be applied for the analysis of layered half-spaces subject to moving or stationary loads....

  20. Elastodynamic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    This book contains the lecture notes for the 9th semester course on elastodynamics. The first chapter gives an overview of the basic theory of stress waves propagating in viscoelastic media. In particular, the effect of surfaces and interfaces in a viscoelastic material is studied, and different ....... Thus, in Chapter 3, an alternative semi-analytic method is derived, which may be applied for the analysis of layered half-spaces subject to moving or stationary loads....

  1. Chromosome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  2. Paleoenvironmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arobba, Daniele; Boscato, Paolo; Boschian, Giovanni; Falgueres, Christophe; Fasani, Leone; Peretto, Carlo; Sala, Benedetto; Hohenstein, Ursula Thun; Tozzi, Carlo

    2004-06-01

    New analysis has been carried out concerning the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of some Italian sites dating from the Middle Pleistocene to the Bronze Age. Different aspects have been investigated on each site considering the data collected. The following sites have been analyzed: Isernia La Pineta (Molise); Visogliano and Caverna degli Orsi (Tieste); Toirano Caves (Liguria); Grotta Paglicci (Gargano); Riparo del Molare (Salerno); Grotta del Cavallo (Lecce); Castellaro Lagusello (Monzambano, Mantova).

  3. Gallstone Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone is a crystal deposit which is formed in the gallbladder or bile duct. Gallstone is classified into cholesterol stone, pigment stone (black and brown, and mixed stone. Mechanism which underlies the formation of cholesterol or pigment gallstone is different. Information on chemical component of the stone will assist the management and prevention of its recurrence. Analysis of gallstone component can be performed by colorimetry method or even gas liquid chromatography (GLC. Chemical component analysis of gallstone by colorimetry includes examination of cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium. Stone is classified as cholesterol stone if the cholesterol content is > 80%, pigment stone if cholesterol content is < 20%, and mixed stone if cholesterol content is 25-80%. Gallstone analysis by GLC method is conducted by separation of fatty acid chain and evaluation of fatty acid quantity in the methylester derivatives form, which is fatty acid methyl estered. Fatty acid content in cholesterol stone (310.09 + 49.7 mg/gram is higher compared to pigment stone (55.59 +7.71 mg/gram. Saturated to unsaturated fatty acid (S/U ration in cholesterol stone (8.6 + 3.1 is higher compared to pigment stone (4.8 + 1.5.

  4. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  5. Microbes on building materials - Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenauer, Joerg D., E-mail: joerg.ettenauer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Pinar, Guadalupe, E-mail: Guadalupe.Pinar@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Lopandic, Ksenija, E-mail: Ksenija.Lopandic@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Spangl, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.Spangl@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Science, Institute of Applied Statistics and Computing (IASC), Gregor Mendel-Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ellersdorfer, Guenther, E-mail: Guenther.Ellersdorfer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Voitl, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Voitl@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sterflinger, Katja, E-mail: Katja.Sterflinger@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three

  6. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

  7. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  8. Formation of femtosecond laser induced surface structures on silicon: Insights from numerical modeling and single pulse experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, T.J.-Y., E-mail: thibault.derrien@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes Laboratory (LP3), UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de luminy - C. 917, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Torres, R.; Sarnet, T.; Sentis, M. [Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes Laboratory (LP3), UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de luminy - C. 917, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Itina, T.E. [Hubert Curien laboratory (LaHC), UMR 5516 CNRS - Universite Jean Monnet, Bat. F, 18 rue du Professeur Benoit Lauras, 42000, Saint Etienne (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical conditions for exciting SPP in Si are verified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPP model explains why a seed is needed to produce single shot ripples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two regimes of ripples are identified and explained by numerical simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented results have a strong correlation with experiments. - Abstract: Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are formed by multiple irradiation of femtosecond laser on a silicon target. In this paper, we focus and discuss the surface plasmon polariton mechanism by an analysis of transient phase-matching conditions in Si on the basis of a single pulse experiment and numerical simulations. Two regimes of ripple formation mechanisms at low number of shots are identified and detailed. Correlation of numerical and experimental results is good.

  9. Sequential analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wald, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    In 1943, while in charge of Columbia University's Statistical Research Group, Abraham Wald devised Sequential Design, an innovative statistical inference system. Because the decision to terminate an experiment is not predetermined, sequential analysis can arrive at a decision much sooner and with substantially fewer observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations. The system's immense value was immediately recognized, and its use was restricted to wartime research and procedures. In 1945, it was released to the public and has since revolutio

  10. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  11. Grammar Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yuan-yuan

    2013-01-01

      As the development of the global communication all over the world, English has become the international language for the global communication. Furthermore, speaking as a skill in English language learning becomes more and more important. As it is known, spoken English has specific features, thus to gain an explicit understanding of the features data analysis is helpful. Moreover it is useful for language teacher to make development in teaching to satisfy learner’s needs. Grammatical and phonological are the two remarkable aspects and specific features in spoken language therefore to discover elements into these aspects seems helpful to teaching spoken Enlgish.

  12. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  13. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  14. First order reversal curve analysis on NdFeB nanocomposite ribbons subjected to Joule heating treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampillo, L.G. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Saccone, F.D., E-mail: fsaccone@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin-Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sirkin, H.R.M. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-lean amorphous precursors subjected to Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams of irreversible switching fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This last techniques helped us to verify the optimized treatments conditions. - Abstract: Amorphous precursors with composition Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72-x}Co{sub 3+x}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} (x = 0, 2, 7, 12) were thermally treated by the Joule heating technique with a linearly varying electrical current. The crystallization kinetics was followed by monitoring the resistance of the ribbons during the heating up to the final applied current. Crystallized nanostructured phases coexist with an amorphous matrix, as it was observed by means of Moessbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The irreversible magnetic response of the Joule heated ribbons was analyzed by the First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) diagram technique. For the optimal treatments, associated with the higher maximum energy products for each sample composition, it was found that the main interaction is of a strongly dipolar characteristic. Over annealed samples show a FORC diagram that gives into account of softening, due to grain growth, for those phases precipitated at the first crystallization stage. When it is measured at 20 K, the hardest magnetic sample (Fe = 72 at.%, Co = 3 at.%, I{sub final} = 0.5 A), exhibits a diagram with characteristics corresponding to dipolar interactions of soft phases. This fact is consistent with an enhancement of the exchange length due to the increase in the soft phase stiffness as it is expected at low temperatures.

  15. Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Mason, Ian

    2008-01-01

    HOL is a logic of total functions, one must explicitly address the termination of functions that are not primitive recursive. In "Flow-sensitive Type Systems and the Ambient Calculus," Torben Amtoft reports on what apperar to be the first type-based flow-sensitive topological analysis of ambient......-calculus programs, historically. The anaylsis determines the possible locations of ambients and mirrors the temporla sequencing of actions in the structure of types....

  16. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  17. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow combined with laser ablation for direct analysis of compounds separated by thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) setup for characterization of low molecular weight compounds separated on standard TLC plates has been constructed. This new approach successfully combines TLC separation, laser ablation, and ionization using flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source. For the laser ablation, a low-priced 445-nm continuous-wave diode laser pointer, with a power of 1 W, was used. The combination of the simple, low-budget laser pointer and the FAPA ion source has made this experimental arrangement broadly available, also for small laboratories. The approach was successfully applied for the characterization of low molecular weight compounds separated on TLC plates, such as a mixture of pyrazole derivatives, alkaloids (nicotine and sparteine), and an extract from a drug tablet consisting of paracetamol, propyphenazone, and caffeine. The laser pointer used was capable of ablating organic compounds without the need of application of any additional substances (matrices, staining, etc.) on the TLC spots. The detection limit of the proposed method was estimated to be 35 ng/cm(2) of a pyrazole derivative.

  18. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  19. Functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kesavan, S

    2009-01-01

    The material presented in this book is suited for a first course in Functional Analysis which can be followed by Masters students. While covering all the standard material expected of such a course, efforts have been made to illustrate the use of various theorems via examples taken from differential equations and the calculus of variations, either through brief sections or through exercises. In fact, this book will be particularly useful for students who would like to pursue a research career in the applications of mathematics. The book includes a chapter on weak and weak topologies and their applications to the notions of reflexivity, separability and uniform convexity. The chapter on the Lebesgue spaces also presents the theory of one of the simplest classes of Sobolev spaces. The book includes a chapter on compact operators and the spectral theory for compact self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. Each chapter has large collection of exercises at the end. These illustrate the results of the text, show ...

  20. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software.

  1. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  2. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  3. Information security risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Effective Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk AnalysisValue AnalysisOther Qualitative MethodsFacilitated Risk Analysis Process (FRAP)Other Uses of Qualitative Risk AnalysisCase StudyAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: Facilitated Risk Analysis Process FormsAppendix C: Business Impact Analysis FormsAppendix D: Sample of ReportAppendix E: Threat DefinitionsAppendix F: Other Risk Analysis OpinionsIndex

  4. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  5. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP RS23472497 associated with canine atopic dermatitis by ACRS-PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of the paper was to identify of the SNP rs23472497 associated with canine atopic dermatitis (cAD. cAD is a common inflammatory skin disease that is considered to be a naturally occurring, spontaneous model of human atopic dermatitis (eczema. The material involved 60 dogs from 6 different breeds. Canine genomic DNA was isolated from saliva by modified method with using DNAzol® and linear polyacrylamide (LPA carrier and from blood by using commercial kit NucleospinBlood and used in order to estimate rs23472497 SNP genotypes by ACRS-PCR method. The PCR products were digested with NlaIII restriction enzyme. In the population of Czech Pointer and Slovak Wirehaired Pointer we detected all genotypes AA, AG and GG with frequency 0.0732, 0.5122 and 0.4146 for Czech Pointer and 0.1818, 0.5455 and 0.2727 for Slovak Wirehaired Pointer. In Border Collie was observed heterozygote genotype AG and homozygote genotype GG with frequency 0.6667 and 0.3333, subsequently. In German Wirehaired Pointer, Australian Shepherd dog and American Staffordshire terrier we detected only genotype AG with frequency 1. The A allele was distributed with an allele frequency ranging from 0.3293 to 0.5. The G allele was distributed with an allele frequency ranging from 0.5 to 0.6707. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normální tabulka"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  6. 第30届奥运会男篮比赛的核心致胜因素分析%An analysis of core factors for winning men’s basketball games played in the 30th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永波; 吴泽泰

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied Spearman’s two column rank correlation analysis method to calculate the correla-tions between rankings listed for and techniques used in men’s basketball games played in the 30th London Olympic Games, used top 12 indexes arranged in the order of such correlation coefficients to compare the differences be-tween strong, medium and weak teams in order to verify various factors for winning, and therefore drew the fol-lowing conclusions:rankings were closely related to assists, 2-pointers, average points per game, misses and defen-sive rebounds;it can be known from index differences that ordinary factors for strong teams to win weak teams in group games were stronger individual offense ability, teamwork ability, defense aggressiveness and 3-point shooting ability;important factors for strong teams to win in elimination games were defense ability stronger than their op-ponents, stronger contest ability during offense, capability to make their opponents foul more and strong un-der-basket offense ability; competitions between strong teams were competitions of 3-pointers, rebounds, penalty shots and assists;core factors for strong teams to win were steady long shot technique, super strong individual of-fense ability, rebound snatching ability and inside scoring ability.%运用Spearman(斯皮尔曼)二列等级相关分析法计算第30届伦敦奥运会男篮比赛名次与技术相关关系,以此相关系数排序较高12项指标比较奥运会比赛强、中、弱3种水平队的差幅,求证获胜各种因素。因而得出,名次与助攻、2分球命中率次数及场均得分、失误、防守篮板有密切的关系。从指标差幅中可知,小组赛中强队胜弱队的一般制胜因素是较强的个人攻击能力、配合能力、防守攻击性和3分球远投能力。复赛中获胜强队的重要制胜因素是防守能力强于对手,进攻中对抗能力强,能更多地造成对方犯规和篮下攻击能力

  7. Task Analysis - Its Relation to Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Task analysis is a procedure having the purpose of identifying different kinds of performances which are outcomes of learning, in order to make possible the specification of optimal instructional conditions for each kind of outcome. Task analysis may be related to content analysis in two different ways: (1) it may be used to identify the probably…

  8. Investor Sentiment, Soft Budget Constraint Expectation, and Investment Cash Flow Sensitivity%投资者情绪、预算软约束预期与投资现金流敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏斌; 刘志远; 靳光辉

    2014-01-01

    本文以投资者情绪衡量公司外部股权融资环境的变化,研究不同预算软约束预期下,投资者情绪对公司投资现金流敏感性影响的差异.研究发现,高涨的投资者情绪带来择时发行股票的好时机,总体上缓解了企业面临的融资约束,投资现金流敏感性降低.当按照预算软约束预期对样本进行分组后,投资现金流敏感性降低的程度因组别不同而有所差异.预算软约束预期较弱的组别,最为敏感地捕捉了择时发行股票的好时机,其投资现金流敏感性明显降低.

  9. Modelling of induction heating of carbon steel tubes: Mathematical analysis, numerical simulation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luozzo, N. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fontana, M., E-mail: mfontan2006@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulations of the heating by induction in steel tubes were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite element method was employed in this electromagnetic-heat transfer coupled problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outside temperature evolution of the steel tubes was determined experimentally and numerically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperatures in the inner and outer tube surface and the heat affected zone were determined. - Abstract: The transient liquid phase bonding process is been performed to join carbon steel tubes. Fe{sub 96.2}B{sub 3.8} wt% amorphous ribbons of thickness a Almost-Equal-To 20 {mu}m have been employed as filler material. The tubes are aligned with their butted surfaces in contact with the amorphous layer. The joint is heated into a high frequency induction coil under Argon atmosphere. The temperature is raised at the highest possible rate to the process temperature (at about Almost-Equal-To 1250 Degree-Sign C) and then held for a predetermined time. In this paper, the numerical simulations of the heating stage of the bonding process have been made using the finite element method. This method had shown of being able to deal with these kind of coupled problems: electromagnetic field generated by alternating currents, eddy currents generated on the steel tube, heating of the steel tube due to joule effect and heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation. The experimental heating stage, for its further simulation, was done with carbon steel tubes. In particular, we are interested in the temperature evolution of the tube upon heating: time to reach the process temperature at the joint, temperature differences between the inner and outer surface of the tube and the extension of the heat affected zone, taking into account the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition. The numerical simulations are validated by comparison with infrared radiation thermometer measurements of the

  10. Functional and Genetic Analysis of Plectin in Skin and Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezniczek, Günther A; Winter, Lilli; Walko, Gernot; Wiche, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Plectin is a large cytoskeletal linker protein with a multitude of functions affecting various cellular processes. It is expressed as several different isoforms from a highly complex gene. Both, this transcript diversity (mainly caused by short 5'-sequences contained in alternative first exons) and the size (>500 kDa) of the resulting proteins, present considerable challenges to plectin researchers. In this chapter, we will consider these problems and offer advice on how to tackle them best. As plectin has been studied most extensively in skin and muscle, we will focus on these types of tissues and describe some selected methods in detail. Foremost, however, we aim to give the readers some good pointers to available tools and into the existing literature.

  11. Integral transform solutions of dynamic response of a clamped-clamped pipe conveying fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Jijun; An Chen [Ocean Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68508, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Duan Menglan [Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Levi, Carlos [Ocean Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68508, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Su Jian, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic response of pipe conveying fluid was studied numerically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical solutions with automatic global accuracy control were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent convergence behavior was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modal separation analysis was carried out and the influence of mass ratio was analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of dynamic response of pipe conveying fluid is an important aspect in nuclear power plant design. In the present paper, dynamic response of a clamped-clamped pipe conveying fluid was solved by the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The governing partial differential equation was transformed into a set of second-order ordinary differential equations which is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DIVPAG from IMSL Library. A thorough convergence analysis was performed to yield sets of reference results of the transverse deflection at different time and spanwise position. We found good agreement between the computed natural frequencies at mode 1-3 and those obtained by previous theoretical study. Besides, modal separation analysis was carried out and the influence of mass ratio on deflection and natural frequencies was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed.

  12. Comparative first-principles analysis of undoped and Co{sup 2+}-doped {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brik, M.G., E-mail: brik@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Nazarov, M. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Ahmad Fauzi, M.N. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kulyuk, L.; Anghel, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Sushkevich, K. [Moldova State University, Mateevici Street 60, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Boulon, G. [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, La Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, electronic, and optical properties of {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ab initio and crystal field methods were used in all calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Position of the Co{sup 2+} energy levels in the host band gap was estimated. - Abstract: The experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of pure {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4} and {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} crystals were carried out. The ab initio and crystal field calculations of the structural and optical properties of {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} were compared with the corresponding experimental data. It was shown that the lowest cobalt 3d states are located at about 0.5 eV above the valence band's top. The complete energy level scheme of the {alpha}-ZnAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} system, which includes the host's electronic band structure and impurity ion's energy levels, was suggested on the basis of the performed calculations.

  13. Analysis of sulphone based organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy nanocomposites for advanced engineering applications-Study of the mechanical, thermomechanical, XRD, EDS and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shree Meenakshi, K., E-mail: shreemeenakshik@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai 25 (India); Pradeep Jaya Sudhan, E.; Menon, Prathibha G. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai 25 (India)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel sulphone based tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites were developed for aerospace applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-reinforcements were incorporated and curing was done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent results were obtained in the mechanical studies. The nanocomposites developed were flame retardant and hydrophobic. - Abstract: A study was made in the present investigation on sulphone containing tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites to find its suitability for use in high performance applications. The synthesis and characterization of the sulphone tetraglycidyl epoxy resin denoted as 'B' was done as reported in our previous study. Nanoclay and POSS-amine nano-reinforcements denoted as N1 and N2 were incorporated into the synthesized epoxy resin. Curing was done with diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) and bis(3-aminophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO) curing agents denoted as X and Y respectively. In our current research, we continue this research and study the mechanical, thermo-mechanical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), viscosity, epoxy equivalent weight (EEW) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies.

  14. Genetic differentiation in pointing dog breeds inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, D; Méndez, S; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies presenting genetic analysis of dog breeds do not focus specifically on genetic relationships among pointing dog breeds, although hunting was among the first traits of interest when dogs were domesticated. This report compares histories with genetic relationships among five modern breeds of pointing dogs (English Setter, English Pointer, Epagneul Breton, Deutsch Drahthaar and German Shorthaired Pointer) collected in Spain using mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosome information. We identified 236 alleles in autosomal microsatellites, four Y-chromosome haplotypes and 18 mitochondrial haplotypes. Average F(ST) values were 11.2, 14.4 and 13.1 for autosomal, Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and mtDNA sequence respectively, reflecting relatively high genetic differentiation among breeds. The high gene diversity observed in the pointing breeds (61.7-68.2) suggests contributions from genetically different individuals, but that these individuals originated from the same ancestors. The modern English Setter, thought to have arisen from the Old Spanish Pointer, was the first breed to cluster independently when using autosomal markers and seems to share a common maternal origin with the English Pointer and German Shorthaired Pointer, either via common domestic breed females in the British Isles or through the Old Spanish Pointer females taken to the British Isles in the 14th and 16th centuries. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence indicates the isolation of the Epagneul Breton, which has been formally documented, and shows Deutsch Drahthaar as the result of crossing the German Shorthaired Pointer with other breeds. Our molecular data are consistent with historical documents.

  15. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João

    2014-01-01

    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  16. A comparative study of glycoprotein concentration, glycoform profile and glycosylation site occupancy using isotope labeling and electrospray linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chih-Yu; Ma, Yi-Chun; Pai, Pei-Jing [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Her, Guor-Rong, E-mail: grher@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration, site occupancy and glycoform variation can be differentiated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycopeptides and peptides were stable isotope labeled and analyzed by ESI-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonglycosylated peptide provided glycoprotein concentration variation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycoform variation was obtained by comparing d{sub 0} and d{sub 4} labeled glycopeptides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The variation of glycosylation site occupancy could be calculated. - Abstract: A strategy is presented for comparative analysis of glycoproteins in which the variation of protein concentration, variation of glycosylation site occupancy and variation of glycoform profile can be determined. A comparative study was performed using stable isotope labeling of glycopeptides and peptides by formaldehyde-H{sub 2} and formaldehyde-D{sub 2} and analysis by ESI-MS analysis. The relative intensity of the nonglycosylated peptide provided information about protein concentration variation. Variation of the glycoform profile was obtained by comparing the glycoform profile of d{sub 0}- and d{sub 4}-dimethyl labeled glycopeptides. By knowing the variation of protein concentration and the variation of glycoform profile, the variation of glycosylation site occupancy could be calculated. The utility of the proposed strategy was demonstrated with ribonuclease B with different protein concentrations, different levels of glycosylation site occupancy and different glycoform profiles.

  17. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...

  18. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  19. Critical Discourse Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜梅香

    2006-01-01

    This paper is about the discourse analysis and illustrate the approach to analysis the Critical discourses and the discourses about the educational situation of China. And it also includes the condensed theoretical support of the Critical discourse analysis and analysis of the sample I of the discourses between an illiterate person and the literate.

  20. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  1. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  2. Integrated Sensitivity Analysis Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a crucial element of rigorous engineering analysis, but performing such an analysis on a complex model is difficult and time consuming. The mission of the DART Workbench team at Sandia National Laboratories is to lower the barriers to adoption of advanced analysis tools through software integration. The integrated environment guides the engineer in the use of these integrated tools and greatly reduces the cycle time for engineering analysis.

  3. Citation Analysis and Discourse Analysis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Howard D.

    2004-01-01

    John Swales's 1986 article "Citation analysis and discourse analysis" was written by a discourse analyst to introduce citation research from other fields, mainly sociology of science, to his own discipline. Here, I introduce applied linguists and discourse analysts to citation studies from information science, a complementary tradition not…

  4. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  5. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy application to control of the process of precious metal recovery and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pardini, L. [Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Research Area of CNR, Via G. Moruzzi, 1-56124 Pisa (Italy); Pace, D.M. Diaz [Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Paraje Arroyo Seco-(B7000GHG) Tandil (Argentina); Garcia, F. Anabitarte [Photonic Engineering Group, Universidad de Cantabria, Edificio I-D-i Telecomunicacion, Dpto. TEISA-39005 Santander (Spain); Grassi, R.; Sorrentino, F.; Carelli, G.; Francesconi, M.; Francesconi, F. [Marwan Technology, Largo Pontecorvo, 3-56127 Pisa Italy (Italy); Borgogni, R. [CABRO S.p.A.,Via Setteponti, 141-52100 Arezzo (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we discuss the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to precious metal alloys used for the control of the process of recovery and recycling of scraps and waste of industrial processes. In particular, the possibility to obtain sensitivity and trueness comparable to the current systems used in industrial environment in the quantitative determination of the elements of interest was explored. The present study demonstrates that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy can be considered as a viable alternative to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of recovered precious metals. The limits of detection obtained are of the order of 0.2 mg/g for all the elements considered. The maximum deviation with respect to the nominal concentrations is around 1 mg/g at concentrations around 20 mg/g (gold) corresponding to a relative error slightly higher than {+-} 5%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discuss application of LIBS for the analysis of recovered precious metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The advantages and drawbacks of LIBS vs. XRF are evidenced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategy is devised for obtaining by LIBS limits of detection comparable to XRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same strategy would provide trueness in analytical results comparable to XRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time needed and the complexity of LIBS analysis would not exceed the XRF ones.

  7. Laser processing issues of nanosized intermetallic Fe-Sn and metallic Sn particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrescu, R., E-mail: ralexandrescu2001@yahoo.co.uk [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics Bucharest, POB MG-36, 077125 (Romania); Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Morjan, Iuliana; Scarisoreanu, M.; Luculescu, C.R.; Dutu, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics Bucharest, POB MG-36, 077125 (Romania); Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G. [National Institute of Materials Physics, POB MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vasile, E. [Metav R and D, Rosetti 31, Bucharest (Romania); Ciupina, V. [Ovidius University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermetallic Fe-Sn and metallic Sn nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe(CO){sub 5} and Sn(CH{sub 3}){sub 4} were used as precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FeSn{sub 2}, Sn and Fe{sub 3}SnC phases were identified by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex core-shell structural characteristics were found by HRTEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher magnetization was found in samples with increased Fe/Sn atomic ratio. - Abstract: Intermetallic Fe-Sn and nanocrystalline metallic Sn nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized from organic precursors using the laser pyrolysis technique with ethylene as sensitizer. Nano-structured Sn (single phase) was prepared by the pyrolysis of Sn(CH{sub 3}){sub 4} (TMT) vapors. Controlled Fe/Sn atomic ratios, ranging from 0.69 to 1.64 were obtained for the prepared Fe-Sn nanopowders by the control of Fe(CO){sub 5} and TMT flows, respectively. XRD studies evidence three main phases: the tetragonal metallic Sn phase and the intermetallic FeSn{sub 2} phase and, to a much lesser extent, the cubic ternary carbide Fe{sub 3}SnC. Complex core-shell structural characteristics were found by HRTEM analysis. More complete information about the Fe phase distributions in the new intermetallic Fe-Sn nanomaterial is provided by temperature dependent {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  8. Correcting raw diagnostic data for oscilloscope recording system distortions at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebman, Judith, E-mail: Liebman1@LLNL.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Azevedo, Steve; Williams, Wade [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Kirk [NSTec Special Technologies Laboratory (United States); Bettenhausen, Rita; Clowdus, Lisa; Marsh, Amber; Chakicherla, Anu; Hutton, Matthew; Casey, Allan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed shot data from NIF oscilloscope waveforms are often distorted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe specialized corrections for two example NIF diagnostic systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For Dante, non-uniform time-base corrections for the scopes are applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mach-Zehnder optical demodulation and 'stitching' are applied to GRH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-node analysis engine performs scope corrections automatically. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now producing experimental results for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). These results are captured by complex diagnostic systems and are key to achieving NIF's goal to demonstrate thermonuclear burn of deuterium and tritium fuel in a laboratory setting. High bandwidth gamma-ray fusion-burn measurements and soft X-ray indirect and direct drive energetic measurements are both captured with oscilloscope recording systems that distort or modulate the raw data. The Shot Data Analysis team has developed signal processing corrections for these oscilloscope recording systems through an automated engine. Once these corrections are applied, accurate fundamental quantities can be discerned.

  9. Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Senthil, Kalaiselvi [Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yang Soo, E-mail: ysoolee@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the White rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal (Cr) conjugated dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economic, easy, and rapid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non toxic nature of the degraded products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decolorization and degradation at higher concentrations. - Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by Irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. I. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250 mg/l over a wide range of pH values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35 Degree-Sign C. Complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96 h, and I. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses of the extracted metabolites confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation of the dye and not merely by adsorption. GC-MS analysis indicated the formation of 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3,4-dihydro- and 2-naphthalenol as the main metabolite. ICP analysis demonstrated the removal of 13.49% chromium, and phytotoxicity studies using germinated seeds of Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed during the degradation of Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 dye.

  10. Controlled swelling and adsorption properties of polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natkanski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kustrowski, Piotr, E-mail: kustrows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Bialas, Anna; Piwowarska, Zofia [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Michalik, Marek [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites was synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous slurry of clay. Dissociated (obtained by adding ammonium or sodium hydroxide) and undissociated forms of acrylic acid were used as monomers in the hydrogel synthesis. The structure and composition of the samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. It has been found that the kind of monomer influences strongly the location of a polymer chain in the formed composite. Complete intercalation of hydrogel into the interlayer space of montmorillonite was observed for sodium polyacrylate, whereas polyacrylic acid and ammonium polyacrylate mainly occupied the outer surface of the clay. The position of hydrogel determined the swelling and adsorption properties of the studied composites. The important factor influencing the kinetics of Fe(III) cation adsorption was pH. The analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed to propose the mechanism of Fe(III) cation adsorption. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyacrylate hydrogels can be introduced into the interlayers of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of hydrogel in the composite depends on the polymer type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonium polyacrylate places outside the clay, sodium one is intercalated into it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling and adsorption capacities can be controlled by the polymer position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adsorption efficiency in Fe(III) removal was observed.

  11. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  13. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    analysis in an easier way and in many cases more effectively than traditional modal analysis methods. It can be applied for modal testing and analysis on a wide range of structures and not only for problems generally investigated using traditional modal analysis, but also for those requiring load......In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification...... estimation, vibration level estimation and fatigue analysis....

  14. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  15. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  16. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  17. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  18. RISK ANALYSIS DEVELOPED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Cristina NUKINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through Risk analysis developed model deciding whether control measures suitable for implementation. However, the analysis determines whether the benefits of a data control options cost more than the implementation.

  19. Introductory numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.

  20. Discourse analysis and Foucault's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a method with up to now was less recognized in nursing science, althoughmore recently nursing scientists are discovering it for their purposes. However, several authors have criticized thatdiscourse analysis is often misinterpreted because of a lack of understanding of its theoretical backgrounds. In thisarticle, I reconstruct Foucault’s writings in his “Archaeology of Knowledge” to provide a theoretical base for futurearchaeological discourse analysis, which can be categorized as a socio-linguistic discourse analysis.

  1. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  2. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  3. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  4. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  5. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  6. Biological sequence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durbin, Richard; Eddy, Sean; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    This book provides an up-to-date and tutorial-level overview of sequence analysis methods, with particular emphasis on probabilistic modelling. Discussed methods include pairwise alignment, hidden Markov models, multiple alignment, profile searches, RNA secondary structure analysis, and phylogene......This book provides an up-to-date and tutorial-level overview of sequence analysis methods, with particular emphasis on probabilistic modelling. Discussed methods include pairwise alignment, hidden Markov models, multiple alignment, profile searches, RNA secondary structure analysis...

  7. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    CENTER FOR ARMY ANALYSIS 6001 GOETHALS ROAD FORT BELVOIR, VA 22060-5230 CAA-2015098 IRAQI POPULATION DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS NOVEMBER 2016...designated by other official documentation. Comments or suggestions should be addressed to: Director Center for Army Analysis ATTN: CSCA-OA...CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms

  8. Practical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the book quickly introduces a key 'theme' of Data Analysis, before immersing you in the practical aspects of each theme. You'll learn quickly how to perform all aspects of Data Analysis.Practical Data Analysis is a book ideal for home and small business users who want to slice & dice the data they have on hand with minimum hassle.

  9. Text analysis and computers

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).

  10. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  11. Data analysis for chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbert, DBrynn

    2005-01-01

    Based on D Brynn Hibbert''s lectures on data analysis to undergraduates and graduate students, this book covers topics including measurements, means and confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and calibration models. It is meant as an entry level book targeted at learning and teaching undergraduate data analysis.

  12. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  13. Strategic Analysis Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Reeves, J. D.; Stromgren, Chel; Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program employs a strategic analysis methodology in providing an integrated analysis capability of Lunar exploration scenarios and to support strategic decision-making regarding those scenarios. The strategic analysis methodology integrates the assessment of the major contributors to strategic objective satisfaction performance, affordability, and risk and captures the linkages and feedbacks between all three components. Strategic analysis supports strategic decision making by senior management through comparable analysis of alternative strategies, provision of a consistent set of high level value metrics, and the enabling of cost-benefit analysis. The tools developed to implement the strategic analysis methodology are not element design and sizing tools. Rather, these models evaluate strategic performance using predefined elements, imported into a library from expert-driven design/sizing tools or expert analysis. Specific components of the strategic analysis tool set include scenario definition, requirements generation, mission manifesting, scenario lifecycle costing, crew time analysis, objective satisfaction benefit, risk analysis, and probabilistic evaluation. Results from all components of strategic analysis are evaluated a set of pre-defined figures of merit (FOMs). These FOMs capture the high-level strategic characteristics of all scenarios and facilitate direct comparison of options. The strategic analysis methodology that is described in this paper has previously been applied to the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and is now being used to support the development of the baseline Constellation Program lunar architecture. This paper will present an overview of the strategic analysis methodology and will present sample results from the application of the strategic analysis methodology to the Constellation Program lunar architecture.

  14. Analysis in usability evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Lai-Chong Law, Effie; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    While the planning and implementation of usability evaluations are well described in the literature, the analysis of the evaluation data is not. We present interviews with 11 usability professionals on how they conduct analysis, describing the resources, collaboration, creation of recommendations......, and prioritization involved. The interviews indicate a lack of structure in the analysis process and suggest activities, such as generating recommendations, that are unsupported by existing methods. We discuss how to better support analysis, and propose four themes for future research on analysis in usability...

  15. Foundations of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsonbaugh, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This classroom-tested volume offers a definitive look at modern analysis, with views of applications to statistics, numerical analysis, Fourier series, differential equations, mathematical analysis, and functional analysis. Upper-level undergraduate students with a background in calculus will benefit from its teachings, along with beginning graduate students seeking a firm grounding in modern analysis. A self-contained text, it presents the necessary background on the limit concept, and the first seven chapters could constitute a one-semester introduction to limits. Subsequent chapters discuss

  16. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  17. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  18. Multivariate analysis with LISREL

    CERN Document Server

    Jöreskog, Karl G; Y Wallentin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    This book traces the theory and methodology of multivariate statistical analysis and shows how it can be conducted in practice using the LISREL computer program. It presents not only the typical uses of LISREL, such as confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models, but also several other multivariate analysis topics, including regression (univariate, multivariate, censored, logistic, and probit), generalized linear models, multilevel analysis, and principal component analysis. It provides numerous examples from several disciplines and discusses and interprets the results, illustrated with sections of output from the LISREL program, in the context of the example. The book is intended for masters and PhD students and researchers in the social, behavioral, economic and many other sciences who require a basic understanding of multivariate statistical theory and methods for their analysis of multivariate data. It can also be used as a textbook on various topics of multivariate statistical analysis.

  19. Visual physics analysis VISPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, Oxana; Brodski, Michael; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Hinzmann, Andreas; Mueller, Gero; Muenzer, Thomas; Plum, Matthias; Steggemann, Jan; Winchen, Tobias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana, E-mail: tatsiana.klimkovich@physik.rwth-aachen.d [Physics Institute 3a, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    VISPA is a development environment for high energy physics analyses which enables physicists to combine graphical and textual work. A physics analysis cycle consists of prototyping, performing, and verifying the analysis. The main feature of VISPA is a multipurpose window for visual steering of analysis steps, creation of analysis templates, and browsing physics event data at different steps of an analysis. VISPA follows an experiment-independent approach and incorporates various tools for steering and controlling required in a typical analysis. Connection to different frameworks of high energy physics experiments is achieved by using different types of interfaces. We present the look-and-feel for an example physics analysis at the LHC and explain the underlying software concepts of VISPA.

  20. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  1. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  2. An optimization analysis on electroless deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beygi, H., E-mail: hossein.beygi@stu-mail.um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajjadi, S.A.; Zebarjad, S.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu core-shell nanostructure fabricated by electroless copper plating on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization on bath composition and electroless parameters performed by Taguchi method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using minimum chemicals usage, maximum plating rate of copper obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform copper shells with 10 nm thicknesses were fabricated on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu core-shell nanostructure was fabricated by electroless plating of copper on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. In order to reach to the maximum efficiency of electroless deposition, the influence of main effective parameters such as type of pretreatment process, HCHO/CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O molar ratio, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}KNa{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O/CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O molar ratio, pH, pouring rate, concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, bath temperature, plating time, stirring speed and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle size were investigated. The morphology, uniformity, and chemical composition of the activated and Cu coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that, by optimization on the electroless bath composition and the process parameters, using minimum chemicals usage maximum copper plating rate of 19.51% on the surface of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles is obtained. As result of copper deposition on the surface of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, uniform shells with about 10 nm thicknesses was fabricated on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.

  3. Teaching about photosynthesis with simple equipment: analysis of light-induced changes in fluorescence and reflectance of plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Lars Olof; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-10-01

    Solar energy absorbed by plants results in either reflection or absorption. The latter results in photosynthesis, fluorescence, or heat. Measurements of fluorescence changes have been used for monitoring processes associated with photosynthesis. A simple method to follow changes in leaf fluorescence and leaf reflectance associated with nonphotochemical quenching and light acclimation of leaves is described. The main equipment needed consists of a green-light emitting laser pointer, a digital camera, and a personal computer equipped with the camera acquisition software and the programs ImageJ and Excel. Otherwise, only commonly available cheap materials are required.

  4. Evidence for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 4-chlorosalicylic acid from combined experimental and computational studies: Quantum chemical treatment of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.guchhait@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and computational studies on the photophysics of 4-chlorosalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopically established ESIPT reaction substantiated by theoretical calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical treatment of IMHB unveils strength, nature and directional nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superiority of quantum chemical treatment of H-bond over geometric criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of H-bond as a modulator of aromaticity. -- Abstract: The photophysical study of a pharmaceutically important chlorine substituted derivative of salicylic acid viz., 4-chlorosalicylic acid (4ClSA) has been carried out by steady-state absorption, emission and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. A large Stokes shifted emission band with negligible solvent polarity dependence marks the spectroscopic signature of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction in 4ClSA. Theoretical calculation by ab initio and Density Functional Theory methods yields results consistent with experimental findings. Theoretical potential energy surfaces predict the occurrence of proton transfer in S{sub 1}-state. Geometrical and energetic criteria, Atoms-In-Molecule topological parameters, Natural Bond Orbital population analysis have been exploited to evaluate the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction and to explore its directional nature. The inter-correlation between aromaticity and resonance assisted H-bond is also discussed in this context. Our results unveil that the quantum chemical treatment is a more accurate tool to assess hydrogen bonding interaction in comparison to geometrical criteria.

  5. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, B.F.G., E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U.; Silva, J.W.S. da; Barros, P.D. de; Araujo, R.M.S. de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear (PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, PO Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a semi-automatic version of potentiometric titration method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The traceability of the method was assured by a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} primary standard. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} reference material analyzed was consistent with certified value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uncertainty obtained, near 0.01%, is useful for characterization purposes.

  6. Synthesis of novel fluorescent probe Tb(III)-7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex for sensing of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Belal H.M., E-mail: belalhussein102@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Azab, Hassan A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Fathalla, Walid [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Port-Said University, Port-Said (Egypt); Ali, Sherin A.M. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    New fluorescent probe Tb(III) (7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin)2(SCN) (C2H5OH)(H2O) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7-carboxymethoxy-4-methylcoumarin (CMMC) and Tb(III)-CMMC complex have been measured in different solvents. The interactions of Tb(III)-CMMC complex with calf thymus nucleic acid (CT-DNA) have been investigated using steady state fluorescence measurements. The changes in the fluorescence intensity have been used for the quantitative determination of DNA with LOD of 3.45 ng in methanol-water (9:1, v/v). The association constants of DNA with Tb(III)-CMMC complex was found to be 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 1010 M{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New fluorescent probe Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin complex has been synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR spectrum of Tb(III)-complex shows a characteristic band for thiocyanate group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA interaction with Terbium (III)-7-carboxy methoxy-4-methylcoumarin has been studied by fluorescence techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the fluorescence intensity has been used for the quantitative determination of DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result was better than most of the well-known methods including the ethidium bromide method.

  7. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Agouram, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo -UO - Principado de Asturias- PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Moya, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Esteban, S., E-mail: s.lopez@cinn.es [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17-35 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  8. Phase control studies in Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, J.H. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, A.M., E-mail: ampereira@fc.up.pt [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ventura, J.; Oliveira, G.N.P. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, J.P., E-mail: jearaujo@fc.up.pt [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Tavares, P.B.; Fernandes, L. [Departamento de Quimica and CQ-VR, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Algarabel, P.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Magen, C. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon-ARAID, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morellon, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); and others

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of time dependence of O(I) to M phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the optimal annealing time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New method for phase amount estimation (O(I) and M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of annealing on the MCE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of the nature of the magnetic transition through the Arrot plot representation. - Abstract: A systematic set of annealings on arc-melted synthesized Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} sample was performed. Through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry measurements we monitored the effect of varying the annealing time with constant temperature (T = 1473 K) on the formation of the monoclinic (M) crystallographic phase fraction, which is the one responsible for the giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) in this compound. The conversion of the orthorhombic O(I) crystallographic phase into M was achieved, resulting in a significant increase of the M mass fraction. Such conversion led to a change in the magnetic transition nature, evolving from a second to a first order transition for the as-cast and annealed samples, respectively. An optimal annealing time range for the M phase conversion was identified to be within 80-120 min at T = 1473 K followed by a rapid quenching to liquid N{sub 2}. Furthermore, an increase up to {approx}50% of the magnetocaloric effect was obtained for the sample annealed during 120 min.

  9. Investigation of nanostructural, thermal and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet synthesized by mechanochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, M.A. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, 71555-313 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This paper focuses on the magnetic, structural and thermal properties of mechanically alloyed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed powders and investigates the effects of the mechanical milling and heat treatment on the synthesis of yttrium iron garnet from the primary materials. The morphological and structural studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The thermal activities were measured by differential thermal analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that high-energy milling does not lead to the garnet formation and even does not decrease the temperature of the garnet formation. Furthermore, the orthoferrite phase can be achieved slightly during the milling process (up to 96 h) and completely by the heat treatment at lower temperatures (850 Degree-Sign C). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high energy milling did not lead to the garnet formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milling process did not decrease the temperature of the garnet formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The orthoferrite phase can be achieved slightly during the mechanical milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milling process can lower the temperature of orthoferrite formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milled powder for 96 h completely transforms to orthoferrite below 700 Degree-Sign C.

  10. Influence of seawater and its aerosols on copper patina composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, L., E-mail: veleva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Applied Physics Department, Center for Investigation and Advanced Study, CINVESTAV-Merida, Carr. Ant. a Progreso, Km. 6, 97310 Merida (Mexico); Farro, W. [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Urb. San Andres, Trujillo (Peru)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper patina was grown during one-year period on samples exposed to splash, tidal, full immersion sea zone and atmospheric aerosols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cuprite and atacamite contributed most to patina formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atacamite became the sole majority phase in the full immersion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cuprite decreased over time and posnjakite and chalcanthite appeared as minority phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper patina composition is strongly influenced by chloride pollution and specific zone conditions. - Abstract: X-ray diffraction analysis was used to monitor patina composition on copper samples exposed during one-year period to different seawater zones (splash, tidal and full immersion) and marine atmospheric aerosols. Two phases contributed most to patina formation: cuprite (copper oxide) and atacamite (copper chloride compound). Their relative XRD spectra intensities were very similar in patina formed in the tidal sea zone, but atacamite became the sole majority phase in the full immersion zone. The cuprite phase decreased over time, and two minority copper sulfates phases appeared: posnjakite and chalcanthite (CuSO{sub 4}). The results revealed that copper patina composition is strongly influenced by chloride pollution and specific zone conditions. Additional factors, such as wind-blown sand, continuous dredging in coastal areas and vessel docking, influenced degree of pollutant compound adherence to patinas and consequently their structure (porous or compact).

  11. EBSD study of a hot deformed austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: h-m@gmx.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundacio CTM Centre Tecnologic, Av. Bases de Manresa 1, 08242 Manresa (Spain); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Calvillo, P.R. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundacio CTM Centre Tecnologic, Av. Bases de Manresa 1, 08242 Manresa (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characterization of an austenitic stainless steel by EBSD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of twins in the nucleation and growth of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain refinement through the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of recrystallized fraction using the grain average misorientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship between recrystallization and the frequency of high angle boundaries. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution of a 304 H austenitic stainless steel subjected to hot compression was studied by the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Detailed data about the boundaries, coincidence site lattice (CSL) relationships and grain size were acquired from the orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps. It was found that twins play an important role in the nucleation and growth of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during hot deformation. Moreover, the conventional discontinuous DRX (DDRX) was found to be in charge of grain refinement reached under the testing conditions studied. Furthermore, the recrystallized fraction (X) was determined from the grain average misorientation (GAM) distribution based on the threshold value of 1.55 Degree-Sign . The frequency of high angle boundaries showed a direct relationship with X. A time exponent of 1.11 was determined from Avrami analysis, which was related to the observed single-peak behavior in the stress-strain flow curves.

  12. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  13. Chromium effects on the transport properties in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmouni, H., E-mail: rahmounihedi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes cite Erriadh, 6079 Gabes (Tunisia); Selmi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Semiconducteurs et des Composants Electroniques, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' Environnement, 5018 Monastir (Tunisia); Khirouni, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes cite Erriadh, 6079 Gabes (Tunisia); Kallel, N. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir B. P. 22, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse the variation of conductance with temperature and frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material turns from semi-insulating into metallic behaviour with Cr concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hopping mechanism dominates at small concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the concentration increases a regime of percolation appears. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation and conduction process are attributed to the same defect. - Abstract: Transport measurements have been performed on La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} using impedance spectroscopy technique, in order to study its electrical properties. The results indicate that the electrical properties of the material are strongly dependent on temperature and frequency. Evidences of temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena in the material have also been observed. Impedance spectrum analysis shows that the material can be described as a grain and grain boundary medium and permits to estimate the grain boundary contribution. Hopping mechanism dominates at small concentration. Electronic conduction is found to be dominated by thermally activated hopping of small polarons at high temperature and variable range hopping at low temperature. When the concentration of chromium increases, electrical behaviour of the material changes from semi-insulating to metallic behaviour. A regime of percolation appears and a metallic conduction becomes dominant.

  14. Magnetostrictive properties of titanate coupling agent treated Terfenol-D composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xufeng, E-mail: dongxf@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Qi Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Guan Xinchun [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150090 Harbin (China); Li Jinhai [School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150090 Harbin (China); School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China)

    2012-03-15

    As a kind of composites, the bond strength between the polymer matrix and the Terfenol-D particles affects the performance of magnetostrictive composites. By observing the fracture morphologies, the bond strength of the magnetostrictive composites prepared with untreated Terfenol-D was proved weak. Titanate coupling agent was used for particles to improve the bond strength. Contact angle analysis indicates the work of adhesion of the epoxy resin to the treated Terfenol-D is larger than that to the untreated Terfenol-D. Different magnetostrictive composites with 20%, 35% and 50% particle volume fractions were prepared with treated and untreated Terfenol-D particles. Their static and dynamic magnetostriction was tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate titanate coupling agent treating increases the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites, that is probably because the bond strength improves due to the particle treating. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our experimental results indicate the particles and the polymer matrix have poor bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The poor bonding prevents the effective transfer of the strain from the particles to the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used titanate as the coupling agent to improve the bond strength between the particles and the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate the bond strength does increase as expected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of the bond strength leads to the increase of magnetostrictive properties.

  15. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seethapathy, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gorecki, Tadeusz, E-mail: tgorecki@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-10-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has numerous applications in analytical chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorptive properties of PDMS are used primarily in sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partitioning properties are used in separations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability of PDMS forms the basis for sample introduction and passive sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantageous mechanical properties are used in lab-on-a-chip devices. - Abstract: Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Evidence of click and coordination reactions on a self-assembled monolayer by synchrotron radiation based XPS and NEXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darlatt, Erik [BAM - Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Traulsen, Christoph H.-H.; Poppenberg, Johannes; Richter, Sebastian [Institut fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Kuehn, Julius [BAM - Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Schalley, Christoph A., E-mail: schalley@chemie.fu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Unger, Wolfgang E.S., E-mail: Wolfgang.Unger@BAM.de [BAM - Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethynyl terpyridines were clicked to azide-terminated SAMs on gold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azides and clicked terpyridines were characterized by N and C K-NEXAFS and N 1s XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S 1s + S 2p XPS was used to characterize the buried gold-sulfur interface of the SAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher click reaction temperature leads to an increased amount of terpyridyl groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduced terpyridyl groups are accessible for Pd(II) ion coordination. - Abstract: An ethynylterpyridine was 'clicked' to an azide-terminated self-assembled monolayer on gold and characterized by synchrotron radiation based surface analysis as NEXAFS and XPS. The detection of azide and terpyridine signatures confirmed a partial click reaction at room temperature. The absence of the azides after reaction at 50 Degree-Sign C indicates an almost complete conversion. For the latter case successful Pd(II) coordination has been proven. The Au-S interface of the SAMs has been characterized by S 1s and S 2p XPS.

  17. Integrating sol-gel with cold plasmas modified porous polycaprolactone membranes for the drug-release of silver-sulfadiazine and ketoprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangindaan, Dave; Chen, Chao-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang, Meng-Jiy, E-mail: mjwang@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated control-release system of sol-gel and biodegradable polycaprolactone membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatible and nontoxic chitosan-SiO{sub 2} sol-gel for drug loading. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizations of the oxygen plasma modified biodegradable PCL porous membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Achieved controllable in vitro release for ketoprofen and silver sulfadiazine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sol-gel/plasma modified porous membranes showed excellent biocompatibility. - Abstract: A controlled release system composed of surface modified porous polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes combined with a layer of tetraorthosilicate (TEOS)-chitosan sol-gel was reported in this study. PCL is a hydrophobic, semi-crystalline, and biodegradable polymer with a relatively slow degradation rate. The drugs chosen for release experiments were silver-sulfadiazine (AgSD) and ketoprofen which were impregnated in the TEOS-chitosan sol-gel. The surface modification was achieved by O{sub 2} plasma and the surfaces were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The results showed that the release of AgSD on O{sub 2} plasma treated porous PCL membranes was prolonged when compared with the pristine sample. On the contrary, the release rate of ketoprofen revealed no significant difference on pristine and plasma treated PCL membranes. The prepared PCL membranes showed good biocompatibility for the wound dressing biomaterial applications.

  18. Structure, morphology and optical properties of multilayered sol-gel BaTi{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilescu, Catalina A. [Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Department of Oxide Materials Science and Engineering, 1-7 Gh. Polizu, P.O. Box 12-134, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Crisan, Maria, E-mail: mcrisan@icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Ianculescu, Adelina C., E-mail: a.ianculescu@yahoo.com [Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Department of Oxide Materials Science and Engineering, 1-7 Gh. Polizu, P.O. Box 12-134, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Raileanu, Malina; Gartner, Mariuca [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Anastasescu, Mihai, E-mail: manastasescu@icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Dragan, Nicolae; Crisan, Dorel [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gavrila, Raluca [National Institute of Microtechnologies, 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae, P.O. Box 38-160, 77190 Bucharest (Romania); Trusca, Roxana [S.C. METAV - Research and Development Bucharest, 31 C. A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multilayered BaTi{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} sol-gel films coated on silicon wafers were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure, surface topography and optical properties were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perovskite BTZ phase were noted only in the thicker multilayer films (BTZ4-BTZ6). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A smaller roughness value was obtained for the six deposits BTZ film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multilayer BTZ films present a more uniform distribution of the average grain size. - Abstract: Continuous and homogeneous multilayered BaTi{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} (BTZ) films were prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of well-crystallized, single phase perovskite BTZ phase only in the thicker, multilayer films (with more than three deposits). Beside the shrinkage of the unit cell, the increase of the deposits number in the BTZ films also induced an obvious surface smoothing, a higher compactness and a more uniform distribution of the average grain size, as observed by SEM and AFM investigations. The refractive index showed normal values indicating a high crystallinity degree for the films under investigation.

  19. Conversion efficiency of implanted ions by confocal micro-luminescence mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshko, Y. [The College of Staten Island and The Graduate Center of CUNY, 2800 Victory Blvd., Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Huang, Mengbing [The University at Albany, The State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Gorokhovsky, A.A., E-mail: Anshel.Gorokhovsky@csi.cuny.edu [The College of Staten Island and The Graduate Center of CUNY, 2800 Victory Blvd., Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We report on the further development of the statistical approach to determine the conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers and present the measurement method based on the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. It involves the micro-luminescence mapping with a narrow-open confocal aperture, followed by the statistical analysis of the photoluminescence signal from an ensemble of emitting centers. The confocal mapping method has two important advantages compared to the recently discussed aperture-free method (J. Lumin. 131 (2011) 489): it is less sensitive to errors in the laser spot size and has a well defined useful area. The confocal mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28, which is in good agreement with the results of the aperture-free method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion efficiency of implanted ions into emitting centers - statistical approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-luminescence mapping with open and narrow confocal aperture - comparison. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages of the confocal micro-luminescence mapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confocal micro-luminescence mapping has been applied to the Xe center in diamond. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conversion efficiency has been found to be about 0.28.

  20. Revisiting the effects of organic solvents on the thermal reduction of graphite oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bujans, Fabienne, E-mail: fbarroso@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Fierro, Jose Luis G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC. Marie Curie, 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Alegria, Angel [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU) Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Fisica de Materiales-Material Physics Center (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU) Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retention of organic solvent on graphite oxide interlayer space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing exfoliation temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close link between structure and thermal behavior of solvent treated graphite oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restacking inhibition of thermally reduced graphite oxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in kinetic mechanisms of thermal reduction. - Abstract: Treatment of graphite oxide (GO) with organic solvents via sorption from either liquid or gas phase, and subsequent desorption, induces profound changes in the layered GO structure: loss of stacking order, retention of trace amounts of solvents and decreasing decomposition temperature. This study presents new evidences of the effect of organic solvents on the thermal reduction of GO by means of thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results reveal a relative higher decrease of the oxygen amounts in solvent-treated GO as compared to untreated GO and the restacking inhibition of the thermally reduced GO sheets upon slow heating. The kinetic experiments evidence changes occurring in the reduction mechanisms of the solvent-treated GO, which support the close link between GO structure and thermal properties.