Reynolds stress and shear flow generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.
2001-01-01
The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method......, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior...
Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: caojing981@126.com [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)
2011-01-01
Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.
Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.
2012-01-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.
Wall shear stress fixed points in blood flow
Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn
2017-11-01
Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics produces large datasets, and wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most important parameters due to its close connection with the biological processes at the wall. While some studies have investigated WSS vectorial features, the WSS fixed points have not received much attention. In this talk, we will discuss the importance of WSS fixed points from three viewpoints. First, we will review how WSS fixed points relate to the flow physics away from the wall. Second, we will discuss how certain types of WSS fixed points lead to high biochemical surface concentration in cardiovascular mass transport problems. Finally, we will introduce a new measure to track the exposure of endothelial cells to WSS fixed points.
Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others
1995-09-01
Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.
Flow velocities and bed shear stresses in a stone cover under an oscillatory flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stenanato, F.; Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2010-01-01
layers of stones. The flow velocities in the pores of the stones were measured using LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer). In addition to the velocity measurements, the bed shear stresses were also measured using a hotfilm (Constant Temperature Anemometry). It is found that the boundary layer of the outer flow...... current boundary layer without any externally generated turbulence. The bd shear stress is found to be very low, more than ten times smaller than in the case of a smooth base bottom without stone cover....
Mechanotransduction signaling in podocytes from fluid flow shear stress.
Srivastava, Tarak; Dai, Hongying; Heruth, Daniel P; Alon, Uri S; Garola, Robert E; Zhou, Jianping; Duncan, R Scott; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; McCarthy, Ellen T; Sharma, Ram; Johnson, Mark L; Savin, Virginia J; Sharma, Mukut
2018-01-01
Recently, we and others have found that hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely, tensile stress and fluid flow shear stress (FFSS), can directly and distinctly alter podocyte structure and function. The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates FFSS to podocytes. Our previous work suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-PGE 2 -PGE 2 receptor 2 (EP2) axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocytes. To address mechanotransduction of the perceived stimulus through EP2, cultured podocytes were exposed to FFSS (2 dyn/cm 2 ) for 2 h. Total RNA from cells at the end of FFSS treatment, 2-h post-FFSS, and 24-h post-FFSS was used for whole exon array analysis. Differentially regulated genes ( P < 0.01) were analyzed using bioinformatics tools Enrichr and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to predict pathways/molecules. Candidate pathways were validated using Western blot analysis and then further confirmed to be resulting from a direct effect of PGE 2 on podocytes. Results show that FFSS-induced mechanotransduction as well as exogenous PGE 2 activate the Akt-GSK3β-β-catenin (Ser552) and MAPK/ERK but not the cAMP-PKA signal transduction cascades. These pathways are reportedly associated with FFSS-induced and EP2-mediated signaling in other epithelial cells as well. The current regimen for treating hyperfiltration-mediated injury largely depends on targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The present study identifies specific transduction mechanisms and provides novel information on the direct effect of FFSS on podocytes. These results suggest that targeting EP2-mediated signaling pathways holds therapeutic significance for delaying progression of chronic kidney disease secondary to hyperfiltration.
Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.
2009-01-01
In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...
Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim
2015-07-01
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.
2017-11-01
One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
Modeling flow and shear stress fields over unsteady three dimensional dunes
Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Ashworth, Phil; Reesink, Arjan; Best, Jim
2014-05-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. This has allowed an understanding of bed shear stress to be derived and the development of morpho-dynamic models. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows and stresses, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through the adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and bed shear stress. A series of physical experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239µm) was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a numerical three dimensional flow model. The prediction of flow over the four static beds demonstrates the spatial distribution of shear stress and the potential sediment transport paths between the dune crests. These appear to be associated with coherent flow structures formed by localized shear flow. These flow predictions are currently being used to develop a fully three dimensional morphodynamic model to further understand dune dynamics under unsteady flow conditions.
In Vivo flow and wall shear stress assessment in the carotid artery with MRI
Box, Frederike Maria Anna
2007-01-01
Wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by flowing blood at the vessel wall, is defined as the velocity gradient at the vessel wall times the blood viscosity. Low WSS is related to atherosclerotic risk profiles and WSS is low or oscillating at locations where plaque development is observed. In vivo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.
1977-08-01
A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in
Direct Measurement Sensor of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Kerenyi, Kornel; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Trease, Brian P.; Widholm, Scott
2010-01-01
The flow fields and boundary erosion that are associated with scour at bridge piers are very complex. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress and boundary pressure fluctuations in experimental scour research has always been a challenge and high spatial resolution and fidelity have been almost impossible. Most researchers have applied an indirect process to determine shear stress using precise measured velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry are common techniques used to accurately measure velocity profiles. These methods are based on theoretical assumptions to estimate boundary shear stress. In addition, available turbulence models cannot very well account for the effect of bed roughness which is fundamentally important for any CFD simulation. The authors have taken on the challenge to advance the magnitude level to which direct measurements of the shear stress in water flow can be performed. This paper covered the challenges and the efforts to develop a higher accuracy and small spatial resolution sensor. Also, preliminary sensor designs and test results are presented.
Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiguo Gu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Dilute surfactant solution of 25 ppm in the two-dimensional channel is investigated experimentally compared with water flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV system is used to take 2D velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane. Based on the frames of instantaneous vectors and statistical results, the phenomenon of zero Reynolds shear stress appearing in the drag-reducing flow is discussed. It is found that 25 ppm CTAC solution exhibits the highest drag reduction at Re = 25000 and loses drag reduction completely at Re = 40000. When drag reduction lies in the highest, Reynolds shear stress disappears and reaches zero although the RMS of the velocity fluctuations is not zero. By the categorization in four quadrants, the fluctuations of 25 ppm CTAC solution are distributed in all four quadrants equally at Re = 25000, which indicates that turnaround transportation happens in drag-reducing flow besides Reynolds shear stress transportation. Moreover, the contour distribution of streamwise velocity and the fluctuations suggests that turbulence transportation is depressed in drag-reducing flow. The viscoelasticity is possible to decrease the turbulence transportation and cause the turnaround transportation.
Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P
2014-11-01
Organization of airway epithelium determines ciliary beat direction and coordination for proper mucociliary clearance. Fluidic shear stresses have the potential to influence ciliary organization. Here, an in vitro fluidic flow system was developed for inducing long-term airflow shear stresses on airway epithelium with a view to influencing epithelial organization. Our system consists of a fluidic device for cell culture, integrated into a humidified airflow circuit. The fluidic device has a modular design and is made from a combination of polystyrene and adhesive components incorporated into a 6-well filter membrane insert. We demonstrate the system operates within physiologically relevant shear and pressure ranges and estimate the shear stress exerted on the epithelial cell layer as a result of air flow using a computational model. For both the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B and primary human tracheal airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cells remain viable within the device when exposed to airflow for 24 h and that normal differentiation and cilia formation occurs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of our device for exploring the impact of exposing cells to airflow: our tool enables quantification of cytoskeletal organization, and is compatible with in situ bead assays to assess the orientation of cilia beating.
PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model
Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian
2012-11-01
The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.
A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dag Myrhaug
1988-07-01
Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.
Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick
2011-01-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.
Sensor for direct measurement of the boundary shear stress in fluid flow
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick
2011-04-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.
Correlation between flow accelerated corrosion and wall shear stress downstream from an orifice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utanohara, Yoichi; Nakamura, Akira; Murase, Michio; Kamahori, Koichi; Nagaya, Yukinori
2013-01-01
Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) thinning rate downstream from an orifice was measured under different velocity conditions in a high-temperature water test loop to understand the effects of flow velocity on FAC thinning rate. The FAC tendency differed downstream and upstream from the orifice. The metal loss increased linearly with time downstream from the orifice, though metal loss rate gradually decreased with time upstream. FAC rate increased as flow velocity increased, particularly from 1D to 3D. The maximum FAC thinning rate increased in proportional to the 0.51th power of the mean cross-sectional velocity in this experiment. The root mean square (RMS) of wall shear stress predicted by large eddy simulation (LES) had a clear relationship with FAC thinning rate. This result indicated that FAC thinning rate can be described as a function of the wall shear stress. Additionally, the mass transfer coefficient estimated from the RMS of wall shear stress had an almost linear correlation with FAC thinning rate. (author)
Padé approximant for normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow
Poungthong, P.; Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.; Kolitawong, C.; Merger, D.; Wilhelm, M.
2018-04-01
Analytical solutions for the normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS), for continuum or molecular models, normally take the inexact form of the first few terms of a series expansion in the shear rate amplitude. Here, we improve the accuracy of these truncated expansions by replacing them with rational functions called Padé approximants. The recent advent of exact solutions in LAOS presents an opportunity to identify accurate and useful Padé approximants. For this identification, we replace the truncated expansion for the corotational Jeffreys fluid with its Padé approximants for the normal stress differences. We uncover the most accurate and useful approximant, the [3,4] approximant, and then test its accuracy against the exact solution [C. Saengow and A. J. Giacomin, "Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow," Phys. Fluids 29, 121601 (2017)]. We use Ewoldt grids to show the stunning accuracy of our [3,4] approximant in LAOS. We quantify this accuracy with an objective function and then map it onto the Pipkin space. Our two applications illustrate how to use our new approximant reliably. For this, we use the Spriggs relations to generalize our best approximant to multimode, and then, we compare with measurements on molten high-density polyethylene and on dissolved polyisobutylene in isobutylene oligomer.
On Shear Stress Distributions for Flow in Smooth or Partially Rough Annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kjellstroem, B.; Hedberg, S.
1966-08-15
It is commonly assumed that for turbulent flow in annuli the radii of zero shear and maximum velocity are coincident. By inspection of the differential equations for such flow and by an integral analysis it is shown that this is not necessarily true. To check whether important differences could occur, experiments were made in which velocity and shear stress distributions were measured in one smooth and two partially rough annuli. The results show no difference in the radii for the smooth annulus, but for the partially rough annuli there was a small but significant difference. This difference explains the breakdown of Hall's transformation theory reported by other investigators. The error introduced by use of Hall's theory is however small, of the order of 10 % or less.
On Shear Stress Distributions for Flow in Smooth or Partially Rough Annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kjellstroem, B.; Hedberg, S.
1966-08-01
It is commonly assumed that for turbulent flow in annuli the radii of zero shear and maximum velocity are coincident. By inspection of the differential equations for such flow and by an integral analysis it is shown that this is not necessarily true. To check whether important differences could occur, experiments were made in which velocity and shear stress distributions were measured in one smooth and two partially rough annuli. The results show no difference in the radii for the smooth annulus, but for the partially rough annuli there was a small but significant difference. This difference explains the breakdown of Hall's transformation theory reported by other investigators. The error introduced by use of Hall's theory is however small, of the order of 10 % or less
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)
2014-04-15
To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)
Effects of flow-induced shear stress on limbal epithelial stem cell growth and enrichment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Gyeong Kang
Full Text Available The roles of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs are widely recognized, but for these cells to be utilized in basic research and potential clinical applications, researchers must be able to efficiently isolate them and subsequently maintain their stemness in vitro. We aimed to develop a biomimetic environment for LESCs involving cells from their in vivo niche and the principle of flow-induced shear stress, and to subsequently demonstrate the potential of this novel paradigm. LESCs, together with neighboring cells, were isolated from the minced limbal tissues of rabbits. At days 8 and 9 of culture, the cells were exposed to a steady flow or intermittent flow for 2 h per day in a custom-designed bioreactor. The responses of LESCs and epithelial cells were assessed at days 12 and 14. LESCs and epithelial cells responded to both types of flow. Proliferation of LESCs, as assessed using a BrdU assay, was increased to a greater extent under steady flow conditions. Holoclones were found under intermittent flow, indicating that differentiation into transient amplifying cells had occurred. Immunofluorescent staining of Bmi-1 suggested that steady flow has a positive effect on the maintenance of stemness. This finding was confirmed by real-time PCR. Notch-1 and p63 were more sensitive to intermittent flow, but this effect was transient. K3 and K12 expression, indicative of differentiation of LESCs into epithelial cells, was induced by flow and lasted longer under intermittent flow conditions. In summary, culture of LESCs in a bioreactor under a steady flow paradigm, rather than one of intermittent flow, is beneficial for both increasing proliferation and maintaining stemness. Conversely, intermittent flow appears to induce differentiation of LESCs. This novel experimental method introduces micro-mechanical stimuli to traditional culture techniques, and has potential for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LESCs in vitro, thereby
Effects of flow-induced shear stress on limbal epithelial stem cell growth and enrichment.
Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Oh, Min-Jae; Park, Hyo Soon; Shin, Jung-Woog; Kim, Su-Hyang
2014-01-01
The roles of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are widely recognized, but for these cells to be utilized in basic research and potential clinical applications, researchers must be able to efficiently isolate them and subsequently maintain their stemness in vitro. We aimed to develop a biomimetic environment for LESCs involving cells from their in vivo niche and the principle of flow-induced shear stress, and to subsequently demonstrate the potential of this novel paradigm. LESCs, together with neighboring cells, were isolated from the minced limbal tissues of rabbits. At days 8 and 9 of culture, the cells were exposed to a steady flow or intermittent flow for 2 h per day in a custom-designed bioreactor. The responses of LESCs and epithelial cells were assessed at days 12 and 14. LESCs and epithelial cells responded to both types of flow. Proliferation of LESCs, as assessed using a BrdU assay, was increased to a greater extent under steady flow conditions. Holoclones were found under intermittent flow, indicating that differentiation into transient amplifying cells had occurred. Immunofluorescent staining of Bmi-1 suggested that steady flow has a positive effect on the maintenance of stemness. This finding was confirmed by real-time PCR. Notch-1 and p63 were more sensitive to intermittent flow, but this effect was transient. K3 and K12 expression, indicative of differentiation of LESCs into epithelial cells, was induced by flow and lasted longer under intermittent flow conditions. In summary, culture of LESCs in a bioreactor under a steady flow paradigm, rather than one of intermittent flow, is beneficial for both increasing proliferation and maintaining stemness. Conversely, intermittent flow appears to induce differentiation of LESCs. This novel experimental method introduces micro-mechanical stimuli to traditional culture techniques, and has potential for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LESCs in vitro, thereby facilitating research in this
Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress
Paterson, C.
2014-09-14
© 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.
Wall shear stress in Görtler vortex boundary layer flow
Tandiono, Winoto, S. H.; Shah, D. A.
2009-08-01
The development of wall shear stress in concave surface boundary layer flows in the presence of Görtler vortices was experimentally studied by means of hot-wire measurements. The wavelengths of the vortices were preset by thin vertical perturbation wires so to produce the most amplified wavelengths. Three different vortex wavelengths of 12, 15, and 20 mm were considered, and near-wall velocity measurements were carried out to obtain the "linear" layers of velocity profiles in the boundary layers. The wall shear stress coefficient Cf was estimated from the velocity gradient of the "linear" layer. The streamwise developments of boundary layer displacement and momentum thickness at both upwash and downwash initially follow the Blasius (laminar boundary layer) curve up to a certain streamwise location. Further downstream, they depart from the Blasius curve such that they increase at upwash and decrease at downwash before finally converge to the same value due to the increased mixing as a consequence of transition to turbulence. The spanwise-averaged wall shear stress coefficient C¯f, which initially follows the Blasius curve, increases well above the local turbulent boundary layer value further downstream due to the nonlinear effect of Görtler instability and the secondary instability modes. Three different regions are identified based on the streamwise development of C¯f, namely linear, nonlinear, and transition to turbulence regions. The onset of nonlinear region is defined as the streamwise location where the C¯f begins to depart from the Blasius curve. In the nonlinear region, the spanwise distribution of Cf at the downwash becomes narrower, and there is no inflection point found further downstream.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khabbouchi, Imed; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Tavoularis, Stavros
2009-01-01
Synchronised hot-film and hot-wire measurements were made in the narrower region of a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod. The hot-film probe was mounted flush with the channel bottom wall to measure the wall shear stress, while the hot-wire probe was placed at a fixed position, selected in order to easily detect the passage of coherent structures. Mean and rms profiles of the wall shear stress show the influence of the gap to diameter ratio on their respective distributions. The latter presented peculiarities that could only be explained by the presence of coherent structures in the flow between the rod and the wall. Evidence of this presence is seen in the velocity power spectra. The strong influence of the coherent structures on the wall shear stress spatial and temporal distributions is established through velocity-wall shear stress cross-correlations functions and through conditionally sampled measurements
Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules
2015-11-01
The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.
Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong
2018-02-01
In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.
Wiewiora, Maciej; Piecuch, Jerzy; Glűck, Marek; Slowinska-Lozynska, Ludmila; Sosada, Krystyn
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of obesity on wall shear stress and its relationship to erythrocyte aggregation. We studied 35 morbidly obese patients who were qualified for bariatric surgery. The control group consisted of 20 non-obese people. Blood rheological measurements were performed using the Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (Mechatronics, the Netherlands) and a cone-plate viscometer (Brookfield DV-II). The venous flow dynamics were assessed using a duplex ultrasound. The shear rate was estimated from the measured blood flow velocity and the diameter of the femoral vein. Venous wall shear stress was calculated from the whole blood viscosity and the shear rate. The shear rate (P < 0.005) and the venous wall shear stress (P < 0.05) were significantly lower in obese patients compared with the controls. The aggregation index (P < 0.001), syllectogram amplitude - AMP (P < 0.05) and Tslow (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the obese patients; the aggregation half-time (P < 0.001) and Tfast (P < 0.001) were decreased compared with the control group. Multivariate regression analyses found waist circumference (β -0.31, P < 0.05), thigh circumference (β 0.33, P < 0.05) and Tslow (β -0.47, P < 0.005) to be variables that independently influenced the shear rate. Nevertheless, the AMP (β 0.34, P < 0.05) and Tslow (β -0.47, P < 0.01) were independent predictors that influenced the wall shear stress. This study indicates that there is a relationship between wall shear stress in the femoral vein and the rheological impairment of the RBC among obese patients, but further studies are necessary to confirm this suggestion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mickleborough Timothy D
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The present study was designed to further examine the efficacy of FMD normalization to shear stress in reducing measurement variability. Methods Five different magnitudes of reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress were applied to 20 healthy, physically active young adults (25.3 ± 0. 6 yrs; 10 men, 10 women by manipulating forearm cuff occlusion duration: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, in a randomized order. A venous blood draw was performed for determination of baseline whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. The magnitude of occlusion-induced forearm ischemia was quantified by dual-wavelength near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS. Brachial artery diameters and velocities were obtained via high-resolution ultrasound. The SSAUC was individually calculated for the duration of time-to-peak dilation. Results One-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated distinct magnitudes of occlusion-induced ischemia (volume and peak, hyperemic shear stress, and peak FMD responses (all p AUC (p = 0.785. Conclusion Our data confirm that normalization of FMD to SSAUC eliminates the influences of variable shear stress and solidifies the utility of FMD:SSAUC ratio as an index of endothelial function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Min Kim
Full Text Available Shear stress activates cellular signaling involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation under interstitial flow are not fully understood. Here, we show the increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under exposure to constant, extremely low shear stress created by osmotic pressure-induced flow in a microfluidic chip. The interstitial level of shear stress in the proposed microfluidic system stimulated nuclear localization of TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, a transcriptional modulator of MSCs, activated TAZ target genes such as CTGF and Cyr61, and induced osteogenic differentiation. TAZ-depleted cells showed defects in shear stress-induced osteogenic differentiation. In shear stress induced cellular signaling, Rho signaling pathway was important forthe nuclear localization of TAZ. Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ is an important mediator of interstitial flow-driven shear stress signaling in osteoblast differentiation of MSCs.
Chen, Yuhang; Schellekens, Michiel; Zhou, Shiwei; Cadman, Joseph; Li, Wei; Appleyard, Richard; Li, Qing
2011-08-01
Tissue scaffolds aim to provide a cell-friendly biomechanical environment for facilitating cell growth. Existing studies have shown significant demands for generating a certain level of wall shear stress (WSS) on scaffold microstructural surfaces for promoting cellular response and attachment efficacy. Recently, its role in shear-induced erosion of polymer scaffold has also drawn increasing attention. This paper proposes a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) approach for design of scaffold microstructure in terms of the WSS uniformity criterion, by downgrading highly-stressed solid elements into fluidic elements and/or upgrading lowly-stressed fluidic elements into solid elements. In addition to this, a computational model is presented to simulate shear-induced erosion process. The effective stiffness and permeability of initial and optimized scaffold microstructures are characterized by the finite element based homogenization technique to quantify the variations of mechanical properties of scaffold during erosion. The illustrative examples show that a uniform WSS is achieved within the optimized scaffold microstructures, and their architectural and biomechanical features are maintained for a longer lifetime during shear-induced erosion process. This study provides a mathematical means to the design optimization of cellular biomaterials in terms of the WSS criterion towards controllable shear-induced erosion.
Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben
1995-01-01
Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...
The contribution of columnar structure to the stress in ER polymeric blends in a shear flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Říha, Pavel; Takimoto, J.; Masubuchi, Y.; Koyama, K.
2002-01-01
Roč. 16, 17-18 (2002), s. 2542-2547 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060003 Keywords : ER liquid polymeric blends * shear flow * contribution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2002
Shear flow generation due to electromagnetic instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.; Sato, M.; Hamaguchi, S.; Miyato, N.
2003-01-01
Shear flow is the most important ingredient governing nonlinear behavior of many types of plasma instability. Electromagnetic effects on shear flow generation have been studied for an electro- magnetic drift wave called resistive drift-Alfven mode (RDAM) and a global MHD mode called resistive wall mode (RWM). For RDAM it is found that the generated shear flow stabilizes the dominant modes; however, other modes are destabilized. For RWM Maxwell stress due to magnetic fluctuations has a tendency to suppress the poloidal flow near the plasma surface, which gives almost same saturation level, since the shear flow stabilization disappears. (author)
Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L
2010-01-01
The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.
Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse
2010-12-01
Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.
2006-01-01
The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)
Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Versluis, Michel; Slump, Cornelis H; Ku, David N; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J
2017-12-01
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a modular endograft has become the preferred treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. A novel concept is endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), consisting of dual endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags. This dual-lumen configuration is different from a bifurcation with a tapered trajectory of the flow lumen into the two limbs and may induce unfavorable flow conditions. These include low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS), linked to atherosclerosis, and high shear rates that may result in thrombosis. An in vitro study was performed to assess the impact of EVAR and EVAS on flow patterns and WSS. Four abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms were constructed, including three stented models, to study the influence of the flow divider on flow (Endurant [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn], AFX [Endologix, Irvine, Calif], and Nellix [Endologix]). Experimental models were tested under physiologic resting conditions, and flow was visualized with laser particle imaging velocimetry, quantified by shear rate, WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) in the suprarenal aorta, renal artery (RA), and common iliac artery. WSS and OSI were comparable for all models in the suprarenal aorta. The RA flow profile in the EVAR models was comparable to the control, but a region of lower WSS was observed on the caudal wall compared with the control. The EVAS model showed a stronger jet flow with a higher shear rate in some regions compared with the other models. Small regions of low WSS and high OSI were found near the distal end of all stents in the common iliac artery compared with the control. Maximum shear rates in each region of interest were well below the pathologic threshold for acute thrombosis. The different stent designs do not influence suprarenal flow. Lower WSS is observed in the caudal wall of the RA after EVAR and a higher shear rate after EVAS. All stented models have a small region of low WSS and high OSI near the distal outflow
Smith, Sahid; Austin, Shawn; Wesson, G Dale; Moore, Carl A
2006-01-01
The onset of coronary heart disease may be governed by distribution and magnitude of hemodynamic shear stress in the coronary arteries. This study numerically examines pulsatile blood flow through the left coronary artery system. A triphasic waveform is employed to simulate pulsating flow. Five non-Newtonian models, as well as the usual Newtonian model, are used to describe the viscous shear-thinning behavior of blood. It is concluded that when using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to numerically investigate blood velocity profiles within small arteries, such the coronary artery system examined in this work, great care should be taken in choosing a blood viscosity model. It is suggested that the generalized power law model be the viscous shear thinning model of choice. When using CFD to investigate only patterns of wall shear stresses, the model selection is not as crucial and the simple Newtonian model will suffice but when the magnitude of WSS is of great importance, as in the case of the determining the development of coronary artery disease, the model selection is key.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang De-Sheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.
Interfacial shear stress and hold-up in an air-water annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukano, T.; Ousaka, A.; Kawakami, Y.; Tominaga, A.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on an experimental investigation that was made into hold-up, frictional pressure drop and interfacial shear stress of an air-water two-phase annular flow in horizontal and vertical up- and downward flows to make clear the effects of tube diameter and flow direction on them. The tube diameters examined are 10mm, 16mm and 26mm. Both the hold-up and the pressure drop considerably changed with time. Especially, the amplitude of the variation of the hold-up was quite larger in comparison with its averaged value in the cause of disturbance wave flow. for the time averaged hold-up and interfacial friction factor, we got new correlations, by which we can estimate them within an accuracy of ±20% and ±30%, respectively, independent of the flow direction and the tube diameter
In vivo shear stress response.
Egginton, Stuart
2011-12-01
EC (endothelial cell) responses to shear stress generated by vascular perfusion play an important role in circulatory homoeostasis, whereas abnormal responses are implicated in vascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. ECs subjected to high shear stress in vitro alter their morphology, function and gene expression. The molecular basis for mechanotransduction of a shear stress signal, and the identity of the sensing mechanisms, remain unclear with many candidates under investigation. Translating these findings in vivo has proved difficult. The role of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) flow-dependent nitric oxide release in remodelling skeletal muscle microcirculation is established for elevated (activity, dilatation) and reduced (overload, ischaemia) shear stress, although their temporal relationship to angiogenesis varies. It is clear that growth factor levels may offer only a permissive environment, and alteration of receptor levels may be a viable therapeutic target. Angiogenesis in vivo appears to be a graded phenomenon, and capillary regression on withdrawal of stimulus may be rapid. Combinations of physiological angiogenic stimuli appear not to be additive.
Flow under standing waves Part 1. Shear stress distribution, energy flux and steady streaming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf
2009-01-01
The conditions for energy flux, momentum flux and the resulting streaming velocity are analysed for standing waves formed in front of a fully reflecting wall. The exchange of energy between the outer wave motion and the near bed oscillatory boundary layer is considered, determining the horizontal...... energy flux inside and outside the boundary layer. The momentum balance, the mean shear stress and the resulting time averaged streaming velocities are determined. For a laminar bed boundary layer the analysis of the wave drift gives results similar to the original work of Longuet-Higgins from 1953...
Duddu, Ravindra
2009-05-01
We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khan, Arshad; ul Karim, Faizan; Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Khan, Dolat
2018-03-01
The present paper aims to report irreversibility analysis in unsteady flow of viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature and arbitrary wall shear stress in the presence of thermal radiation. The equations which governing the problem are solved by the method of Laplace transform. The expression for Bejan number and volumetric entropy generation rate are calculated. The effects of different embedded parameters on the Bejan number and the entropy generation number are elaborated by graphs. It is noted that entropy production in thermal system can be minimized by decreasing thermal radiation. It is also observed that heat transfer increases the entropy of the system.
Mascotte-Cruz, Juan Uriel; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno
2016-01-01
Differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural phenotype has been induced by either flow-induced shear stress (FSS) or electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, procedures are still expensive and time consuming. In the present work, induction for 1 h with the combination of both forces showed the presence of the neural precursor nestin as early as 9 h in culture after treatment and this result lasted for the following 6 d. In conclusion, the use of a combination of FSS and EMF for a short-time renders in neurite-like cells, although further investigation is required to analyze cell functionality.
Choi, Hyo Won; Ferrara, Katherine W; Barakat, Abdul I
2007-04-01
The extracellular presence of the adenine nucleotides ATP and ADP induces calcium mobilization in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface is determined by a balance of convective-diffusive transport to and from the EC surface, hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases at the cell surface, and flow-induced ATP release from ECs. Our previous numerical simulations in a parallel plate geometry had demonstrated that flow-induced ATP release has a profound effect on nucleotide concentration at the EC surface. In the present study, we have extended the modeling to probe the impact of flow separation and recirculation downstream of a backward facing step (BFS) on ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface. The results show that for both steady and pulsatile flow over a wide range of wall shear stresses, the ATP+ADP concentration at the EC surface is considerably lower within the flow recirculation region than in areas of undisturbed flow outside the recirculation zone. Pulsatile flow also leads to sharp temporal gradients in nucleotide concentration. If confirmed experimentally, the present findings suggest that disturbed and undisturbed flow may affect EC calcium mobilization differently. Such differences might, in turn, contribute to the observed endothelial dysfunction in regions of disturbed flow.
Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.
2000-01-01
A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...
Ding, Z; Wang, K; Li, J; Cong, X
2001-12-01
The oscillatory shear index (OSI) was developed based on the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia was correlated with oscillatory shear stresses. However, the validity of the OSI was in question since the correlation between intimal thickness and the OSI at the side walls of the sinus in the Y-shaped model of the average human carotid bifurcation (Y-AHCB) was weak. The objectives of this paper are to examine whether the reason for the weak correlation lies in the deviation in geometry of Y-AHCB from real human carotid bifurcation, and whether this correlation is clearly improved in the tuning-fork-shaped model of the average human carotid bifurcation (TF-AHCB). The geometry of the TF-AHCB model was based on observation and statistical analysis of specimens from 74 cadavers. The flow fields in both models were studied and compared by using flow visualization methods under steady flow conditions and by using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) under pulsatile flow conditions. The TF-shaped geometry leads to a more complex flow field than the Y-shaped geometry. This added complexity includes strengthened helical movements in the sinus, new flow separation zone, and directional changes in the secondary flow patterns. The results show that the OSI-values at the side walls of the sinus in the TF-shaped model were more than two times as large as those in the Y-shaped model. This study confirmed the stronger correlation between the OSI and intimal thickness in the tuning-fork geometry of human carotid bifurcation, and the TF-AHCB model is a significant improvement over the traditional Y-shaped model.
Szupiany, R. N.; Amsler, M. L.; Hernandez, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Fornari, E.; Trento, A.
2012-11-01
Channel bifurcations associated with bars and islands are important nodes in braided rivers and may control flow partitioning and thus affect downstream confluences, as well as the formation and dynamics of bars. However, the morphodynamic processes associated with bar formation are poorly understood, and previous studies have largely concerned laboratory experiments, small natural streams, or numerical analyses with large Froude numbers, high slopes, and low Shields stresses. In these cases, the morphologic changes at bifurcations are relatively rapid, with predominant bed load transport and the suspended load playing a minor role. In this paper, the evolution of the flow structure and suspended bed sediment transport along four expansion-diffluence units in the Rio Paraná, Argentina, are described. The Rio Paraná is a large multichannel river with a bed composed of medium and fine sands and possesses low Froude numbers and high suspended bed material transport. Primary and secondary flow velocity components were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) along the expansion-diffluence units, and the backscatter signal of the ADCP was calibrated to allow simultaneous measurements of suspended bed sediment concentrations. The interactions between these variables show that the cores of primary flow velocity and suspended bed sediment concentration do not necessarily follow the thalweg at the bifurcation and that inertial effects on the suspended bed sediment may influence the morphodynamics of bar formation. It is suggested that changes in flow stage, as well as the presence of vegetation, may further increase the deposition of suspended bed sediment at the bar head. This study suggests that the ratio of suspended bed material to bed load is an important factor controlling the morphodynamics of bifurcations in large sand bed braided rivers.
A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor
Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning
2016-01-01
In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry
[Biomechanic shear stress in carotid arteries and atherosclerosis development].
Kaźmierski, Radosław
2003-01-01
One of the major hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels is shear stress, which is, the friction force between the endothelial cell surface and flowing blood. Arterial shear stress within physiologic range (15-70 dyne/cm2) induces endothelial quiescence and an atheroprotective gene expression profile. Low shear stress ( 70 dyne/cm2) induce prothrombotic state.
Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Corina; Rana, Mehwish
2012-05-01
The unsteady motion of a second grade fluid between two parallel side walls perpendicular to a plate is studied by means of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Initially, the fluid is at rest and at time t = 0+, the plate applies an oscillating shear to the fluid. The solutions that have been obtained, presented under integral and series form and written as a sum between steady time-periodic and transient solutions can be easily reduced to the similar solutions for Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. They describe the motion of the fluid some time after its initiation. After that time, when the transient solutions disappear, the motion of the fluid is described by the steady time-periodic solutions that are independent of the initial conditions. In the absence of side walls, more exactly when the distance between walls tends to infinity, all solutions reduce to those corresponding to the motion over an infinite plate. As it was to be expected, the steady time-periodic solutions corresponding to sine and cosine oscillations of the shear stress on the boundary differ by a phase shift. Finally, the influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the required time to reach the steady periodic flow, as well as the distance between walls for which the velocity of the fluid in the middle of the channel is unaffected by their presence are established by numerical calculus and graphical illustrations. As expected, the time needed to reach the steady periodic flows is lower in the presence of side walls. It is lower for Newtonian fluids in comparison with second grade fluids and greater for sine oscillations in comparison to the cosine oscillations of the boundary shear.
SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...
Blanckaert, K.; Duarte, A.; Schleiss, A. J.
2010-09-01
Boundary shear stress and flow variability due to its interaction with main flow and secondary currents were investigated under conditions that extend previous research on trapezoidal channels. Secondary currents that scale with the flow depth were found over the entire width in all experiments. These findings contradict the widespread perception that secondary currents die out at a distance of 2.5 times the flow depth from the bank, a perception which is largely based on experiments with smooth boundaries. The reported results indicate that a stable pattern of secondary currents over the entire channel width can only be sustained over a fixed horizontal bed if the bed's roughness is sufficient to provide the required transverse oscillations in the turbulent shear stresses. Contrary to laboratory flumes, alluvial river bed always provide sufficient roughness. The required external forcing of this hydrodynamic instability mechanism is provided by the turbulence-generated near-bank secondary currents. The pattern of near-bank secondary currents depends on the inclination and the roughness of the bank. In all configurations, secondary currents result in a reduction of the bed shear stress in the vicinity of the bank and a heterogeneous bank shear stress that reaches a maximum close to the toe of the bank. Moreover, these currents cause transverse variability of 10-15% for the streamwise velocities and 0.2 u*2-0.3 u* 2 for the bed shear stress. These variations are insufficient to provide the flow variability required in river restoration projects, but nevertheless must be accounted for in the design of stable channels.
Huang, Hai-long; Zuo, Qi-hua; Zhou, Yi-ren; Shen, Yu-sheng; Li, Lan-xi
2016-12-01
The present study aims at the design and making of measuring instrument of whole direct method for bed shear stress under two-dimensional water-flow co-action. The instrument combines the traditional strain gauge with a precise pressure gauge, and adopts the method directly measuring the difference between the lateral hydrodynamic pressure and different head pressures on both sides of the force plate. As a result, such an instrument solves a technical puzzle of the past strain gauge, i.e. the difficulty to set apart shear stress and lateral force. Static force test and sink test both prove that the instrument is precise, stable and applicable to the measurement of rough beds with different shear stresses.
Shear stress induced stimulation of mammalian cell metabolism
Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Eskin, S. G.
1988-01-01
A flow apparatus was developed for the study of the metabolic response of anchorage dependent cells to a wide range of steady and pulsatile shear stresses under well controlled conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers were subjected to steady shear stresses of up to 24 dynes/sq cm, and the production of prostacyclin was determined. The onset of flow led to a burst in prostacyclin production which decayed to a long term steady state rate (SSR). The SSR of cells exposed to flow was greater than the basal release level, and increased linearly with increasing shear stress. It is demonstrated that shear stresses in certain ranges may not be detrimental to mammalian cell metabolism. In fact, throughout the range of shear stresses studied, metabolite production is maximized by maximizing shear stress.
SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)
2016-12-10
Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).
Ryschich, Eduard
2015-01-01
The endothelial phenotype of tumor blood vessels differs from the liver and forms an important base for endothelium-specific targeting by antibody-coated nanoparticles. Although differences of shear stress and ligand avidity can modulate the nanoparticle binding to endothelium, these mechanisms are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the binding of antibody-coated nanoparticles to tumor and liver endothelium under controlled flow conditions and verified this binding in tumor models in vivo. Binding of anti-CD146-coated nanoparticles, but not of antibody was significantly reduced under increased wall shear stress and the degree of nanoparticle binding correlated with the avidity of the coating. The intravascular wall shear stress favors nanoparticle binding at the site of higher avidity of endothelial epitope which additionally promotes the selectivity to tumor endothelium. After intravenous application in vivo, pegylated self-coated nanoparticles showed specific binding to tumor endothelium, whereas the nanoparticle binding to the liver endothelium was very low. This study provides a rationale that selective binding of mAb-coated nanoparticles to tumor endothelium is achieved by two factors: higher expression of endothelial epitope and higher nanoparticle shearing from liver endothelium. The combination of endothelial marker targeting and the use of shear stress-controlled nanoparticle capture can be used for selective intratumoral drug delivery. PMID:26503468
Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....
Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson; Crimaldi, John P.
2009-01-01
Entrainment of sediment by flowing water affects topography, habitat suitability, and nutrient cycling in vegetated floodplains and wetlands, impacting ecosystem evolution and the success of restoration projects. Nonetheless, restoration managers lack simple decision-support tools for predicting shear stresses and sediment redistribution potential in different vegetation communities. Using a field-validated numerical model, we developed state-space diagrams that provide these predictions over a range of water-surface slopes, depths, and associated velocities in Everglades ridge and slough vegetation communities. Diminished bed shear stresses and a consequent decrease in bed sediment redistribution are hypothesized causes of a recent reduction in the topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of this ecosystem. Results confirmed the inability of present-day flows to entrain bed sediment. Further, our diagrams showed bed shear stresses to be highly sensitive to emergent vegetation density and water-surface slope but less sensitive to water depth and periphyton or floating vegetation abundance. These findings suggested that instituting a pulsing flow regime could be the most effective means to restore sediment redistribution to the Everglades. However, pulsing flows will not be sufficient to erode sediment from sloughs with abundant spikerush, unless spikerush density first decreases by natural or managed processes. Our methods provide a novel tool for identifying restoration parameters and performance measures in many types of vegetated aquatic environments where sediment erosion and deposition are involved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.
NONLINEAR RHEOLOGY OF POLYMER MELTS UNDER SHEAR-FLOW
Subbotin, A.V.; Semenov, A.N.; Manias, E; Hadziioannou, G; ten Brinke, G.
1995-01-01
The nonlinear theology of an unentangled polymer melt under shear flow is considered theoretically. The finite chain extensibility is taken into account explicitly. The tangential stress and the first and the second normal-stress differences are calculated as a function of shear rate gamma. It is
Meniscal shear stress for punching
Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Meulman, Hubert N.; Herder, Just L.; van Dijk, C. Niek
2009-01-01
Aim: Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Methods: Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available
Szajer, Jeremy; Ho-Shon, Kevin
2018-05-01
4D flow MRI is a relatively quick method for obtaining wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo, a hemodynamic parameter which has shown promise in risk stratification for rupture of cerebrovascular diseases such as intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerotic plaques. The accuracy of such measurements is still largely unknown. To quantify the accuracy of 4D flow MRI-derived wall shear stress values for intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations. We performed a review of all original research articles which compared the magnitudes of WSS derived from 4D flow MRI with corresponding values derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) within both intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations. For intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations, 4D flow MRI-derived WSS estimations are generally lower in magnitude compared to WSS derived by CFD methods. These differences are more pronounced in regions of higher WSS. However, the relative distributions of WSS derived from both methods are reasonably similar. Pooled analysis suggests that WSS magnitudes obtained by 4D flow MRI are underestimated, while the relative distribution is reasonably accurate, the latter being an important factor for determining the natural history of intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular diseases. 4D flow MRI shows enormous potential in providing new risk stratification parameters which could have significant impact on individualized treatment decisions and improved patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement
Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.
2015-01-01
Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation
Shear Stress Sensing using Elastomer Micropillar Arrays
Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Allen M.; Cissoto, Alexxandra; Sheplak, Mark; Connell, John W.
2013-01-01
The measurement of shear stress developed as a fluid moves around a solid body is difficult to measure. Stresses at the fluid-solid interface are very small and the nature of the fluid flow is easily disturbed by introducing sensor components to the interface. To address these challenges, an array of direct and indirect techniques have been investigated with various advantages and challenges. Hot wire sensors and other indirect sensors all protrude significantly into the fluid flow. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, although facilitating very accurate measurements, are not durable, are prone to contamination, and are difficult to implement into existing model geometries. One promising approach is the use of engineered surfaces that interact with fluid flow in a detectable manner. To this end, standard lithographic techniques have been utilized to generate elastomeric micropillar arrays of various lengths and diameters. Micropillars of controlled length and width were generated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer using a soft-lithography technique. The 3D mold for micropillar replication was fabricated using laser ablative micromachining and contact lithography. Micropillar dimensions and mechanical properties were characterized and compared to shear sensing requirements. The results of this characterization as well as shear stress detection techniques will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh
2010-01-01
In investigations of laminar or turbulent flows, wall shear is often important. Nevertheless, conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) is difficult in near-wall regions. A near-wall measurement technique, named interfacial PIV (IPIV) [Nguyen, C., Nguyen, T., Wells, J., Nakayama, A., 2008. Proposals for PIV of near-wall flow over curved boundaries. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics], handles curved boundaries by means of conformal transformation, directly measures the wall gradient, and yields the near-wall tangential velocity profile at one-pixel resolution. In this paper, we show the feasibility of extending IPIV to measure wall gradients by stereo reconstruction. First, we perform a test on synthetic images generated from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) snapshot of turbulent flow over sinusoidal bed. Comparative assessment of wall gradients derived by IPIV, stereo-IPIV and particle image distortion (PID) [Huang, H.T., Fiedler, H.E., Wang, J.J., 1993. Limitation and improvement of PIV. Experiments in Fluids 15(4), 263-273] is evaluated with DNS data. Also, the sensitivity of IPIV and stereo-IPIV results to the uncertainty of identified wall position is examined. As a practical application of IPIV and stereo-IPIV to experimental images, results from turbulent open channel flow over a backward-facing step are discussed in detail.
Stavenschi, Elena; Labour, Marie-Noelle; Hoey, David A
2017-04-11
A potent regulator of bone anabolism is physical loading. However, it is currently unclear whether physical stimuli such as fluid shear within the marrow cavity is sufficient to directly drive the osteogenic lineage commitment of resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Therefore, the objective of the study is to employ a systematic analysis of oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) parameters predicted to occur in vivo on early MSC osteogenic responses and late stage lineage commitment. MSCs were exposed to OFF of 1Pa, 2Pa and 5Pa magnitudes at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz and 2Hz for 1h, 2h and 4h of stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that OFF elicits a positive osteogenic response in MSCs in a shear stress magnitude, frequency, and duration dependent manner that is gene specific. Based on the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers Cox2, Runx2 and Opn after short-term fluid flow stimulation, we identified that a regime of 2Pa shear magnitude and 2Hz frequency induces the most robust and reliable upregulation in osteogenic gene expression. Furthermore, long-term mechanical stimulation utilising this regime, elicits a significant increase in collagen and mineral deposition when compared to static control demonstrating that mechanical stimuli predicted within the marrow is sufficient to directly drive osteogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.
Direct measurements of bed shear stresses (using a shear cell apparatus) generated by non-breaking solitary waves are presented. The measurements were carried out over a smooth bed in laminar and transitional flow regimes (~ 10 sup (4) < R sub (e...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature
Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume
Roberts, Jesse D.; Jepsen, Richard A.
2002-01-01
A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.
Instability of periodic MHD shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaqarashvili, T.V.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J.L.; Belvedere, G.
2004-01-01
The stability of periodic MHD shear flows generated by an external transversal periodic force in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that the temporal behaviour of magnetosonic wave spatial Fourier harmonics in such flows is governed by Mathieu equation. Consequently the harmonics with the half frequency of the shear flows grow exponentially in time. Therefore the periodic shear motions are unstable to the perturbations of compressible magnetosonic waves. The motions represent the kinetic part of the transversal oscillation in magnetized plasma. Therefore due to the instability of periodic shear motions, the transversal oscillations may quickly be damped, so transferring their energy to compressible magnetosonic perturbations
Wall shear stress evolution in carotid artery bifurcation
Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.
2017-07-01
The steady flow in an anatomically realistic human carotid bifurcation was simulated numerically. Main parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity profiles and pressure distributions are investigated in the carotid artery, namely in bifurcation and sinusoidal enlargement regions. Flow in the carotid sinus is dominated by a single secondary vortex motion accompanied by a strong helical flow. This type of flow is induced primarily by the curvature and asymmetry of the in vivo geometry. Low wall shear stress concentration occurs at both the anterior and posterior aspects of the proximal internal bulb.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Hyun Kyu [Div. of Vascular Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ryun Geun; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Jin Kee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence (United States)
2016-12-15
Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is an operation performed to achieve vascular access for hemodialysis. Although RC-AVF is a reliable and well-known method, this technique presents high rates of early failure depending on the vessel condition. These failures are due to blood shear stress around the anastomosis site and the vascular access failure caused by thrombosis secondary to stenosis formation, as well as vascular access reocclusion after percutaneous interventions. In this work, we fabricate in vitro 3D RC-AVF by using polydimethylsiloxane and 3D printing technology to understand the underlying mechanism and predict AVF failure. Micro- Particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) focusing on the cardiac pulse cycle is used to measure the velocity field within the artificial blood vessel. Results are confirmed by numerical simulation. Accordingly, the in vitro AVF model agrees well with the simulations. Overall, this research would provide the future possibility of using the proposed method to reduce in vivo AVF failure for various conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Jau-Wen
2014-01-01
This study investigated the structuring of water molecules in a nanoscale Couette flow with the upper plate subjected to lateral forces with various magnitudes and water slipping against a metal wall. It was found that when the upper plate is subjected to a force, the water body deforms into a parallelepiped. Water molecules in the channel are then gradually arranged into lattice positions, creating a layered structure. The structural arrangement of water molecules is caused by the water molecules accommodating themselves to the increase in energy under the application of a lateral force on the moving plate. The ordering arrangement of water molecules increases the rotational degree of freedom, allowing the molecules to increase their Coulomb potential energy through polar rotation that accounts for the energy input through the upper plate. With a force continuously applied to the upper plate, the water molecules in contact with the upper plate move forward until slip between the water and upper plate occurs. The relation between the structural arrangement of water molecules, slip at the wall, and the shear force is studied. The relation between the slip and the locking/unlocking of water molecules to metal atoms is also studied
Shear stress induces endothelial-To-mesenchymal transition via the transcription factor Snail
Mahmoud, M.M. (Marwa M.); Serbanovic-Canic, J. (Jovana); Feng, S. (Shuang); Souilhol, C. (Celine); Xing, R. (Rouyu); Hsiao, S. (Sarah); Mammoto, A. (Akiko); Chen, J. (Jing); Ariaans, M. (Markus); Francis, S.E. (Sheila E.); K. van der Heiden (Kim); Ridger, V. (Victoria); P.C. Evans (Paul)
2017-01-01
textabstractBlood flow influences atherosclerosis by generating wall shear stress, which alters endothelial cell (EC) physiology. Low shear stress induces dedifferentiation of EC through a process termed endothelial-To-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The mechanisms underlying shear stress-regulation
Michael E. Ursic
2011-01-01
Current guidelines for predicting increases in shear stress in open-channel bends were developed from investigations that were primarily prismatic in cross section. This study provides possible increases in shear stress relative to approach flow conditions resulting from planimetric and topographic geometric features. Boundary shear stress estimates were determined by...
VANKOOTEN, TG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; VANDERMEI, HC; DEKKER, A; KIRKPATRICK, CJ; BUSSCHER, HJ
1994-01-01
In this study, human umbilical vein and human saphenous vein endothelial cells ware seeded on glass and exposed to fluid shear in a parallel-plate flow chamber. cell retention, morphology and migration were studied as a function of shear stress and of adhesion time prior to exposure to shear.
Mesoscale hydrodynamic modeling of a colloid in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow.
Ji, Shichen; Jiang, Run; Winkler, Roland G; Gompper, Gerhard
2011-10-07
In order to study the dynamics of colloidal suspensions with viscoelastic solvents, a simple mesoscopic model of the solvent is required. We propose to extend the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) technique--a particle-based simulation method, which has been successfully applied to study the hydrodynamic behavior of many complex fluids with Newtonian solvent--to shear-thinning viscoelastic solvents. Here, the normal MPC particles are replaced by dumbbells with finite-extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) springs. We have studied the properties of FENE-dumbbell fluids under simple shear flow with shear rate ̇γ. The stress tensor is calculated, and the viscosity η and the first normal-stress coefficient Ψ(1) are obtained. Shear-thinning behavior is found for reduced shear rates Γ= ̇γτ>1, where τ is a characteristic dumbbell relaxation time. Here, both η and Ψ(1) display power-law behavior in the shear-thinning regime. Thus, the FENE-dumbbell fluid with MPC collisions provides a good description of viscoelastic fluids. As a first application, we study the flow behavior of a colloid in a shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid in two dimensions. A slowing down of the colloid rotation in a viscoelastic fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid is obtained, in agreement with recent numerical calculations and experimental results. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?
McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto
2011-11-01
Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).
Kornuta, Jeffrey A.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Gasheva, Olga Y.; Mukherjee, Anish; Zawieja, David C.
2015-01-01
Given the known mechanosensitivity of the lymphatic vasculature, we sought to investigate the effects of dynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on collecting lymphatic vessels while controlling for transmural pressure. Using a previously developed ex vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling both transaxial pressure gradient and average transmural pressure on an isolated lymphatic vessel, we imposed a multitude of flow conditions on rat thoracic ducts, while controlling for transmural pressure and measuring diameter changes. By gradually increasing the imposed flow through a vessel, we determined the WSS at which the vessel first shows sign of contraction inhibition, defining this point as the shear stress sensitivity of the vessel. The shear stress threshold that triggered a contractile response was significantly greater at a transmural pressure of 5 cmH2O (0.97 dyne/cm2) than at 3 cmH2O (0.64 dyne/cm2). While contraction frequency was reduced when a steady WSS was applied, this inhibition was reversed when the applied WSS oscillated, even though the mean wall shear stresses between the conditions were not significantly different. When the applied oscillatory WSS was large enough, flow itself synchronized the lymphatic contractions to the exact frequency of the applied waveform. Both transmural pressure and the rate of change of WSS have significant impacts on the contractile response of lymphatic vessels to flow. Specifically, time-varying shear stress can alter the inhibition of phasic contraction frequency and even coordinate contractions, providing evidence that dynamic shear could play an important role in the contractile function of collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:26333787
Stochastic parametric resonance in shear flows
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F. J. Poulin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Time-periodic shear flows can give rise to Parametric Instability (PI, as in the case of the Mathieu equation (Stoker, 1950; Nayfeh and Mook, 1995. This mechanism results from a resonance between the oscillatory basic state and waves that are superimposed on it. Farrell and Ioannou (1996a, b explain that PI occurs because the snap-shots of the velocity profile are subject to transient growth. If the flows were purely steady the transient growth would subside and not have any long lasting effect. However, the coupling between transient growth and the time variation of the basic state create PI. Mathematically, transient growth, and therefore PI, are due to the nonorthogonal eigenspace in the linearized system. Poulin et al. (2003 studied a time-periodic barotropic shear flow that exhibited PI, and thereby produced mixing at the interface between Potential Vorticity (PV fronts. The instability led to the formation of vortices that were stretched. A later study of an oscillatory current in the Cape Cod Bay illustrated that PI can occur in realistic shear flows (Poulin and Flierl, 2005. These studies assumed that the basic state was periodic with a constant frequency and amplitude. In this work we study a shear flow similar to that found in Poulin et al. (2003, but now where the magnitude of vorticity is a stochastic variable. We determine that in the case of stochastic shear flows the transient growth of perturbations of the snapshots of the basic state still generate PI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poulikakos Dimos
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis
Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow
Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.
2001-03-01
We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.
Liquid Crystals Indicate Directions Of Surface Shear Stresses
Reda, Daniel C.
1996-01-01
Report consisting of main text of U.S. Patent 5,394,752 presents detailed information on one aspect of method of using changes in colors of liquid-crystal coatings to indicate instantaneous directions of flow-induced shear stresses (skin friction) on aerodynamic surfaces.
Swinging of two-domains vesicles in shear flow
Viallat, Annie; Tusch, Simon; Khelloufi, Kamel; Leonetti, Marc
2014-11-01
Giant lipid vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow at low shear rates tank tread (TT) at small viscosity ratio between the inner particle volume and the external fluid, and flip or tumble (T) at large viscosity ratio. The phase diagram of motion of red blood cells is however much more complex. Swinging superimposes to TT, cells wobble and roll rather than tumble with increasing shear rate and present a shear-rate driven transition between TT to T. These features are attributed to the shear elasticity and the non spherical stress-free shape of the cell membrane, which stores shear elastic energy as a function of the relative position of its elements. We have created vesicles with a phase diagram of motion comparable to that of red blood cells by preparing membranes with two lipids and cholesterol. These membranes present two domains separated by a contact line. The line has a tension energy that depends on its relative position on the vesicle. Similarly to red blood cells, two-domains vesicles swing and wobble. An analytical model where line tension energy is added to the Keller and Skalak's model fits our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. Our experiments and model shed light on the motion of deformable particles in shear flow.
Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.
1999-11-01
Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic
The non-monotonic shear-thinning flow of two strongly cohesive concentrated suspensions
Buscall, Richard; Kusuma, Tiara E.; Stickland, Anthony D.; Rubasingha, Sayuri; Scales, Peter J.; Teo, Hui-En; Worrall, Graham L.
2014-01-01
The behaviour in simple shear of two concentrated and strongly cohesive mineral suspensions showing highly non-monotonic flow curves is described. Two rheometric test modes were employed, controlled stress and controlled shear-rate. In controlled stress mode the materials showed runaway flow above a yield stress, which, for one of the suspensions, varied substantially in value and seemingly at random from one run to the next, such that the up flow-curve appeared to be quite irreproducible. Th...
Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.
Tinken, Toni M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopkins, Nicola; Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J
2010-02-01
Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip exercise and across an 8-week period of bilateral handgrip training. Shear stress responses were attenuated in one arm by cuff inflation to 60 mm Hg. Similar increases were observed in grip strength and forearm volume and girth in both limbs. Acute bouts of handgrip exercise increased shear rate (P<0.005) and flow-mediated dilation percentage (P<0.05) in the uncuffed limb, whereas no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Handgrip training increased flow-mediated dilation percentage in the noncuffed limb at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P<0.001), whereas no changes were observed in the cuffed arm. Brachial artery peak reactive hyperemia, an index of resistance artery remodeling, progressively increased with training in the noncuffed limb (P<0.001 and 0.004); no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Neither acute nor chronic shear manipulation during exercise influenced endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced changes in shear provide the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation in flow-mediated endothelial function and vascular remodeling in response to exercise training in healthy humans.
Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.
Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Tinken, T.M.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.
2009-01-01
Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to
Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Gook Tae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Chung, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Eun-Seok; Shim, Eun Bo
2016-11-01
As the stenotic severity of a patient increases, fractional flow reserve (FFR) decreases, whereas the maximum wall shear stress (WSSmax) increases. However, the way in which these values can change according to stenotic severity has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study is to devise a virtual stenosis model to investigate variations in the coronary hemodynamic parameters of patients according to stenotic severity. To simulate coronary hemodynamics, a three-dimensional (3D) coronary artery model of computational fluid dynamics is coupled with a lumped parameter model of the coronary micro-vasculature and venous system. To validate the present method, we first simulated 13 patient-specific models of the coronary arteries and compared the results with those obtained clinically. Then, virtually narrowed coronary arterial models derived from the patient-specific cases were simulated to obtain the WSSmax and FFR values. The variations in FFR and WSSmax against the percentage of diameter stenosis in clinical cases were reproducible by the virtual stenosis models. We also found that the simulated FFR values were linearly correlated with the WSSmax values, but the linear slope varied by patient. We implemented 130 additional virtual models of stenosed coronary arteries based on data from 13 patients and obtained statistically meaningful results that were identical to the large-scale clinical studies. And the slope of the correlation line between FFR and WSSmax may help clinicians to design treatment plans for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of microcapsules in oscillating shear flow
Zhao, Mengye; Bagchi, Prosenjit
2011-11-01
We present a three-dimensional numerical study on the dynamics of deformable capsules in sinusoidally oscillating shear flow. We consider capsules of spherical and oblate spheroid resting shapes. For spherical resting shapes, we find an identical deformation response during positive and negative vorticities. However, the deformation response becomes unequal and shows complex behavior for nonspherical resting shapes. The average elongation is higher in the retarding phase of the shear flow than in the accelerating phase. Primarily two types of dynamics are observed for nonspherical shapes: a clockwise/counter-clockwise swinging motion in response to the altering flow direction that occurs at both high and low values of shear rate amplitudes, and a continuous/unidirectional tumbling motion that occurs at intermediate values. The unidirectional tumbling motion occurs despite the fact that the time-average vorticity is zero. Such a tumbling motion is accompanied by a continuous tank-treading motion of the membrane in the opposite direction. We obtain phase diagram that shows existence of two critical shear rates and two oscillation frequencies. The unidirectional tumbling motion occurs in the intermediate range, and the clockwise/counter-clockwise swinging motion occurs otherwise. We also find that the dynamics is highly sensitive to the initial condition. A swinging is generally observed when the capsule is released aligned with the extensional or compressional axis of the shear flow, and a tumbling is observed otherwise. These results suggest the possibility of chaotic behavior of cells in time-dependent flows. We provide explanations of such complex dynamics by analyzing the coupling between the shape and angular oscillation and the imposed flow oscillation.
Shear-dependant toroidal vortex flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorasani, Nariman Ashrafi; Haghighi, Habib Karimi [Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
Pseudoplastic circular Couette flow in annulus is investigated. The flow viscosity is dependent on the shear rate, which directly affects the conservation equations that are solved in the present study by the spectral method in the present study. The pseudoplastic model adopted here is shown to be a suitable representative of nonlinear fluids. Unlike the previous studies, where only the square of shear rate term in the viscosity expression was considered to ease the numerical manipulations, in the present study takes the term containing the quadratic power into account. The curved streamlines of the circular Couette flow can cause a centrifugal instability leading to toroidal vortices, known as Taylor vortices. It is further found that the critical Taylor number becomes lower as the pseudoplastic effect increases. Comparison with existing measurements on pseudoplastic circular Couette flow results in good agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippo Piatti
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac disease and is a foremost risk factor for aortopathies. Despite the genetic basis of BAV and of the associated aortopathies, BAV-related alterations in aortic fluid-dynamics, and particularly in wall shear stresses (WSSs, likely play a role in the progression of aortopathy, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. To test whether WSS may trigger aortopathy, in this study we used 4D Flow sequences of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR to quantitatively compare the in vivo fluid dynamics in the thoracic aorta of two groups of subjects: (i five prospectively enrolled young patients with normo-functional BAV and with no aortic dilation and (ii ten age-matched healthy volunteers. Through the semi-automated processing of 4D Flow data, the aortic bulk flow at peak systole was quantified, and WSSs acting on the endothelium of the ascending aorta were characterized throughout the systolic phase in terms of magnitude and time-dependency through a method recently developed by our group. Variables computed for each BAV patient were compared vs. the corresponding distribution of values obtained for healthy controls. In BAV patients, ascending aorta diameter was measured on cine-CMR images at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. As compared to controls, normo-functional BAV patients were characterized by minor bulk flow disturbances at peak systole. However, they were characterized by evident alterations of WSS distribution and peak values in the ascending aorta. In particular, in four BAV patients, who were characterized by right-left leaflet fusion, WSS peak values exceeded by 27–46% the 90th percentile of the distribution obtained for healthy volunteers. Only in the BAV patient with right-non-coronary leaflet fusion the same threshold was exceeded by 132%. Also, evident alterations in the time-dependency of WSS magnitude and direction were observed. Despite, these fluid
Red blood cell in simple shear flow
Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long
2013-03-01
The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.
Scardulla, Francesco; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Acquisto, Leonardo; Sciacca, Sergio; Agnese, Valentina; Vergara, Christian; Quarteroni, Alfio; Clemenza, Francesco; Bellavia, Diego; Pilato, Michele
2017-08-01
The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) to treat advanced cardiac heart failure is constantly increasing, although this device leads to high risk for gastrointestinal bleeding. Using in-silico flow analysis, we quantified hemodynamic alterations due to continuous-flow LVAD (HeartWare, Inc., Framingham, MA) in the celiac trunk and major branches of the abdominal aorta, and then explored the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) and celiac trunk orientation. To assess outflow from the aortic branch, a 3-dimensional-printed patient-specific model of the celiac trunk reconstructed from an LVAD-supported patient was used to estimate echocardiographic outflow velocities under continuous-flow conditions, and then to calibrate computational simulations. Moreover, flow pattern and resulting WSS values were computed for 5 patients with LVAD implantation. Peak WSS values were estimated on the 3 branches of the celiac trunk and the LVAD cannula. The mean WSSs demonstrated that the left gastric artery underwent the highest WSS of 9.08 ± 5.45 Pa, with an average flow velocity of 0.57 ± 0.25 m/s compared with that of other vessel districts. The common hepatic artery had a less critical WSS of 4.58 ± 1.77 Pa. A positive correlation was found between the celiac trunk angulation and the WSS stress just distal to the ostium of the celiac trunk (R = 0.9), which may increase vulnerability of this vessel to bleeding. Although further studies are needed to confirm these findings in a larger patient cohort, computational flow simulations may enhance the information of clinical image data and may have an application in clinical investigations of hemodynamic changes in LVAD-supported patients. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Propagation of waves in shear flows
Fabrikant, A L
1998-01-01
The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside
Measurement of cavitation induced wall shear stress
Dijkink, R.J.; Ohl, C.D.
2008-01-01
The wall shear stress from cavitation bubbles collapsing close to a rigid boundary is measured with a constant temperature anemometer. The bubble is created with focused laser light, and its dynamics is observed with high-speed photography. By correlating the frames, a hydrophone signal, and the
Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kajikawa, Masato; Oda, Nozomu; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Hashimoto, Haruki; Aibara, Yoshiki; Yusoff, Farina Mohamad; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Goto, Chikara; Hida, Eisuke; Higashi, Yukihito
2017-12-29
Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery has been used for the assessment of endothelial function. Considering the mechanism underlying the vasodilatory response of the brachial artery to reactive hyperemia, hyperemic shear stress (HSS), a stimulus for FMD; nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (NID), an index of endothelium-independent vasodilation; and baseline brachial artery diameter (BAD) are also involved in vasodilatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among FMD, HSS, NID, baseline BAD, and cardiovascular risk factors. We measured FMD, HSS, NID, and baseline BAD simultaneously in 1033 participants (633 men and 400 women; mean age: 58.6±17.0 years). Framingham risk score was negatively correlated with FMD, HSS, and NID and was positively correlated with baseline BAD. HSS and NID were positively correlated with FMD, and baseline BAD was negatively correlated with FMD. In participants with normal NID, FMD was correlated with HSS, NID, and baseline BAD, all of which were independent variables of FMD in multivariate analysis. In participants with impaired NID, FMD was correlated with NID and baseline BAD, both of which were independent variables of FMD in multivariate analysis, but there was no association between FMD and HSS. NID and baseline BAD were independent variables of FMD regardless of the status of endothelium-independent vasodilation, whereas there was a significant association between FMD and HSS in participants with normal NID but not in those with impaired NID. The influence of HSS on FMD seems to be dependent on the status of endothelium-independent vasodilation. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Optimization of multiplane ?PIV for wall shear stress and wall topography characterization
Rossi, M.; Lindken, R.; Westerweel, J.
2009-01-01
Multiplane ?PIV can be utilized to determine the wall shear stress and wall topology from the measured flow over a structured surface. A theoretical model was developed to predict the measurement error for the surface topography and shear stress, based on a theoretical analysis of the precision in
Flow stress model in metal cutting
Black, J. T.
1978-01-01
A model for the plastic deformation that occurs in metal cutting, based on dislocation mechanics, is presented. The model explains the fundamental deformation structure that develops during machining and is based on the well known Cottrell-Stokes Law, wherein the flow stress is partitioned into two parts; an athermal part which occurs in the shear fronts (or shear bands); and a thermal part which occurs in the lamella regions. The deformation envokes the presence of a cellular dislocation distribution which always exists in the material ahead of the shear process. This 'alien' dislocation distribution either exists in the metal prior to cutting or is produced by the compressive stress field which operates in front of the shear process. The magnitude of the flow stress and direction of the shear are shown to be correlated to the stacking fault energy of the metal being cut. The model is tested with respect to energy consumption rates and found to be consistent with observed values.
Friction velocity estimation using Reynolds shear stress profile data
Volino, Ralph; Schultz, Michael
2017-11-01
A method for using profiles of the mean streamwise velocity and the Reynolds shear stress to estimate the friction velocity, uτ, is presented. The Reynolds averaged two-dimensional streamwise momentum equation is solved for the Reynolds shear stress term. The remaining terms in the equation are separated into those which depend on the local gradient of the mean streamwise velocity profile and those which do not. Using only the terms retained with the Couette flow assumption, the Reynolds shear stress profile can be matched in the inner 10 percent of the boundary layer with the appropriate choice of uτ. Including the other terms which do not depend on the streamwise velocity profile gradient, the fit can be extended to the inner 30 percent of the boundary layer. Using all terms the full Reynolds shear stress profile can be fit. The method is verified using laminar solutions for zero and non-zero pressure gradient boundary layers, and with ZPG turbulent DNS results. It is then applied to zero, favorable and adverse pressure gradient experimental data from smooth and rough walls. Results obtained for local friction velocities agree well with those obtained by other techniques. The method may prove useful when other methods are not practical or fully appropriate. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.
Limiting shear stress and monotonic properties of liquid water
Gorshkov, A. I.
2016-12-01
Publications in scientific journals in which the authors attempt to experimentally prove that water, the most widespread substance on the Earth, is not a completely classical liquid, have become more frequent recently. This means, first, that water behaves as a solid at very low shear stress, i.e., does not flow, and, second, that the temperature dependences of its different properties are non-monotonic, i.e., possess singularities. We are aware of several such publications [1-5].
A yield criterion based on mean shear stress
Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.
2014-01-01
This work investigates the relation between shear stress and plastic yield considering that a crystal can only deform in a limited set of directions. The shear stress in arbitrary directions is mapped for some cases showing relevant differences. Yield loci based on mean shear stress are con-
Nonlinear evolution of layered stratified shear flows
Lee, Victoria; Caulfield, Colm-Cille
2000-11-01
We investigate numerically and theoretically the nonlinear evolution of a parallel shear flow at moderate Reynolds number which has embedded within it a mixed layer of intermediate fluid. Linear stability theory predicts that such flows are unstable to stationary vortical disturbances which are a generalization of an inviscid instability first considered by G. I. Taylor. We investigate the behaviour of these Taylor modes at finite amplitude through numerical simulations. Through considering the long-time evolution of such flows, we investigate how secondary instabilities, and the layered background density profile, affect merging between neighbouring Taylor billows, and alter the irreversible mixing of the background stratification as the flow undergoes transition to small-scale disorder.
Tank-treading of swollen erythrocytes in shear flows
Dodson, W. R., III; Dimitrakopoulos, P.
2012-02-01
In this paper, we investigate computationally the oscillatory tank-treading motion of healthy swollen human erythrocytes (owing to lower than physiological plasma osmolarity) in shear flows with capillary number Ca=O(1) and small to moderate viscosity ratios 0.01≤λ≤2.75. Swollen cells show similar shear flow dynamics with normal cells but with significantly higher inclination and tank-treading speed owing to the higher cell thickness. For a given viscosity ratio, as the flow rate increases, the steady-state erythrocyte length L (in the shear plane) increases logarithmically while its depth W (normal to the shear plane) decreases logarithmically; increase of the viscosity ratio results in lower cell deformation. The erythrocyte width S, which exists in the shear plane, is practically invariant in time, flow rate, and viscosity ratio and corresponds to a real cell thickness of about 2.5μm at physiological osmolarity (300mO) and 3.4μm at an osmolarity of 217 mO. The erythrocyte inclination decreases as the flow rate increases or as the surrounding fluid viscosity decreases, owing to the increased inner rotational flow which tends to align the cell toward the flow direction. The ektacytometry deformation of swollen cells increases logarithmically with the shear stress but with a slower slope than that for normal cells owing mainly to the higher orientation of the more swollen cells. As the cell swelling increases, the tank-treading period decreases owing to the higher thickness of the actual cell which overcomes the opposite action of the reduced shape-memory effects (i.e., the more spherical-like erythrocyte's reference shape of shearing resistance). The local area incompressibility tensions from the lipid bilayer increase with the cell swelling and cause a higher cytoskeleton prestress; this increased prestress results in smaller, but still measurable, local area changes on the spectrin skeleton of the more swollen erythrocytes. Our work provides insight on
Characteristics of the response of the iliac artery to wall shear stress in the anaesthetized pig.
Kelly, R F; Snow, H M
2007-07-15
The functional significance of shear stress-induced vasodilatation in large conduit arteries is unclear since changes in the diameter have little effect on the resistance to blood flow. However, changes in diameter have a relatively large effect on wall shear stress which suggests that the function of flow-mediated dilatation is to reduce wall shear stress. The mean and pulsatile components of shear stress vary widely throughout the arterial system and areas of low mean and high amplitude of wall shear stress are prone to the development of atheroma. In this study, using an in vivo model with the ability to control flow rate and amplitude of flow independently, we investigated the characteristics of the response of the iliac artery to variations in both the mean and amplitude of wall shear stress. The results of this study confirm that increases in mean wall shear stress are an important stimulus for the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium as indicated by changes in arterial diameter and show for the first time, in vivo, that increases in the amplitude of the pulsatile component of shear stress have a small but significant inhibitory effect on this response. A negative feedback mechanism was identified whereby increases in shear stress brought about by increases in blood flow are reduced by the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium causing dilatation of the artery, thus decreasing the stimulus to cell adhesion and, through a direct action of nitric oxide, inhibiting the process of cell adhesion. The results also provide an explanation for the uneven distribution of atheroma throughout the arterial system, which is related to the ratio of pulsatile to mean shear stress and consequent variability in the production of NO.
Effect of shear stress on the migration of hepatic stellate cells.
Sera, Toshihiro; Sumii, Tateki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Kudo, Susumu
2018-01-01
When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can change into an activated, highly migratory state. The migration of HSCs may be affected by shear stress due not only to sinusoidal flow but also by the flow in the space of Disse because this space is filled with blood plasma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of shear stress on HSC migration in a scratch-wound assay with a parallel flow chamber. At regions upstream of the wound area, the migration was inhibited by 0.6 Pa and promoted by 2.0 Pa shear stress, compared to the static condition. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB receptor, PDGFR-β, was expressed in all conditions and the differences were not significant. PDGF increased HSC migration, except at 0.6 Pa shear stress, which was still inhibited. These results indicate that another molecular factor, such as PDGFR-α, may act to inhibit the migration under low shear stress. At regions downstream of the wound area, the migration was smaller under shear stress than under the static condition, although the expression of PDGFR-β was significantly higher. In particular, the migration direction was opposite to the wound area under high shear stress; therefore, migration might be influenced by the intercellular environment. Our results indicate that HSC migration was influenced by shear stress intensity and the intercellular environment.
Ascuitto, Robert; Ross-Ascuitto, Nancy; Guillot, Martin; Celestin, Carey
2017-09-01
Central (aorta) and Sano (right ventricle)-to-pulmonary artery (PA) shunts, palliative operations for infants with complex heart defects, can develop life-threatening thrombosis. We employed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study pulsatile flow in these shunts, with the goal to identify haemodynamic characteristics conducive to thrombus formation. CFD, using the finite volume method with cardiac catheterization data, and computer simulations, based on angiography, were employed to determine flow-velocity field, wall shear stress (WSS) profile and oscillatory shear index (OSI). At prominent angulation, in central shunts (4 and 3.5 mm), WSS reached 245 and 123 (Pascal-Pa), peak systole and 137 and 46 Pa, end diastole; and, in Sano shunts (5 and 6 mm), WSS attained 203 and 133 Pa, peak systole and 1.6 and 1.5 Pa, end diastole. Counter-rotating flow vortices augmented WSS. These high WSSs can promote platelet aggregation, leading to thrombus formation. The OSIs averaged 0.39, indicative of multidirectional shearing forces. Shunt burden was assessed by averaging WSS, over its luminal area and the cardiac cycle. For the central shunts, these WSSs were 73.0 and 67.2 Pa; whereas, for the Sano shunts, 34.9 and 19.6 Pa. For modified Blalock-Taussig shunts (4 and 3.5 mm), the averaged WSSs were significantly lower at 26.0 and 27.5 Pa, respectively. CFD modelling is an important tool to determine blood flow behaviour in shunts. Graft angulation presents a risk for shear stress-induced, platelet- mediated thrombosis, which is more likely to occur in elongated central than in Sano shunts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow
Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.
2017-10-01
To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.
The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.
2010-01-01
In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.
Analysis of Shear Stress and Energy Consumption in a Tubular Airlift Membrane System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Berube, P.R.
2011-01-01
Application of a two-phase slug flow in side-stream membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has proven to increase the permeate flux and decrease fouling through a better control of the cake layer. Past literature has shown that the hydrodynamics near the membrane surface have an impact on the degree...... of fouling by imposing high shear stress near the surface of the membrane. Previously, shear stress histograms (SSH) have been introduced to summarize results from an experimental setup developed to investigate the shear stress imposed on the surface of a membrane under different two-phase flow conditions...... (gas and liquid) by varying the flow of each phase. Bimodal SSHs were observed, with peaks corresponding to the shear induced by the liquid and gas flow respectively. In this contribution, SSHs are modelled using simple empirical relationships. These are used to identify the two-phase flow conditions...
Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress
Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.
2015-01-01
Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505
Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.
Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao
2016-10-01
We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Computational analysis of integrated biosensing and shear flow in a microfluidic vascular model
Wong, Jeremy F.; Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.
2017-11-01
Fluid flow and flow-induced shear stress are critical components of the vascular microenvironment commonly studied using microfluidic cell culture models. Microfluidic vascular models mimicking the physiological microenvironment also offer great potential for incorporating on-chip biomolecular detection. In spite of this potential, however, there are few examples of such functionality. Detection of biomolecules released by cells under flow-induced shear stress is a significant challenge due to severe sample dilution caused by the fluid flow used to generate the shear stress, frequently to the extent where the analyte is no longer detectable. In this work, we developed a computational model of a vascular microfluidic cell culture model that integrates physiological shear flow and on-chip monitoring of cell-secreted factors. Applicable to multilayer device configurations, the computational model was applied to a bilayer configuration, which has been used in numerous cell culture applications including vascular models. Guidelines were established that allow cells to be subjected to a wide range of physiological shear stress while ensuring optimal rapid transport of analyte to the biosensor surface and minimized biosensor response times. These guidelines therefore enable the development of microfluidic vascular models that integrate cell-secreted factor detection while addressing flow constraints imposed by physiological shear stress. Ultimately, this work will result in the addition of valuable functionality to microfluidic cell culture models that further fulfill their potential as labs-on-chips.
Formulating the shear stress distribution in circular open channels based on the Renyi entropy
Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein
2018-01-01
The principle of maximum entropy is employed to derive the shear stress distribution by maximizing the Renyi entropy subject to some constraints and by assuming that dimensionless shear stress is a random variable. A Renyi entropy-based equation can be used to model the shear stress distribution along the entire wetted perimeter of circular channels and circular channels with flat beds and deposited sediments. A wide range of experimental results for 12 hydraulic conditions with different Froude numbers (0.375 to 1.71) and flow depths (20.3 to 201.5 mm) were used to validate the derived shear stress distribution. For circular channels, model performance enhanced with increasing flow depth (mean relative error (RE) of 0.0414) and only deteriorated slightly at the greatest flow depth (RE of 0.0573). For circular channels with flat beds, the Renyi entropy model predicted the shear stress distribution well at lower sediment depth. The Renyi entropy model results were also compared with Shannon entropy model results. Both models performed well for circular channels, but for circular channels with flat beds the Renyi entropy model displayed superior performance in estimating the shear stress distribution. The Renyi entropy model was highly precise and predicted the shear stress distribution in a circular channel with RE of 0.0480 and in a circular channel with a flat bed with RE of 0.0488.
Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow
Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian
2013-05-01
Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.
Shear flow stabilization of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Shumlak, U.; Douglas, M.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Ruden, E.
1997-01-01
Numerical simulations have indicated that shear flow may help stabilize the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding plasma z-pinches. A simple extension to a model presented in Chandrasekhar has been developed to study the linear stability of incompressible plasma subjected to both a shear flow and acceleration. The model has been used to investigate the stability plasma implosion schemes using externally imposed velocity shear which develops from the plasma flow itself. Specific parameters were chosen to represent plasma implosions driven by the Saturn and PBFA-Z, pulsed power generators at Sandia National Laboratories. Results indicate a high shear is necessary to stabilize the z-pinch implosions studied
Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow
Hayes, Keesha A.
2010-05-11
Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Effect of tip clearance on wall shear stress of an axial LVAD
Sarath, S.; Vikas, R.
2017-09-01
Wall shear stress is a crucial parameter used for blood damage analysis, and typically a value of 400 Pa is set as a limit. Tip clearance is a major factor contributing to hemolysis and pump efficiency. In this study, different tip gap configurations are used to analyse the wall shear stress developed on the blade surface of a constant thickness blade design, and a varying thickness blade design using CFD analysis. It was found that, for a particular geometry, as the clearance gap reduces, flow rate over the high wall shear stress area decreases even though the high wall shear stress span is found to extend. For each design, the optimum clearance gap is iteratively attained, keeping the maximum WSS as a limiting factor. Thus a better pump designs is obtained, whose leakage flow patterns are lower than that of the initial design, hence also leading to higher pump efficiency.
On Howard's conjecture in heterogeneous shear flow problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Howard's conjecture, which states that in the linear instability problem of inviscid heterogeneous parallel shear flow growth rate of an arbitrary unstable wave must approach zero as the wave length decreases to zero, is established in a mathematically rigorous fashion for plane parallel heterogeneous shear flows ...
Molecularly based criteria for shear banding in transient flow of entangled polymeric fluids.
Mohagheghi, Mouge; Khomami, Bamin
2016-06-01
Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of polymeric melts in a start-up of shear flow as a function of ramp time to its steady state value is studied. Herein, we report the molecular findings showing the effect of ramp time on the formation of shear banded structures and chain relaxation behavior. Specifically, it is shown that shear banding emerges at a rapid start-up; however, homogeneous shear prevails when the deformation rate ramp time is sufficiently slow. This finding is in full consistency with prior continuum level linear stability analysis of shear banding in start-up of shear flows as well as experimental observations of entangled DNA and polymer solutions. Further, it has been revealed that the ratio of the longest chain orientation relaxation time to that of the time for the imposed deformation rate to reach its steady state value plays a central role in determining whether local strain inhomogeneities that lead to the formation of shear banded flow structures are created. In addition, we have shown that the gradient of the number of entanglements along the velocity gradient direction should reach a critical value for the creation of localized strain inhomogeneity. Moreover, the relation between the local process leading to shear banded flows and the relaxation mechanism of the chain is discussed. Overall, a molecular picture for the interrelation between the longest chain orientation and stress relaxation time, local inhomogeneities, and shear banding has been proposed and corroborated with extensive analysis.
Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.
Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L
2017-12-15
This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Nature's rheologists: Lymphatic endothelial cells control migration in response to shear stress
Fuller, Gerald; Dunn, Alex; Surya, Vinay
2015-03-01
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels and are sensitive to fluid flow as part of their physiological function. EC organization, migration and vessel development are profoundly influenced by shear stresses, with important implications in cardiovascular disease and tumor metastasis. How ECs sense fluid flow is a central and unanswered question in cardiovascular biology. We developed a high-throughput live-cell flow chamber that models the gradients in wall shear stress experienced by ECs in vivo. Live-cell imaging allows us to probe cellular responses to flow, most notably EC migration, which has a key role in vessel remodeling. We find that most EC subtypes, including ECs from the venous, arterial, and microvascular systems, migrate in the flow direction. In contrast, human lymphatic microvascular ECs (hLMVECs) migrate against flow and up spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Further experiments reveal that hLMVECs are sensitive to the magnitude, direction, and the local spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Lastly, recent efforts have aimed to link this directional migration to spatial gradients in cell-mediated small molecule emission that may be linked to the gradient in wall shear stress.
Theory of sheared flow generation by applied radio frequency waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.
1999-01-01
The possibility of employing rf to generate sheared flows in the edge plasma is of great interest as a means of accessing improved regimes of tokamak confinement. Here, we develop an electromagnetic nonlinear eikonal theory (with k perpendicular ρ∼1 and k/k unrestricted) of the rf force terms which drive poloidal flow. Various cancellations, e.g., amongst parts of the electromagnetic and Reynolds stress terms, are exhibited analytically. At the heart of our calculation is the derivation of the nonlinear kinetic pressure tensor Π. A general expression for Π is obtained in terms of simple moments of the linear distribution function. In the electrostatic limit, the resulting nonlinear forces are expressible entirely in terms of the linear dielectric susceptibility tensor χ. Application to the ion Bernstein wave case, with retention of all Bessel function sums, is presented. Comparison is made to simpler approximate calculations
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-07-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment
Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.
Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; Tinken, Toni M; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J
2009-06-01
Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear on endothelial function in vivo. On 3 separate days, we examined bilateral brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men (24+/-3 years) before and after a 30-minute intervention consisting of cuff inflation to 25, 50, or 75 mm Hg. Cuff inflations resulted in "dose"-dependent increases in retrograde shear rate, compared with the noncuffed arm, within subjects (P<0.001). Flow-mediated dilation in the cuffed arm did not change in response to the 25-mm Hg stimulus but decreased significantly after both the 50- and 75-mm Hg interventions (P<0.05). The decrease in flow-mediated dilation after the 75-mm Hg intervention was significantly larger than that observed after a 50-mm Hg intervention (P=0.03). In the noncuffed arm, no changes in shear rate or flow-mediated dilation were observed. These results demonstrate that an increase in retrograde shear rate induces a dose-dependent attenuation of endothelial function in humans. This finding contributes to our understanding regarding the possible detrimental effects of retrograde shear rate in vivo.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, G.
1996-01-01
stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...
Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan
2004-01-01
In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...
Methodology for calculating shear stress in a meandering channel
Kyung-Seop Sin
2010-01-01
Shear stress in meandering channels is the key parameter to predict bank erosion and bend migration. A representative study reach of the Rio Grande River in central New Mexico has been modeled in the Hydraulics Laboratory at CSU. To determine the shear stress distribution in a meandering channel, the large scale (1:12) physical modeling study was conducted in the...
Study on the Critical Shear Stress of Cohesive Sediments
Zheng, Fei-dong; An, Jian-feng
2017-12-01
Since the measurements of bulk property parameters of cohesive sediments can be done easily, it is useful to relate the critical shear stress of cohesive sediments to some of these parameters. In this paper, data from two experiments are reanalysed and the dependence of the critical shear stress on bulk density, clay solid content and clay volume content is highlighted. The results from Sharif demonstrate the critical shear stress as a function of bulk density and clay solid content, while that from Kothyari and Jain indicate that the critical shear stress depends on both the clay solid content and clay volume content of cohesive sediments in the presence of gravel and air. Moreover, it is concluded a critical clay solid content exists around 18%, beyond which the critical shear stress increases rapidly with the increase of bulk density.
Brachial artery adaptation to lower limb exercise training: role of shear stress.
Birk, Gurpreet K; Dawson, Ellen A; Atkinson, Ceri; Haynes, Andrew; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J
2012-05-01
Lower limb exercise increases upper limb conduit artery blood flow and shear stress, and leg exercise training can enhance upper limb vascular function. We therefore examined the contribution of shear stress to changes in vascular function in the nonexercising upper limbs in response to lower limb cycling exercise training. Initially, five male subjects underwent bilateral brachial artery duplex ultrasound to measure blood flow and shear responses to 30-min cycling exercise at 80% of maximal heart rate. Responses in one forearm were significantly (P 0.05) across the 8-wk intervention period. Our data suggest that lower limb cycle training induces a transient increase in upper limb vascular function in healthy young humans, which is, at least partly, mediated via shear stress.
Fluxes and energy dissapation in thermal convection and shear flows
Eckhardt, B.; Grossmann, S.; Lohse, Detlef
2007-01-01
We expose analogies between turbulence in a fluid heated from below (Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) flow) and shear flows: The unifying theory for RB flow (see Grossmann S. and Lohse D., J. Fluid Mech., 407 (2000) 27 and subsequent refinements) can be extended to the flow between rotating cylinders
The fundamental difference between shear alpha viscosity and turbulent magnetorotational stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations of turbulent, magnetized, differentially rotating flows driven by the magnetorotational instability are often used to calculate the effective values of alpha viscosity that is invoked in analytical models of accretion discs. In this paper we use various dynamical models...... of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic stresses, as well as numerical simulations of shearing boxes, to show that angular momentum transport in MRI-driven accretion discs cannot be described by the standard model for shear viscosity. In particular, we demonstrate that turbulent magnetorotational stresses...... are not linearly proportional to the local shear and vanish identically for angular velocity profiles that increase outwards....
Vescovi, Dalila; Berzi, Diego; Richard, Patrick; Brodu, Nicolas
2014-01-01
International audience; We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed av...
Arterial shear stress reduces eph-b4 expression in adult human veins.
Model, Lynn S; Hall, Michael R; Wong, Daniel J; Muto, Akihito; Kondo, Yuka; Ziegler, Kenneth R; Feigel, Amanda; Quint, Clay; Niklason, Laura; Dardik, Alan
2014-09-01
Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment is characterized by loss of venous identity, with reduced Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (Eph-B4) expression but without increased Ephrin-B2 expression. We examined changes of vessel identity of human saphenous veins in a flow circuit in which shear stress could be precisely controlled. Medium circulated at arterial or venous magnitudes of laminar shear stress for 24 hours; histologic, protein, and RNA analyses of vein segments were performed. Vein endothelium remained viable and functional, with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-expressing cells on the luminal surface. Venous Eph-B4 expression diminished (p = .002), Ephrin-B2 expression was not induced (p = .268), and expression of osteopontin (p = .002) was increased with exposure to arterial magnitudes of shear stress. Similar changes were not found in veins placed under venous flow or static conditions. These data show that human saphenous veins remain viable during ex vivo application of shear stress in a bioreactor, without loss of the venous endothelium. Arterial magnitudes of shear stress cause loss of venous identity without gain of arterial identity in human veins perfused ex vivo. Shear stress alone, without immunologic or hormonal influence, is capable of inducing changes in vessel identity and, specifically, loss of venous identity.
Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.
Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang
2013-10-04
We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.
Jin, Suo; Yang, Yan; Oshinski, John; Tannenbaum, Allen; Gruden, James; Giddens, Don
2013-01-01
Computed tomography (CT) slices are combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the flow patterns in a human left coronary artery. The vascular model was reconstructed from CT slices scanned from a healthy volunteer in vivo. The spatial resolution of the slices is 0.6×0.6×0.625 mm so that geometrical details of the local wall surface of the vessel could be considered in the CFD modeling. This level of resolution is needed to investigate the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution, a factor generally recognized as a related to the atherogenesis. The WSS distributions on the main trunk and bifurcation of the left coronary artery of the model in one cardiac cycle are presented, and the results demonstrate that low and oscillating WSS is correlative with clinical observations of the atherosclerotic-prone sites in the left coronary artery. PMID:17271120
Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.
1994-04-01
The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models
[Exercise-induced shear stress: Physiological basis and clinical impact].
Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Romero, Fernando; Saavedra, María Javiera
2016-01-01
The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms. These mechanisms allow providing the physiological basis for the effects of exercise on vascular health. In this review it is discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular response induced by shear stress and its impact in reversing vascular injury associated with the most prevalent cardiovascular disease in our population. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osorio, O D; Silin, N
2011-01-01
The purpose of this work is to present the construction and characterization of a wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases made with MEMS technology. For this purpose, several associated devices were used, including a constant temperature feedback bridge and a shear stress calibration device that allows the sensor performance evaluation. The sensor design adopted here is simple, economical and is manufactured on a flexible substrate allowing its application to curved surfaces. Stationary and transient wall shear stress tests were carried on by means of the calibration device, determining its performance for different conditions.
The Dynamic Behavior of a Concentrated Non-Brownian Glass Fiber Suspension in Simple Shear Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Baird, Donald; Ortman, Kevin; Velez, Gregorio; Wapperom, Peter
2008-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a concentrated short glass fiber suspension subject to simple shear flow is investigated. In particular we are interested in determining the relationship between the stress growth functions (shear and first normal stress difference) and the fiber microstructure within the sample. Stress growth experiments, in start up of flow, are performed on a Rheometrics Mechanical Spectrometer (RMS-800) using a novel approach which deforms the sample in a homogeneous shear field. The 3D fiber orientation is characterized using confocal laser microscopy and experimental results are compared to predictions based on the generalized Jeffery equation. It is found that the theory over predicts the rate at which the fiber orientation evolves
Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng's equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve.
Instability of streaks in pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids.
López Carranza, S N; Jenny, M; Nouar, C
2013-08-01
This study is motivated by recent experimental results dealing with the transition to turbulence in a pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids, where a streaky flow with an azimuthal wave number n=1 is observed in the transitional regime. Here, a linear stability analysis of pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids modulated azimuthally by finite amplitude streaks is performed. The shear-thinning behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. The streaky base flows considered are obtained from two-dimensional direct numerical simulation using finite amplitude longitudinal rolls as the initial condition and by extracting the velocity field at time t(max), where the amplitude of the streaks reaches its maximum, denoted by A(max). It is found that the amplitude A(max) increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing amplitude E(0) of the initial longitudinal rolls. For sufficiently large streaks amplitude, streamwise velocity profiles develop inflection points, leading to instabilities. Depending on the threshold amplitude A(c), two different modes may trigger the instability of the streaks. If A(c) exceeds approximately 41.5% of the centerline velocity, the instability mode is located near the axis of the pipe, i.e., it is a "center mode." For weaker amplitude A(c), the instability mode is located near the pipe wall, in the region of highest wall normal shear, i.e., it is a "wall mode." The threshold amplitude A(c) decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. The energy equation analysis indicates that (i) wall modes are driven mainly by the work of the Reynolds stress against the wall normal shear and (ii) for center modes, the contribution of the normal wall shear remains dominant; however, it is noted that the contribution of the Reynolds stress against the azimuthal shear increases with increasing shear-thinning effects.
Instability of streaks in pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids
López Carranza, S. N.; Jenny, M.; Nouar, C.
2013-08-01
This study is motivated by recent experimental results dealing with the transition to turbulence in a pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids, where a streaky flow with an azimuthal wave number n=1 is observed in the transitional regime. Here, a linear stability analysis of pipe flow of shear-thinning fluids modulated azimuthally by finite amplitude streaks is performed. The shear-thinning behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. The streaky base flows considered are obtained from two-dimensional direct numerical simulation using finite amplitude longitudinal rolls as the initial condition and by extracting the velocity field at time tmax, where the amplitude of the streaks reaches its maximum, denoted by Amax. It is found that the amplitude Amax increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing amplitude E0 of the initial longitudinal rolls. For sufficiently large streaks amplitude, streamwise velocity profiles develop inflection points, leading to instabilities. Depending on the threshold amplitude Ac, two different modes may trigger the instability of the streaks. If Ac exceeds approximately 41.5% of the centerline velocity, the instability mode is located near the axis of the pipe, i.e., it is a “center mode.” For weaker amplitude Ac, the instability mode is located near the pipe wall, in the region of highest wall normal shear, i.e., it is a “wall mode.” The threshold amplitude Ac decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. The energy equation analysis indicates that (i) wall modes are driven mainly by the work of the Reynolds stress against the wall normal shear and (ii) for center modes, the contribution of the normal wall shear remains dominant; however, it is noted that the contribution of the Reynolds stress against the azimuthal shear increases with increasing shear-thinning effects.
Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity
Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.
Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.
Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam
2013-04-01
The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.
Experimental investigation of single small bubble motion in linear shear flow in water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhongchun, E-mail: zhongchun.lee@gmail.com [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Chengdu 610041 (China); Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhao, Yang [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Song, Xiaoming [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yu, Hongxing [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory, Chengdu 610041 (China); Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Jiang, Shengyao [Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-08-15
Highlights: • The bubble motion in simple linear shear flow was experimentally investigated. • The bubble trajectories, bubble velocity and drag and lift force were obtained using image process routine. • The bubble trajectory was coupled with a zigzag motion and incline path. • The lift force was kept negative and it decreased when bubble diameter and shear flow magnitude increased. - Abstract: The motion of small bubble in a simple shear flow in water was experimental studied. Stable shear flow with low turbulence level was achieved with curved screen and measured using LDV. The bubbles were captured by high speed camera and the captured images were processed with digital image routine. The bubble was released from a capillary tube. The instantaneous bubble position, bubble velocity and forces were obtained based on the captured parameters. The quasi-steady lift coefficient was determined by the linear fitting of the bubble trajectory of several cycles. The results indicated that the lateral migration was coupled with the zigzag motion of bubble in the present experiment. The bubble migrated to the left side and its quasi-steady lift coefficient was negative. Good repeatable results were observed by measurements of 18 bubbles. The bubble motion in shear flow in water was first experimental studied and negative lift force was observed in the present study condition. The lift coefficient decreased when shear stress magnitude or bubble diameter increased in the present experiment condition.
Shear Stress Inhibits Apoptosis of Ischemic Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiafeng Shen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available As a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke, to restore or increase cerebral blood flow (CBF is the most fundamental option. Laminar shear stress (LS, as an important force generated by CBF, mainly acts on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. In order to study whether LS was a protective factor in stroke, we investigated LS-intervented ischemic apoptosis of rat BMECs (rBMECs through PE Annexin V/7-AAD, JC-1 and Hoechst 33258 staining to observe the membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear dysfunction. Real-time PCR and western blot were also used to test the gene and protein expressions of Tie-2, Bcl-2 and Akt, which were respectively related to maintain membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear norm. The results showed that LS could be a helpful stimulus for ischemic rBMECs survival. Simultaneously, membranous, mitochondrial and nuclear regulation played an important role in this process.
Shear flow influences the twitching motility of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Shen, Yi; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Siryaporn, Albert; Gitai, Zemer; Stone, Howard
2011-03-01
Twitching motility is one of the mechanisms by which bacteria can spread on surfaces and is important in the process of biofilm formation. Flow is often involved in biofilm formation, for instance when bacteria contaminate medical devices or water systems. We have studied the twitching mobility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in straight microfluidic channels under laminar shear flow at low Reynolds number. We tracked all the bacteria adhering and moving on the immersed glass surface. We observed that upon applying a flow, a significant fraction of bacteria started to twitch, and that many twitched upstream, opposite to the flow direction. By measuring the displacement and residence time of the bacteria staying on the surface, we found that the flow not only tuned the direction of twitching by orienting bacteria, but also that the shear rate significantly influenced the fraction of bacteria moving upstream, with an optimal shear rate about 500 s -1 . Princeton University MAE Complex fluids group.
Laboratory investigation of nonlinear flow characteristics in rough fractures during shear process
Rong, Guan; Yang, Jie; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Chuangbing
2016-10-01
To understand the influence of shear behavior on the transporting properties of fluid through a single fracture, splitting fractures were made in the laboratory and shear flow tests were carried out under constant normal load conditions. The applied normal stress is in the range of 0.5-3.0 MPa. Before the physical test, the fracture's morphology is measured for identification of the roughness. At each shear step, we performed 5-8 high precise hydraulic tests with different hydraulic gradient. The relationship between pressure gradient and volume flow rate demonstrates to be nonlinear and fits very well with Forchheimer's and Izbash's laws. The linear and nonlinear coefficients in Forchheimer's law are quite sensitive to shear deformation (closure or dilation), experienced 1-2 and 1-3 orders of magnitude reduction during shear, respectively. An empirical equation is proposed to quantify the relationship between linear coefficient and nonlinear coefficient based on the experimental observations. The two coefficients in Izbash's law are quantified. The m value is in the range between 1.06 and 1.41 and the λ value experiences a reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude during shear. In addition, the studied critical Reynolds number exhibits a decreasing and increasing variation corresponding to shear contraction and shear dilation of rock fracture. For all the cases in this study, the critical Reynolds number ranges between 1.5 and 13.0.
Shear Stress Drives Local Variation in Invertebrate Drift in a Large River
Muehlbauer, J. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.
2013-12-01
Recent advances in physical stream flow measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have yielded important insights in hydrology and geomorphology related to discharge and processes such as bed sediment incipient motion. These measurements also have underappreciated potential for use in ecological studies. For example, invertebrate drift, or the downstream transport of benthic-derived invertebrates, is a fundamental process in streams and rivers: it is both critical to the maintenance of benthic invertebrate populations and provides a key mechanism of resource delivery to drift-feeding fishes. However, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the factors that drive spatial variation in invertebrate drift, particularly in large rivers. While laboratory studies in flumes have demonstrated the importance of shear stress in initiating invertebrate drift (similar to studies of bed sediment critical shear stress in fluvial geomorphology), field-based evaluations of the relationship between shear stress and drift would be beneficial. Such field studies, however, are rare. Here, we evaluate the relationship between localized shear stress (N/m2) and invertebrate drift concentrations (#/m3) for the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (steady discharge of 228 m3/s during study). Invertebrate drift was quantified at 25 stations throughout the 25 km long Glen Canyon tailwater segment. We link these drift measurements to empirical measurements of water column shear stress derived from ADCP data, taken at the location of each drift sample and 250 m upstream of each drift sampling location (50 total profiles). Invertebrate drift concentrations varied strongly throughout the 25 km reach, and much of this variation can be explained by localized differences in shear stress. Species composition in the drift also varied with shear stress, suggesting that shear stress exerts a differential control on drift initiation for individual taxa. These results
Dynamics of a self-diffusiophoretic particle in shear flow.
Frankel, Alexandra E; Khair, Aditya S
2014-07-01
Colloidal particles can achieve autonomous motion by a number of physicochemical mechanisms. For instance, if a spherical particle acts as a catalyst with an asymmetric surface reactivity, a molecular solute concentration gradient will develop in the surrounding fluid that can propel the particle via self-diffusiophoresis. Theoretical analyses of self-diffusiophoresis have mostly been considered in quiescent fluid, where the solute concentration is usually assumed to evolve solely via diffusion. In practical applications, however, self-propelled colloidal particles can be expected to reside in flowing fluids. Here, we examine the role of ambient flow on self-diffusiophoresis by quantifying the dynamics of a model Janus particle in a simple shear flow. The imposed flow can distort the self-generated solute concentration gradient. The extent of this distortion is quantified by a Peclet number, Pe, associated with the shear flow. Utilizing matched asymptotic analysis, we determine the concentration gradient surrounding a Janus particle in shear flow at a small, but finite, Peclet number and the resulting particle motion. For example, when the symmetry axis of the particle is aligned with the imposed flow, the Janus particle experiences an O(Pe) cross-streamline drift and an O(Pe(3/2)) reduction in translational velocity along the flow direction. We then analyze the in-plane trajectory of the Janus particle in shear. We find that the particle performs elliptical orbits around its initial position in the flow, which decrease in size with increasing Pe.
Shear induced formation of lubrication layers of negative normal stress gels.
Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Doi, Masao
2017-09-27
Many biopolymer gels generate negative normal stress, with which the polymer networks shrink in the normal of applied shear. Here we theoretically predict the sliding velocity of such a gel on a solid surface when a constant shear stress is applied to the gel. Our theory predicts that the negative normal stress drives the flow of the solvent in the gel and this produces a solvent layer between the gel and the surface. The sliding velocity of the gel is proportional to the thickness of the solvent layer and is a cubic function of the applied shear stress. With constant applied normal and shear stresses, the thickness of the solvent layer is a non-monotonic function of time with a maximum because the solvent flow from the gel to the solvent layer is dominant in the short time scale and the solvent flow from the solvent layer to the outside is dominant in a longer time scale. The maximum layer thickness depends on the ratio of the time scales of the solvent flow in the gel and in the solvent layer.
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.
2014-01-01
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
2014-05-15
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.
Snijkers, F.
2016-03-31
We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.
Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
temporary network formed by the fibres, their entangle- ment etc. The structural density is also a function of vol- ume fraction of reinforcing fibres (Amari et al 1992). The complex flow pattern encountered during moulding/ stamping are generally far from simple steady or oscilla- tory shear flow. Therefore, it is important to ...
Multi-Scale Investigation of Sheared Flows In Magnetized Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edward, Jr., Thomas [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States)
2014-09-19
Flows parallel and perpendicular to magnetic fields in a plasma are important phenomena in many areas of plasma science research. The presence of these spatially inhomogeneous flows is often associated with the stability of the plasma. In fusion plasmas, these sheared flows can be stabilizing while in space plasmas, these sheared flows can be destabilizing. Because of this, there is broad interest in understanding the coupling between plasma stability and plasma flows. This research project has engaged in a study of the plasma response to spatially inhomogeneous plasma flows using three different experimental devices: the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) and the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) stellarator devices at Auburn University, and the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber (SPSC) at the Naval Research Laboratory. This work has shown that there is a commonality of the plasma response to sheared flows across a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic field geometries. The goal of this multi-device, multi-scale project is to understand how sheared flows established by the same underlying physical mechanisms lead to different plasma responses in fusion, laboratory, and space plasmas.
Effect of Particle Size on Shear Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiranjit Sarkar
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetorheological fluids (MRF, known for their variable shear stress contain magnetisable micrometer-sized particles (few micrometer to 200 micrometers in a nonmagnetic carrier liquid. To avoid settling of particles, smaller sized (3-10 micrometers particles are preferred, while larger sized particles can be used in MR brakes, MR clutches, etc. as mechanical stirring action in those mechanisms does not allow particles to settle down. Ideally larger sized particles provide higher shear stress compared to smaller sized particles. However there is need to explore the effect of particle sizes on the shear stress. In the current paper, a comparison of different particle sizes on MR effect has been presented. Particle size distributions of iron particles were measured using HORIBA Laser Scattering Particle Size Distribution Analyser. The particle size distribution, mean sizes and standard deviations have been presented. The nature of particle shapes has been observed using scanning electron microscopy. To explore the effect of particle sizes, nine MR fluids containing small, large and mixed sized carbonyl iron particles have been synthesized. Three concentrations (9%, 18% and 36% by volume for each size of particles have been used. The shear stresses of those MRF samples have been measured using ANTON PAAR MCR-102 Rheometer. With increase in volume fraction of iron particles, the MR fluids synthesized using “mixed sized particles” show better shear stress compared to the MR fluids containing “smaller sized spherical shaped particles” and “larger sized flaked shaped particles” at higher shear rate.
Structure parameter of electrorheological fluids in shear flow.
Jiang, Jile; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang
2011-05-17
A structure parameter, Sn = η(c)γ/τ(E), is proposed to represent the increase of effective viscosity due to the introduction of particles into a viscous liquid and to analyze the shear behavior of electrorheological (ER) fluids. Sn can divide the shear curves of ER fluids, τ/E(2) versus Sn, into three regimes, with two critical values Sn(c) of about 10(-4) and 10(-2), respectively. The two critical Sn(c) are applicable to ER fluids with different particle volume fractions φ in a wide range of shear rate γ and electric field E. When Sn fluids is mainly dominated by E and by shear rate when Sn > 10(-2). The electric current of ER fluids under E varied with shear stress in the same or the opposite trend in different shear rate ranges. Sn(c) also separates the conductivity variation of ER fluids into three regimes, corresponding to different structure evolutions. The change of Sn with particle volume fraction and E has also been discussed. The shear thickening in ER fluids can be characterized by Sn(c)(L) and Sn(c)(H) with a critical value about 10(-6). As an analogy to friction, the correspondence between τ/E(2) and friction coefficient, Sn and bearing numbers, as well as the similarity between the shear curve of ER fluids and the Stribeck curve of friction, indicate a possible friction origin in ER effect.
Phase separating colloid polymer mixtures in shear flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Derks, Didi; Imhof, Arnout [Soft Condensed Matter, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarts, Dirk G A L [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Bonn, Daniel [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: didi.derks@lps.ens.fr
2008-10-08
We study the process of phase separation of colloid polymer mixtures in the (spinodal) two-phase region of the phase diagram in shear flow. We use a counter-rotating shear cell and image the system by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. The system is quenched from an initially almost homogeneous state at very high (200 s{sup -1}) shear rate to a low shear rate {gamma}-dot. A spinodal decomposition pattern is observed. Initially, the characteristic length scale increases linearly with time. As the structure coarsens, the shear imposes a certain length scale on the structure and a clear asymmetry develops. The domains become highly stretched along the flow direction, and the domain width along the vorticity axis reaches a stationary size, which scales as approx. {gamma}-do{sup -0.35}. Furthermore, on quenching from an intermediate (6.7 s{sup -1}) to a low shear rate the elongated structures become Rayleigh unstable and break up into smaller droplets. Still, the system eventually reaches the same steady state as was found from a direct high to low shear rate quench through coarsening.
Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center
1997-08-01
Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R
2003-01-01
Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.
Critical bed shear stress and threshold of motion of maerl biogenic gravel
Joshi, Siddhi; Duffy, Garret Patrick; Brown, Colin
2017-07-01
A determination of the critical bed shear stress of maerl is a prerequisite for quantifying its mobility, rate of erosion and deposition in conservation management. The critical bed shear stress for incipient motion has been determined for the first time for samples from biogenic free-living maerl beds in three contrasting environments (open marine, intertidal and beach) in Galway Bay, west of Ireland. The bed shear stress was determined using two methods, Law of the Wall and Turbulent Kinetic Energy, in a rotating annular flume and in a linear flume. The velocity profile of flowing water above a bed of natural maerl grains was measured in four runs of progressively increasing flow velocity until the flow exceeded the critical shear stress of grains on the bed. The critical Shields parameter and the mobility number are estimated and compared with the equivalent curves for natural quartz sand. The critical Shields parameters for the maerl particles from all three environments fall below the Shields curve. Along with a previously reported correlation between maerl grain shape and settling velocity, these results suggest that the highly irregular shapes also allow maerl grains to be mobilised more easily than quartz grains with the same sieve diameter. The intertidal beds with the roughest particles exhibit the greatest critical shear stress because the particle thalli interlock and resist entrainment. In samples with a high percentage of maerl and low percentage of siliciclastic sand, the lower density, lower settling velocity and lower critical bed shear stress of maerl results in its preferential transport over the siliciclastic sediment. At velocities ∼10 cm s-1 higher than the threshold velocity of grain motion, rarely-documented subaqueous maerl dunes formed in the annular flume.
Exploring the Role of Shear Stress and Severe Turbulence in Downstream Fish Passage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cada, G.; Carlson, T.; Ferguson, J.; Richmond, M.; Sale, M.
1999-07-06
Fish may be exposed to damaging levels of fluid shear stress and turbulence while passing through hydroelectric power plants. The generally assumed locations for such potential damage are the turbine and draft tube passages, although it is possible that fish are also injured during passage over the spillway or through sluiceways and fish bypass outfalls. Unless mitigated, fluid-induced injuries and mortality could frustrate efforts to develop advanced, fish-friendly turbines or to provide safe alternate downstream passages. The effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties in conceptualizing these phenomena, determining their magnitudes and distribution within hydroelectric systems, and then recreating them in a controlled laboratory environment. We define the fluid phenomena that are relevant to the assessment of effects on fish. The magnitudes of fluid stresses associated with man-altered aquatic environments are often considerably higher than those found in natural environments (e.g., normal river flows). However, levels of shear stresses that occur during flash floods appear to be comparable to those expected within a turbine. Past studies of the effects of shear stress on fish are of limited value, mainly because of their narrow scope and lack of instrumentation to measure velocities on appropriately small scales. A laboratory experiment to study the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish is described.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Thomas, Scott
2000-01-01
.... A computer model was developed using a finite difference solution which finds the mean velocity, Poiseuille number, and volumetric flow rate in terms of the groove geometry, meniscus contact angle...
Critical shear stress produced by interaction of edge dislocation with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
According to the Mott and Nabarro's model, the contribution to the critical shear stress of the material caused by the interaction between edge dislocations and nanoscale cylindrical inhomogeneities with interface stresses is obtained. The influence of the radius and the volume fraction of the inhomogeneity as well as the ...
Statistics on Near Wall Structures and Shear Stress Distribution from 3D Holographic Measurement.
Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.
2007-11-01
Digital Holographic Microscopy performs 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. Resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50) is sufficient for resolving buffer layer and lower log layer structures, and for measuring instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the viscous sublayer. Results, based on 700 instantaneous realizations, provide detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall stress components along with characteristic flow structures. Conditional sampling based on maxima and minima of wall shear stresses, as well as examination of instantaneous flow structures, lead to development of a conceptual model for a characteristic flow phenomenon that seems to generating extreme stress events. This structure develops as an initially spanwise vortex element rises away from the surface, due to local disturbance, causing a local stress minimum. Due to increasing velocity with elevation, this element bends downstream, forming a pair of inclined streamwise vortices, aligned at 45^0 to freestream, with ejection-like flow between them. Entrainment of high streamwise momentum on the outer sides of this vortex pair generates streamwise shear stress maxima, 70 δν downstream, which are displaced laterally by 35 δν from the local minimum.
Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.
1990-11-01
The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs
Effect of sheared flows on neoclassical tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.; Chandra, D.; Kaw, P.; Bora, M.P.; Kruger, S.; Ramos, J.
2005-01-01
The influence of toroidal sheared equilibrium flows on the nonlinear evolution of classical and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is studied through numerical solutions of a set of reduced generalized MHD equations that include viscous force effects based on neoclassical closures. In general, differential flow is found to have a strong stabilizing influence leading to lower saturated island widths for the classical (m/n = 2/1) mode and reduced growth rates for the (m/n = 3/1) neoclassical mode. Velocity shear on the other hand is seen to make a destabilizing contribution. An analytic model calculation, consisting of a generalized Rutherford island evolution equation that includes shear flow effects is also presented and the numerical results are discussed in the context of this model. (author)
Effects of shear flow on phase nucleation and crystallization
Mura, Federica; Zaccone, Alessio
2016-04-01
Classical nucleation theory offers a good framework for understanding the common features of new phase formation processes in metastable homogeneous media at rest. However, nucleation processes in liquids are ubiquitously affected by hydrodynamic flow, and there is no satisfactory understanding of whether shear promotes or slows down the nucleation process. We developed a classical nucleation theory for sheared systems starting from the molecular level of the Becker-Doering master kinetic equation and we analytically derived a closed-form expression for the nucleation rate. The theory accounts for the effect of flow-mediated transport of molecules to the nucleus of the new phase, as well as for the mechanical deformation imparted to the nucleus by the flow field. The competition between flow-induced molecular transport, which accelerates nucleation, and flow-induced nucleus straining, which lowers the nucleation rate by increasing the nucleation energy barrier, gives rise to a marked nonmonotonic dependence of the nucleation rate on the shear rate. The theory predicts an optimal shear rate at which the nucleation rate is one order of magnitude larger than in the absence of flow.
Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bengtsson Hans-Uno
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.
Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adoua, S.R.
2007-07-01
This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)
Xu, Guoxiang; Li, Pengfei; Cao, Qingnan; Hu, Qingxian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Du, Baoshuai
2018-03-01
The present study aims to develop a unified three dimensional numerical model for fiber laser+GMAW hybrid welding, which is used to study the fluid flow phenomena in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy and the influence of laser power on weld pool dynamic behavior. This model takes into account the coupling of gas, liquid and metal phases. Laser heat input is described using a cone heat source model with changing peak power density, its height being determined based on the keyhole size. Arc heat input is modeled as a double ellipsoid heat source. The arc plasma flow and droplet transfer are simulated through the two simplified models. The temperature and velocity fields for different laser powers are calculated. The computed results are in general agreement with the experimental data. Both the peak and average values of fluid flow velocity during hybrid welding are much higher than those of GMAW. At a low level of laser power, both the arc force and droplet impingement force play a relatively large role on fluid flow in the hybrid welding. Keyhole depth always oscillates within a range. With an increase in laser power, the weld pool behavior becomes more complex. An anti-clockwise vortex is generated and the stability of keyhole depth is improved. Besides, the effects of laser power on different driving forces of fluid flow in weld pool are also discussed.
Shear Stress Sensing with Elastic Microfence Structures
Cisotto, Alexxandra; Palmieri, Frank L.; Saini, Aditya; Lin, Yi; Thurman, Christopher S; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Taeyang; Connell, John W.; Zhu, Yong; Gopalarathnam, Ashok;
2015-01-01
In this work, elastic microfences were generated for the purpose of measuring shear forces acting on a wind tunnel model. The microfences were fabricated in a two part process involving laser ablation patterning to generate a template in a polymer film followed by soft lithography with a two-part silicone. Incorporation of a fluorescent dye was demonstrated as a method to enhance contrast between the sensing elements and the substrate. Sensing elements consisted of multiple microfences prepared at different orientations to enable determination of both shear force and directionality. Microfence arrays were integrated into an optical microscope with sub-micrometer resolution. Initial experiments were conducted on a flat plate wind tunnel model. Both image stabilization algorithms and digital image correlation were utilized to determine the amount of fence deflection as a result of airflow. Initial free jet experiments indicated that the microfences could be readily displaced and this displacement was recorded through the microscope.
Effect of Particle Size on Shear Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids
Chiranjit Sarkar; Harish Hirani
2015-01-01
Magnetorheological fluids (MRF), known for their variable shear stress contain magnetisable micrometer-sized particles (few micrometer to 200 micrometers) in a nonmagnetic carrier liquid. To avoid settling of particles, smaller sized (3-10 micrometers) particles are preferred, while larger sized particles can be used in MR brakes, MR clutches, etc. as mechanical stirring action in those mechanisms does not allow particles to settle down. Ideally larger sized particles provide higher shear str...
Hendrikson, W.J.; Deegan, A.J.; Yang, Y; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Verdonschot, N.J.; Moroni, L.; Rouwkema, J.
2017-01-01
Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical
Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph S Uzarski
Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuhrmann, Alexander; Engler, Adam J
2015-01-01
Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disk chamber or ‘spinning disk’ in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling. (paper)
Energy Consumption Related to Shear Stress for Membrane Bioreactors Used for Wastewater Treatment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Bérube, P.R.
2011-01-01
The main drawback of membrane bioreactors (MBR) systems is the fouling of the membrane, which is decrease and/or prevented through gas sparging. However, gas sparging practices are based on rules of thumb or a trial-and-error approaches which are tedious, very timeconsuming, do not necessarily...... provide optimal fouling control and they are not energy efficient. Therefore, dedicated experiments are needed to fully understand the hydrodynamics of this two-phase flow. Two types of submerged MBRs were studied: 1) Hollow Fiber (HF) and 2) Hollow Sheet (HS). For the first case, experimental shear...... stress measurements and CFD simulation were made. It was found that the average shear stress over the membrane surface from the CFD model is similar compared to experimental data (error less than 8 %). However, some differences in the distribution of shear stress throughout the submerged MBR system were...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Formato
2007-03-01
Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.
Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten; Garnaes, Joergen; Rantanen, Jukka
2014-11-20
Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements at small consolidation stresses were investigated. For this purpose, three grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. Results showed that powder flow properties depend strongly on the consolidation during testing. The consolidation during discharge in terms of the major principal stress and wall normal stress were approximately 200 Pa and 114 Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress resolution. This will allow the accuracy, precision and applicability of the shear test to be improved for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Foley
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.
Discrete element simulation studies of angles of repose and shear flow of wet, flexible fibers.
Guo, Y; Wassgren, C; Ketterhagen, W; Hancock, B; Curtis, J
2018-04-18
A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate. This Bond number reflects the relative importance of the liquid-bridge force to the particle's inertial force, with a larger Bond number leading to a larger agglomerate. As the fiber aspect ratio (AR) increases, the size of the largest agglomerate increases, while the coordination number in the largest agglomerate initially decreases and then increases when the AR is greater than four. A larger agglomerate with a larger coordination number is more likely to form for more flexible fibers with a smaller bond elastic modulus due to better connectivity between the more flexible fibers. Liquid viscous force resists pulling of liquid bridges and separation of contacting fibers, and therefore it facilitates larger agglomerate formation. The effect of liquid viscous force is more significant at larger shear strain rates. The solid-phase shear stress is increased due to the presence of liquid bridges in moderately dense flows. As the solid volume fraction increases, the effect of fiber-fiber friction coefficient increases sharply. When the solid volume fraction approaches the maximum packing density, the fiber-fiber friction coefficient can be a more dominant factor than the liquid bridge force in determining the solid-phase shear stress.
Zhou, Hui; Meng, Long; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Lin; Xia, Xiangxiang; Li, Shuai; Zheng, Hairong; Niu, Lili
2017-07-29
Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h). Ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to calculate the velocity profile and shear stress distribution in the carotid stenosis phantoms. Inlet/outlet boundary conditions used in CFD were extracted from Echo PIV experiments to make sure that the results were comparable. Echo PIV and CFD results showed that velocity was largest in 70% than those in 30 and 50% at peak systole. Echo PIV results indicated that shear stress was larger in the upper wall and the surface of plaque than in the center of vessel. CFD results demonstrated that wall shear stress in the upstream was larger than in downstream of plaque. There was no significant difference in average velocity obtained by CFD and Echo PIV in 30% (p = 0.25). Velocities measured by CFD in 50% (93.01 cm/s) and in 70% (115.07 cm/s) were larger than those by Echo PIV in 50% (60.26 ± 5.36 cm/s) and in 70% (89.11 ± 7.21 cm/s). The results suggested that Echo PIV and CFD could obtain hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Higher WSS occurred in narrower arteries, and the shoulder of plaque bore higher WSS than in bottom part.
Shear Layer Dynamics in Resonating Cavity Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ukeiley, Lawrence
2004-01-01
.... The PIV data was also combined with the surface pressure measurements through the application of the Quadratic Stochastic Estimation procedure to provide time resolved snapshots of the flow field. Examination of these results indicate the strong pumping action of the cavity regardless of whether resonance existed and was used to visualize the large scale structures interacting with the aft wall.
Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q.; Kishimoto, Y.
1995-03-01
From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory
Coupling of damped and growing modes in unstable shear flow
Fraser, A. E.; Terry, P. W.; Zweibel, E. G.; Pueschel, M. J.
2017-06-01
Analysis of the saturation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is undertaken to determine the extent to which the conjugate linearly stable mode plays a role. For a piecewise-continuous mean flow profile with constant shear in a fixed layer, it is shown that the stable mode is nonlinearly excited, providing an injection-scale sink of the fluctuation energy similar to what has been found for gyroradius-scale drift-wave turbulence. Quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the stable mode to the energy balance at the onset of saturation shows that nonlinear energy transfer to the stable mode is as significant as energy transfer to small scales in balancing energy injected into the spectrum by the instability. The effect of the stable mode on momentum transport is quantified by expressing the Reynolds stress in terms of stable and unstable mode amplitudes at saturation, from which it is found that the stable mode can produce a sizable reduction in the momentum flux.
The Effect of a Shear Flow on the Uptake of LDL and Ac-LDL by Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells
Niwa, Koichi; Karino, Takeshi
The effects of a shear flow on the uptake of fluorescence-labeled low-density lipoprotein (DiI-LDL), acetylated LDL (DiI-Ac-LDL), and lucifer yellow (LY; a tracer of fluid-phase endocytosis) by cultured bovine aortic ECs were studied using a rotating-disk shearing apparatus. It was found that 2hours’ exposure of ECs to a laminar shear flow that imposed ECs an area-mean shear stress of 10dynes/cm2 caused an increase in the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY. By contrast, the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL was decreased by exposure of the ECs to a shear flow. Addition of dextran sulfate (DS), a competitive inhibitor of scavenger receptors, reversed the effect of a shear flow on the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, resulting in an increase by the imposition of a shear flow, while the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY remained unaffected. It was concluded that a shear flow promotes the endocytosis of DiI-LDL and LY by ECs, but suppresses the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL by ECs by inhibiting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow
Giacomin, A. J.; Gilbert, P. H.; Schmalzer, A. M.
2015-01-01
In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of the polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics). We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i) nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ˙0 is above unity), (ii) nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ˙0 exceed unity), and (iii) linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ˙0 approaches zero). We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion. PMID:26798789
Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Giacomin
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of the polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics. We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ̇0 is above unity, (ii nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ̇0 exceed unity, and (iii linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ̇0 approaches zero. We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion.
On Howard's conjecture in heterogeneous shear flow problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
This conjecture of Howard has also drawn the attention of researchers. Banerjee et al [1] were able to validate the correctness of this conjecture for the special case of inviscid homogeneous parallel shear flows. Their approach consisted of combining the governing equations and boundary conditions in an innovative way ...
Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow
Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao
2011-01-01
Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the
Ion waves driven by shear flow in a relativistic degenerate ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 5. Ion waves driven by shear flow in a relativistic degenerate ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...
Strain stiffening and stress heterogeneities in sheared collagen networks
Urbach, Jeffrey
2014-03-01
Disordered networks of stiff or semi-flexible filaments display unusual mechanical properties, including dramatic stiffening when sheared, but little is known about the spatial distribution of stresses. This talk will introduce the technique of Boundary Stress Microscopy, which adapts the approach of traction force microscopy to rheological measurements in order to quantify the non-uniform surface stresses in sheared soft materials. Our results on networks of the biopolymer collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix, show stress variations over length scales much larger than the network mesh size. We find that the heterogeneity increases with strain stiffening, with stresses at high strains exceeding average stresses by an order of magnitude. The strain stiffening behavior over a wide range of mesh sizes can be parameterized by a single characteristic strain and associated stress, which describes both the strain stiffening regime and network yielding. The characteristic stress is approximately proportional to network density, but the peak stress at both the characteristic strain and at yielding are remarkably insensitive to concentration. These results show the power of Boundary Stress Microscopy to reveal the nature of stress propagation in disordered soft materials, which is critical for understanding many important mechanical properties, including the ultimate strength of a material and the nature of appropriate microscopic constitutive equations. Supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0473) and the NSF (DMR-0804782).
Formation of turbulent structures and the link to fluctuation driven sheared flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Windisch, T; Grulke, O; Naulin, Volker
2011-01-01
The formation of turbulent structures in weakly developed drift-wave turbulence is investigated using experimental data obtained in a linear laboratory device. The findings are compared with fully non-linear numerical simulation results. The formation of structures occurs in a region, in which...... the divergence of the Reynolds stress, which is one term in the momentum balance, has a maximum. The generation of a time-averaged shear layer is not observed, but for transient events the shearing rate can become sufficiently strong to decorrelate the fluctuations. This happens when the energy flow...
Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows
Restrepo, Juan M.; Moulton, Derek E.; Uys, Hermann
2011-03-01
We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on local rearrangements, which are in turn a response to complex background topography; and dispersive bars, which are created when an initially isolated mound of sand evolves into a train of sand ripples. Of these, the most amenable to analysis are the precessive bars. For precession bars, we find that the skin depth, which is the nondimensionalized mean-field transport rate, grows exponentially as a function of the shear velocity. From this, we arrive at an analytical expression that approximates the precession speed of the bars as a function of shear velocity. We use this to obtain a formula for sediment transport rate. However, in intense flows, the bars can get large engendering boundary layer separation, leading to a different dynamic for bar formation and evolution. Numerical flow calculations over an experimentally obtained set of precessive bars are presented and show that classical parametrizations of mass flux in terms of bottom gradients have shortcomings. Within the range of shear rates considered, a quantity that does not change appreciably in time is the aspect ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the average bar amplitude, with respect to a mean depth, to the average bar length.
Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow
Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun
2016-11-01
We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.
Effect of Wall Shear Stress on Corrosion Inhibitor Film Performance
Canto Maya, Christian M.
In oil and gas production, internal corrosion of pipelines causes the highest incidence of recurring failures. Ensuring the integrity of ageing pipeline infrastructure is an increasingly important requirement. One of the most widely applied methods to reduce internal corrosion rates is the continuous injection of chemicals in very small quantities, called corrosion inhibitors. These chemical substances form thin films at the pipeline internal surface that reduce the magnitude of the cathodic and/or anodic reactions. However, the efficacy of such corrosion inhibitor films can be reduced by different factors such as multiphase flow, due to enhanced shear stress and mass transfer effects, loss of inhibitor due to adsorption on other interfaces such as solid particles, bubbles and droplets entrained by the bulk phase, and due to chemical interaction with other incompatible substances present in the stream. The first part of the present project investigated the electrochemical behavior of two organic corrosion inhibitors (a TOFA/DETA imidazolinium, and an alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), with and without an inorganic salt (sodium thiosulfate), and the resulting enhancement. The second part of the work explored the performance of corrosion inhibitor under multiphase (gas/liquid, solid/liquid) flow. The effect of gas/liquid multiphase flow was investigated using small and large scale apparatus. The small scale tests were conducted using a glass cell and a submersed jet impingement attachment with three different hydrodynamic patterns (water jet, CO 2 bubbles impact, and water vapor cavitation). The large scale experiments were conducted applying different flow loops (hilly terrain and standing slug systems). Measurements of weight loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and adsorption mass (using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, EQCM) were used to quantify the effect of wall shear stress on the performance and integrity of corrosion inhibitor
Effect of simple shear flow on photosynthesis rate and morphology of micro algae
Mitsuhashi, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Muramatsu, H.; Tanishita, K.
The convective motion of micro algal suspension gives an advantageous effect on the photosynthetic rate in the bioreactor, however, the nature of convective effect on the photosynthesis has not been fully understood. The propose of this study concerns the nature of photosynthetic rate in a well-defined hydrodynamic shear flow of Spirulina platensis suspension, generated in a double rotating coaxial cylinders. The double rotating coaxial cylinders was installed in the incubator chamber with the controlled illumination intensity and temperature. Two kind of experiments, short and long term experiments, were performed to evaluate the direct effect of shear flow on the photosynthetic rate. The short term experiment indicates that the simple shear flow enables to augment the photosynthesis of Spirulina suspension and simultaneously causes the cell destruction due to the excessive shear stress. The long term experiment for 100 hours reveals that the growth rate and the morphology of Spirulina is sensitive to the external fluid mechanical stimulus. The long term application of mechanical stress on the algae may result in the adaptation of the photosynthetic function and morphology.
Critical shear stress produced by interaction of edge dislocation with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
that due to inhomogeneities; that due to atoms solved in the matrix; and so on. In the present paper, the contribution to the critical shear stress caused by the interaction between edge dislocations and inhomogeneities is only considered. According to the work of Mott and Nabarro (1940), consider the composites containing ...
Stabilization of the Friedmann big bang by the shear stresses
Belinski, V. A.
2013-11-01
The window is found in the space of the free parameters of the theory of viscoelastic matter for which the Friedmann singularity is stable. By stability we mean that in the presence of the shear stresses, a generic solution of the equations of relativistic gravity possessing an isotropic singularity exists.
CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sumit Kawale
2017-11-22
Nov 22, 2017 ... Abstract. Turbulent water jet impingement on surfaces has several applications in cleaning processes and heat transfer equipment. This work aims to find the effect of variation in inlet jet Reynolds number on variation wall shear stress and pressure on surfaces encountered in equipment used in food ...
Shear stress and interleukin-8 (IL-8) on the proliferation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow, are also found in circulation and involved in both tumor vasculogenesis and wound healing. During the process of EPCs incorporation into tissues and neovascularization, the cells are exposed to fluid shear stress. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been shown to play an ...
Measurement of turbulent wall shear-stress using micro-pillars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnanamanickam, E P; Sullivan, J P; Nottebrock, B; Große, S; Schröder, W
2013-01-01
In experimental fluid mechanics, measuring spatially and temporally resolved wall shear-stress (WSS) has proved a challenging problem. The micro-pillar shear-stress sensor (MPS3) has been developed with the goal of filling this gap in measurement techniques. The MPS3 comprises an array of flexible micro-pillars flush mounted on the wall of a wall-bounded flow field. The deflection of these micro-pillars in the presence of a shear field is a direct measure of the WSS. This paper presents the MPS3 development work carried out by RWTH Aachen University and Purdue University. The sensor concept, static and dynamic characterization and data reduction issues are discussed. Also presented are demonstrative experiments where the MPS3 was used to measure the WSS in both water and air. The salient features of the measurement technique, sensor development issues, current capabilities and areas for improvement are highlighted. (paper)
Development of Generalized Correlation Equation for the Local Wall Shear Stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeon, Yu Mi; Park, Ju Hwan
2010-06-01
The pressure drop characteristics for a fuel channel are essential for the design and reliable operation of a nuclear reactor. Over several decades, analytical methods have been developed to predict the friction factor in the fuel bundle flows. In order to enhance the accuracy of prediction for the pressure drop in a rod bundle, the influences of a channel wall and the local shear stress distribution should be considered. Therefore, the correlation equation for a local wall shear stress distribution should be developed in order to secure an analytical solution for the friction factor of a rod bundle. For a side subchannel, which has the influence of the channel wall, the local wall shear stress distribution is dependent on the ratio of wall to diameter (W/D) as well as the ratio of pitch to diameter (P/D). In the case that W/D has the same value with P/D, the local shear stress distribution can be simply correlated with the function of angular position for each value of P/D. While in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D, the correlation equation should be developed for each case of P/D and W/D. Therefore, in the present study, the generalized correlation equation of the local wall shear stress distribution was developed for a side subchannel in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D. Consequently, the generalized correlation equation of a local wall shear stress distribution can be represented by the equivalent pitch to diameter ratio, P'/D for the case that P/D and W/D had a different value
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Idit Avrahami
Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.
The Effect of Fluid Shear Stress on the In Vitro Release Kinetics of Sirolimus from PLGA Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Zheng
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Drug-carrying coatings of stents implanted in blood vessels are exposed to various blood flows. This study investigated the effect of fluid shear stress on the in vitro release kinetics of sirolimus from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films. The homemade parallel plate flow chamber was used to exert quantitative shear stress on the sirolimus-carrying film. By adjusting the flow rate of the release media in the chamber, three levels of shear stress (3.6, 12.0, and 36.0 dyn/cm2 were respectively applied. For each level of shear stress employed, the release kinetics of sirolimus from the PLGA films exhibited a four-phase profile: an initial burst release phase (Phase I, a lag phase (Phase II, a second burst release phase (Phase III, and a terminal release phase (Phase IV. During Phases I and II, sirolimus was released slowly and in small amounts (<10%; however, during Phases III and IV, the drug release increased considerably. Comparisons of different shear stresses indicated that greater shear stress resulted in earlier and faster sirolimus release, with more cumulative drug release observed. PLGA film degradations (molecular weight reduction, mass loss, and surface topographical variations were also investigated to better explain the observed drug release behavior. Consequently, fluid shear stress was found to significantly accelerate the release of sirolimus from the PLGA matrices. Therefore, this study could provide a practical method for evaluating the in vitro drug release from polymer matrices under uniform shear stress, and might help improve the design of biodegradable coatings on drug-eluting stents.
The Role of Shear Failure on Stress Characterization
Chan, A. W.; Hauser, M.; Couzens-Schultz, B. A.; Gray, G.
2014-09-01
Leak-off pressure and lost circulation data are generally thought to be reflective of minimum stress. We propose an alternative interpretation should be considered where the data may reflect a shear failure along zones of pre-existing weakness rather than opening of tensile fractures against the minimum stress. This mechanism has been discussed in a small number of borehole stability and hydraulic fracture papers, but has not been widely applied to leak-off test or lost circulation interpretation. In this paper, we will revisit and expand the concept introduced recently by Couzens-Schultz and Chan (J Struct Geol, doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2010.06.013, 2010) based on abnormally low leak-off tests in an active thrust belt to the analysis of lost circulation observations in modern-day deltaic environments. In the Gulf of Mexico, lost circulations historically are interpreted as a representation of the minimum horizontal stress due to initiating or reopening of a fracture in tensile mode. However, shear failure or fault reactivation can occur at pressures well below the minimum far-field stress that is typically considered a safe upper bound for mud pressure if pre-existing planes of weakness such as faults or fracture networks exist. We demonstrated a mud loss event is shown to be inconsistent with the tensile failure mode in a normal stress environment, but in good agreement with expectations for shear failure along pre-existing faults.
Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihua Cui
Full Text Available The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1 the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2 the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.
Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation
Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.
2018-04-01
We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.
Nonlinear evolution of a layered stratified shear flow
Lee, V.; Caulfield, C. P.
2001-10-01
We investigate numerically and theoretically the nonlinear evolution of a parallel shear flow at moderate Reynolds number which has embedded within it a mixed layer of intermediate fluid. The two relatively thin strongly stratified density interfaces are centered on the edges of the shear layer. We are particularly interested in the development of primary and secondary instabilities. We present the results of a stability analysis which predicts that such flows may be unstable to stationary vortical disturbances which are a generalization of an inviscid instability first considered by G.I. Taylor. We investigate the behavior of these "Taylor billows" at finite amplitude through two-dimensional numerical simulations. We observe that the braid regions connecting adjacent primary Taylor billows are susceptible to secondary, inherently two-dimensional instabilities. We verify that these secondary instabilities, which take the form of small elliptical vortices, arise due to a local intensification of the spanwise vorticity in the braid region.
The effects of green infrastructure on exceedance of critical shear stress in Blunn Creek watershed
Shannak, Sa'd.
2017-10-01
Green infrastructure (GI) has attracted city planners and watershed management professional as a new approach to control urban stormwater runoff. Several regulatory enforcements of GI implementation created an urgent need for quantitative information on GI practice effectiveness, namely for sediment and stream erosion. This study aims at investigating the capability and performance of GI in reducing stream bank erosion in the Blackland Prairie ecosystem. To achieve the goal of this study, we developed a methodology to represent two types of GI (bioretention and permeable pavement) into the Soil Water Assessment Tool, we also evaluated the shear stress and excess shear stress for stream flows in conjunction with different levels of adoption of GI, and estimated potential stream bank erosion for different median soil particle sizes using real and design storms. The results provided various configurations of GI schemes in reducing the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff on stream banks. Results showed that combining permeable pavement and bioretention resulted in the greatest reduction in runoff volumes, peak flows, and excess shear stress under both real and design storms. Bioretention as a stand-alone resulted in the second greatest reduction, while the installation of detention pond only had the least reduction percentages. Lastly, results showed that the soil particle with median diameter equals to 64 mm (small cobbles) had the least excess shear stress across all design storms, while 0.5 mm (medium sand) soil particle size had the largest magnitude of excess shear stress. The current study provides several insights into a watershed scale for GI planning and watershed management to effectively reduce the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff and control streambank erosion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacerda, Luciana Mancor [Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia de Petroleo]. E-mail: luciana@lenep.uenf.br; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: campos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Braga, Luiz Carvalho [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Ensino Descentralizada]. E-mail: luiz@lenep.uenf.br
2000-07-01
The cuttings transport during the drilling of highly inclined and horizontal wells is hindered by the creation of a cuttings bed in the annulus. In this work, it is shown that the equilibrium height of this bed can be determined from the shear stress on its surface. This fact enables the formulation of a methodology for evaluating the equilibrium height of the cuttings bed through the introduction of a new concept, that of critical shear stress. This is the shear stress that acts on the bed surface at the imminence of movement of the particles on the bed surface. The use of the methodology requires the determination of the acting shear stress and of the required critical shear stress. The acting shear stress is calculated by means of a computer program that solve the motion differential equations in the annular space; covering the cases of the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. The actuating shear stress is a function of flow rate and of the annular geometry in the presence of a cuttings bed; it is also a function of the physical properties of the fluid. On the other hand, the required critical shear stress is a function of the particles diameters and physical properties of the fluid and particles. A mechanistic model for the critical shear stress is also presented. (author)
Transition and mixing in layered stratified shear flows.
Lee, Victoria; Caulfield, C. P.
2001-11-01
Flows with step-wise density distributions, i.e. well-mixed layers of fluid separated by narrow regions of high density gradient, are common in geophysics. We investigate numerically and theoretically the nonlinear evolution of a parallel shear flow at a moderate Reynolds number which has embedded within it a mixed layer of intermediate fluid. Linear stability theory predicts that the flow may be unstable to stationary vortical disturbances which are a generalization of an inviscid instability first considered by G. I. Taylor. We investigate the behaviour of these "Taylor waves" at finite amplitude through 3D nonlinear numerical simulations. We follow the development of primary and secondary instabilities which contribute to the eventual breakdown of the layered flow. In particular, we are interested in the mixing properties of the flow as it undergoes transition to small-scale disorder.
Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow
Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-02-01
Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.
Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A
2010-01-01
The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.
Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A, E-mail: yoav.biton@weizmann.ac.i, E-mail: sam.safran@weizmann.ac.i [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2010-05-19
The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.
Granular-flow rheology: Role of shear-rate number in transition regime
Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.
1996-01-01
This paper examines the rationale behind the semiempirical formulation of a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in the light of the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive theory and the viscoplastic theory, thereby identifying the parameters that control the rheology of granular flow. The shear-rate number (N) proves to be among the most significant parameters identified from the GVF model. As N ??? 0 and N ??? ???, the GVF model can reduce asymptotically to the theoretical stress versus shear-rate relations in the macroviscous and graininertia regimes, respectively, where the grain concentration (C) also plays a major role in the rheology of granular flow. Using available data obtained from the rotating-cylinder experiments of neutrally buoyant solid spheres dispersing in an interstitial fluid, the shear stress for granular flow in transition between the two regimes proves dependent on N and C in addition to some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution. The insufficiency of data on rotating-cylinder experiments cannot presently allow the GVF model to predict how a granular flow may behave in the entire range of N; however, the analyzed data provide an insight on the interrelation among the relevant dimensionless parameters.
The Sheer Stress of Shear Stress: Responses of the Vascular Wall to a Haemodynamic Force
C. Cheng (Caroline (Ka Lai))
2006-01-01
textabstractStudies in the hemodynamic field point to a strong relation between shear stress and the onset to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Data from in vitro studies using sheared endothelial cells have provided insight into the possible mechanisms involved. However, the lack of an
Solitary Waves on Inclined Films: Their Characteristics and the Effect on Wall Shear Stress
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tihon, Jaroslav; Serifi, K.; Argyriadi, K.; Bontozoglou, V.
2006-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 1 (2006), s. 79-89 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072914 Grant - others:HPMT(XE) CT/2000/00074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wavy film flow * solitary waves * wall shear stress Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.112, year: 2006
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Hunze, M.; Nopens, I.
2012-01-01
: 0.25 – 0.49 Pa) with an error of less than 5 %; (ii) high shear stresses (i.e. 90th percentile) predictions were much less accurate (model: 0.60 – 1.23 Pa; experimental: 1.04 – 1.90 Pa) with an error up to 38 %. This was attributed to the fact that the CFD model only considers the two-phase flow (50...
Shape oscillations of elastic particles in shear flow.
Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Gee, David J
2016-09-01
Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow. The resulting deformed shapes reveal a steady-state profile that exhibits a 'tank-treading' motion for initially spherical particles. Wall effects on particle trajectory are seen to include a modified Jeffrey׳s orbit for spheroidal inclusions with a period that varies inversely with the strength of the shear flow. Alternately, spheroidal inclusions may exhibit either a 'tumbling' or 'trembling' motion depending on the initial particle aspect ratio and the capillary number (i.e., ratio of fluid shear to elastic restoring force). We find for a capillary number of 0.1, a tumbling mode transitions to a trembling mode at an aspect ratio of 0.87 (approx.), while for a capillary number of 0.2, this transition takes place at a lower aspect ratio. These oscillatory modes are consistent with experimental observations involving similarly shaped vesicles and thus serves to validate the use of a simple elastic constitutive model to perform relevant physiological flow calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job
2005-05-01
This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.
Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress.
Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; van den Munckhof, Inge C L; Tinken, Toni M; den Drijver, Evert; Hopkins, Nicola; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J
2011-07-01
Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an 8-wk period of bilateral handgrip training. Unilaterally, shear rate was attenuated by cuff inflation around the forearm to 60 mmHg. Grip strength, forearm volume, and girth improved similarly between the limbs. Acute bouts of handgrip exercise increased shear rate (P < 0.005) in the noncuffed limb, whereas cuff inflation successfully decreased exercise-induced increases in shear. Brachial blood pressure responses similarly increased during exercise in both the cuffed and noncuffed limbs. Handgrip training had no effect on baseline brachial artery diameter, blood flow, or shear rate but significantly decreased brachial artery wall thickness after 6 and 8 wk (ANOVA, P < 0.001) and wall-to-lumen ratio after week 8 (ANOVA, P = 0.005). The magnitude of decrease in brachial artery wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio after exercise training was similar in the noncuffed and cuffed arms. These results suggest that exercise-induced changes in shear rate are not obligatory for arterial wall remodeling during a period of 8 wk of exercise training in healthy humans.
Park, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Ki-Won
2010-01-01
The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behavior of petroleum jelly (petrolatum) in steady shear flow fields correspondent to the spreading condition onto the human body. With this aim, using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available petroleum jelly have been measured at 37 degrees C (body temperature) over a wide range of shear rates. In this article, the shear rate dependence of steady shear flow behavior was reported from the experimentally obtained data. In particular, the existence of a yield stress and a non-Newtonian flow behavior were discussed in depth with a special emphasis on their importance in actual application onto the human body. In addition, several inelastic-viscoplastic flow models including a yield stress parameter were employed to make a quantitative description of the steady shear flow behavior, and then the applicability of these models was examined in detail. Main findings obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Petroleum jelly exhibits a finite magnitude of yield stress. The appearance of a yield stress is attributed to its three-dimensional network structure that can show a resistance to flow and plays an important role in determining a storage stability and sensory feature of the product. (2) Petroleum jelly demonstrates a pronounced non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior which is well described by a power-law equation and may be interpreted by the disruption of a crystalline network under the influence of mechanical shear deformation. This rheological feature enhances sensory qualities of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products in which petroleum jelly is used as a base material during their actual usage. (3) The Casson, Mizrahi-Berk, Heinz-Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models are all applicable and have almost an equivalent ability to quantitatively describe the steady shear flow behavior of petroleum jelly whereas the
Computational study of flow anisotropy in sheared fractures with self-affine surfaces
Selzer, Michael; Schoenball, Martin; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Kohl, Thomas; Kühnle, Natalie; Schmittbuhl, Jean
2013-04-01
Characterization of the hydraulic conductivities of rock masses is imperative for the development and engineering of various underground installations like geothermal power plants, waste repositories or tunnelling. The intrinsic permeability of intact rock is extremely low; however the rock mass usually contains a dense network of fractures with a relatively high hydraulic conductivity, which determines the hydraulic properties of the rock mass. Conventionally, in order to estimate the hydraulic conductivities of fractures, the cubic law for laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate model with constant aperture is applied. However, the surface of natural fractures is rough, which strongly affects the hydraulic properties of fractures and causes deviation from the analytical result. To enhance fluid flow in a fractured rock mass, well bores in an intact rock mass are pressurized with fluid to reduce effective normal stresses on pre-existing fractures to enable shearing. The shearing motion of rock enhances hydraulic anisotropy, since the rocks become more conductive parallel to the shearing direction and less conduction perpendicular to the shearing direction. In the current work, we present a numerical study of hydraulic anisotropy introduced as a result of shearing of algorithmically generated fractures. A rough surface can be mathematically described as self-affine structure with a correlation between heights of asperities and their spatial distribution. Fractures are generated by displacing two identical fractal rough surfaces incorporating dilation to obtain an aperture distribution. To investigate the geometrical and hydraulic properties of generated fractures, we use a finite element method to solve the Reynolds equations in a simplified 2D model. We identify a regime, where a simplified hydraulic fracture model is permitted. Using the 2D model, we make a statistical study of the hydraulic anisotropy for a representative set of 1000 algorithmically generated
Flow enhancement due to elastic turbulence in channel flows of shear thinning fluids.
Bodiguel, Hugues; Beaumont, Julien; Machado, Anaïs; Martinie, Laetitia; Kellay, Hamid; Colin, Annie
2015-01-16
We explore the flow of highly shear thinning polymer solutions in straight geometry. The strong variations of the normal forces close to the wall give rise to an elastic instability. We evidence a periodic motion close the onset of the instability, which then evolves towards a turbulentlike flow at higher flow rates. Strikingly, we point out that this instability induces genuine drag reduction due to the homogenization of the viscosity profile by the turbulent flow.
Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V
2012-01-01
Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...
Laboratory Observation of Magnetic Field Growth Driven by Shear Flow
Intrator, Thomas; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Feng, Y.
2013-04-01
We have measured in the laboratory profiles of magnetic flux ropes, that include ion flow, magnetic field, current density, and plasma pressure. The electron flows v_e can therefore be inferred, and we use this information to evaluate the Hall J × B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm’s Law. Mutually attracted and compressed flux ropes break the cylindrical symmetry. This simple and coherent example of shear flow supports magnetic field growth corresponding to non vanishing curl × v_e × B. In the absence of magnetic reconnection we measure and predict a quadrupole out of plane magnetic field δBz, even though this has historically been invoked to be the signature of Hall magnetic reconnection. This provides a natural and general mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence. *Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369, NASA Geospace NNHIOA044I, Basic
Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)
1995-09-01
A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.
Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester.
Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin
2008-09-01
Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser.
Green, Daniel J; Carter, Howard H; Fitzsimons, Matthew G; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Naylor, Louise H
2010-05-01
The endothelium, a single layer of cells lining the entire circulatory system, plays a key role in maintaining vascular health. Endothelial dysfunction independently predicts cardiovascular events and improvement in endothelial function is associated with decreased vascular risk. Previous studies have suggested that exercise training improves endothelial function in macrovessels, a benefit mediated via repeated episodic increases in shear stress. However, less is known of the effects of shear stress modulation in microvessels. In the present study we examined the hypothesis that repeated skin heating improves cutaneous microvascular vasodilator function via a shear stress-dependent mechanism. We recruited 10 recreationally active males who underwent bilateral forearm immersion in warm water (42 degrees C), 3 times per week for 30 min. During these immersion sessions, shear stress was manipulated in one arm by inflating a pneumatic cuff to 100 mmHg, whilst the other arm remained uncuffed. Vasodilatation to local heating, a NO-dependent response assessed using laser Doppler, improved across the 8 week intervention period in the uncuffed arm (cutaneous vascular conductance week 0 vs. week 4 at 41 degrees C: 1.37 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.91 units, P = 0.04; 42 degrees C: 2.06 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.68 +/- 0.83 units; P = 0.04), whereas no significant changes were evident in the cuffed arm. We conclude that increased blood flow, and the likely attendant increase in shear stress, is a key physiological stimulus for enhancing microvascular vasodilator function in humans.
On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)
2013-09-15
Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.
Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-04-14
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.
2010-01-01
Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.
Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.
1998-01-01
Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.
Kelvin–Helmholz instability in thermoviscous free shear flow
Kulikov, Yu M.; Son, E. E.
2018-01-01
This paper is focused on the entrainment and mixing in the nonisothermal shear flow, wherein the velocity profile discontinuity arises due to viscosity–temperature relation, i.e. thermoviscosity. Kelvin–Helmholz instability generated at the interface paves the way to large-scale entrainment which is analysed in terms of perturbation growth rate and momentum thickness. The flow is simulated in the plane domain with periodic boundary conditions using second-order accuracy explicit CABARET numerical scheme in weakly compressible formulation. Initial instability evolution is fully governed by a universal scaling parameter k t , composed of Reynolds number Re and kinematic viscosity ratio R ν . There are seven flow configurations determined by nonlinear mode interaction, vorticity convection and diffusion and cascade vortex merger. The problem at issue appears to be analogues to the classical boundary layer theory that totally fortifies its remarkable features.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Formation of oil droplets in plasticized starch matrix in simple shear flow
Emin, M.A.; Hardt, N.A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Schuchmann, H.P.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the effect of simple shear flow on the formation of triglyceride oil droplets in a plasticized starch matrix. An in-house developed shearing device was used that enabled the application of controlled shear flow and rheological characterization of the native maize
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Alireza Keshavarzi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, the fractal dimensions of velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stresses propagation for flow around a circular bridge pier are presented. In the study reported herein, the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations (u′, v′, w′ and the Reynolds shear stresses (u′v′ and u′w′ of flow around a bridge pier were computed using a Fractal Interpolation Function (FIF algorithm. The velocity fluctuations of flow along a horizontal plane above the bed were measured using Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (ADV and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The PIV is a powerful technique which enables us to attain high resolution spatial and temporal information of turbulent flow using instantaneous time snapshots. In this study, PIV was used for detection of high resolution fractal scaling around a bridge pier. The results showed that the fractal dimension of flow fluctuated significantly in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the vicinity of the pier. It was also found that the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations and shear stresses increased rapidly at vicinity of pier at downstream whereas it remained approximately unchanged far downstream of the pier. The higher value of fractal dimension was found at a distance equal to one times of the pier diameter in the back of the pier. Furthermore, the average fractal dimension for the streamwise and transverse velocity fluctuations decreased from the centreline to the side wall of the flume. Finally, the results from ADV measurement were consistent with the result from PIV, therefore, the ADV enables to detect turbulent characteristics of flow around a circular bridge pier.
Edge shear flows and particle transport near the density limit of the HL-2A tokamak
Hong, R.; Tynan, G. R.; Diamond, P. H.; Nie, L.; Guo, D.; Long, T.; Ke, R.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Xu, M.; The HL-2A Team
2018-01-01
Edge shear flow and its effect on regulating turbulent transport have long been suspected to play an important role in plasmas operating near the Greenwald density limit n G. In this study, equilibrium profiles as well as the turbulent particle flux and Reynolds stress across the separatrix in the HL-2A tokamak are examined as nG is approached in ohmic L-mode discharges. As the normalized line-averaged density \\bar{n}_e/nG is raised, the shearing rate of the mean poloidal flow ω_sh drops, and the turbulent drive for the low-frequency zonal flow (the Reynolds power P_Re ) collapses. Correspondingly, the turbulent particle transport increases drastically with increasing collision rates. The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) gain more energy from the ambient turbulence at higher densities, but have smaller shearing rate than low-frequency zonal flows. The increased density also introduces decreased adiabaticity which not only enhances the particle transport but is also related to reduction in the eddy-tilting and the Reynolds power. Both effects may lead to cooling of edge plasmas and therefore the onset of MHD instabilities that limit the plasma density.
Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length
Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre
2015-11-01
Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).
Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow
Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Hydrodynamic interactions between two equally sized spheres in viscoelastic fluids in shear flow.
Snijkers, Frank; Pasquino, Rossana; Vermant, Jan
2013-05-14
The effect of using a viscoelastic suspending medium on the in-plane hydrodynamic interaction between two equally sized spheres in shear flow is studied experimentally to understand flow-induced assembly behavior (i.e., string formation). A counterrotating device equipped with a Couette geometry is used together with quantitative videomicroscopy. To evaluate the effects of differences in rheological properties of the suspending media, fluids have been selected that highlight specific constitutive features. These include a reference Newtonian fluid (N), a constant-viscosity, high-elasticity Boger fluid (BF), a wormlike micellar surfactant solution with a single dominant relaxation time (WMS), and a broad spectrum shear-thinning elastic polymer solution (ST). As expected, the trajectories are symmetric in the Newtonian fluid. In the BF, the midpoints of the spheres are observed to remain in the same plane before and after the interaction, as in the Newtonian fluid, although the path lines are in this case no longer symmetric. Interactions in the ST and WMS are highly asymmetric. Two fundamentally different kinds of path lines are observed in the WMS and ST: reversing and open trajectories. The type of trajectory depends on the initial configuration of the spheres with respect to each other and on the shear rate. On the basis of the obtained results, shear-thinning of the viscosity seems to be the key rheological parameter that determines the overall nature of the interactions, rather than the relative magnitude of the normal stress differences.
Dynamic yielding, shear thinning, and stress rheology of polymer-particle suspensions and gels.
Kobelev, Vladimir; Schweizer, Kenneth S
2005-10-22
The nonlinear rheological version of our barrier hopping theory for particle-polymer suspensions and gels has been employed to study the effect of steady shear and constant stress on the alpha relaxation time, yielding process, viscosity, and non-Newtonian flow curves. The role of particle volume fraction, polymer-particle size asymmetry ratio, and polymer concentration have been systematically explored. The dynamic yield stress decreases in a polymer-concentration- and volume-fraction-dependent manner that can be described as apparent power laws with effective exponents that monotonically increase with observation time. Stress- or shear-induced thinning of the viscosity becomes more abrupt with increasing magnitude of the quiescent viscosity. Flow curves show an intermediate shear rate dependence of an effective power-law form, becoming more solidlike with increasing depletion attraction. The influence of polymer concentration, particle volume fraction, and polymer-particle size asymmetry ratio on all properties is controlled to a first approximation by how far the system is from the gelation boundary of ideal mode-coupling theory (MCT). This emphasizes the importance of the MCT nonergodicity transition despite its ultimate destruction by activated barrier hopping processes. Comparison of the theoretical results with limited experimental studies is encouraging.
Arterial response to shear stress critically depends on endothelial TRPV4 expression.
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Veronika Hartmannsgruber
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca(2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4(-/- mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In TRPV4(-/- mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch-clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA from TRPV4(-/- mice and wild-type littermates (WT. In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD, arachidonic acid (AA, and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS. In striking contrast, in TRPV4(-/- mice, 4alphaPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4alphaPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4(-/- mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4(-/- mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4(-/- vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress
Arterial Response to Shear Stress Critically Depends on Endothelial TRPV4 Expression
Kacik, Michael; Kaistha, Anuradha; Grgic, Ivica; Harteneck, Christian; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Joachim; Köhler, Ralf
2007-01-01
Background In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4−/− mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. Methodology/Principal Findings In TRPV4−/− mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch–clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA) from TRPV4−/− mice and wild-type littermates (WT). In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD), arachidonic acid (AA), and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS). In striking contrast, in TRPV4−/− mice, 4αPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4αPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4−/− mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4−/− mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4−/− vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress. Conclusions
Solitary waves on inclined films: their characteristics and the effects on wall shear stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tihon, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Serifi, K.; Argyriadi, K.; Bontozoglou, V. [University of Thessaly, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Volos (Greece)
2006-07-15
The properties of solitary waves, developing from inlet disturbances of controlled frequency along an inclined film flow, are systematically studied experimentally and computationally. Time-variations of film height and wall shear stress are measured, using respectively a capacitance probe and an electrodiffusion sensor. Computational data are provided from simulations performed by a Galerkin finite element scheme. The height and spacing of solitary humps, their phase velocity and the wavelength of the preceding capillary ripples are reported as functions of the Reynolds number (10
Effect of velocity fluctuations length on the calculation accuracy of turbulent shearing stresses
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Volgin Georgiy Valentinovich
Full Text Available This article focuses on the method of improving shear stresses calculation accuracy based on the experimental data. It was proven that shear stresses value considerably changes (even up to change of sign from positive to negative depending on different velocity fluctuations amount (or length. Experimental database consists of velocity in turbulent flow at different times. Recommendations for practical use of methods of calculation depending on the type of engineering problems are presented. The method of finding optimal amount of the experimental database is proposed by the analysis of the values convergence of the standard deviations calculated for the whole sample and the standard deviation calculated by increasing interval. The calculation results for these intervals are at the points of the measuring system and the hypothesis about finding the optimal length of implementation is offered. The steps for further research are set out.
Energy considerations in accelerating rapid shear granular flows
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S. P. Pudasaini
2009-05-01
Full Text Available We present a complete expression for the total energy associated with a rapid frictional granular shear flow down an inclined surface. This expression reduces to the often used energy for a non-accelerating flow of an isotropic, ideal fluid in a horizontal channel, or to the energy for a vertically falling mass. We utilize thickness-averaged mass and momentum conservation laws written in a slope-defined coordinate system. Both the enhanced gravity and friction are taken into account in addition to the bulk motion and deformation. The total energy of the flow at a given spatial position and time is defined as the sum of four energy components: the kinetic energy, gravity, pressure and the friction energy. Total energy is conserved for stationary flow, but for non-stationary flow the non-conservative force induced by the free-surface gradient means that energy is not conserved. Simulations and experimental results are used to sketch the total energy of non-stationary flows. Comparison between the total energy and the sum of the kinetic and pressure energy shows that the contribution due to gravity acceleration and frictional resistance can be of the same order of magnitude, and that the geometric deformation plays an important role in the total energy budget of the cascading mass. Relative importance of the different constituents in the total energy expression is explored. We also introduce an extended Froude number that takes into account the apparent potential energy induced by gravity and pressure.
Magnetic and shape fabrics of magnetite in simple shear flows
Arbaret, Laurent; Launeau, Patrick; Diot, Hervé; Sizaret, Stanislas
2013-01-01
The magnetite fabrics measured by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and by shape preferred orientation (SPO) optical methods are classically used as flow kinematics indicators in lava flows. The development of magnetite fabrics during simple shear strains γ ≤ 20 was performed using a suspension of 1% volume fraction of multidomain magnetite randomly contained in a mixture of silicone and wax. We measured AMS fabric and SPO ellipsoids by calculating a quadratic shape tensor from oriented thin-sections. For γ 8, fabric elements, foliation and lineation, are stabilised closely parallel to the flow plane and the shear direction, respectively. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations using measured aspect ratios of magnetite point out that the large scattering of aspect ratios and the initial orientation distribution of particles are together responsible for a wide-ranging loss of periodicity. The stable AMS and SPO fabrics observed at large strains in experiments are the result of these primary fabric properties combined to collisions between particles and, possibly, their complex three-dimensional shapes. In addition, the constant angular relationship observed at large strains between fabrics and flow components is related to the transient collisions. Consequently, the determination of the lava flow kinematics by using fabric properties measured either by AMS or by SPO analyses should be indubitably associated to a detailed study of the three-dimensional shape of the solid carriers. Regularly shaped populations of low elongated particles will be capable to produce cyclic to oscillating fabrics, while the fabric of elongated particles will be more sensitive to the shape parameters and collisions, ultimately favouring stable fabrics at large strains.
Bed shear stress distribution in straight channels with arbitrary cross section
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen
1998-01-01
The bed shear stress distribution in straight open channels is affected by mechanisms as bed curvature of the cross section profile, shear diffusion, and secondary currents. This paper compares some analytical and numerical methods to estimate the bed shear stress distribution. The methods...
Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro
2016-06-01
Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.
Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS
Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.
2016-10-01
Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0water gas-exchange, (ii) determine, for a given buoyancy flux, the wind speed at which gas transfer becomes primarily shear driven, and (iii) find an expression for the gas-transfer velocity for flows driven by both convection and shear. The evaluated gas transfer-velocity parametrizations are based on either the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, the surface flow-divergence, the surface heat-flux, or the wind-speed. The parametrizations based on dissipation or divergence show an unfavorable Ri dependence for flows with combined forcing whereas the parametrization based on heat-flux only shows a limited Ri dependence. The two parametrizations based on wind speed give reasonable estimates for the transfer-velocity, depending however on the surface heat-flux. The transition from convection- to shear-dominated gas-transfer-velocity is shown to be at Ri≈0.004. Furthermore, the gas-transfer is shown to be well represented by two different approaches: (i) additive forcing expressed as kg,sum =AShearu*|Ri/Ric+1| 1/4Sc-n where Ric=|AShear/ABuoy|4, and (ii) either buoyancy or shear dominated expressed as, kg=ABuoy|Bν| 1/4Sc-n, Ri>Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Riwater surface-characteristics.
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C. Dhanapal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the peristaltic flow of an incompressible micropolar nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel in the presence of thermal radiation and heat sources parameters. The rotation of the nanoparticles is incorporated in the flow model. The equations governing the nanofluid flow are modeled and exact solutions are managed under long wavelength and flow Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations. Explicit expressions of axial velocity, stream function, microrotation, nanoparticle temperature, and concentration have been derived. The phenomena of shear stress and trapping have also been discussed. Finally, the influences of various parameters of interest on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Besides, the results obtained in this paper will be helpful to those who are working on the development of various realms like fluid mechanics, the rotation, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, coupling number, micropolar parameter, and the nondimensional geometry parameters.
Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model
Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.
2012-12-01
Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0
Toh, Yi-Chin; Voldman, Joel
2011-04-01
Shear stress is a ubiquitous environmental cue experienced by stem cells when they are being differentiated or expanded in perfusion cultures. However, its role in modulating self-renewing stem cell phenotypes is unclear, since shear is usually only studied in the context of cardiovascular differentiation. We used a multiplex microfluidic array, which overcomes the limitations of macroperfusion systems in shear application throughput and precision, to initiate a comprehensive, quantitative study of shear effects on self-renewing mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), where shear stresses varying by >1000 times (0.016-16 dyn/cm(2)) are applied simultaneously. When compared with static controls in the presence or absence of a saturated soluble environment (i.e., mESC-conditioned medium), we ascertained that flow-induced shear stress specifically up-regulates the epiblast marker Fgf5. Epiblast-state transition in mESCs involves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which have also been shown to transduce shear stress in endothelial cells. By disrupting (with sulfation inhibitors and heparinase) and partially reconstituting (with heparin) HSPG function, we show that mESCs also mechanically sense shear stress via HSPGs to modulate Fgf5 expression. This study demonstrates that self-renewing mESCs possess the molecular machinery to sense shear stress and provides quantitative shear application benchmarks for future scalable stem cell culture systems.
Mixing in a stratified shear flow: Energetics and sampling
Ivey, G. N.; Koseff, J. R.; Briggs, D. A.; Ferziger, J. H.
1993-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of the time evolution of homogeneous stably stratified shear flows have been performed for Richardson numbers from 0 to 1 and for Prandtl numbers between 0.1 and 2. The results indicate that mixing efficiency R(sub f) varies with turbulent Froude number in a manner consistent with laboratory experiments performed with Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 700. However, unlike the laboratory results, for a particular Froude number, the simulations do not show a clear dependence on the magnitude of R(sub f) on Pr. The observed maximum value of R(sub f) is 0.25. When averaged over vertical length scales of an order of magnitude greater than either the overturning or Ozmidov scales of the flow, the simulations indicate that the dissipation rate epsilon is only weakly lognormally distributed with an intermittency of about 0.01 whereas estimated values in the ocean are 3 to 7.
Effects of Shape on Diffusion and Shear Flows
Shaw, Robert; Packard, Norman
2010-03-01
Diffusion of point particles is well-understood, likewise the motion of simple particles under shear flow. However if the particles are extended objects with shape, more complicated behavior can occur. For example, objects might enter a shaped channel in a configuration that requires them to back up a finite distance in order to proceed further. A configuration that blocks flow through the channel might be statistically preferred, an attracting metastable state of the system. In the bulk, the configuration space of a set of closely packed rigid objects can become convoluted, with many dead-end alleys. If such a system is subjected to a shear, it may naturally tend to settle in such a dead-end, and have to retrace its path in order to continue further, a configuration can become locally locked. The requirement that the system backtrack to unlock distinguishes this process from ordinary jamming, there need be no dissipation or friction per se. We have a number of computer simulations of the motions of closely packed shaped objects, under both Hamiltonian and Monte Carlo dynamics. In addition we will present a simple analytic model, describing the entry and escape of the system from the attracting locked metastable states.
Fluid shear stress activates YAP1 to promote cancer cell motility.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Diaz, Miguel F; Price, Katherine M; Ozuna, Joyce A; Zhang, Songlin; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Hagan, John P; Wenzel, Pamela L
2017-01-18
Mechanical stress is pervasive in egress routes of malignancy, yet the intrinsic effects of force on tumour cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that frictional force characteristic of flow in the lymphatics stimulates YAP1 to drive cancer cell migration; whereas intensities of fluid wall shear stress (WSS) typical of venous or arterial flow inhibit taxis. YAP1, but not TAZ, is strictly required for WSS-enhanced cell movement, as blockade of YAP1, TEAD1-4 or the YAP1-TEAD interaction reduces cellular velocity to levels observed without flow. Silencing of TEAD phenocopies loss of YAP1, implicating transcriptional transactivation function in mediating force-enhanced cell migration. WSS dictates expression of a network of YAP1 effectors with executive roles in invasion, chemotaxis and adhesion downstream of the ROCK-LIMK-cofilin signalling axis. Altogether, these data implicate YAP1 as a fluid mechanosensor that functions to regulate genes that promote metastasis.
Fluid shear stress activates YAP1 to promote cancer cell motility
Lee, Hyun Jung; Diaz, Miguel F.; Price, Katherine M.; Ozuna, Joyce A.; Zhang, Songlin; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Hagan, John P.; Wenzel, Pamela L.
2017-01-01
Mechanical stress is pervasive in egress routes of malignancy, yet the intrinsic effects of force on tumour cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that frictional force characteristic of flow in the lymphatics stimulates YAP1 to drive cancer cell migration; whereas intensities of fluid wall shear stress (WSS) typical of venous or arterial flow inhibit taxis. YAP1, but not TAZ, is strictly required for WSS-enhanced cell movement, as blockade of YAP1, TEAD1-4 or the YAP1-TEAD interaction reduces cellular velocity to levels observed without flow. Silencing of TEAD phenocopies loss of YAP1, implicating transcriptional transactivation function in mediating force-enhanced cell migration. WSS dictates expression of a network of YAP1 effectors with executive roles in invasion, chemotaxis and adhesion downstream of the ROCK-LIMK-cofilin signalling axis. Altogether, these data implicate YAP1 as a fluid mechanosensor that functions to regulate genes that promote metastasis.
Liu, Haifeng; Gong, Xianghui; Jing, Xiaohui; Ding, Xili; Yao, Yuan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo
2017-11-01
Endothelial cells (ECs) are sensitive to changes in shear stress. The application of shear stress to ECs has been well documented to improve cell retention when placed into a haemodynamically active environment. However, the relationship between the time-step and amplification of shear stress on EC functions remains elusive. In the present study, human umbilical cord veins endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded on silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds and were preconditioned by shear stress at different time-steps and amplifications. It is shown that gradually increasing shear stress with appropriate time-steps and amplification could improve EC retention, yielding a complete endothelial-like monolayer both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of this improvement is mediated, at least in part, by an upregulation of integrin β1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, which contributed to fibronectin (FN) assembly enhancement in ECs in response to the shear stress. A modest gradual increase in shear stress was essential to allow additional time for ECs to gradually acclimatize to the changing environment, with the goal of withstanding the physiological levels of shear stress. This study recognized that the time-steps and amplifications of shear stress could regulate EC tolerance to shear stress and the anti-thrombogenicity function of engineered vascular grafts via an extracellular cell matrix-specific, mechanosensitive signalling pathway and might prevent thrombus formation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Modelling and analytic studies of sheared flow effects on tearing modes
Chandra, D.; Thyagaraja, A.; Sen, A.; Ham, C. J.; Hender, T. C.; Hastie, R. J.; Connor, J. W.; Kaw, P.; Mendonca, J.
2015-05-01
The effects of flow shear on the stability of a (2,1) tearing mode are examined using numerical and analytic studies on a number of model systems. For a cylindrical reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, linear computations using the CUTIE code show that sheared axial flows have a destabilizing effect, while sheared poloidal flows tend to reduce the growth rate of the mode. These effects are independent of the direction of the flow. For helical flows the sign of the shear in the flow matters. This symmetry breaking is also seen in the nonlinear regime where the island saturation level is found to depend on the sign of the flows. In the absence of flow, the CUTIE simulations show that the linear mode is more stable in a two fluid as compared to a single fluid model. However, in the presence of sheared axial flows a negative sheared flow is more destabilizing while a positive sheared flow is more stabilizing, compared to the single fluid model. In contrast to the cylindrical model, simulations in a toroidal model, using the MHD code NEAR, always show a stabilizing effect in the presence of a sheared toroidal flow. This is understood analytically in terms of a flow induced ‘Shafranov’ like shift in the profiles of the equilibrium current that results in a stabilizing change in Δ‧ and the saturated island size.
Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D
2015-06-01
We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.
Glavatskiy, Kirill S.; Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Todd, B. D.
2015-06-01
We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.
Dizaji, Farzad; Marshall, Jeffrey; Grant, John; Jin, Xing
2017-11-01
Accounting for the effect of subgrid-scale turbulence on interacting particles remains a challenge when using Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches for simulation of turbulent particulate flows. The standard stochastic Lagrangian method for introducing turbulence into particulate flow computations is not effective when the particles interact via collisions, contact electrification, etc., since this method is not intended to accurately model relative motion between particles. We have recently developed the stochastic vortex structure (SVS) method and demonstrated its use for accurate simulation of particle collision in homogeneous turbulence; the current work presents an extension of the SVS method to turbulent shear flows. The SVS method simulates subgrid-scale turbulence using a set of randomly-positioned, finite-length vortices to generate a synthetic fluctuating velocity field. It has been shown to accurately reproduce the turbulence inertial-range spectrum and the probability density functions for the velocity and acceleration fields. In order to extend SVS to turbulent shear flows, a new inversion method has been developed to orient the vortices in order to generate a specified Reynolds stress field. The extended SVS method is validated in the present study with comparison to direct numerical simulations for a planar turbulent jet flow. This research was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1332472.
Brownian dynamics of wall tethered polymers in shear flow
Lin, Tiras Y.; Saadat, Amir; Kushwaha, Amit; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
2017-11-01
The dynamics of a wall tethered polymer in shear flow is studied using Brownian dynamics. Simulations are performed with bead-spring chains, and the effect of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) is incorporated through Blake's tensor with a finite size bead correction. We characterize the configuration of the polymer as a function of the Weissenberg number by investigating the regions the polymer explores in both the flow-gradient and flow-vorticity planes. The fractional extension in the flow direction, the width in the vorticity direction, and the thickness in the gradient direction are reported as well, and these quantities are found to compare favorably with the experimental data of the literature. The cyclic motion of the polymer is demonstrated through analysis of the mean velocity field of the end bead. We characterize the collision process of each bead with the wall as a Poisson process and extract an average wall collision rate, which in general varies along the backbone of the chain. The inclusion of HI with the wall for a tethered polymer is found to reduce the average wall collision rate. We anticipate that results from this work will be directly applicable to, e.g., the design of polymer brushes or the use of DNA for making nanowires in molecular electronics. T.Y.L. is supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
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Ronny Amaya
Full Text Available Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS and solid circumferential stress (CS. Due to variations in impedance (global factors and geometric complexities (local factors in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle-SPA. Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180° that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous
Amaya, Ronny; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M
2016-01-01
Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS) and solid circumferential stress (CS). Due to variations in impedance (global factors) and geometric complexities (local factors) in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle-SPA). Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180°) that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI) that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics without
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, N; Oguma, Y; Nakano, T
2009-01-01
Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s −1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV
Influence of shear stress and size on viability of endothelial cells exposed to gold nanoparticles
Fede, C.; Albertin, Giovanna; Petrelli, L.; De Caro, R.; Fortunati, I.; Weber, V.; Ferrante, Camilla
2017-09-01
Screening nanoparticle toxicity directly on cell culture can be a fast and cheap technique. Nevertheless, to obtain results in accordance with those observed in live animals, the conditions in which cells are cultivated should resemble the one encountered in live systems. Microfluidic devices offer the possibility to satisfy this requirement, in particular with endothelial cell lines, because they are capable to reproduce the flowing media and shear stress experienced by these cell lines in vivo. In this work, we exploit a microfluidic device to observe how human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) viability changes when subject to a continuous flow of culture medium, in which spherical citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles of different sizes and at varying doses are investigated. For comparison, the same experiments are also run in multiwells where the cells do not experience the shear stress induced by the flowing medium. We discuss the results considering the influence of mode of exposure and nanoparticle size (24 and 13 nm). We observed that gold nanoparticles show a lower toxicity under flow conditions with respect to static and the HUVEC viability decreases as the nanoparticle surface area per unit volume increases, regardless of size.
Qazi, Henry; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Tarbell, John M.
2011-01-01
Background Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension) model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs. Conclusions/Significance Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression. PMID:21637818
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Henry Qazi
Full Text Available Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate.A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs.Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression.
Relationship between types of surface shear stress profiles and membrane fouling.
Chan, C C V; Bérubé, P R; Hall, E R
2011-12-01
Shear stress has been recognized as an important parameter in controlling particle back-transport from membrane surfaces. However, little is known of the relationship between transient shear conditions induced by air sparging and fouling control near membrane surfaces. In this paper, the different types of surface shear stress profiles that had beneficial effects on minimizing reversible surface fouling were examined. The relationship between different statistical shear parameters (e.g. time-averaged shear, standard deviation of shear and amplitude of shear) and fouling control that have been used by others were examined as well. It was found that the fouling rate for membranes subjected to transient shear conditions was lower than for membranes subjected to constant shear conditions. The magnitude, duration and frequency of the shear conditions were found to have an impact on the fouling rate of membranes. It was also found that although some statistical shear parameters could generally be used to relate shear and fouling, they were inadequate to relate surface shear stress to fouling, for all transient shear conditions examined. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Streambed stresses and flow around bridge piers
Parola, A.C.; Ruhl, K.J.; Hagerty, D.J.; Brown, B.M.; Ford, D.L.; Korves, A.A.
1996-01-01
Scour of streambed material around bridge foundations by floodwaters is the leading cause of catastrophic bridge failure in the United States. The potential for scour and the stability of riprap used to protect the streambed from scour during extreme flood events must be known to evaluate the likelihood of bridge failure. A parameter used in estimating the potential for scour and removal of riprap protection is the time-averaged shear stress on the streambed often referred to as boundary stress. Bridge components, such as bridge piers and abutments, obstruct flow and induce strong vortex systems that create streambed or boundary stresses significantly higher than those in unobstructed flow. These locally high stresses can erode the streambed around pier and abutment foundations to the extent that the foundation is undermined, resulting in settlement or collapse of bridge spans. The purpose of this study was to estimate streambed stresses at a bridge pier under full-scale flow conditions and to compare these stresses with those obtained previously in small-scale model studies. Two-dimensional velocity data were collected for three flow conditions around a bridge pier at the Kentucky State Highway 417 bridge over the Green River at Greensburg in Green County, Ky. Velocity vector plots and the horizontal component of streambed stress contour plots were developed from the velocity data. The streambed stress contours were developed using both a near-bed velocity and velocity gradient method. Maximum near-bed velocities measured at the pier for the three flow conditions were 1.5, 1.6, and 2.0 times the average near-bed velocities measured in the upstream approach flow. Maximum streambed stresses for the three flow conditions were determined to be 10, 15, and 36 times the streambed stresses of the upstream approach flow. Both the near-bed velocity measurements and approximate maximum streambed stresses at the full-scale pier were consistent with those observed in
Shear-Rate-Dependent Behavior of Clayey Bimaterial Interfaces at Landslide Stress Levels
Scaringi, Gianvito; Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Runqiu
2018-01-01
The behavior of reactivated and first-failure landslides after large displacements is controlled by the available shear resistance in a shear zone and/or along slip surfaces, such as a soil-bedrock interface. Among the factors influencing the resistance parameter, the dependence on the shear rate can trigger catastrophic evolution (rate-weakening) or exert a slow-down feedback (rate-strengthening) upon stress perturbation. We present ring-shear test results, performed under various normal stresses and shear rates, on clayey soils from a landslide shear zone, on its parent lithology and other lithologies, and on clay-rock interface samples. We find that depending on the materials in contact, the normal stress, and the stress history, the shear-rate-dependent behaviors differ. We discuss possible models and underlying mechanisms for the time-dependent behavior of landslides in clay soils.
Regmi, Sagar; Fu, Afu; Luo, Kathy Qian
2017-01-01
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the primary targets of cancer treatment as they cause distal metastasis. However, how CTCs response to exercise-induced high shear stress is largely unknown. To study the effects of hemodynamic microenvironment on CTCs, we designed a microfluidic circulatory system that produces exercise relevant shear stresses. We explore the effects of shear stresses on breast cancer cells with different metastatic abilities, cancer cells of ovarian, lung and leukemic orig...
Periodic motions of flexible fibers in shear flow
Slowicka, Agnieszka M.; Stone, Howard A.; Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L.
2017-11-01
Numerical simulations of a single open flexible fiber entrained by shear flow are performed in the absence of both inertia and Brownian motion. The bead-spring model is used to account for hydrodynamic and elastic forces exerted on the fiber segments. The motion is studied for a wide range of the fiber bending stiffness ratios (i. e. the ratios of bending to hydrodynamic forces), aspect ratios and initial configurations. The essential finding is the existence of certain universal classes of periodic, quasi-periodic and steady modes, with different characteristic evolution of fiber shapes and different values of the orientation parameter. Types of the dominating modes, their lifetime and stability depend on the fiber bending stiffness and aspect ratios. A.M.S. and M.L.E.J. were supported in part by Narodowe Centrum Nauki under Grant No. 2014/15/B/ST8/04359.
Vlasov tokamak equilibria with sheared toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuiroukidis, Ap, E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr [Technological Education Institute of Serres, 62124 Serres (Greece); Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: gthroum@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Tasso, H., E-mail: het@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-08-15
By choosing appropriate deformed Maxwellian ion and electron distribution functions depending on the two particle constants of motion, i.e., the energy and toroidal angular momentum, we reduce the Vlasov axisymmetric equilibrium problem for quasineutral plasmas to a transcendental Grad-Shafranov-like equation. This equation is then solved numerically under the Dirichlet boundary condition for an analytically prescribed boundary possessing a lower X-point to construct tokamak equilibria with toroidal sheared ion flow and anisotropic pressure. Depending on the deformation of the distribution functions, these steady states can have toroidal current densities either peaked on the magnetic axis or hollow. These two kinds of equilibria may be regarded as a bifurcation in connection with symmetry properties of the distribution functions on the magnetic axis.
DEM simulations of shear flow of spherical particles mixed with long granular rods
Baran, Oleh
2015-11-01
Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) I investigate the effect of adding rigid rod-shape particles to the granular flow of spherical particles inside ring shear tester. The simulated geometry includes an annulus, bounded by two concentric cylindrical walls rested on a stationary bottom disk and covered with a top lid. Both the top lid and the bottom have protruding vanes oriented radially and uniformly spaced around the annulus, to prevent slipping of the bulk solid, see image at this link. The top lid rotates with a controlled angular speed and applies a constant normal load to the tested material. I analyze the results for shear stress on the top lid as a function of time for the mixture of spheres and rods and compare these results with ones obtained for the same amount of spherical particles without rods. I also present the analysis of the orientation of granular rods in a shear flow and discuss the results in terms of new time-scale related to the mobility of rods.
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Iván eRodríguez
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Physiological vascular function regulation is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular pathology, where the imbalance between the synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is common in the development of vascular disorders in systemic and placental circulation. In the placenta, an organ without autonomic innervations, the local control of vascular tone is critical for maintenance of fetal growth and mechanisms that underlie shear stress response induced by blood flow are essential during pregnancy. In this field, shear stress induced by moderate exercise is one of the most important mechanisms to improve vascular function through nitric oxide (NO synthesis and stimulation of mechanical response of endothelial cells triggered by ion channels, caveolae, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, among others. The demand for oxygen and nutrients by tissues and organs, especially in placentation and pregnancy, determines blood flow parameters and physiological adaptations of vascular beds for covering metabolic requirements. In this regard, moderate exercise versus sedentarism shows potential benefits for improving vascular function associated with the enhancement of molecular mechanisms induced by shear stress. In this review, we collect evidence about molecular bases of physiological response to shear stress in order to highlight the relevance of moderate exercise-training for vascular health in adult and fetal life.
Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P
1985-01-01
The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.
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El Hassan, Mouhammad; Vetel, Jerome; Garon, Andre [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, LADYF, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Assoum, Hassan Hassan; Sobolik, Vaclav; Abed-Meraim, Kamel; Sakout, Anas [LaSIE, Universite de La Rochelle, La Rochelle (France)
2012-06-15
The wall shear stress and the vortex dynamics in a circular impinging jet are investigated experimentally for Re = 1,260 and 2,450. The wall shear stress is obtained at different radial locations from the stagnation point using the polarographic method. The velocity field is given from the time resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) technique in both the free jet region and near the wall in the impinging region. The distribution of the momentum thickness is also inspected from the jet exit toward the impinged wall. It is found that the wall shear stress is correlated with the large-scale vortex passing. Both the primary vortices and the secondary structures strongly affect the variation of the wall shear stress. The maximum mean wall shear stress is obtained just upstream from the secondary vortex generation where the primary structures impinge the wall. Spectral analysis and cross-correlations between the wall shear stress fluctuations show that the vortex passing influences the wall shear stress at different locations simultaneously. Analysis of cross-correlations between temporal fluctuations of the wall shear stress and the transverse vorticity brings out the role of different vortical structures on the wall shear stress distribution for the two Reynolds numbers. (orig.)
Karlsson, Matts; Andersson, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas
2014-11-01
Turbulent and wall impinging blood flow causes abnormal shear forces onto the lumen and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, wall shear stress (WSS) and related flow parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) as well as after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Finite element analysis was performed to acquire six different dilated CoAs. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Pre-intervention, the presence of jet flow wall impingement caused an elevated WSS zone, with a distal region of low and oscillatory WSS. After intervention, cases with a more favorable centralized jet showed reduced high WSS values at the opposed wall. Despite significant turbulence reduction post-treatment, enhanced regions of low and oscillatory WSS were observed for all cases. This numerical method has demonstrated the morphological impact on WSS distribution in an CoA. With the predictability and validation capabilities of a combined CFD/MRI approach, a step towards patient-specific intervention planning is taken.
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Mahesh Varpe
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of inlet shear flow on the tip leakage flow in an axial flow compressor cascade. A flow with a high shear rate is generated in the test section of an open circuit cascade wind tunnel by using a combination of screens with a prescribed solidity. It is observed that a stable shear flow of shear rate 1.33 is possible and has a gradual decay rate until 15 times the height of the shear flow generator downstream. The computational results obtained agree well with the available experimental data on the baseline configuration. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the tip clearance improves the blade loading near the tip through the promotion of favorable incidence by the tip leakage flow. The tip clearance shifts the centre of pressure on the blade surface towards the tip. It, however, has no effect on the distribution of end wall loss and deviation angle along the span up to 60% from the hub. In the presence of a shear inflow, the end wall effects are considerable. On the other hand, with a shear inflow, the effects of tip leakage flow are observed to be partly suppressed. The shear flow reduces the tip leakage losses substantially in terms of kinetic energy associated with it.
Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow
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Yoo-Chul Kim
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.
Influence of the tilt angle of Percutaneous Aortic Prosthesis on Velocity and Shear Stress Fields
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Bruno Alvares de Azevedo Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Due to the nature of the percutaneous prosthesis deployment process, a variation in its final position is expected. Prosthetic valve placement will define the spatial location of its effective orifice in relation to the aortic annulus. The blood flow pattern in the ascending aorta is related to the aortic remodeling process, and depends on the spatial location of the effective orifice. The hemodynamic effect of small variations in the angle of inclination of the effective orifice has not been studied in detail. Objective: To implement an in vitro simulation to characterize the hydrodynamic blood flow pattern associated with small variations in the effective orifice inclination. Methods: A three-dimensional aortic phantom was constructed, reproducing the anatomy of one patient submitted to percutaneous aortic valve implantation. Flow analysis was performed by use of the Particle Image Velocimetry technique. The flow pattern in the ascending aorta was characterized for six flow rate levels. In addition, six angles of inclination of the effective orifice were assessed. Results: The effective orifice at the -4° and -2° angles directed the main flow towards the anterior wall of the aortic model, inducing asymmetric and high shear stress in that region. However, the effective orifice at the +3° and +5° angles mimics the physiological pattern, centralizing the main flow and promoting a symmetric distribution of shear stress. Conclusion: The measurements performed suggest that small changes in the angle of inclination of the percutaneous prosthesis aid in the generation of a physiological hemodynamic pattern, and can contribute to reduce aortic remodeling.
Microbial adhesion capacity. Influence of shear and temperature stress.
Fink, Rok; Oder, Martina; Rangus, Dušan; Raspor, Peter; Bohinc, Klemen
2015-01-01
Environmental parameters dictate the conditions for both biofilm formation and deconstruction. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic effects on bacterial detachment. Escherichia coli grown on two stainless steel metal surfaces with different roughness (brushed with roughness of 0.05 μm and electropolished with roughness of 0.29 μm) are exposed to laminar and turbulent (shower) flows of phosphate buffered saline media at temperatures of 8, 20 and 37 °C. Results show that the turbulent flow removes significantly more bacterial cells than laminar flow (p materials. This indicates that the shear force determines the rate of detached bacteria. It is also observed that detachment of cells is more efficient on brushed than on electropolished contact surfaces because on the latter surface, fewer cells were attached before exposure. Moreover, we demonstrate that the temperature of the washing agent has an impact on bacterial detachment. At the same flow conditions, the exposure to higher temperature results in greater detachment rate.
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.
2014-05-01
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.
2014-01-01
We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature
Yan, Zheng
This dissertation provides an experimental test of the basic theory of the self-regulating drift wave turbulence (DWT)/sheared zonal flow (ZF) system in a cylindrical plasma device. The work is carried out from three approaches: the first explores the statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the ZF generation, the second investigates the dynamical behavior of the DWT/ZF system and the third investigates the variation of the DWT driven ZF verses magnetic field strength and ion-neutral drag. A radially sheared azimuthally symmetric plasma flow is generated by the DWT turbulent Reynolds stress which is directly measured by a multi-tip Langmuir probe. A statistical analysis shows that the cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity components is the key factor determining the detailed Reynolds stress profile. The coincidence of the radial location of the non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent Reynolds stress and the ion saturation current, as well as the properties of the joint probability distribution function (PDF) between the radial particle flux and turbulent Reynolds stress suggest that the bursts of the particle transport appear to be associated with radial transport of azimuthal momentum as well. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale ZF. From both Langmuir probe and fast-faming imaging measurements this shear flow is found to evolve with low frequency (˜250-300Hz). The envelope of the higher frequency (above 5kHz) floating potential fluctuations associated with the DWT, the density gradient, and the turbulent radial particle flux are all modulated out of phase with the strength of the ZF. The divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress is also modulated at the same slow time scale in a phase-coherent manner consistent with a turbulence-driven shear flow
Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)
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Ayumi Amemiya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.
Rheology of wet granular materials in shear flow: experiments and discrete simulations
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Badetti Michel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of wet granular media in shear flow is characterized by the dependence of apparent friction μ* and solid fraction ΦS on the reduced pressure P* and the inertia number I. Reduced pressure, P*= σ22a2/F0, compares the applied normal stress σ22 on grains of diameter a to the tensile strength of contact F0 (proportional to the surface tension Γ of the liquid and the beads diameter. A specifically modified rotational rheometer is used to characterize the response of model wet granular material (beads with diameter of submillimetric range to applied shear rate γ under controlled normal stress σ22. Discrete Element Method (DEM simulations in 3D are carried out in parallel and numerical results are compared with experimental ones. As P* is reduced, an increase of the apparent friction coefficient μ*=σ12/σ22, measured in the critical state and in slow flows with inertial effects is observed. While the agreement between experiments and simulations is good for dry materials as well as for wet materials in the quasistatic limit (I→0, some differences appear at finite I, for which some possible origins are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, A.; Calderon, E.; Orozco, O.; Pablos, J.L. de
2005-01-01
Experimental results have shown that the generation of spontaneous perpendicular sheared flow (i.e. the naturally occurring shear layer) requires a minimum plasma density or gradient in the TJ-II stellarator. This finding has been observed by means of multiple plasma diagnostics, including probes, fast cameras, reflectometry and HIBP. The obtained shearing rate of the naturally occurring shear layer results in general comparable to the one observed during biasing-improved confinement regimes. It has been found that there is a coupling between the onset of sheared flow development and an increase in the level of plasma edge fluctuations pointing to turbulence as the main ingredient of the radial electric field drive; once the shear flow develops the level of turbulence tends to decrease. The link between the development of sheared flows and plasma density in TJ-II has been observed in different magnetic configurations and plasma regimes. Preliminary results show that the threshold density value depends on the iota value and on the magnetic ripple (plasma volume). Recent experiments carried out in the LHD stellarator have shown that edge sheared flows are also affected by the magnitude of edge magnetic ripple: the threshold density to trigger edge sheared flows increases with magnetic ripple . Those results have been interpreted as an evidence of the importance of neoclassical effect in the physics of ExB sheared flows. For some TJ-II magnetic configurations with higher edge iota (ι/2π≥ 1.8) there is a sharp increase in the edge density gradient simultaneous to a strong reduction of fluctuations and transport and a slight increase of the shearing rate and perpendicular rotation (≥2 km/s) as density increases above the threshold. The role of the edge ripple, the presence of edge rational surfaces and properties of turbulent transport are considered as possible ingredients to explain the spontaneous development of edge sheared flows in TJ-II. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.
1986-01-01
Employing nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics methods the effects of two energy loss mechanisms on viscosity, stress, and granular-temperature in assemblies of nearly rigid, inelastic frictional disks undergoing steady-state shearing are calculated. Energy introduced into the system through forced shearing is dissipated by inelastic normal forces or through frictional sliding during collisions resulting in a natural steady-state kinetic energy density (granular-temperature) that depends on the density and shear rate of the assembly and on the friction and inelasticity properties of the disks. The calculations show that both the mean deviatoric particle velocity and the effective viscosity of a system of particles with fixed friction and restitution coefficients increase almost linearly with strain rate. Particles with a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution show a less rapid increase in both deviatoric velocity and viscosity as strain rate increases. Particles with highly dissipative interactions result in anisotropic pressure and velocity distributions in the assembly, particularly at low densities. At very high densities the pressure also becomes anisotropic due to high contact forces perpendicular to the shearing direction. The mean rotational velocity of the frictional disks is nearly equal to one-half the shear rate. The calculated ratio of shear stress to normal stress varies significantly with density while the ratio of shear stress to total pressure shows much less variation. The inclusion of surface friction (and thus particle rotation) decreases shear stress at low density but increases shear stress under steady shearing at higher densities
Approximate Dispersion Relations for Waves on Arbitrary Shear Flows
Ellingsen, S. À.; Li, Y.
2017-12-01
An approximate dispersion relation is derived and presented for linear surface waves atop a shear current whose magnitude and direction can vary arbitrarily with depth. The approximation, derived to first order of deviation from potential flow, is shown to produce good approximations at all wavelengths for a wide range of naturally occuring shear flows as well as widely used model flows. The relation reduces in many cases to a 3-D generalization of the much used approximation by Skop (1987), developed further by Kirby and Chen (1989), but is shown to be more robust, succeeding in situations where the Kirby and Chen model fails. The two approximations incur the same numerical cost and difficulty. While the Kirby and Chen approximation is excellent for a wide range of currents, the exact criteria for its applicability have not been known. We explain the apparently serendipitous success of the latter and derive proper conditions of applicability for both approximate dispersion relations. Our new model has a greater range of applicability. A second order approximation is also derived. It greatly improves accuracy, which is shown to be important in difficult cases. It has an advantage over the corresponding second-order expression proposed by Kirby and Chen that its criterion of accuracy is explicitly known, which is not currently the case for the latter to our knowledge. Our second-order term is also arguably significantly simpler to implement, and more physically transparent, than its sibling due to Kirby and Chen.Plain Language SummaryIn order to answer key questions such as how the ocean surface affects the climate, erodes the coastline and transports nutrients, we must understand how waves move. This is not so easy when depth varying currents are present, as they often are in coastal waters. We have developed a modeling tool for accurately predicting wave properties in such situations, ready for use, for example, in the complex oceanographic computer models. Our
Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Lingling; Song, Guanbin
2018-04-18
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumour cells that have been proposed to be responsible for cancer initiation, chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. Shear stress activated cellular signalling is involved in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the effects of shear stress on the migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Here, we studied the effects of shear stress that are generated from a parallel plated flow chamber system, on LCSC migration and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), using transwell assay and western blot, respectively. We found that 2 dyne/cm 2 shear stress loading for 6 h promotes LCSC migration and activation of the FAK and ERK1/2 signalling pathways, whereas treatment with the FAK phosphorylation inhibitor PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the shear stress-promoted migration, indicating the involvement of FAK and ERK1/2 activation in shear stress-induced LCSC migration. Additionally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that shear stress lowers LCSC stiffness via the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting that the mechanism by which shear stress promotes LCSC migration might partially be responsible for the decrease in cell stiffness. Further experiments focused on the role of the actin cytoskeleton, demonstrating that the F-actin filaments in LCSCs are less well-defined after shear stress treatment, providing an explanation for the reduction in cell stiffness and the promotion of cell migration. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress promotes LCSC migration through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathways, which further results in a reduction of organized actin and softer cell bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A numerical method for acoustic normal modes for shear flows
Porter, M. B.; Reiss, E. L.
1985-05-01
The normal modes and their propagation numbers for acoustic propagation in wave guides with flow are the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a boundary value problem for a non-standard Sturm-Liouville problem. It is non-standard because it depends non-linearly on the eigenvalue parameter. (In the classical problem for ducts with no flow, the problem depends linearly on the eigenvalue parameter). In this paper a method is presented for the fast numerical solution of this problem. It is a generalization of a method that was developed for the classical problem. A finite difference method is employed that combines well known numerical techniques and a generalization of the Sturm sequence method to solve the resulting algebraic eigenvalue problem. Then a modified Richardson extrapolation method is used that dramatically increases the accuracy of the computed eigenvalues. The method is then applied to two problems. They correspond to acoustic propagation in the ocean in the presence of a current, and to acoustic propagation in shear layers over flat plates.
Amininasab, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.
2018-02-01
Shear stress effect has been often neglected in calculation of the Weibel instability growth rate in laser-plasma interactions. In the present work, the role of the shear stress in the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma with density gradient is explored. By increasing the density gradient, the shear stress threshold is increasing and the range of the propagation angles of growing modes is limited. Therefore, by increasing steps of the density gradient plasma near the relativistic electron beam-emitting region, the Weibel instability occurs at a higher stress flow. Calculations show that the minimum value of the stress rate threshold for linear polarization is greater than that of circular polarization. The Wiebel instability growth rate for linear polarization is 18.3 times circular polarization. One sees that for increasing stress and density gradient effects, there are smaller maximal growth rates for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 stress and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability for /k c ω p stress and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 < θ m i n < π and /3 π 2 < θ m i n < 2 π in circular polarized plasma.
Flux of parallel flow momentum by parallel shear flow driven instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosuga, Yusuke; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka
2016-01-01
The flux of parallel momentum by parallel shear flow driven instability is calculated with the self-consistent mode dispersion. The result indicates that the diffusive component has two characteristic terms: ν D1 ∼ v tilde x 2 /γ (0) and ν D2 ∼ v tilde x 2 /(k ∥ 2 D ∥ ) where v tilde x is the fluctuation radial velocity, γ (0) is the growth rate of the mode, k ∥ is the parallel wave number, and D ∥ is the electron diffusivity along the magnetic field. ν D1 results when the parallel flow shear is above the threshold, while ν D2 is important around the marginal state. Since typically ν D1 >> ν D2 ∼ D n , where D n is the particle diffusivity, the Prandtl number (≡ ν/D n ) becomes large when parallel flow shear driven instability occurs. This feature may explain the experimental observation on the difference between profiles of density and toroidal flow in edge and SOL plasmas. (author)
The origin of flow-induced alignment of spherical colloids in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids
Santos de Oliveira, I.S.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.
2012-01-01
We have studied the poorly understood process of flow-induced structure formation by colloids suspended in shear-thinning fluids. These viscoelastic fluids contain long flexible chains whose entanglements appear and disappear continuously as a result of Brownian motion and the applied shear flow.
Cen, Duofeng; Huang, Da
2017-06-01
Tension-shear failure is a typical failure mode in the rock masses in unloading zones induced by excavation or river incision, etc., such as in excavation-disturbed zone of deep underground caverns and superficial rocks of high steep slopes. However, almost all the current shear failure criteria for rock are usually derived on the basis of compression-shear failure. This paper proposes a simple device for use with a servo-controlled compression-shear testing machine to conduct the tension-shear tests of cuboid rock specimens, to test the direct shear behavior of sandstone under different constant normal tensile stress conditions ( σ = -1, -1.5, -2, -2.5 and -3 MPa) as well as the uniaxial tension behavior. Generally, the fracture surface roughness decreases and the proportion of comminution areas in fracture surface increases as the change of stress state from tension to tension-shear and to compression-shear. Stepped fracture is a primary fracture pattern in the tension-shear tests. The shear stiffness, shear deformation and normal deformation (except the normal deformation for σ = -1 MPa) decrease during shearing, while the total normal deformation containing the pre-shearing portion increases as the normal tensile stress level (| σ|) goes up. Shear strength is more sensitive to the normal tensile stress than to the normal compressive stress, and the power function failure criterion (or Mohr envelope form of Hoek-Brown criterion) is examined to be the optimal criterion for the tested sandstone in the full region of tested normal stress in this study.
Shen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Huilin; Kröger, Martin; Li, Ying
2017-05-24
A core-polyethylene glycol-lipid shell (CPLS) nanoparticle consists of an inorganic core coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, surrounded by a lipid bilayer shell. It can be self-assembled from a PEGylated core with surface-tethered PEG chains, where all the distal ends are covalently bonded to lipid molecules. Upon adding free lipids, a complete lipid bilayer shell can be formed on the surface driven by the hydrophobic nature of lipid tails, leading to the formation of a CPLS nanoparticle. The stability of CPLS nanoparticles in shear flow has been systematically studied through large scale dissipative particle dynamics simulations. CPLS nanoparticles demonstrate higher stability and less deformation in shear flow, compared with lipid vesicles. Burst leakage of drug molecules inside lipid vesicles and CPLS NPs can be induced by the large pores at their tips. These pores are initiated by the maximum stress in the waist region. It further grows along with the tank-treading motion of vesicles or CPLS NPs in shear flow. However, due to the constraints applied by PEG polymers, CPLS NPs are less deformed than vesicles with comparable size under the same flow conditions. Thus, the less deformed CPLS NPs express a smaller maximum stress at waists, demonstrating higher stability. Pore formation at waists, evolving into large pores on vesicles, leads to the burst leakage of drug molecules and complete rupture of vesicles. In contrast, although similar drug leakage in CPLS nanoparticles can occur at high shear rates, pores initiated at moderate shear rates tend to be short-lived and close due to the constraints mediated by PEG polymers. This kind of 'self-healing' capability can be observed over a wide range of shear rates for CPLS nanoparticles. Our results suggest self-assembled CPLS nanoparticles to exhibit high stability during blood circulation without rapid drug leakage. These features make CPLS nanoparticles candidates for a promising drug delivery platform.
Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.
2018-03-01
In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via
The origin of flow-induced alignment of spherical colloids in shear-thinning viscoelastic fluids.
Santos de Oliveira, I S; den Otter, W K; Briels, W J
2012-11-28
We have studied the poorly understood process of flow-induced structure formation by colloids suspended in shear-thinning fluids. These viscoelastic fluids contain long flexible chains whose entanglements appear and disappear continuously as a result of brownian motion and the applied shear flow. Responsive particle dynamics simulates each chain as a single smooth brownian particle, with slowly evolving inter-particle degrees of freedom accounting for the entanglements. The colloids mixed homogeneously in all simulated quiescent dispersions and they remain dispersed under slow shear flow. Beyond a critical shear rate, which varies depending on the fluid, the colloids aggregate and form flow-aligned strings in the bulk of the fluid. In this work we explore the physical origins of this hitherto unexplained ordering phenomena, both by systematically varying the parameters of the simulated fluids and by analyzing the flow-induced effective colloidal interactions. We also present an expression for the critical shear rate of the studied fluids.
Thin liquid films with time-dependent chemical reactions sheared by an ambient gas flow
Bender, Achim; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana
2017-08-01
Chemical reactions in thin liquid films are found in many industrial applications, e.g., in combustion chambers of internal combustion engines where a fuel film can develop on pistons or cylinder walls. The reactions within the film and the turbulent outer gas flow influence film stability and lead to film breakup, which in turn can lead to deposit formation. In this work we examine the evolution and stability of a thin liquid film in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and under the influence of a turbulent gas flow. Long-wave theory with a double perturbation analysis is used to reduce the complexity of the problem and obtain an evolution equation for the film thickness. The chemical reaction is assumed to be slow compared to film evolution and the amount of reactant in the film is limited, which means that the reaction rate decreases with time as the reactant is consumed. A linear stability analysis is performed to identify the influence of reaction parameters, material properties, and environmental conditions on the film stability limits. Results indicate that exothermic reactions have a stabilizing effect whereas endothermic reactions destabilize the film and can lead to rupture. It is shown that an initially unstable film can become stable with time as the reaction rate decreases. The shearing of the film by the external gas flow leads to the appearance of traveling waves. The shear stress magnitude has a nonmonotonic influence on film stability.
Brennan, Matthew L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Burau, Jon R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Kranenburg, C.
2002-01-01
The relationship between sediment bed flux and bed shear stress during a pair of field experiments in a partially stratified estuary is examined in this paper. Time series of flow velocity, vertical density profiles, and suspended sediment concentration were measured continuously throughout the water column and intensely within 1 meter of the bed. These time series were analyzed to determine bed shear stress, vertical turbulent sediment flux, and mass of sediment suspended in the water column. Resuspension, as inferred from near-bed measurements of vertical turbulent sediment flux, was flood dominant, in accordance with the flood-dominant bed shear stress. Bathymetry-induced residual flow, gravitational circulation, and ebb tide salinity stratification contributed to the flood dominance. In addition to this flow-induced asymmetry, the erodibility of the sediment appears to increase during the first 2 hours of flood tide. Tidal asymmetry in bed shear stress and erodibility help explain an estuarine turbidity maximum that is present during flood tide but absent during ebb tide. Because horizontal advection was insignificant during most of the observation periods, the change in bed mass can be estimated from changes in the total suspended sediment mass. The square wave shape of the bed mass time series indicates that suspended sediment rapidly deposited in an unconsolidated or concentrated benthic suspension layer at slack tides and instantly resuspended when the shear stress became sufficiently large during a subsequent tide. The variability of bed mass associated with the spring/neap cycle (about 60 mg/cm2) is similar to that associated with the semidiurnal tidal cycle.
Influence of shear and deviatoric stress on the evolution of permeability in fractured rock
Faoro, Igor; Niemeijer, André|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Marone, Chris; Elsworth, Derek
The evolution of permeability in fractured rock as a function of effective normal stress, shear displacement, and damage remains a complex issue. In this contribution, we report on experiments in which rock surfaces were subject to direct shear under controlled pore pressure and true triaxial stress
On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring
Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.
2013-01-01
Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed
Zoback, M D; Roller, J C
1979-10-26
A profile of measurements of shear stress perpendicular to the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, shows a marked increase in stress with distance from the fault. The pattern suggests that shear stress on the fault increases slowly with depth and reaches a value on the order of the average stress released during earthquakes. This result has important implications for both long- and shortterm prediction of large earthquakes.
MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity
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Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)
2010-03-19
Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.
Li, Yan; Yuan, Jiafeng; Wang, Qianwen; Sun, Lijie; Sha, Yunying; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Zhonghua; Ma, Yonggang; Cao, Hui
2018-01-01
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1, 25 (OH) 2 D 3 ) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH) 2 D 3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm 2 ) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system. 1, 25 (OH) 2 D 3 affects the responses of ROBs to FSS, including the inhibition of NO release and cell proliferation as well as the promotion of PGE 2 release and cell differentiation. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 influences osteoblasts' responses to FSS, thus most probably providing guidance for the selection of 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 concentration and mechanical loading in order to produce functional bone tissues in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Impact of Wall Shear Stress and Pressure Variation on the Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaque
Taviani, V.; Li, Z. Y.; Sutcliffe, M.; Gillard, J.
Rupture of vulnerable atheromatous plaque in the carotid and coronary arteries often leads to stroke and heart attack respectively. The mechanism of blood flow and plaque rupture in stenotic arteries is still not fully understood. A three dimensional rigid wall model was solved under steady and unsteady conditions assuming a time-varying inlet velocity profile to investigate the relative importance of axial forces and pressure drops in arteries with asymmetric stenosis. Flow-structure interactions were investigated for the same geometry and the results were compared with those retrieved with the corresponding one dimensional models. The Navier-Stokes equations were used as the governing equations for the fluid. The tube wall was assumed linearly elastic, homogeneous isotropic. The analysis showed that wall shear stress is small (less than 3.5%) with respect to pressure drop throughout the cycle even for severe stenosis. On the contrary, the three dimensional behavior of velocity, pressure and wall shear stress is in general very different from that predicted by one dimensional models. This suggests that the primary source of mistakes in one dimensional studies comes from neglecting the three dimensional geometry of the plaque. Neglecting axial forces only involves minor errors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten
2014-01-01
at small consolidation stresses were investigated. For this purpose, three grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. Results showed that powder flow properties depend strongly on the consolidation during testing. The consolidation during discharge in terms of the major principal stress and wall...... normal stress were approximately 200Pa and 114Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500Pa and 200Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level...
DEM Simulation of Direct Shear: 1. Rupture Under Constant Normal Stress Boundary Conditions
Bewick, R. P.; Kaiser, P. K.; Bawden, W. F.; Bahrani, N.
2014-09-01
A particle-based distinct element method and its grain-based method are used to generate and simulate a synthetic specimen calibrated to the rupture characteristics of an intact (non-jointed) low-porosity brittle rock deformed in direct shear. The simulations are compared to the laboratory-generated ruptures and used to investigate rupture at various normal stress magnitudes. The fracturing processes leading to shear rupture zone creation and the rupture mechanism are found to be normal stress dependent (progressing from tensile splitting to shear rupture) and show partial confirmation of rupture zone creation in nature and in experiments from other materials. The normal stress dependent change is found to be due to the orientation of the major principal stress and local stress concentrations internal to the synthetic specimens being deformed. The normal stress dependent rupture creation process results in a change to the rupture zone's geometry, shear stress versus horizontal displacement response, and thus ultimate strength.
Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rheological parameters such as loss modulus (″) and dynamic viscosity (′) do not vary significantly on superposing steady state shear with oscillatory shear in the studied range of experiment at 185°C in un-reinforced LLDPE. Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and Kevlar/glass fibre reinforced LLDPE showed significant ...
Han, Suyue; Chang, Gary Han; Schirmer, Clemens; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2016-11-01
We construct a reduced-order model (ROM) to study the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) distributions in image-based patient-specific aneurysms models. The magnitude of WSS has been shown to be a critical factor in growth and rupture of human aneurysms. We start the process by running a training case using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation with time-varying flow parameters, such that these parameters cover the range of parameters of interest. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is utilized to construct the reduced-order bases using the training CFD simulation. The resulting ROM enables us to study the flow patterns and the WSS distributions over a range of system parameters computationally very efficiently with a relatively small number of modes. This enables comprehensive analysis of the model system across a range of physiological conditions without the need to re-compute the simulation for small changes in the system parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Qu, W.X.; Qiu, X.M.
2002-01-01
A new suppression mechanism of turbulent transport, characteristic of the synergism between safety factor and shear flows, is proposed to explain the internal transport barriers (ITBs) observed in neutral-beam-heated tokamak discharges with reversed magnetic shear. It is shown that the evolution of turbulent transport with the strength of the suppression mechanism reproduces the basic features of the formation and development of ITBs observed in experiments. In addition, the present analyses predict the possibility of global ion and electron heat transport barriers
Effect of tree roots on a shear zone: modeling reinforced shear stress.
Kazutoki Abe; Robert R. Ziemer
1991-01-01
Tree roots provide important soil reinforcement that impoves the stability of hillslopes. After trees are cut and roots begin to decay, the frequency of slope failures can increase. To more fully understand the mechanics of how tree roots reinforce soil, fine sandy soil containing pine roots was placed in a large shear box in horizontal layers and sheared across a...
Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, L.
1999-01-01
In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)
Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, L.
2001-01-01
In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)
Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo
2013-01-01
Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm 2 ) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate
Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yokota, Hiroki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungna@iupui.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)
2013-04-19
Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate
Box, Frieke M. A.; van der Geest, Rob J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Palm-Meinders, Nge H.; Doornbos, Joost; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.
2007-01-01
PURPOSE: To verify whether wall shear stress (WSS) can be assessed in a reproducible manner using automatic model-based segmentation of phase-contrast MR images by determination of flow volume and maximum flow velocity (Vmax) in cross-sections of these vessels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The approach is
Multiscale Modeling of Primary Cilium Deformations Under Local Forces and Shear Flows
Peng, Zhangli; Feng, Zhe; Resnick, Andrew; Young, Yuan-Nan
2017-11-01
We study the detailed deformations of a primary cilium under local forces and shear flows by developing a multiscale model based on the state-of-the-art understanding of its molecular structure. Most eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation, but the detailed mechanism for mechanosensation is not well understood. We apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to model an entire well with a primary cilium and consider its different components, including the basal body, microtubule doublets, actin cortex, and lipid bilayer. We calibrate the mechanical properties of individual components and their interactions from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate the simulations by comparing the deformation profile of the cilium and the rotation of the basal body with optical trapping experiments. After validations, we investigate the deformation of the primary cilium under shear flows. Furthermore, we calculate the membrane tensions and cytoskeleton stresses, and use them to predict the activation of mechanosensitive channels.
Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A
2016-01-01
increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle......-mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; Pstress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid...
Turbulent shear-flow over fractal arrays of surface-mounted cubes
Wise, Daniel J.; Brevis, Wernher; Sheffield Fluid Mechanics Group Team
2015-11-01
The turbulent shear-flow over a bottom-wall fully covered by periodic multi-scale arrangements of obstacles is examined via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Volumetric 3D Velocimetry (V3V) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurements. Three obstacle patterns are utilised, all based on different numbers of iterations of the Sierpinski carpet fractal. In each case 2D/3D velocity fields of the flow formed within the porous channels, namely the flow beneath the mean obstacle height, are presented and analysed with respect to standard statistics such as the mean, rms velocity profiles, and the Reynolds stresses. Point-wise measurements within the obstacle arrays reveal that the presence of the obstacles, and in particular their injection of energy at the associated wavelengths, has unexpected effects on the slope of the energy spectra within the turbulent porous flow. The region dominated by these spectral characteristics is defined. It is also shown that this behaviour is not observed in the outer flow.
Yield and flow-induced phase transition in colloidal gels under startup shear
Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna
2016-11-01
We study the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding connections to energy storage and phase transition. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in stress, and prior studies of strong, dilute colloidal gels with a stringy microstructure connect this "yield" event to loss of network connectivity. Owing to the importance of Brownian transport in phase separation processes in colloids, here we study a reversible colloidal gel of hard spheres that interact via a short-range attraction of several kT, for which Brownian motion can lead to rapid quiescent coarsening. In the present study, we interrogate the shear stress for a range of imposed flow strengths, monitoring particle-level structure and dynamics, to determine the microscopic picture of gel yield. Our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution and macroscopic response during startup provide insight into the phase behavior during yield. We present a new model of stress development, phase transition, and structural evolution during transient yield in colloidal gels for which ongoing phase separation informs gel phenomenology.
Horobin, Jarod T; Sabapathy, Surendran; Simmonds, Michael J
2017-11-01
The supra-physiological shear stress that blood is exposed to while traversing mechanical circulatory assist devices affects the physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), impairs RBC deformability, and may induce hemolysis. Previous studies exploring RBC damage following exposure to supra-physiological shear stress have employed durations exceeding clinical instrumentation, thus we explored changes in RBC deformability following exposure to shear stress below the reported "hemolytic threshold" using shear exposure durations per minute (i.e., duty-cycles) reflective of that employed by circulatory assist devices. Blood collected from 20 male donors, aged 18-38 years, was suspended in a viscous medium and exposed to an intermittent shear stress protocol of 1 s at 100 Pa, every 60 s for 60 duty-cycles. During the remaining 59 s/min, the cells were left at stasis until the subsequent duty-cycle commenced. At discrete time points (15/30/45/60 duty-cycles), an ektacytometer measured RBC deformability immediately after shear exposure at 100 Pa. Plasma-free hemoglobin, a measurement of hemolysis, was quantified via spectrophotometry. Supra-physiological shear stress impaired RBC properties, as indicated by: (1) decreased maximal elongation of RBCs at infinite shear stress following 15 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress protocol (100 Pa) following exposure to 1 duty-cycle (F (1.891, 32.15) = 12.21, P = 0.0001); and (3) increased plasma-free hemoglobin following 60 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress, impairs RBC deformability, with the extent of impairment exacerbated with each duty-cycle, and ultimately precipitates hemolysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DECOVALEX I - Test Case 1: Coupled stress-flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosengren, L.; Christianson, M.
1995-12-01
This report presents the results of the coupled stress-flow model, test case 1 of Decovalex. The model simulates the fourth loading cycle of a coupled stress-flow test and subsequent shearing up to and beyond peak shear resistance. The first loading sequence (A) consists of seven normal loading steps: 0, 5, 15, 25, 15, 5, 0 MPa. The second loading sequence (B) consists of the following eight steps: unstressed state, normal boundary loading of 25 MPa (no shearing), and then shearing of 0.5, 0.8, 2, 4, 2, 0 mm. Two different options regarding the rock joint behaviour were modeled in accordance with the problem definition. In option 1 a linear elastic joint model with Coulomb slip criterion was used. In option 2 a non-linear empirical (i.e. Barton-Bandis) joint model was used. The hydraulic condition during both load sequence A and B was a constant head of 5 m at the inlet point and 0 m at the outlet point. All model runs presented in this report were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element computer code UDEC, version 1.8. 30 refs, 36 figs
Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we...
Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.
2010-01-01
Wheat dough can be separated into a starch-rich and a gluten-rich fraction by subjecting the dough to curvilinear shear flow. This paper presents the effect of salt (NaCl) addition on the shear-induced separation process. The separation (defined as the changes in protein concentration in the various
Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.
1990-01-01
tension as a function of the angle between the tensile axis and the rolling direction. Textures were determined by neutron diffraction, and Taylor M-factors were calculated. The microstructures were studied by TEM. It was found that the flow stress varies significantly with orientation both at low......The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial...... and high strains. It is shown that for most experimental conditions, texture effects alone cannot explain the observed anisotropy, and microstructural anisotropy effects have to be taken into account. In those cases, a correlation between the microstructural anisotropy and the development of microbands...
Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1999-01-01
the coupled equations for potential and pressure exhibit special tripolar vortex-like structures. For the general case, however, parallel ion dynamics is included and the equation describing the stationary ITG vortex has the structure of a nonlinear Poisson-type equation. Analytical as well as numerical...... solutions of this equation are presented for various possible cases. It is shown that, for a critical value of the velocity shear asymmetric dipolar vortices can arise which are strongly modified as a localized vortex chain at resonance. For strong velocity shear these structures are destroyed...
miR-126 Is Involved in Vascular Remodeling under Laminar Shear Stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Mondadori dos Santos
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Morphology and changes in gene expression of vascular endothelium are mainly due to shear stress and inflammation. Cell phenotype modulation has been clearly demonstrated to be controlled by small noncoding micro-RNAs (miRNAs. This study focused on the effect of laminar shear stress (LSS on human endothelial cells (HUVECs, with an emphasis on the role of miRNA-126 (miR-126. Exposure of HUVECs in vitro to LSS modified the shape of HUVECs and concomitantly regulated the expression of miR-126, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and syndecan-4 (SDC-4. A significant upregulation of miR-126 during long-term exposure to flow was shown. Interestingly, LSS enhanced SDC-4 expression on the HUVEC membranes. Overexpression of miR-126 in HUVECs decreased the levels of targets stromal cell-derived factor-1 SDF-1/CXCL12 and VCAM-1 but increased the expression of RGS16, CXCR4, and SDC-4. No significant difference in terms of cell proliferation and apoptosis was observed between scramble, anti-miR-126, and pre-miR-126 transfected HUVECs. In Apo-E KO/CKD mice aortas expressing a high level of miR-126, SDC-4 was concomitantly increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-126 (i is overexpressed by long-term LSS, (ii has a role in up- and downregulation of genes involved in atherosclerosis, and (iii affects SDC-4 expression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López-Barrón, Carlos R.; Wagner, Norman J.; Porcar, Lionel
2015-01-01
The rheology and three-dimensional microstructure of a concentrated viscoelastic solution of the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide) 106 -poly(propylene oxide) 68 -poly(ethylene oxide) 106 (Pluronic F127) in the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate are measured by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under flow in three orthogonal planes. This solution's shear-thinning viscosity is due to the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed (HCP) sliding layer structure. Shear-melting of the crystalline structure is observed without disruption of the self-assembled micelles, resulting in a change in flow properties. Spatially resolved measurements in the 1–2 plane reveal that both shear-melting and sliding are not uniform across the Couette gap. Melting and recrystallization of the HCP layers occur cyclically during a single large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) cycle, in agreement with the “stick-slip” flow mechanism proposed by Hamley et al. [Phys. Rev. E 58, 7620–7628 (1998)]. Analysis of 3D “structural” Lissajous curves show that the cyclic melting and sliding are direct functions of the strain rate amplitude and show perfect correlation with the cyclic stress response during LAOS. Both viscosity and structural order obey the Delaware–Rutgers rule. Combining rheology with in situ spatiotemporally resolved SANS is demonstrated to elucidate the structural origins of the nonlinear rheology of complex fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López-Barrón, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.r.lopez-barron@exxonmobil.com [ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown Technology and Engineering Complex, Baytown, Texas 77520 (United States); Wagner, Norman J. [Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [Institute Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2015-05-15
The rheology and three-dimensional microstructure of a concentrated viscoelastic solution of the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 68}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106} (Pluronic F127) in the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate are measured by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under flow in three orthogonal planes. This solution's shear-thinning viscosity is due to the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed (HCP) sliding layer structure. Shear-melting of the crystalline structure is observed without disruption of the self-assembled micelles, resulting in a change in flow properties. Spatially resolved measurements in the 1–2 plane reveal that both shear-melting and sliding are not uniform across the Couette gap. Melting and recrystallization of the HCP layers occur cyclically during a single large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) cycle, in agreement with the “stick-slip” flow mechanism proposed by Hamley et al. [Phys. Rev. E 58, 7620–7628 (1998)]. Analysis of 3D “structural” Lissajous curves show that the cyclic melting and sliding are direct functions of the strain rate amplitude and show perfect correlation with the cyclic stress response during LAOS. Both viscosity and structural order obey the Delaware–Rutgers rule. Combining rheology with in situ spatiotemporally resolved SANS is demonstrated to elucidate the structural origins of the nonlinear rheology of complex fluids.
Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
JayaKumar, S.
horizontal continental shelf. Measurements of bed shear stress, surface elevation and flow velocities were carried out. Periodic waves were also generated and the bed shear stresses measured over a horizontal bed were found to be comparable with the earlier...
In vivo 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Wall Shear Stress Estimation in Ascending Aortic Dilatation
Bieging, Erik T.; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Wentland, Andrew; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J.
2011-01-01
Purpose To estimate surface-based wall shear stress (WSS) and evaluate flow patterns in ascending aortic dilatation (AscAD) using a high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional velocity encoded, radially undersampled phase contrast magnetic resonance sequence (4D PC-MRI). Materials and Methods 4D PC-MRI was performed in 11 patients with AscAD (46.3±22.0 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (32.9±13.4 years) after written informed consent and IRB-approval. Following manual vessel wall segmentation of the ascending aorta (MATLAB, The Mathworks, Natick, MA), a 3D surface was created using spline interpolation. Spatial WSS variation based on surface division in 12 segments and temporal variation were evaluated in AscAD and normal aortas. Visual analysis of flow patterns was performed based on streamlines and particle traces using EnSight (v9.0, CEI, Apex, NC). Results AscAD was associated with significantly increased diastolic WSS, decreased systolic to diastolic WSS ratio, and delayed onset of peak WSS (all P wall of the ascending aorta. Vortical flow with highest velocities along the anterior wall and increased helical flow during diastole were observed in AscAD compared to controls. Conclusion Changes in WSS in the ascending aorta of AscAD correspond to observed alterations in flow patterns compared to controls. PMID:21563242
Ideal flow theory for the double – shearing model as a basis for metal forming design
Alexandrov, S.; Trung, N. T.
2018-02-01
In the case of Tresca’ solids (i.e. solids obeying the Tresca yield criterion and its associated flow rule) ideal flows have been defined elsewhere as solenoidal smooth deformations in which an eigenvector field associated everywhere with the greatest principal stress (and strain rate) is fixed in the material. Under such conditions all material elements undergo paths of minimum plastic work, a condition which is often advantageous for metal forming processes. Therefore, the ideal flow theory is used as the basis of a procedure for the preliminary design of such processes. The present paper extends the theory of stationary planar ideal flow to pressure dependent materials obeying the double shearing model and the double slip and rotation model. It is shown that the original problem of plasticity reduces to a purely geometric problem. The corresponding system of equations is hyperbolic. The characteristic relations are integrated in elementary functions. In regions where one family of characteristics is straight, mapping between the principal lines and Cartesian coordinates is determined by linear ordinary differential equations. An illustrative example is provided.
Shahriari, S; Maleki, H; Hassan, I; Kadem, L
2012-10-11
Evaluating shear induced hemodynamic complications is one of the major concerns in design of the mechanical heart valves (MHVs). The monitoring of these events relies on both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Currently, numerical approaches are mainly based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A more straightforward evaluation can be based on the Lagrangian analysis of the whole blood. As a consequence, Lagrangian meshfree methods are more adapted to such evaluation. In this study, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a fully meshfree particle method originated to simulate compressible astrophysical flows, is applied to study the flow through a normal and a dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). The SPH results are compared with the reference data. The accumulation of shear stress patterns on blood components illustrates the important role played by non-physiological flow patterns and mainly vortical structures in this issue. The statistical distribution of particles with respect to shear stress loading history provides important information regarding the relative number of blood components that can be damaged. This can be used as a measure of the response of blood components to the presence of the valve implant or any implantable medical device. This work presents the first attempt to simulate pulsatile flow through BMHVs using SPH method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yixin; Xu, Jiang; Peng, Shoujian
2016-12-01
Fluid injection has been applied in many fields, such as hazardous waste deep well injection, forced circulation in geothermal fields, hydraulic fracturing, and CO2 geological storage. However, current research mainly focuses on geological data statistics and the dominating effects of pore pressure. There are only a few laboratory-conditioned studies on the role of drilling boreholes and the effect of injection pressure on the borehole wall. Through experimental phenomenology, this study examines the risk of triggering geological disasters by fluid injection under shear stress. We developed a new direct shear test apparatus, coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM), to investigate mechanical property variations when an intact rock experienced step drilling borehole, fluid injection, and fluid pressure acting on the borehole and fracture wall. We tested the peak shear stress of sandstone under different experimental conditions, which showed that drilling borehole, water injection, and increased pore pressure led to the decrease in peak shear stress. Furthermore, as pore pressure increased, peak shear stress dispersion increased due to crack propagation irregularity. Because the peak shear stress changed during the fluid injection steps, we suggest that the risk of triggering geological disaster with injection under shear stress, pore, borehole, and fluid pressure should be considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This study evaluated the shear stress distribution on the adhesive interface and the bond strength between resin cement and two ceramics. For finite element analysis (FEA, a tridimensional model was made using computer-aided design software. This model consisted of a ceramic slice (10x10x2mm partially embedded on acrylic resin with a resin cement cylinder (Ø=3.4 mm and h=3mm cemented on the external surface. Results of maximum principal stress and maximum principal shear were obtained to evaluate the stress generated on the ceramic and the cylinder surfaces. In order to reproduce the in vitro test, similar samples to the computational model were manufactured according to ceramic material (Zirconia reinforced lithium silicate - ZLS and high translucency Zirconia - YZHT, (N=48, n=12. Half of the specimens were submitted to shear bond test after 24h using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min, 50kgf until fracture. The other half was stored (a (180 days, water, 37ºC prior to the test. Bond strength was calculated in MPa and submitted to analysis of variance. The results showed that ceramic material influenced bond strength mean values (p=0.002, while aging did not: YZHT (19.80±6.44a, YZHTa (17.95±7.21a, ZLS (11.88±5.40b, ZLSa (11.76±3.32b. FEA results showed tensile and shear stress on ceramic and cylinder surfaces with more intensity on their periphery. Although the stress distribution was similar for both conditions, YZHT showed higher bond strength values; however, both materials seemed to promote durable bond strength.
Shear viscosities and normal stress differences of rigid liquid-crystalline polymers
Tao, Y.G.; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.
2006-01-01
Shear viscosities as well as first and second normal stress differences of solutions of rigid spherocylindrical colloids are investigated by Brownian dynamics simulations for aspect ratios L/D in a range from 25 to 60 and scaled volume fractions L/D from 0.5 to 4.5. Shear thinning behavior is
Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks
Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh
1993-01-01
Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.
Influence of Equilibrium Perpendicular Shear Flow on Peeling-ballooning Instabilities
Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.
2011-10-01
The influence of perpendicular ExB shear flow on peeling-ballooning instabilities is investigated with BOUT++ code. In our simulation, a set of reduced MHD equations are solved for a very unstable equilibrium and a marginal unstable equilibrium in shifted-circular tokamak geometry. For ideal MHD cases without diamagnetic terms and resistivity, we find that flow shear shows dramatic stabilizing effect on peeling-ballooning modes and the stabilizing degree increases with mode number. When the flow shear is large enough, we find the curvature of growth rate verse mode number has the same shape like that for the case with only diamagnetic term, and this implies that diamagnetic term and the shear flow have the same mechanism acting on peeling-ballooning instabilities. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz term is also investigated and we find it is destabilizing and the effect depends on both flow shear and mode number. For cases with both diamagnetic term and the applied shear flow, modes with intermediate mode number are strongest stabilized while high n and low n mode keep unstable. Based on these results, an ELM trigger sketch is proposed. Performed for USDoE by LLNL Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two
Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.
1994-01-01
We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter
Direct test of a nonlinear constitutive equation for simple turbulent shear flows using DNS data
Schmitt, François G.
2007-10-01
Several nonlinear constitutive equations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the linear eddy-viscosity models to describe complex turbulent flows. These nonlinear equations have often been compared to experimental data through the outputs of numerical models. Here we perform a priori analysis of nonlinear eddy-viscosity models using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of simple shear flows. In this paper, the constitutive equation is directly checked using a tensor projection which involves several invariants of the flow. This provides a 3 terms development which is exact for 2D flows, and a best approximation for 3D flows. We provide the quadratic nonlinear constitutive equation for the near-wall region of simple shear flows using DNS data, and estimate their coefficients. We show that these coefficients have several common properties for the different simple shear flow databases considered. We also show that in the central region of pipe flows, where the shear rate is very small, the coefficients of the constitutive equation diverge, indicating the failure of this representation for vanishing shears.
Measuring Shear Stress with a Microfluidic Sensor to improve Aerodynamic Efficiency, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Skin friction drag is directly proportional to the local shear stress of a surface and can be the largest factor in an aerodynamic body's total parasitic drag. The...
Characterization of a Silicon-Micromachined Thermal Shear-Stress Sensor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sheplak, Mark; Chandrasekaran, Venkataraman; Cain, Anthony; Nishida, Toshikazu; Cattafesta, Louis N
2002-01-01
A detailed characterization is presented of a silicon-micromachined thermal shear-stress sensor employing a thin-film platinum-sensing element on top of a silicon-nitride membrane that is stretched over a vacuum cavity...
Effects of Impact Velocity and Stress Concentrators in Titanium on Failure by Adaiabatic Shearing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Klepaczko, J
2001-01-01
.... Since titanium alloys are very sensitive to the onset of the adiabatic shear banding (ASB) it is of great practical interest to study, via experiment and numerical modeling, the effect of stress concentrators...
Zhou, Ying; Yu, Hai; Wanless, Erica J; Jameson, Graeme J; Franks, George V
2009-08-15
Flocs were produced by adding three cationic polymers (10% charge density, 3.0x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; 40% charge density, 1.1x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; and 100% charge density, 1.2x10(5) g/mol molecular weight) to 90 nm diameter silica particles. The shear yield stresses of the consolidated sediment beds from settled and centrifuged flocs were determined via the vane technique. The polymer charge density plays an important role in influencing the shear yield stresses of sediment beds. The shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 10% charged polymer were observed to increase with an increase in polymer dose, initial solid concentration and background electrolyte concentration at all volume fractions. In comparison, polymer dose has a marginal effect on the shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 40% and 100% charged polymers. The shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 40% charged polymer are independent of salt concentration whereas the addition of salt decreases the shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 100% charged polymer. When flocculated at the optimum dose for each polymer (12 mg/g silica for the 10% charged polymer at 0.03 M NaCl, 12 mg/g for 40% and 2 mg/g for 100%), shear yield stress increases as polymer charge increases. The effects observed are related to the flocculation mechanism (bridging, patch attraction or charge neutralisation) and the magnitude of the adhesive force. Comparison of shear and compressive yield stresses show that the network is only slightly weaker in shear than in compression. This is different than many other systems (mainly salt and pH coagulation) which have shear yield stress much less than compressive yield stress. The existing models relating the power law exponent of the volume fraction dependence of the shear yield stress to the network fractal structure are not satisfactory to predict all the experimental behaviour.
Wall Shear Stress Characteristics for the Progression of the Disease, Atherosclerosis
Goswami, P.; Mandal, D. K.; Manna, N. K.; Chakrabarti, S.
2014-12-01
Wall shear stress (WSS) characteristics of a stenosed artery which are the important physiological parameters for the progression of the arterial diseases atherosclerosis, are studied and compared for different Reynolds numbers and different Womersley numbers. Numerical simulations of physiological pulsatile flow through a model stenotic artery are performed by finite volume method. From this study, it is revealed that the chance of formation of atherosclerosis increases with increase in Reynolds number and decreases with increase in Womersley number. The phenomenon of mass transportation across arterial wall is more in case of increase in Womersley number rather than Reynolds number. The chance of formation of atheromatous plaque will be high with higher Reynolds number and Womersley number. In the low WSS region, high magnitude of Womersley number indicates high chance of progression of the disease atherosclerosis. High magnitude of Womersley number with low Reynolds number is more dangerous for the progression of the disease in the low WSS region.
Self-organization in suspensions of end-functionalized semiflexible polymers under shear flow
Myung, Jin Suk; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-12-01
The nonequilibrium dynamical behavior and structure formation of end-functionalized semiflexible polymer suspensions under flow are investigated by mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations. The hybrid simulation approach combines the multiparticle collision dynamics method for the fluid, which accounts for hydrodynamic interactions, with molecular dynamics simulations for the semiflexible polymers. In equilibrium, various kinds of scaffold-like network structures are observed, depending on polymer flexibility and end-attraction strength. We investigate the flow behavior of the polymer networks under shear and analyze their nonequilibrium structural and rheological properties. The scaffold structure breaks up and densified aggregates are formed at low shear rates, while the structural integrity is completely lost at high shear rates. We provide a detailed analysis of the shear- rate-dependent flow-induced structures. The studies provide a deeper understanding of the formation and deformation of network structures in complex materials.
Structure Formation of Thermoresponsive Microgels Suspensions Under Shear Flow
Stieger, M.A.; Lindner, P.; Richtering, W.
2004-01-01
Shear-induced structures of concentrated temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgel suspensions have been studied employing small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS). The interaction potential of swollen PNiPAM microgels could be varied from repulsive at temperatures below
Constraint and flow: Poiseuille shear response of a surfactant ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
we have begun measurements of the Poiseuille surface shear response of sponge phases a situation in which one might expect effects from an interplay between these dynamic and geometric effects. Keywords. Neutron scattering; soft condensed matter. PACS Nos 61.12.Ex; 82.70.Dd. †Previously: HFIR Center for Neutron ...
Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.
Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.
Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.
Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
2011-02-01
For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiwary, R.; Mehrotra, A.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
2008-07-01
The effects of deposition time and shear rate on the deposition of solids was investigated under turbulent flow, for solutions of a multi-component wax in a paraffinic solvent. The deposition experiments were performed in a bench-scale flow-loop apparatus, incorporating a co-current double-pipe heat exchanger. The experiment involved 2 mixture compositions (10 and 15 mass per cent wax) at Reynolds numbers between 9000 and 27000 over a range of deposition times from 30 min to 24 h. The study showed that the deposit mass decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number, but it increased asymptotically with the deposition time. The deposit mass and density data were analyzed using a pseudo-steady-state heat transfer model to study the variation in the deposit-layer thickness and thermal conductivity with shear rate and deposition time. According to the GC analysis of deposit samples, there were noticeable changes in the carbon-number-distribution with shear rate and time. The variations in deposit properties were also assessed using a recently proposed model involving one-dimensional cubical-cage deformation. These study results provide evidence that deposition from waxy crude oils is mainly a thermally-driven process, in which the shear stress and the deposition time play significant roles by influencing the deposit properties. 4 refs.
Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Lee, Chih-I; Lee, Pei-Ling; Shih, Yu-Tsung; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chien, Shu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung
2010-03-01
Estrogen and mechanical forces are positive regulators for osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. We investigated the synergistic effect of estrogen and flow-induced shear stress on signal transduction and gene expression in human osetoblast-like MG63 cells and primary osteoblasts (HOBs) using activations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and expressions of c-fos and cyclooxygenase-2 (I) as readouts. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, 10 nM) and shear stress (12 dyn/cm(2)) alone induced transient phosphorylations of ERK and p38 MAPK in MG63 cells. Pretreating MG63 cells with 17beta-estradiol for 6 hours before shearing augmented these shear-induced MAPK phosphorylations. Western blot and flow cytometric analyses showed that treating MG63 cells with 17beta-estradiol for 6 hrs induced their beta(1)-integrin expression. This estrogen-induction of beta(1)-integrin was inhibited by pretreating the cells with a specific antagonist of estrogen receptor ICI 182,780. Both 17beta-estradiol and shear stress alone induced c-fos and Cox-2 gene expressions in MG63 cells. Pretreating MG63 cells with 17beta-estradiol for 6 hrs augmented the shear-induced c-fos and Cox-2 expressions. The augmented effects of 17beta-estradiol on shear-induced MAPK phosphorylations and c-fos and Cox-2 expressions were inhibited by pretreating the cells with ICI 182,780 or transfecting the cells with beta(1)-specific small interfering RNA. Similar results on the augmented effect of estrogen on shear-induced signaling and gene expression were obtained with HOBs. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism by which estrogen augments shear stress responsiveness of signal transduction and gene expression in bone cells via estrogen receptor-mediated increases in beta(1)-integrin expression. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao Liangjie
Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.
Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou
2014-01-01
A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.
Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert;
2003-01-01
Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.
Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter
2015-01-01
The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merih Cibis
Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI. Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these measurements. Our aim was to investigate the effect of spatiotemporal resolution using a carotid artery phantom.A carotid artery phantom was connected to a flow set-up supplying pulsatile flow. MRI measurement planes were placed at the common carotid artery (CCA and internal carotid artery (ICA. Two-dimensional PC-MRI measurements were performed with thirty different spatiotemporal resolution settings. The MRI flow measurement was validated with ultrasound probe measurements. Mean flow, peak flow, flow waveform, WSS and OSI were compared for these spatiotemporal resolutions using regression analysis. The slopes of the regression lines were reported in %/mm and %/100ms. The distribution of low and high WSS and OSI was compared between different spatiotemporal resolutions.The mean PC-MRI CCA flow (2.5±0.2mL/s agreed with the ultrasound probe measurements (2.7±0.02mL/s. Mean flow (mL/s depended only on spatial resolution (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-49%/mm. Peak flow (mL/s depended on both spatial (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-17%/mm and temporal resolution (CCA:-19%/100ms, ICA:-24%/100ms. Mean WSS (Pa was in inverse relationship only with spatial resolution (CCA:-19%/mm, ICA:-33%/mm. OSI was dependent on spatial resolution for CCA (-26%/mm and temporal resolution for ICA (-16%/100ms. The regions of low and high WSS and OSI matched for most of the spatiotemporal resolutions (CCA:30/30, ICA:28/30 cases for WSS; CCA:23/30, ICA:29/30 cases for OSI.We show that both mean flow and mean WSS are independent of temporal resolution. Peak flow and OSI are dependent on both spatial and temporal resolution. However, the magnitude of mean and peak flow, WSS and OSI, and the spatial distribution of OSI
Effect of sheared flow on drift and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a tandem mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, P.; Tsai, S.T.
1996-01-01
The effect of non-uniform rotation with a jet profile on the drift and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a tandem mirror is investigated numerically. Certain regimes of the flow parameters are found where the drift instability is nearly suppressed and the transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is not induced. The growth rate of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can also be reduced to almost zero by a sufficiently large rotation frequency or by a radial electric field with moderate shear. The wave-flow resonant interaction may account for the stabilizing effect of sheared flow on drift and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. (Author)
Varghese, Anoop; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G
2017-12-01
Hydrodynamic fluctuations in simple fluids under shear flow are demonstrated to be spatially correlated, in contrast to the fluctuations at equilibrium, using mesoscopic hydrodynamic simulations. The simulation results for the equal-time hydrodynamic correlations in a multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) fluid in shear flow are compared with the explicit expressions obtained from fluctuating hydrodynamics calculations. For large wave vectors k, the nonequilibrium contributions to transverse and longitudinal velocity correlations decay as k^{-4} for wave vectors along the flow direction and as k^{-2} for the off-flow directions. For small wave vectors, a crossover to a slower decay occurs, indicating long-range correlations in real space. The coupling between the transverse velocity components, which vanishes at equilibrium, also exhibits a k^{-2} dependence on the wave vector. In addition, we observe a quadratic dependency on the shear rate of the nonequilibrium contribution to pressure.
Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy
Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.
2017-09-01
Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riahi D. N.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Benney's theory of evolution of disturbances in shear flows over smooth and flat boundary is extended to study for shear flows over combined spatially and temporally corrugated walls. Perturbation and multiple-scales analyses are employed for the case where both amplitude of the corrugations and the amplitude of wave motion are small. Analyses for instability of modulated mean shear flows with respect to spanwise-periodic disturbance rolls and for the subsequent vortex formation and vortex stability are presented, and the effects of the corrugated walls on the resulting flow and vortices are determined. It is found that particular corrugated walls can originate and control the longitudinal vortices, while some other types of corrugated walls can enhance instability of such vortices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aisha, M.D. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor-Ashikin, M.N.K. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Sharaniza, A.B.R. [DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Nawawi, H. [Center for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Clinical Training Center, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia); Froemming, G.R.A., E-mail: gabriele@salam.uitm.edu.my [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia)
2015-09-10
Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. - Highlights: • OFS stress transmits anabolic signals to osteoblasts. • Actin and tubulin fibers are rearranged under OFS stress. • OFS stress increases mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation. • Reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in response to OFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis. • OFS stress prevents apoptosis and stimulates ALP and OCN.
Dijkstra, Y.M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; Burchard, Hans
2017-01-01
We present a systematic analysis of generation mechanisms for exchange flows in partially stratified estuaries using water column (1DV) and width-averaged (2DV) numerical models. We focus on exchange flows generated by eddy viscosity-shear covariance (ESCO). We identify two distinctly different
Dynamics of flexible active Brownian dumbbells in the absence and the presence of shear flow.
Winkler, Roland G
2016-04-20
The dynamical properties of a flexible dumbbell composed of active Brownian particles are analytically analyzed. The dumbbell is considered as a simplified description of a linear active polymer. The two beads are independently propelled in directions which change in a diffusive manner. The relaxation behavior of the internal degree of freedom is tightly coupled to the dumbbell activity. The latter dominates the dynamics for strong propulsion. As is shown, limitations in bond stretching strongly influence the relaxation behavior. Similarly, under shear flow, activity determines the relaxation and tumbling behavior at strong propulsion. Moreover, shear leads to a preferred alignment and consequently to shear thinning. Thereby, a different power-law dependence on the shear rate compared to passive dumbbells under flow is found.
Gyrokinetic analysis of ion temperature gradient modes in the presence of sheared flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1992-01-01
The linearized gyrokinetic equation governing electrostatic microinstabilities in the presence of sheared equilibrium flow in both the z and y directions has been systematically derived for a sheared slab geometry, where in the large aspect ratio limit z and y directions correspond to the toroidal and poloidal directions respectively. In the familiar long perpendicular wavelength regime (κ perpendicular ρi > 1), the analysis leads to a comprehensive kinetic differential eigenmode equation which is solved numerically. The numerical results have been successfully cross-checked against analytic estimates in the fluid limit. For typical conditions, the Ion Temperature Gradient (ηi) modes are found to be stabilized for y-direction flows with a velocity shear scale comparable to that of the ion temperature gradient and velocities of a few percent of the sound speed. Sheared flows in the z-direction taken along are usually destabilizing, with the effect being independent of the sign of the flow. However, when both types are simultaneously considered, it is found that in the presence of shared z-direction flow, sheared y-direction flow can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the relative sign of these flows. However, for sufficiently large values of υ' y the mode is completely stabilized regardless of the sign of υ' z υ' y . The importance of a proper kinetic treatment of this problem is supported by comparisons with fluid estimates. In particular, when such effects are favorable, significantly smaller values of sheared y-direction flow are required for stability than fluid estimates would indicate
Reduction of vertical transport in two-dimensional stably stratified forced shear flows
Toqué, Nathalie; Lignières, François; Vincent, Alain
2006-04-01
The effect of stable stratification on the vertical transport of passive contaminants in forced, stationary, two-dimensional (2D) and inhomogeneous shear turbulence is investigated numerically. The mean flow consists of several superimposed parallel sheared layers in a stably stratified medium. We find that, as stratification increases, the vertical transport decreases much faster than predicted by mixing length estimates. For the highest stratification, particles vertical dispersion nearly vanishes. The proposed interpretation emphasizes the role of weakly sheared layers where the relative increase of the mean horizontal velocity with respect to the root-mean-square (rms) vertical velocity causes the decrease of the Lagrangian correlation timescale.
Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow
Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.
2018-03-01
We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.
Mamo, Kiminad A.
2012-10-01
We study holographic RG flow of the shear viscosity tensor of anisotropic, strongly coupled {N}=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma by using its type IIB supergravity dual in anisotropic bulk spacetime. We find that the shear viscosity tensor has three independent components in the anisotropic bulk spacetime away from the boundary, and one of the components has a non-trivial RG flow while the other two have a trivial one. For the component of the shear viscosity tensor with non-trivial RG flow, we derive its RG flow equation, and solve the equation analytically to second order in the anisotropy parameter a. We derive the RG equation using the equation of motion, holographic Wilsonian RG method, and Kubo's formula. All methods give the same result. Solving the equation, we find that the ratio of the component of the shear viscosity tensor to entropy density η /s flows from above 1/{4π } the horizon (IR) to below 1/{4π } the boundary (UV) where it violates the holographic shear viscosity (Kovtun-Son-Starinets) bound and where it agrees with the other longitudinal component.
On equivalent roughness of mobile bed at high shear stress
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan
2009-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 191-199 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/06/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : bed shear * experiment * hydraulic transport * sediment transport Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009
Shear flow suppresses the volume of the nucleation precursor clusters in lysozyme solutions
Byington, Michael C.; Safari, Mohammad S.; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Vekilov, Peter G.
2017-06-01
Shear flow alters the rate at which crystals nucleate from solution, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, we explore the response to shear of dense liquid clusters, which may serve as crystal nucleation precursors. Solutions of the protein lysozyme were sheared in a Couette cell at rates from 0.3 to 200 s-1 for up to seven hours. The cluster size and total population volume were characterized by dynamic light scattering. We demonstrate that shear rates greater than 10 s-1 applied for longer than one hour reduce the volume of the cluster population. The likely mechanism of the observed response involves enhanced partial unfolding of the lysozyme molecules, which exposes hydrophobic surfaces between the constituent domains to the aqueous solution. We show that disruption of the intramolecular S-S bridges does not contribute to the mechanism of response to shear. The decrease of the cluster population volume with increasing shear rate or shear time implies that nucleation could be inhibited at moderate shear rates.
Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker
2009-01-01
Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low (≤1.5 dyn/cm 2 ) or high (25 dyn/cm 2 ) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.
Zeegers, J.C.H.; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Blom, C.; Altena, E.G.; Beukema, Gerrit J.; Beukema, G.J.; Mellema, J.
1995-01-01
A new instrument to carry out complex viscosity measurements in equilibrium and in a steady shear flow has been developed. A small amplitude harmonic excitation is superimposed orthogonally to the steady shear rate component. It is realized by a thin-walled cylinder, which oscillates in the axial
Development of Pore Pressure in Cohesionless Soils with Initial Shear Stresses during Cyclic Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jacobsen, H. Moust
1989-01-01
A number of triaxial tests with the loading harmonically oscillating around an initial and anisotropic stress state have been performed. Hereby the influence of the initial shear stress on the development of pore pressure in a cohesionless sand specimen have been clarified. A simple theory...
Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... measurements in the core material: (1) core material with an idealized armour layer made out of spherical objects that also allowed for detailed velocity measurements between and above the armour, and (2) core material with real rock armour stones. The same core material was applied through the entire...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order...
Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow
Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian
2017-09-01
This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.
Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Newton, T.J.
2010-01-01
Because unionid mussels have a parasitic larval stage, they are able to disperse upstream and downstream as larvae while attached to their host fish and with flow as juveniles after excystment from the host. Understanding unionid population ecology requires knowledge of the processes that affect juvenile dispersal prior to establishment. We examined presettlement (transport and dispersion with flow) and early postsettlement (bed shear stress) hydraulic processes as negative censoring mechanisms. Our approach was to model dispersal using particle tracking through a 3-dimensional flow field output from hydrodynamic models of a reach of the Upper Mississippi River. We tested the potential effects of bed shear stress (??b) at 5 flow rates on juvenile mussel dispersal and quantified the magnitude of these effects as a function of flow rate. We explored the reach-scale relationships of Froude number (Fr), water depth (H), local bed slope (S), and unit stream power (QS) with the likelihood of juvenile settling (??). We ran multiple dispersal simulations at each flow rate to estimate ??, the parameter of a Poisson distribution, from the number of juveniles settling in each grid cell, and calculated dispersal distances. Virtual juveniles that settled in areas of the river where b > critical shear stress (c) were resuspended in the flow and transported further downstream, so we ran simulations at 3 different conditions for ??c (??c = ??? no resuspension, 0.1, and 0.05 N/m2). Differences in virtual juvenile dispersal distance were significantly dependent upon c and flow rate, and effects of b on settling distribution were dependent upon c. Most simulations resulted in positive correlations between ?? and ??b, results suggesting that during early postsettlement, ??b might be the primary determinant of juvenile settling distribution. Negative correlations between ?? and ??b occurred in some simulations, a result suggesting that physical or biological presettlement processes
Sui, B; Gao, P; Lin, Y; Gao, B; Liu, L; An, J
2008-05-01
Wall shear stress (WSS) has been proven to play a critical role in the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. Measurement of WSS in vivo is significant for the clinical assessment of atherosclerosis. To assess the magnitude and distribution of local WSS in the common carotid artery (CCA) in vivo using 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR). The common carotid artery of eight healthy volunteers was studied using a cine phase-contrast MR sequence. A three-dimensional paraboloid model was applied to fit the velocity profiles, and the WSS values were calculated. The cross-sectional area, average flow velocity, maximum velocity, and flow rate were also obtained. Mean WSS was 0.850 +/- 0.195 (range 0.132-3.464) N/m(2) for the common carotid arteries; the spatial and temporal distribution and change of WSS were displayed. During a cardiac cycle, the mean velocity was 22.8 +/- 3.5 (16.9-28.3) cm/s, blood flow rate 8.03+/-1.45 (5.73-10.72) ml/s, and luminal vessel area 34.94+/-7.06 (24.25-49.01) mm(2). Local WSS values in CCAs can be measured using 3.0T MR imaging combined with image-processing techniques. Intersubject variations were found in the distribution and magnitude of wall shear stress as well as in the flow profile pattern in CCAs, which may be caused by different vessel morphologies.
Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow.
Tian, Fang-Bao
2016-01-01
An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.
Sedimentation under variable shear stress at lower reach of the Rupnarayan River, West Bengal, India
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swapan Kumar Maity
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The lower reach of the Rupnarayan River has been deteriorated and incapacitated due to continuous sedimentation (26.57 million m3 shoaling in last 25 years. Attempts have been made to explain the causes and mechanisms of sedimentation in connection to the seasonal fluctuation of shear stress. River depth and water velocity was measured by echo-sounder and current meter respectively. Textural analysis of grains was done by sieving technique. Available and critical shear stress (N/m2 have been calculated following Du Boys (1879, Shield (1936 and Van Ledden (2003 formula. The lack of available energy to transport a particular grain size during low tide (in dry season is the main reason behind the rapid sedimentation in this area. Most of the places (>75% having negative deviation of shear stress (available shear stress lesser than critical shear stress, during low tide are characterized by deposition of sediments. The presence of mud (silt and clay above the critical limit (15% in some of the sediment samples generates the cohesive property, restricts sediments entrainment and invites sedimentation.
Effect of stress-state and spacing on voids in a shear-field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo
2012-01-01
in the overall average stress state can be prescribed. This also allows for studies of the effect of different initial void spacing in the two in-plane coordinate directions. The stress states considered are essentially simple shear, with various levels of tensile stresses or compressive stresses superposed, i.......e. low positive stress triaxiality or even negative stress triaxiality. For high aspect ratio unit cells a clear localization band is found inside the cell, which actually represents several parallel bands, due to periodicity. In the materials represented by a low aspect ratio unit cell localization...
METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURING THE SHEAR STRESS OF PLASTERBOARDS
Ondřej Zobal; Robert Jára; Martin Hataj
2017-01-01
Plasterboards have to meet many requirements for certification. The mechanical properties of itself plasterboard are one of them. The important mechanical property of the plasterboard is the shear strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. The European Standard refers to performing the relevant test for the procedure set out in the wood standard EN 789. But is this methodology for plasterboard the most suitable? This paper compares this recommended method with the alternative method ac...
Stress modeling in colloidal dispersions undergoing non-viscometric flows
Dolata, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna
2017-11-01
We present a theoretical study of the stress tensor for a colloidal dispersion undergoing non-viscometric flow. In such flows, the non-homogeneous suspension stress depends on not only the local average total stresslet-the sum of symmetric first moments of both the hydrodynamic traction and the interparticle force-but also on the average quadrupole, octupole, and higher-order moments. To compute the average moments, we formulate a six dimensional Smoluchowski equation governing the microstructural evolution of a suspension in an arbitrary fluid velocity field. Under the conditions of rheologically slow flow, where the Brownian relaxation of the particles is much faster than the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow, the Smoluchowski equation permits asymptotic solution, revealing a suspension stress that follows a second-order fluid constitutive model. We obtain a reciprocal theorem and utilize it to show that all constitutive parameters of the second-order fluid model may be obtained from two simpler linear-response problems: a suspension undergoing simple shear and a suspension undergoing isotropic expansion. The consequences of relaxing the assumption of rheologically slow flow, including the appearance of memory and microcontinuum behaviors, are discussed.
Interaction of shear and normal stresses in multiaxial fatigue damage analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas R. Gates
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Due to the abundance of engineering components subjected to complex multiaxial loading histories, being able to accurately estimate fatigue damage under multiaxial stress states is a fundamental step in many fatigue life analyses. In this respect, the Fatemi-Socie (FS critical plane damage parameter has been shown to provide excellent fatigue life correlations for a variety of materials and loading conditions. In this parameter shear strain amplitude has a primary influence on fatigue damage and the maximum normal stress on the maximum shear plane has a secondary, but important, influence. In this parameter, the maximum normal stress is normalized by the material yield strength in order to preserve the unitless feature of strain. However, in examining some literature data it was found that in certain situations the FS parameter can result in better fatigue life predictions if the maximum normal stress is normalized by shear stress range instead. These data include uniaxial loadings with large tensile mean stress, and some non-proportional axial-torsion load paths with different normal-shear stress interactions. This modification to the FS parameter was investigated by using fatigue data from literature for 7075-T651 aluminum alloy, as well as additional data from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy fatigue tests performed in this study.
Direct observation of the dynamics of semiflexible polymers in shear flow.
Harasim, Markus; Wunderlich, Bernhard; Peleg, Orit; Kröger, Martin; Bausch, Andreas R
2013-03-08
The flow behavior of polymeric liquids can be traced back to the complex conformational dynamics of polymer molecules in shear flow, which poses a major challenge to theory and experiment alike due to the inherently large number of degrees of freedom. Here we directly determine the configurational dynamics of individual actin filaments with varying lengths in a well defined shear geometry by combining microscopy, microfluidics, and a semiautomated moving stage. This allows the identification of the microscopic mechanisms and the derivation of an analytical model for the dynamics of individual filaments based on the balance of drag, bending, and stochastic forces.
Hydrodynamic interaction between two vesicles in a linear shear flow: asymptotic study.
Gires, P Y; Danker, G; Misbah, C
2012-07-01
Interactions between two vesicles in an imposed linear shear flow are studied theoretically, in the limit of almost spherical vesicles, with a large intervesicle distance, in a strong flow, with a large inner to outer viscosity ratio. This allows to derive a system of ordinary equations describing the dynamics of the two vesicles. We provide an analytic expression for the interaction law. We find that when the vesicles are in the same shear plane, the hydrodynamic interaction leads to a repulsion. When they are not, the interaction may turn into attraction instead. The interaction law is discussed and analyzed as a function of relevant parameters.
Shear-induced particle migration in one-, two-, and three-dimensional flows
Gao, C.; Gilchrist, J. F.
2008-02-01
We investigate the segregation resulting from the competition between advection and shear-induced migration of suspensions in steady open flows. Herringbone channels form a concentration profile deviating from the particle focusing found in straight channels. Transients can result from a buckling instability during the onset of migration when particle-depleted fluid is injected into particle-rich fluid. In chaotic flows, the better mixing found at low bulk volume fraction is not seen at higher bulk volume fraction. Thus, the ability of static mixers to reduce the effects of shear-induced migration is significantly limited.
Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans
2017-01-01
Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat......) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra...... in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen's early work in 1953 'on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow' led Tchen to predict a shear production...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Costanzo, S.; Das, C.
2017-01-01
stress relaxation, suggesting a strong ‘elastic memory’ of the material. These results are 2 described by BoB semi-quantitatively, both in linear and nonlinear shear and extensional regimes. Given the fact that the segments between branch points are less than 3 entanglements long, this is a very...... of the remarkable properties of these highly branched macromolecules. In particular, we address three questions pertinent to the specific molecular structure: (i) is steady state attainable during uniaxial extension? (ii) what is the respective transient response in simple shear? and (iii) how does stress relax...... the Branch-on-Branch (BoB) algorithm. The data indicates that the extensional viscosity reaches a steady state value, whose dependence on extension rate is identical to that of entangled linear and other branched polymer melts. Nonlinear shear is characterized by transient stress overshoots and the validity...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Della-Morte
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Shear stress (SS is a biomechanical force that is determined by blood flow, vessel geometry, and fluid viscosity. Although a wide range of known vascular risk factors promote development of atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic changes occur predominately at specific sites within the arterial tree, suggesting a critical role for local factors within the vasculature. Atherosclerotic lesions develop predominantly at branches, bends, and bifurcations in the arterial tree because these sites are exposed to low or disturbed blood flow and low SS. Low SS predisposes arteries to atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction. A natural system of preexisting cerebral collateral arteries protects against ischemia by bypassing sites of arterial occlusion through a mechanism of arteriogenesis. The main trigger for arteriogenesis is impaired vascular homeostasis (VH in response to local changes in SS induced by ischemia. VH is a critical process for maintaining the physiological function of cerebral circulation. It is regulated through a complex biological system of blood flow hemodynamic and physiological responses to flow changes. Restoration of VH by increasing arteriogenesis and SS may provide a novel therapeutic target for stroke, especially in the elderly, who are more prone to VH impairment. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms and structures necessary to maintain VH in brain circulation, the role of SS, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis, including the effects of aging. We also discuss arteriogenesis as an adaptive and protective process in response to ischemic injury, the imaging techniques currently available to evaluate arterogenesis such as magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (MRI/PET, and the potential therapeutic approaches against ischemic injury that target arteriogenesis.
Sphere interaction in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids
Chiu, Shang-Huan; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland
2017-11-01
It is well-known that, up to the initial sphere displacement, binary encounters of spheres in bounded shear flow of a Newtonian fluid can have either swapping or non-swapping trajectories under creeping flow conditions. The motion of dilute sphere suspensions in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids at zero Reynolds number has been studied. The pass and return trajectories of the two ball mass centers in a two wall driven shear flow are similar to those in a Newtonian fluid; but they lose the symmetry due to the effect of elastic force arising from viscoelastic fluids. A tumbling chain of two balls (a dipole) may occur, depending on the value of the Weissenberg number and the initial vertical displacement of the ball mass center to the middle plane between two walls. The two ball tumbling motion has also been compared with that of an ellipsoid in bounded shear flow Oldroyd-B fluids. This work was supported by NSF (Grant DMS-1418308).
Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow
Cheng, X.
2011-12-23
Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.
METHODOLOGY FOR MEASURING THE SHEAR STRESS OF PLASTERBOARDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ondřej Zobal
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Plasterboards have to meet many requirements for certification. The mechanical properties of itself plasterboard are one of them. The important mechanical property of the plasterboard is the shear strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. The European Standard refers to performing the relevant test for the procedure set out in the wood standard EN 789. But is this methodology for plasterboard the most suitable? This paper compares this recommended method with the alternative method according to the American Standard ASTM D5379 with indicating the results of a specific measurement.
Shear Stress Transmission Model for the Flagellar Rotary Motor
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Hiroyuki Ohshima
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Titus PETRILA
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we use a non-Newtonian mathematical model for the blood flow in large vessels – elaborated and presented already by us in a previous paper [1]. We calculate and than compare the values of the wall shear stress, which has a special importance in the possible ruptures of vascular vessels (in the case of a human internal carotid artery with stenosis in four different cases. The numerical simulations are made using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3, and the results are compared to some already existing in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blythman, R; Persoons, T; Murray, DB; Jeffers, N
2016-01-01
The exploitation of flow unsteadiness in microchannels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling of future photonics systems. Pulsation is thought to alter the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers, and hence affect the overall thermal resistance of the heat sink. While the mechanical and thermal problems are inextricably linked, it is useful to decouple the parameters to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer enhancement. The current work characterises the behaviour of the wall shear stress and pressure gradient with frequency, using experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements and the analytical solution for oscillatory flow in a two-dimensional rectangular channel. Both wall shear stress and pressure gradient are augmented with frequency compared to steady flow, though the pressure gradient increases more significantly as a result of growing inertial losses. The three distinct regimes of unsteadiness are shown to display unique relationships between the parameters pertinent to heat transfer and should therefore be considered independently with respect to thermal enhancement capability. To this end, the regime boundaries are estimated at Womersley number Wo = 1.6 and 28.4 in a rectangular channel, based on the contribution of viscous and inertial losses. (paper)
Lee, Hwansung; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki
2009-01-01
Our group is currently developing a pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD). In general, the major causes of hemolysis in a pulsatile VAD are cavitation, and Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the mechanical heart valve (MHV). In a previous study, we investigated MHV cavitation. To select the optimal bileaflet valve for our PVAD, in the current study, we investigated RSS and viscous shear stress (VSS) downstream of three different types of commercial bileaflet valves by means of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). To carry out flow visualization inside the blood pump and near the valve, we designed a model pump with the same configuration as that of our PVAD. Three types of bileaflet valves (i.e., the ATS valve, the St. Jude valve, and the Sorin Bicarbon valve) were mounted at the aortic position of the model pump, and flow was visualized according to the PIV method. The maximum flow velocity and RSS of the Sorin Bicarbon valve were lower than those of the other two bileaflet valves. The maximum VSS was only 1% of the maximum RSS. Thus, the effect of VSS on blood cell trauma was neglected. The Sorin Bicarbon valve exhibited relatively low levels of RSS, and was therefore considered to be the best valve for our PVAD among the three valves tested.
Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understand- ing the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gale, J.; MacLeod, R.; LeMessurier, P.
1990-04-01
Laboratory tests have been completed on natural fracture planes in three, 200 mm diameter, cores, to determine the effect of changes in normal and shear stress on fracture permeability and porosity. In each core, a single fracture plane was oriented parallel to the core axis and the flow and tracer tests were completed under linear flow boundary conditions. At the completion of the full stressflow test cycle, the fracture plane was impregnated with resin and, after the resin had hardened, the fracture plane was sectioned and the structure of the pore space characterized. The test data showed that there is linear relationship between the logarithm of flowrate and the logarithm of normal stress. For shear tests on the two main samples, which were conducted at shear stresses less than the peak shear strength, the flowrates decreased slightly with increase in shear displacement. The porosities determined from the resin data and the fluid velocities determined from the tracer tests show that the volume of fluid in the fracture plane is much greater than that predicted using equivalent smooth parallel plate model. (authors)
Prediction of Anomalous Blood Viscosity in Confined Shear Flow
Thiébaud, Marine; Shen, Z.; Shen, Zaiyi; Harting, Jens Dieter Rolf; Misbah, Chaouqi
2014-01-01
Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood
Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
extrusion, stamping etc. The actual flow of polymers and their composites often involves highly ... 20 g/10 min) was obtained from Japan Poly Olefins Co. Ltd., Japan and was used as matrix material. Reinforcing ... The extruded material was quenched in water at 12°C and was immediately cut by pelletizer to a 5 mm length.
The application of excess shear stress to the design of mine layouts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napier, J.A.L.
1987-12-01
The application of excess shear stress as an aid to the design of mine layout is reviewed, and the critical parameters required to describe slip on a plane of weakness are noted. A design procedure that is required to model the cyclic build-up of excess shear stress is described. A number of simple examples of mine layouts on two reef planes intersecting a fault plane are then considered to illustrate the application of the design concept and to highlight some of the pitfalls that may be encountered. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Ha, Hojin; Lantz, Jonas; Haraldsson, Henrik; Casas, Belen; Ziegler, Magnus; Karlsson, Matts; Saloner, David; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Ebbers, Tino
2016-12-01
Flow-induced blood damage plays an important role in determining the hemodynamic impact of abnormal blood flow, but quantifying of these effects, which are dominated by shear stresses in highly fluctuating turbulent flow, has not been feasible. This study evaluated the novel application of turbulence tensor measurements using simulated 4D Flow MRI data with six-directional velocity encoding for assessing hemodynamic stresses and corresponding blood damage index (BDI) in stenotic turbulent blood flow. The results showed that 4D Flow MRI underestimates the maximum principal shear stress of laminar viscous stress (PLVS), and overestimates the maximum principal shear stress of Reynolds stress (PRSS) with increasing voxel size. PLVS and PRSS were also overestimated by about 1.2 and 4.6 times at medium signal to noise ratio (SNR) = 20. In contrast, the square sum of the turbulent viscous shear stress (TVSS), which is used for blood damage index (BDI) estimation, was not severely affected by SNR and voxel size. The square sum of TVSS and the BDI at SNR >20 were underestimated by less than 1% and 10%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of 4D Flow MRI based quantification of TVSS and BDI which are closely linked to blood damage.
Intermittent Flow In Yield Stress Fluids Slows Down Chaotic Mixing
Boujlel, Jalila; Wendell, Dawn; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Pigeonneau, Franck; Jop, Pierre; Laboratoire Surface du Verre et Interfaces Team
2013-11-01
Many mixing situations involve fluids with non-Newtonian properties: mixing of building materials such as concrete or mortar are based on fluids that have shear- thinning rheological properties. Lack of correct mixing can waste time and money, or lead to products with defects. When fluids are stirred and mixed together at low Reynolds number, the fluid particles should undergo chaotic trajectories to be well mixed by the so-called chaotic advection resulting from the flow. Previous work to characterize chaotic mixing in many different geometries has primarily focused on Newtonian fluids. First studies into non-Newtonian chaotic advection often utilize idealized mixing geometries such as cavity flows or journal bearing flows for numerical studies. Here, we present experimental results of chaotic mixing of yield stress fluids with non-Newtonian fluids using rod-stirring protocol with rotating vessel. We describe the various steps of the mixing and determine their dependence on the fluid rheology and speeds of rotation of the rods and the vessel. We show how the mixing of yield-stress fluids by chaotic advection is reduced compared to the mixing of Newtonian fluids and explain our results, bringing to light the relevant mechanisms: the presence of fluid that only flows intermittently, a phenomenon enhanced by the yield stress, and the importance of the peripheral region. This result is confirmed via numerical simulations.
Structure of the Small Amplitude Motion on Transversely Sheared Mean Flows
Goldstein, Marvin E.; Afsar, Mohamed Z.; Leib, Stewart J.
2013-01-01
This paper considers the small amplitude unsteady motion of an inviscid non-heat conducting compressible fluid on a transversely sheared mean flow. It extends a previous result given in Goldstein (1978(b) and 1979(a)) which shows that the hydrodynamic component of the motion is determined by two arbitrary convected quantities in the absence of solid surfaces or other external sources. The result is important because it can be used to specify appropriate boundary conditions for unsteady surface interaction problems on transversely sheared mean flows in the same way that the vortical component of the Kovasznay (1953) decomposition is used to specify these conditions for surface interaction problems on uniform mean flows. But unlike the Kovasznay (1953) case the arbitrary convected quantities no longer bear a simple relation to the physical variables. One purpose of this paper is to derive a formula that relates these quantities to the (physically measurable) vorticity and pressure fluctuations in the flow.
Shear flow instability in a partially-ionized plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T. C.; Rose, D. V.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.
2011-01-01
The stability of ion acoustic waves in a sheared-flow, partially-ionized compressible plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle in the upper atmosphere, is described and evaluated for different flow profiles. In a compressible plasma with shear flow, instability occurs for any velocity profile, not just for profiles with an inflection point. A second-order differential equation for the electrostatic potential of excited ion acoustic waves in the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals is derived and solved numerically using a shooting method with boundary conditions appropriate for a finite thickness sheath in contact with the vehicle. We consider three different velocity flow profiles and find that in all cases that neutral collisions can completely suppress the instability.
Experiments on Plasma Turbulence Created by Supersonic Plasma Flows with Shear
2014-04-01
University of California Department of Physics and Astronomy Los Angeles, CA 90095- 1547 REPORT NUMBER 444025-ST-25188 9. SPONSORING...S. Mudaliar. Scattering of electromagnetic waves in the presence of wave turbulence excited by a flow with velocity shear. IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci., 38
Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 3. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a deformable solid. Paresh Chokshi. Section II - International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM) Volume 40 Issue 3 May 2015 ...
Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.
1999-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...
Tolpekin, V.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.
2004-01-01
We used video microscopy to study the behavior of aggregating suspensions in shear flow. Suspensions consisted of 920 nm diameter silica spheres, dispersed in a methanol/bromoform solvent, to which poly(ethylene glycol) (M = 35.000 g) was added to effect weak particle aggregation. With our solvent
Does a sheared flow stabilize inversely stratified fluid?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benilov, E.S.; Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
2002-01-01
with a monotonic profile (which were examined numerically). It turns out that virtually any deviation from the linear profiles examined by Kuo (1963) triggers off instability. This instability, however, is restricted either spectrally or spatially, which makes it different from the usual Rayleigh......-Taylor instability (in the absence of the flow, inversely stratified fluids are unstable at all points and all wavelengths). The conclusions of the paper are verified by simulation of the governing (nonlinear) equations. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baieri, A; Zarco-Pernia, E; Laraqi, N [Laboratoire de Thermique Interfaces Environnement, LTIE-GTE EA 4415, Universite Paris Ouest, 50 Rue de Sevres, F-92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Garcia de Maria, J-M, E-mail: abairi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: e.zarcopernia@yahoo.fr, E-mail: nlaraqi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: juanmario.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, E-28012 Madrid (Spain)
2012-10-01
Thermocouples are often used for thermoregulation of active thermal systems. When the junctions of these sensors are under a natural convection flow, it is necessary to take into account the viscous stress that can affect the measurement of temperature and therefore the regulation set points. The main objective of this work is to study the viscous shear stress taking place close to the active hot wall in closed air-filled cavities of parallelogrammic shape. The influence of shear stress is examined for different inclination angles of the cavity and large Rayleigh numbers which are usual in thermal applications. The local stress distributions are presented for the steady state for all the geometric configurations considered. The Nusselt number at the hot wall as well as the temperature and stream function distributions in the cavities are also included. The findings obtained from the numerical simulation using the finite volume method are validated by thermal measurements on an experimental cavity. This study confirms the need to properly choose the location of thermocouples in the reference cell used for controlling the active system. (paper)
Nested separatrices in simple shear flows: the effect of localized disturbances on stagnation lines
Wilson, M.C.T.; Gaskell, P.H.; Savage, M.D.
2005-01-01
The effects of localized two-dimensional disturbances on the structure of shear flows featuring a stagnation line are investigated. A simple superposition of a planar Couette flow and Moffatt's [J. Fluid Mech. 18, 1--18 (1964)] streamfunction for the decay of a disturbance between infinite stationary parallel plates shows that in general the stagnation line is replaced by a chain of alternating elliptic and hyperbolic stagnation points with a separation equal to 2.78 times the half-gap betwee...
Kuentz, Martin; Schirg, Peter
2013-09-01
An automated version of uniaxial powder flow testing has recently been developed and there is a need for experimental data from pharmaceutical powders. To compare the novel testing method with an annular shear cell using different pharmaceutical excipients. A particular aim was to gain an improved understanding of potential differences in the obtained flow results. Nine excipients were studied with both flow testers at different consolidation levels. Unconfined yield strengths were determined at similar major consolidation stresses. Finally, an anisotropic stress factor was calculated and the fractal character of the powders was assessed by means of image analysis in a rotating drum. Data correlated generally well; however, the unconfined yield strength from uniaxial testing resulted mostly in lower values compared to annular shear cell testing. Differences were specific for the given excipients and mannitol demonstrated the highest discrepancy of measured flow parameters. The differences were first discussed by considering wall friction, anisotropy of forces, brittleness as well as the fractal nature of the powder surface. This heterogeneity of the powder as well as the anisotropy of forces was also found to be important for the relative flow index. The automated uniaxial method demonstrated faster and more reproducible flow testing as compared to an annular shear cell. Therefore, the new method has a high potential in pharmaceutics for example in the quality-control of powders.
Westenbroek, Stephen M.
2006-01-01
Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.
Mina, Sara G; Huang, Peter; Murray, Bruce T; Mahler, Gretchen J
2017-07-01
Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties. A three-dimensional (3D) culture microfluidic device was developed for investigating the role of steady low shear stress (1 dyne/cm 2 ) and altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and stiffness on EndMT. Shear stresses resulting from fluid flow within tumor tissue are relevant to both cancer metastasis and treatment effectiveness. Low and oscillatory shear stress rates have been shown to enhance the invasion of metastatic cancer cells through specific changes in actin and tubulin remodeling. The 3D ECM within the device was composed of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. An increase in collagen and GAGs has been observed in the solid tumor microenvironment and has been correlated with poor prognosis in many different cancer types. In this study, it was found that ECM composition and low shear stress upregulated EndMT, including upregulation of mesenchymal-like markers (α-SMA and Snail) and downregulated endothelial marker protein and gene expression (VE-cadherin). Furthermore, this novel model was utilized to investigate the role of EndMT in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Cancer cell spheroids were embedded within the 3D ECM of the microfluidic device. The results using this device show for the first time that the breast cancer spheroid size is dependent on shear stress and that the cancer cell migration rate
Oulaid, Othmane; Saad, Abdul-Khalik W; Aires, Pedro S; Zhang, Junfeng
2016-01-01
The tank-treading rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in shear flows has been studied extensively with experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. Even for this relatively simple system, complicated motion and deformation behaviors have been observed, and some of the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we attempt to advance our knowledge of the relationship among cell motion, deformation, and flow situations with a numerical model. Our simulation results agree well with experimental data, and confirm the experimental finding of the decrease in frequency/shear-rate ratio with shear rate and the increase of frequency with suspending viscosity. Moreover, based on the detailed information from our simulations, we are able to interpret the frequency dependency on shear rate and suspending viscosity using a simple two-fluid shear model. The information obtained in this study thus is useful for understanding experimental observations of RBCs in shear and other flow situations; the good agreement to experimental measurements also shows the potential usefulness of our model for providing reliable results for microscopic blood flows.
Shear Flow Induced Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Natural Rubber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan He
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new procedure for the fabrication of natural rubber composite with aligned carbon nanotubes is provided in this study. The two-step approach is based on (i the preparation of mixture latex of natural rubber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and other components and (ii the orientation of carbon nanotubes by a flow field. Rubber composite sheets filled with variable volume fraction of aligned carbon nanotubes were fabricated and then confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies. An obvious increase in thermal conductivity has been obtained after the alignment of carbon nanotubes. The dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out in a tear mode for the composite.
Large-scale dynamo action due to α fluctuations in a linear shear flow
Sridhar, S.; Singh, Nishant K.
2014-12-01
We present a model of large-scale dynamo action in a shear flow that has stochastic, zero-mean fluctuations of the α parameter. This is based on a minimal extension of the Kraichnan-Moffatt model, to include a background linear shear and Galilean-invariant α-statistics. Using the first-order smoothing approximation we derive a linear integro-differential equation for the large-scale magnetic field, which is non-perturbative in the shearing rate S , and the α-correlation time τα . The white-noise case, τα = 0 , is solved exactly, and it is concluded that the necessary condition for dynamo action is identical to the Kraichnan-Moffatt model without shear; this is because white-noise does not allow for memory effects, whereas shear needs time to act. To explore memory effects we reduce the integro-differential equation to a partial differential equation, valid for slowly varying fields when τα is small but non-zero. Seeking exponential modal solutions, we solve the modal dispersion relation and obtain an explicit expression for the growth rate as a function of the six independent parameters of the problem. A non-zero τα gives rise to new physical scales, and dynamo action is completely different from the white-noise case; e.g. even weak α fluctuations can give rise to a dynamo. We argue that, at any wavenumber, both Moffatt drift and Shear always contribute to increasing the growth rate. Two examples are presented: (a) a Moffatt drift dynamo in the absence of shear and (b) a Shear dynamo in the absence of Moffatt drift.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br
2009-12-15
Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)
Competitive Growth of - -Crystals in -Nucleated Isotactic Polypropylene under Shear Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Y.; Mao, Y; Li, Z; Hsiao, B
2010-01-01
It has been well established that, although both shear flow and {beta}-nucleating agent could separately induce {beta}-crystals in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in an efficient manner, their combination in fact depressed the content of {beta}-crystals when compared with quiescently crystallized {beta}-nucleated iPP. In the current study, in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were performed to investigate this behavior. The WAXD data obtained were quantitatively analyzed to determine the independent contributions of applied shear flow and added {beta}-nucleating agent in terms of nucleation stage and subsequent {alpha}- and {beta}-crystal growth stage. In the nucleation stage, the addition of {beta}-nucleating agent increased the amount of {beta}-nuclei, while the application of shear flow and the interactions between shear and {beta}-nucleating agent enhanced the amount of {alpha}-nuclei (the amounts of {alpha}- and {beta}-nuclei were in the same order of magnitude). As a result, in the initial crystallization, {alpha}- and {beta}-crystals grew competitively, causing simultaneously increments of {alpha}- and {beta}-crystals. However, in the growth stage, the growth rate of {beta}-crystals was faster than that of {alpha}-crystals where the epitaxial growth of {beta}-crystals on {alpha}-crystals also occurred (due to more favorable isothermal crystallization temperature for {beta}-crystal growth). Consequently, the content of {beta}-crystals became dominant in the limited growth space; however, it was still less than that formed from the quiescent isothermal crystallization of {beta}-nucleated iPP. As the shear rate increased, more shear-induced {alpha}-nuclei were formed, further decreasing the amount of {beta}-crystals. Nevertheless, when shear and {beta}-nucleating agent coexisted, {beta}-crystals emerged earlier than {alpha}-crystals. The SAXS results indicated that the combination of shear
Graphene Nanosheets and Shear Flow Induced Crystallization in Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Z Xu; C Chen; Y Wang; H Tang; Z Li; B Hsiao
2011-12-31
Combined effects of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) and shear flow on the crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) were investigated by in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. For crystallization under quiescent condition (at 145 C), the half-crystallization time (t{sub 1/2}) of nanocomposites containing 0.05 and 0.1 wt % GNSs was reduced to at least 50% compared to that of neat iPP, indicating the high nucleation ability of GNSs. The crystallization rate of iPP was directly proportional to the GNS content. Under a relatively weak shear flow (at a rate of 20 s{sup -1} for 5 s duration) and a low degree of supercooling, the neat iPP exhibited an isotropic structure due to the relaxation of row nuclei. However, visible antisotropic crystals appeared in sheared iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs induced a network structure hindering the mobility of iPP chains and allowing the survival of oriented row nuclei for a long period of time. The presence of GNSs clearly enhanced the effects of shear-induced nucleation as well as orientation of iPP crystals. Two kinds of nucleating origins coexisted in the sheared nanocomposite melt: heterogeneous nucleating sites initiated by GNSs and homogeneous nucleating sites (row nuclei) induced by shear. The difference of t{sub 1/2} of nanocomposites with and without shear was significantly larger than that of neat iPP. The presence of GNSs and shear flow exhibited a synergistic interaction on promoting crystallization kinetics of iPP, although the effect of GNS concentration was not apparent. From WAXD results of isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization of sheared iPP, it was found that the appearance of {beta}-crystals depended on the preservation of row nuclei, where the {alpha}-crystals were predominant in the iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs could directly induce {alpha}-crystals of iPP.
Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit
2016-01-01
Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.
Michels, Michiel H A; van der Goot, Atze Jan; Vermuë, Marian H; Wijffels, René H
2016-01-01
The tolerance to shear stress of Tetraselmis suecica , Isochrysis galbana , Skeletonema costatum , and Chaetoceros muelleri was determined in shear cylinders. The shear tolerance of the microalgae species strongly depends on the strain. I. galbana , S. costatum , and C. muelleri exposed to shear stress between 1.2 and 5.4 Pa resulted in severe cell damage. T. suecica is not sensitive to stresses up to 80 Pa. The possibility to grow these algae in a tubular photobioreactor (PBR) using a centrifugal pump for recirculation of the algae suspension was studied. The shear stresses imposed on the algae in the circulation tubes and at the pressure side of the pump were 0.57 and 1.82 Pa, respectively. The shear stress tolerant T. suecica was successfully cultivated in the PBR. Growth of I. galbana , S. costatum , and C. muelleri in the tubular PBR was not observed, not even at the lowest pumping speed. For the latter shear sensitive strains, the encountered shear stress levels were in the order of magnitude of the determined maximum shear tolerance of the algae. An equation was used to simulate the effect of possible damage of microalgae caused by passages through local high shear zones in centrifugal pumps on the total algae culture in the PBR. This simulation shows that a culture of shear stress sensitive species is bound to collapse after only limited number of passages, confirming the importance of considering shear stress as a process parameter in future design of closed PBRs for microalgal cultivation.
Pan, Huiyan; Wu, Yu-Chiao; Adams, George G; Miller, Glen P; McGruer, Nicol E
2013-10-01
A novel and effective technique is developed to make the first determination of shear stress between dielectrophoretically assembled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and surfaces. The results demonstrate that we can vary the shear stress by a factor of 20 by functionalizing a gold surface with different alkanethiols. The interfacial shear stress between a small bundle of SWNTs and a gold surface with and without self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiol (2-phenylethanethiol or 2-aminoethanethiol) is determined. The measurements are based on simple NEMS cantilever beams, a nanomanipulator, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is emphasized that the measured quantity is the slack in the nanotube (not the shear stress) induced by the nanomanipulation. The shear stress is determined from the slack through a mechanics model. An average shear stress of 87 MPa between SWNTs and gold surfaces is obtained. For the tests on the self-assembled 2-aminoethanethiol surface, an average shear stress of 142 MPa is obtained. For the self-assembled 2-phenylethanethiol surface, the shear stress is determined to be around 7.2 MPa with an estimated work of adhesion of 0.5 J/m(2). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of shear stress on endothelial cells: possible relevance for ultrasound applications
VanBavel, E.
2007-01-01
This review forms part of a series of papers resulting from a workshop on safety of ultrasound applications. The physical effects of ultrasound include generation of steady streaming in large fluid volumes, and micro-streaming around contrast bubbles. Such streaming induces shear stress acting on
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah A. Klemuk
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To mimic in vivo vibration of vocal fold cells, we studied the controllability and range of frequency, acceleration, duration, and shear stress in a new bioreactor attachment. The custom multiwell disc appliance fits into a commercially built rheometer, together termed a torsional rheometer bioreactor (TRB. Previous attachments to the TRB were capable of 50–100 Hz vibrations at relatively high strains but were limited to single-sample experiments. The TRB-multiwell disc system accommodates 20 samples in partially fluid-filled wells in an aseptic environment delivering three different acceleration conditions to different samples simultaneously. Frequency and amplitude used to calculate acceleration along with duration and shear stress were controllable and quantifiable using a combination of built-in rheometer sensors, manufacturer software, and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH simulations. Computed shear stresses at the well bottom using SPH in two and three dimensions were verified with analytical approximations. Results demonstrate capabilities of the TRB-multiwell disc system that, when combined with computational modeling, provide quantifiable vibration parameters covering frequencies 0.01–250 Hz, accelerations of 0.02–300 m/s2, and shear stresses of 0.01–1.4 Pa. It is well-suited for studying cell function underlying vocal fold lamina propria homeostasis, inflammation, and wound healing under differential vibration conditions.
Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2017-11-01
The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Development of a MEMS dual-axis differential capacitance floating element shear stress sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnard, Casey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Benjamin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
A single-axis MEMS wall shear stress sensor with differential capacitive transduction method is produced. Using a synchronous modulation and demodulation interface circuit, the system is capable of making real time measurements of both mean and fluctuating wall shear stress. A sensitivity of 3.44 mV/Pa is achieved, with linearity in response demonstrated up to testing limit of 2 Pa. Minimum detectable signals of 340 μPa at 100 Hz and 120 μPa at 1 kHz are indicated, with a resonance of 3.5 kHz. Multiple full scale wind tunnel tests are performed, producing spectral measurements of turbulent boundary layers in wind speeds ranging up to 0.5 Ma (18 Pa of mean wall shear stress). The compact packaging allows for minimally invasive installation, and has proven relatively robust over multiple testing events. Temperature sensitivity, likely due to poor CTE matching of packaged materials, is an ongoing concern being addressed. These successes are being directly leveraged into a development plan for a dual-axis wall shear stress sensor, capable of producing true vector estimates at the wall.
Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI
Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.
2015-01-01
PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized
Cylindrical shell under impact load including transverse shear and normal stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shakeri, M.; Eslami, M.R.; Ghassaa, M.; Ohadi, A.R.
1993-01-01
The general governing equations of shell of revolution under shock loads are reduced to equations describing the elastic behavior of cylindrical shell under axisymmetric impact load. The effect of lateral normal stress, transverse shear, and rotary inertia are included, and the equations are solved by Galerkin finite element method. The results are compared with the previous works of authors. (author)
Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.
Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress
Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Munckhof, I.C. van den; Tinken, T.M.; Drijver, E. den; Hopkins, N.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.
2011-01-01
Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an
Thury, Attila; van Langenhove, Glenn; Carlier, Stephane G.; Albertal, Mariano; Kozuma, Ken; Regar, Evelyn; Sianos, George; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; Krams, Rob; Slager, Cornelis J.; Piek, Jan J.; Serruys, Patrick W.
2002-01-01
Background Vascular wall shear stress (WSS) has been implied in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Our aim was to calculate WSS after balloon angioplasty and evaluate its predictive value for long-term outcome. Methods wss was calculated proximal to, in, and distal to the
Orientation on quantitative IR-thermografy in wall-shear stress measurements
Mayer, R.
1998-01-01
Wall-shear stresses are highly important in the aerodynamic design of aircraft, because they determine the drag and thus the fuel consumption of an airplane. Due to this importance many different measurement techniques have been developed. Most of these techniques are intrusive, which means that the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Young Joon; Djilali, Ned
2016-01-01
Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified
Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria e-mail: zergua.abdesselam@umc.edu.dz. MS received 24 April 2014; revised 14 July 2014; accepted 12 September 2014. Abstract. The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress ...
Statistical wall shear stress maps of ruptured and unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms
Goubergrits, L.; Schaller, J.; Kertzscher, U.; van den Bruck, N.; Poethkow, K.; Petz, Ch.; Hege, H.-Ch.; Spuler, A.
2012-01-01
Haemodynamics and morphology play an important role in the genesis, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The goal of this study was to generate and analyse statistical wall shear stress (WSS) distributions and shapes in middle cerebral artery (MCA) saccular aneurysms. Unsteady flow was simulated in seven ruptured and 15 unruptured MCA aneurysms. In order to compare these results, all geometries must be brought in a uniform coordinate system. For this, aneurysms with corresponding WSS data were transformed into a uniform spherical shape; then, all geometries were uniformly aligned in three-dimensional space. Subsequently, we compared statistical WSS maps and surfaces of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. No significant (p > 0.05) differences exist between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms regarding radius and mean WSS. In unruptured aneurysms, statistical WSS map relates regions with high (greater than 3 Pa) WSS to the neck region. In ruptured aneurysms, additional areas with high WSS contiguous to regions of low (less than 1 Pa) WSS are found in the dome region. In ruptured aneurysms, we found significantly lower WSS. The averaged aneurysm surface of unruptured aneurysms is round shaped, whereas the averaged surface of ruptured cases is multi-lobular. Our results confirm the hypothesis of low WSS and irregular shape as the essential rupture risk parameters. PMID:21957117
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.; Pedley, T.J.
1998-01-01
Analytical approximations are obtained to solutions of the steady Fokker-Planck equation describing the probability density function for the orientation of dipolar particles in a steady, low-Reynolds-number shear flow and a uniform external field. Exact computer algebra is used to solve the equat......Analytical approximations are obtained to solutions of the steady Fokker-Planck equation describing the probability density function for the orientation of dipolar particles in a steady, low-Reynolds-number shear flow and a uniform external field. Exact computer algebra is used to solve...... the equation in terms of a truncated spherical harmonic expansion. It is demonstrated that very low orders of approximation are required for spheres but that spheriods introduce resolution problems in certain flow regimes. Moments of orientation probability density function are derived and applications...
CFD simulation of shear-induced aggregation and breakage in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.
Wang, Liguang; Vigil, R Dennis; Fox, Rodney O
2005-05-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the effects of local fluid shear rate on the aggregation and breakage of approximately 10 microm latex spheres suspended in an aqueous solution undergoing turbulent Taylor-Couette flow was carried out. First, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed and the flow field predictions were validated with data from particle image velocimetry experiments. Subsequently, the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) was implemented into the CFD code to obtain predictions for mean particle size that account for the effects of local shear rate on the aggregation and breakage. These predictions were then compared with experimental data for latex sphere aggregates (using an in situ optical imaging method). Excellent agreement between the CFD-QMOM and experimental results was observed for two Reynolds numbers in the turbulent-flow regime.
Wall shear stress calculations using phase contrast MRI
Potters, W.V.
2015-01-01
Phase contrast MRI (PC MRI) measurements, also called 4D flow MRI or velocity-encoded MRI, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations continue to be the only techniques for non-invasive quantification of the direction and magnitude of blood velocities within a large field of view. The
Methodology for calculating shear stress in a meandering channel
Kyung-Seop Sin; Christopher I. Thornton; Amanda L. Cox; Steven R. Abt
2012-01-01
Natural channels never stop changing their geomorphic characteristics. Natural alluvial streams are similar to living creatures because they generate water flow, develop point bars, alter bed profile, scour the bed, erode the bank, and cause other phenomena in the stream system. The geomorphic changes in a natural system lead to a wide array of research worldwide,...
Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang-Bao Tian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid. In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.
Microfluidic device to study cell transmigration under physiological shear stress conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwasny, Dorota; Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Moresco, Jacob Lange
2011-01-01
The development of new drug therapies relies on studies of cell transmigration in in vitro systems. Migration has traditionally been studied using two methods, the Boyden chamber and a shear flow chamber assay. Though, commonly applied in cell transmigration studies, they are far from imitating a...
Spontaneous and artificial generation of sheared flow in oblate FRCs in TS-3 and 4 FRC experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuyama, T.; Kawamori, E.; Ono, Y.; Tsuruda, M.; Sato, K.; Yamanoue, T.; Arimoto, K.; Itagaki, T.; Katsurai, M.
2003-01-01
Spontaneous formation of toroidal flow was measured for the first time in oblate FRCs produced in TS-3 and 4 experiments. The toroidal ion flow (V i ∼10km/sec) was found to peak around the magnetic axis, indicating formation of high flow shear inside the separatrix. The toroidal flow was observed to deform the magnetic field lines of the FRC, producing bipolar toroidal field profile. In high-s FRC (averaged number of ion gyro-radius 's'=4.5) with slow flow, its n=1 mode kept growing, causing collapse of the whole configuration. However, in low-s FRC (s=3) with fast flow, the rotating n=2 mode (saturated) became dominant after n=1 mode saturation. The spontaneous formation of flow shear possibly transformed the n=1 mode into the n=2 mode, suggesting a new sheared flow stabilization of n=1 mode. The flow shear was also generated artificially using the 'sling shot' effect of the counter helicity reconnection. The n=1 and 2 mode amplitudes were reduced down to 1/5-1/10 due to the generated flow shear. A new method for continuous sheared-flow generation was proposed for stabilization and heating of FRC by use of intermittent merging of spheromaks with opposing B t . (author)
Coherent structures in high Reynolds number turbulent shear flows
Zare, Armin; Nichols, Joseph; Jovanovic, Mihailo
2017-11-01
Spatio-temporal frequency response analysis of stochastically-forced linearized Navier-Stokes equations enables efficient computation of the energy amplification as well as estimation of the convection velocity and spatial structure of fluctuations. For a turbulent channel flow with Rτ = 2003 , we build on recent work by Zare, Jovanovic, and Georgiou (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 812, 2017) to determine the forcing statistics to the linearized model that provide consistency with the result of nonlinear simulations in matching one-point velocity correlations. The frequency response of the resulting model can be used to estimate the convection velocity for various spatial length scales as a function of the wall-normal distance. We examine two-point correlations of the fluctuating velocity field and the wall-normal support of the most amplified spatial structures. Our results provide insight into the validity of Taylor's hypothesis as well as the functional forms of two-point correlations that result from Townsend's attached-eddy hypothesis.
Planar channel flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening model fluid: Theory and simulation
Vázquez-Quesada, A.; Wagner, N. J.; Ellero, M.
2017-10-01
In this work, an analytical solution for the pressure-driven flow of a discontinuous shear-thickening (DST) fluid in a planar channel is presented. In order to model the fluid rheology, a regularized inverse-biviscous model is adopted. This involves a region of finite thickness to model the sharp jump in viscosity, and it is consistent with momentum conservation. In the limit of vanishing thickness, the truly DST behavior is obtained. Analytical results are validated by numerical simulations under steady and start-up flow using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Flow results are investigated and discussed for different values of the model parameters.
Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyuki; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Masuzawa, Toru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Endo, Seiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki
To clarify the correlation between high-shear flow and hemolysis in blood pumps, detail shear velocity distribution was quantified by an experimental method with a model centrifugal blood pump that has a series data of hemolysis tests and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Particular attention was paid to the shear velocity near the casing surface in the volute where the high shear causes in circumferentially wide region that is considerable to cause high hemolysis. Three pump models were compared concern with the radial gap width between the impeller and casing (the radial volute width) also with the outlet position whereas the impeller geometry was identical. These casing geometries were as follows: model 1-the gap width is standard 3mm and the outlet locates to make a smooth geometrical connection with the volute, model 2-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute, and model 3-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to hardly make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute but be similar radial position with that of model 1. Velocity was quantified with a particle tracking velocimetry that is one of the quantitative flow visualization techniques, and the shear velocity was calculated. Results showed that all large shear velocity existed within the layers of about 0.1mm from the casing surface and that those layers were hardly affected by a vane passage even if the gap width is 0.5mm. They also showed that the maximum shear velocity appeared on the casing surface, and the shear velocities of models 2 and 3 were almost twice as large as that of model 1. This finding is in full corresponding with the results of hemolysis tests which showed that the hemolysis levels of both models 2 and 3 were 1.5 times higher than that of model 1. These results suggest that detailed high-shear evaluation near the casing surface in the volute is one of the most important keys in estimating the
Effect of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from the Cystic Fibrosis Lung.
Dingemans, Jozef; Monsieurs, Pieter; Yu, Sung-Huan; Crabbé, Aurélie; Förstner, Konrad U; Malfroot, Anne; Cornelis, Pierre; Van Houdt, Rob
2016-08-02
Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms. In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes associated with the growth of a highly adapted, transmissible P. aeruginosa CF strain in artificial sputum medium under LS conditions. Robust self-aggregating biofilms were observed only under LS conditions. Growth under LS conditions resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in stress response, alginate biosynthesis, denitrification, glycine betaine biosynthesis, glycerol metabolism, and cell shape maintenance, while genes involved in phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion, and multidrug efflux were downregulated. In addition, a number of small RNAs appeared to be involved in the response to shear stress. Finally, quorum sensing was found to be slightly but significantly affected by shear stress, resulting in higher production of autoinducer molecules during growth under high fluid shear (HS) conditions. In summary, our study revealed a way to modulate the behavior of a highly adapted P. aeruginosa CF strain by means of introducing shear stress, driving it from a biofilm lifestyle to a more planktonic lifestyle. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the hallmarks of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections. The biofilm matrix protects this bacterium from antibiotics as well as from the immune system. Hence, the prevention or reversion of biofilm formation is believed to have a great impact on treatment of chronic P
Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.
2008-12-01
A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.
Possible ionospheric preconditioning by shear flow leading to equatorial spread F
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Hysell
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Vertical shear in the zonal plasma drift speed is apparent in incoherent and coherent scatter radar observations of the bottomside F region ionosphere made at Jicamarca from about 1600–2200 LT. The relative importance of the factors controlling the shear, which include competition between the E and F region dynamos as well as vertical currents driven in the E and F regions at the dip equator, is presently unknown. Bottom-type scattering layers arise in strata where the neutral and plasma drifts differ widely, and periodic structuring of irregularities within the layers is telltale of intermediate-scale waves in the bottomside. These precursor waves appear to be able to seed ionospheric interchange instabilities and initiate full-blown equatorial spread F. The seed or precursor waves may be generated by a collisional shear instability. However, assessing the viability of shear instability requires measurements of the same parameters needed to understand shear flow quantitatively - thermospheric neutral wind and off-equatorial conductivity profiles. Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (Waves and instabilities
Shear induced migration of particles in a yield stress fluid: experiment
Hormozi, Sarah; Gholami, Mohammad; Rashedi, Ahmadreza; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2017-11-01
We have performed rheometry coupled with X-ray radiography in a narrow gap Couette cell filled with a suspension of spherical particles in a yield stress fluid. In this setup, the shear rate is discontinuous changing from a constant value in the gap to zero in the reservoir located at the top. This shear rate inhomogeneity results in the migration of particles from the gap to the reservoir, so-called Shear Induced Migration (SIM). The rheometry results give us insight into understanding the bulk rheology in the presence of shear rate and solid volume fraction inhomogeneities. In addition to that, our recent X-ray radiography technique (Gholami et al., JOR. 2017) provides detailed information about the evolution of the solid volume fraction in the domain. These measurements allow us to refine the recent continuum model frameworks (Hormozi & Frigaard, JFM 2017) for SIM of particles in a yield stress suspending fluid. We show that complex rheology of the yield stress suspending fluid and formation of the islands of unyielded regions in the reservoir strongly affects the SIM of particles. This feature is absent when we deal with a Newtonian suspending fluid. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044- CAREER), ACS PRF (Grant No. 55661-DNI9).
One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nabarro, FRN
2003-01-01
Full Text Available - dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model in which as many dislocations are poised for backward jumps as for forward jumps, the experimental activation volume Vye(C27a) under applied stresses close to C...27a is different from the true activation volume V(C27) evaluated at C27 ?C27a. The relations between the two are developed. A model is then discussed in which fewer dislocations are available for backward than for forward jumps. Finally...
Coronal Rain in Magnetic Arcades: Rebound Shocks, Limit Cycles, and Shear Flows
Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T.
2015-07-01
We extend our earlier multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal rain occurring in magnetic arcades with higher resolution, grid-adaptive computations covering a much longer (>6 hr) time span. We quantify how blob-like condensations forming in situ grow along and across field lines and show that rain showers can occur in limit cycles, here demonstrated for the first time in 2.5D setups. We discuss dynamical, multi-dimensional aspects of the rebound shocks generated by the siphon inflows and quantify the thermodynamics of a prominence-corona transition-region-like structure surrounding the blobs. We point out the correlation between condensation rates and the cross-sectional size of loop systems where catastrophic cooling takes place. We also study the variations of the typical number density, kinetic energy, and temperature while blobs descend, impact, and sink into the transition region. In addition, we explain the mechanisms leading to concurrent upflows while the blobs descend. As a result, there are plenty of shear flows generated with relative velocity difference around 80 km s-1 in our simulations. These shear flows are siphon flows set up by multiple blob dynamics and they in turn affect the deformation of the falling blobs. In particular, we show how shear flows can break apart blobs into smaller fragments, within minutes.
Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Echim
2007-02-01
Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.
Yong, Huadong; Zhao, Meng; Jing, Ze; Zhou, Youhe
2014-09-01
In this paper, the electromagnetic response and shielding behaviour of superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure are studied. The magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnetic materials is also considered. Based on the linear piezomagnetic coupling model and anti-plane shear deformation, the current density and magnetic field in superconducting strip are obtained firstly. The effect of shear stress on the magnetization of strip is discussed. Then, we consider the magnetic cloak for superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure. The magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic material is obtained for perfect cloaking in uniform magnetic field with magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnet. The simulation results show that the electromagnetic response in superconductors will change by applying the stress only to the ferromagnetic material. In addition, the performance of invisibility of structure for non-uniform field will be affected by mechanical stress. It may provide a method to achieve tunability of superconducting properties with mechanical loadings.
Phase Diagram and Breathing Dynamics of Red Blood Cell Motion in Shear Flow
Bagchi, Prosenjit; Yazdani, Alireza
2011-11-01
We present phase diagrams of red blood cell dynamics in shear flow using three-dimensional numerical simulations. By considering a wide range of shear rate and interior-to-exterior fluid viscosity ratio, it is shown that the cell dynamics is often more complex than the well-known tank-treading, tumbling and swinging motion, and is characterized by an extreme variation of the cell shape. We identify such complex shape dynamics as `breathing' dynamics. During the breathing motion, the cell either completely aligns with the flow direction and the membrane folds inward forming two cusps, or, it undergoes large swinging motion while deep, crater-like dimples periodically emerge and disappear. At lower bending rigidity, the breathing motion occurs over a wider range of shear rates, and is often characterized by the emergence of a quad-concave shape. The effect of the breathing dynamics on the tank-treading-to-tumbling transition is illustrated by detailed phase diagrams which appear to be more complex and richer than those of vesicles. In a remarkable departure from classical theory of nondeformable cells, we find that there exists a critical viscosity ratio below which the transition is dependent on shear rate only. Supported by NSF.
Thijssen, Dick H J; Bullens, Lauren M; van Bemmel, Marieke M; Dawson, Ellen A; Hopkins, Nicola; Tinken, Toni M; Black, Mark A; Hopman, Maria T E; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J
2009-01-01
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) has become a commonly applied approach for the assessment of vascular function and health in humans. Recent studies emphasize the importance of normalizing the magnitude of FMD to its apparent eliciting stimulus, the postdeflation arterial shear. However, the relationship between shear stress and the magnitude of FMD may differ between groups. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the brachial FMD and four different indexes of postdeflation shear rate (SR) in healthy children (n = 51, 10 +/- 1 yr) and young (n = 57, 27 +/- 6 yr) and older (n = 27, 58 +/- 4 yr) adults. SR was calculated from deflation (time 0) until 9 s (peak), 30 s (0-30), 60 s (0-60), or until the time-to-peak diameter in each individual (0-ttp). Edge detection and wall tracking of high resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images were used to calculate the conduit artery diameter. In young adults, the brachial artery FMD demonstrated a significant correlation with the area under the SR curve (SR(AUC)) 0-30 s (r(2) = 0.12, P = 0.009), 0-60 s (r(2) = 0.14, P = 0.005), and 0-ttp (r(2) = 0.14, P = 0.005) but not for the peak SR(AUC) 0-9 s (r(2) = 0.04, P = 0.12). In children and older adults, the magnitude of the brachial artery FMD did not correlate with any of the four SR(AUC) stimuli. These findings suggest that in young subjects, postdeflation SR(AUC) correlates moderately with the magnitude of the FMD response. However, the relationship between FMD and postdeflation shear appears to be age dependent, with less evidence for an association in younger and older subjects. Therefore, we support presenting SR(AUC) stimuli but not normalizing FMD responses for the SR(AUC) when using this technique.
Turbulent shear flow downstream of a sphere with and without an o-ring located over a plane boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahin Besir
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Flow-structure interaction of separated shear flow from the sphere and a flat plate was investigated by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Later, a passive control method was applied with 2mm oring located on the sphere surface at 55° from front stagnation point. The experiments were carried out in open water channel for Reynolds number value of Re=5000. Flow characteristics have been examined in terms of the 2-D instantaneous and time-averaged velocity vectors, patterns of vorticity, streamlines, rms of velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress variations and discussed from the point of flow physics, vortex formation, lengths of large-scale Karman Vortex Streets and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices depending on the sphere locations over the flat plate. It is demonstrated that the gap flow occurring between the sphere bottom point and the flat plate surface has very high scouring effect until h/d=0.25 and then unsymmetrical flow structure of the wake region keeps up to h/D=1.0 for smooth sphere. For the sphere with o-ring, the wake flow structure becomes symmetrical at smaller gap ratios and reattachment point on the flat plate surface occurs earlier. Moreover, o-ring on the sphere diminishes peak magnitudes of the flow characteristics and thus it is expected that the flow-induced forces will be lessened both on the sphere and flat plate surface. Vortex formation lengths and maximum value occurring points become closer locations to the rear surface of the sphere with o-ring.
Excitation of an acoustic pulse by an impulsive shear flow in a dusty plasma
Liu, Bin; Goree, John; Dusty plasma Team
2017-10-01
A dusty plasma is a strongly-coupled plasma that contains micron-sized particles. These particles, also called dust particles, are highly charged by ambient plasma; they interact with each other, sustaining collective wave motion. Both longitudinal and transverse waves can in general be excited. Here we use an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation to reveal a wave excitation mechanism that is due to viscous heating. In the simulation, an impulsive force was applied to drive a shear flow motion with a sudden onset. After a delay, a longitudinal acoustic pulse wave was observed, propagating outwards from the edge of the flow. We found that the viscous heating due to shear motion can result in a brief localized rarefaction in the dust cloud, leading to the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. The simulation parameters were motivated by the PK-4 instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). Work was supported by NASA.
Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.
1983-01-01
Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments
A numerical study of the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder in two dimensional shear flow
Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Huang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Di; Chu, Chin-Chou; Chang, Chien-Cheng
2012-11-01
We have investigated the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder of circular or elliptic shape in two dimensional shear flow of a Newtonian fluid by direct numerical simulation. The numerical results are validated by comparisons with existing theoretical, experimental and numerical results, including a power law of the normalized angular speed versus the particle Reynolds number. The centerline between two walls is an expected equilibrium position of the cylinder mass center in shear flow. When placing the particle away from the centerline initially, it migrates toward another equilibrium position for higher Reynolds numbers due to the interplay between the slip velocity, the Magnus force, and the wall repulsion force. T-W Pan acknowledges the support by the US NSF and S-L Huang, S-D Chen, C-C Chu, C-C Chang acknowledge the support by the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC.
Laminar flow of a shear-thickening fluid in a 90∘ pipe bend
Marn, Jure; Ternik, Primož
2006-05-01
The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a sharp 90∘ curved pipe is studied numerically to obtain the pressure loss coefficient prompted by disagreement between the existing empirical correlations and results obtained by computer codes. This disagreement results from presumption of fully developed flow throughout the curvature (correlations) while the actual flow is partially developed for the Newtonian and sharp 90∘ curved bend non-Newtonian flows, and fully developed for slightly bent 90∘ curvature non-Newtonian flow. The Quadratic model is employed to accommodate the shear-thickening behavior of an electrostatic ash and water mixture. Numerical results are obtained for different values of Reynolds number. Finally, results for local pressure loss coefficient are compared with values obtained for the Power law rheological model.
Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows
Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan
2017-11-01
Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.
Streamwise vortices in shear flows: harbingers of transition and the skeleton of coherent structures
Sherwin, Spencer; Hall, Phil
2010-11-01
The relationship between asymptotic descriptions of vortex-wave interactions and more recent work on "exact coherent structures" is investigated. We have recently shown that the so-called "lower branch" state, which has been identified as playing a crucial role in these self-sustained processes, is a finite Reynolds number analogue of a Rayleigh vortex-wave interaction with scales appropriately modified from those for external flows to Couette flow the flow of interest here. Remarkable agreement between the asymptotic theory and numerical solutions of the Navier Stokes equations is found even down to relatively small Reynolds numbers thereby suggesting the possible importance of vortex-wave interaction theory in turbulent shear flows. In this paper we will outline the motivation behind the asymptotic analysis and computational modelling which demonstrate the linkage between wave vortex interaction and self sustaining processes. The minimum drag configuration associated with a fixed spanwise wavenumber is also determined as a function of the downstream wavelength and this points to the crucial importance of long waves evolving on the spatial scale appropriate to the roll/streak flow. [4pt] Hall, P. & Sherwin, S.J. 2010, Streamwise vortices in shear flows: harbingers of transition and the skeleton of coherent structures, J. Fluid Mech./ in press.
Measurement of Sheared Flows in the Edge Plasma of the CASTOR Tokamak
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brotánková, Jana; Stöckel, Jan; Horáček, Jan; Seidl, Jakub; Ďuran, Ivan; Hron, Martin; Van Oost, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 35, č. 11 (2009), s. 980-986 ISSN 1063-780X. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices/18th./. Alushta (Krym), 25.09. 2008 -27.09. 2008 ] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * probe diagnostics * sheared flows * edge plasma * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2009 http://www.springerlink.com/content/u571504gmq118314/
Influence of microvascular sutures on shear strain rate in realistic pulsatile flow.
Wain, R A J; Smith, D J; Hammond, D R; Whitty, J P M
2018-03-06
Arterial thrombus formation is directly related to the mechanical shear experienced by platelets within flow. High shear strain rates (SSRs) and large shear gradients cause platelet activation, aggregation and production of thrombus. This study, for the first time, investigates the influence of pulsatile flow on local haemodynamics within sutured microarterial anastomoses. We measured physiological arterial waveform velocities experimentally using Doppler ultrasound velocimetry, and a representative example was applied to a realistic sutured microarterial geometry. Computational geometries were created using measurements taken from sutured chicken femoral arteries. Arterial SSRs were predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to indicate the potential for platelet activation, deposition and thrombus formation. Predictions of steady and sinusoidal inputs were compared to analyse whether the addition of physiological pulse characteristics affects local intravascular flow characteristics. Simulations were designed to evaluate flow in pristine and hand-sutured microarterial anastomoses, each with a steady-state and sinusoidal pulse component. The presence of sutures increased SSR max in the anastomotic region by factors of 2.1 and 2.3 in steady-state and pulsatile flows respectively, when compared to a pristine vessel. SSR values seen in these simulations are analogous to the presence of moderate arterial stenosis. Steady-state simulations, driven by a constant inflow velocity equal to the peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the measured pulsatile flow, underestimated SSRs by ∼ 9% in pristine, and ∼ 19% in sutured vessels compared with a realistic pulse. Sinusoidal flows, with equivalent frequency and amplitude to a measured arterial waveform, represent a slight improvement on steady-state simulations, but still SSRs are underestimated by 1-2%. We recommend using a measured arterial waveform, of the form presented here, for simulating pulsatile flows
Noise enhances the rapid nitric oxide production by bone cells in response to fluid shear stress.
Bacabac, Rommel G; Van Loon, Jack J W A; Smit, Theo H; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
2009-01-01
Stochastic resonance is exhibited by many biological systems, where the response to a small stimulus is enhanced with the aid of noise. This intriguing possibility provides a novel paradigm for understanding previously reported osteogenic benefits of low amplitude dynamic loading. However, it is unknown whether bone cell mechanosensitivity is enhanced by noise as an alternative mechanism for an amplified response to small stresses. We studied whether noise of varying intensities enhanced the mechanosensitivity of MC3T3-E1 cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured as the parameter for bone cell activation. Dynamic fluid shear stress stimulated bone cells provided an initial-stress kick was implemented. Without the initial stress-kick bone cells did not release a significant amount of NO demonstrating an essential non-linearity to bone cell responses to stress and the possibility of stochastic resonance in bone cell mechanosensitivity. The rapid NO response of MC3T3-E1 cells to a small periodic fluid shear stress was increased with the addition of noise compared to the response to stress with only noise. This confirms the possibility of stochastic resonance enhancement of NO production by bone cells. Since NO regulate bone formation as well as resorption, our results suggest that noise enhances the activity of bone cells in driving the mechanical adaptation of bone.