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Sample records for flow shear stress

  1. Reynolds stress and shear flow generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method......, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior...

  2. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: caojing981@126.com [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  3. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  4. Effects of flow unsteadiness on the wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Raisee, M

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were performed on pulsating fully turbulent flows in a pipe test rig with a diameter of 100 mm. Sinusoidal oscillatory flow at different frequencies was superimposed on a mean flow of averaged Reynolds number Re=20000 based on the pipe diameter. The measurements have been performed at different forcing frequencies (0.001 + < 0.08) covering all the oscillatory regimes; quasi-steady, relaxation, quasi laminar and high frequency. The amplitude of the flow oscillation was small enough to allow a linear response in the measurements, i.e., all flow parameters showed an oscillatory behavior at the frequency of the flow. The amplitude of the oscillatory flow was about 10% of the mean velocity in all cases. The results include mean and phase averaged values of different parameters. The centerline velocity was measured by a 2D LDA system. Hot film and constant temperature anemometry system was used to determine the wall shear stress. Bulk velocity and pressure gradient along the pipe were also acquired. The results showed a good agreement with the previous analytical, experimental and numerical results available in the literature.

  5. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

  6. Wall shear stress fixed points in blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics produces large datasets, and wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most important parameters due to its close connection with the biological processes at the wall. While some studies have investigated WSS vectorial features, the WSS fixed points have not received much attention. In this talk, we will discuss the importance of WSS fixed points from three viewpoints. First, we will review how WSS fixed points relate to the flow physics away from the wall. Second, we will discuss how certain types of WSS fixed points lead to high biochemical surface concentration in cardiovascular mass transport problems. Finally, we will introduce a new measure to track the exposure of endothelial cells to WSS fixed points.

  7. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods

  8. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Murao, Y. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  9. Generation of sheared poloidal flows via Reynolds stress and transport barrier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Sanchez, E.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Milligen, B. van; Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Riccardi, C.; Carrozza, R.; Fontanesi, M.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.

    2000-01-01

    A view of the latest experimental results and progress in the understanding of the role of poloidal flows driven by fluctuations via Reynolds stress is given. Reynolds stress shows a radial gradient close to the velocity shear layer location in tokamaks and stellarators, indicating that this mechanism may drive significant poloidal flows in the plasma boundary. Observation of the generation of ExB sheared flows via Reynolds stress at the ion Bernstein resonance layer has been noticed in toroidal magnetized plasmas. The experimental evidence of sheared ExB flows linked to the location of rational surfaces in stellarator plasmas might be interpreted in terms of Reynolds stress sheared driven flows. These results show that ExB sheared flows driven by fluctuations can play an important role in the generation of transport barriers. (author)

  10. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-08-01

    Suppression of resistive g-mode turbulence by background shear flow generated from a small external flow source and amplified by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress is demonstrated and analyzed. The model leads to a paradigm for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transition. To demonstrate the L-H transition model, single-helicity nonlinear fluid simulations using the vorticity equation for the electrostatic potential, the pressure fluctuation equation and the background poloidal flow equation are used in the sheared slab configuration. The relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the poloidal flow damping parameter ν which is given by neoclassical theory. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow and its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. In contrast, for small ν, we show that the fluctuations drive a Reynolds stress that becomes large and suddenly, at some critical point in time, shear flow much larger than the external flow is generated and leads to an abrupt, order unity reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is also found that, even in the case of no external flow, the shear flow generation due to the Reynolds stress occurs through the nonlinear interaction of the resistive g-modes and reduces the transport. To supplement the numerical solutions we derive the Landau equation for the mode amplitude of the resistive g-mode taking into account the fluctuation-induced shear flow and analyze the opposite action of the Reynolds stress in the resistive g turbulence compared with the classical shear flow Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) driven turbulence

  11. Endothelial shear stress estimation in the human carotid artery based on Womersley versus Poiseuille flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Janina C. V.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Nederveen, Aart J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; VanBavel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) dynamics are a major determinant of atherosclerosis development. The frequently used Poiseuille method to estimate ESS dynamics has important limitations. Therefore, we investigated whether Womersley flow may provide a better alternative for estimation of ESS while

  12. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have investigated suppression of the resistive g mode turbulence by background shear flow produced by the external source and by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress. For that purpose, the authors used the model consisting of the equations describing the electrostatic potential φ≡(φ 0 +φ) and the pressure fluctuation p of the resistive g mode, and the equation for the background poloidal flow. They have done the single-helicity nonlinear simulations using the model equations in the sheared slab configuration. They find that, in the nonlinear turbulent regime, significant suppression of the turbulent transport is realized only when the shear flow v' E exceeds that which makes the fastest-growing linear modes marginally stable. With the shear flow which decreases the fastest linear growth rates by about a half, the turbulent transport in the saturated state is about the same as in the case of no shear flow. As seen from the equation for the background flow v E , the relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the parameter ν. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow although its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. On the other hand, for small ν, they observe that, as the fluctuations grow, the Reynolds stress becomes large and suddenly at some critical point in time shear flow much larger than the external one is generated and leads to the significant reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is remarkable that the Reynolds stress due to the resistive g mode fluctuations works not as a conventional viscosity term weakening the shear flow but as a negative viscosity term enhancing it

  13. Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of local fluid flow and shear stress within microporous scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Haj, Alicia El; Hinds, Monica T.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-05-01

    Establishing a relationship between perfusion rate and fluid shear stress in a 3D cell culture environment is an ongoing and challenging task faced by tissue engineers. We explore Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) as a potential imaging tool for in situ monitoring of local fluid flow profiles inside porous chitosan scaffolds. From the measured fluid flow profiles, the fluid shear stresses are evaluated. We examine the localized fluid flow and shear stress within low- and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds, which are subjected to a constant input flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1. The DOCT results show that the behavior of the fluid flow and shear stress in micropores is strongly dependent on the micropore interconnectivity, porosity, and size of pores within the scaffold. For low-porosity and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds examined, the measured local fluid flow and shear stress varied from micropore to micropore, with a mean shear stress of 0.49+/-0.3 dyn.cm-2 and 0.38+/-0.2 dyn.cm-2, respectively. In addition, we show that the scaffold's porosity and interconnectivity can be quantified by combining analyses of the 3D structural and flow images obtained from DOCT.

  14. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of shear stress in counter-current gas-liquid annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Akimoto, Hajime; Murao, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of the correlations of the friction factor is important for the counter-current flow (CCF) analysis with two-fluid model. However, existing two fluid model codes use the correlations of friction factors for co-current flow or correlation developed based on the assumption of no wall shear stress. The assessment calculation for two fluid model code with those existing correlations of friction factors shows the falling water flow rate is overestimated. Analytical model is developed to calculate the shear stress distribution in water film at CCF in order to get the information on the shear stress at the interface and the wall. The analytical results with the analysis model and Bharathan's CCF data shows that the wall shear stress acting on the falling water film is almost same order as the interfacial shear stress and the correlations for co-current flow cannot be applied to the counter-current flow. Tentative correlations of the interfacial and the wall friction factors are developed based on the results of the present study. (author)

  16. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  17. Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job

    2006-03-01

    The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.

  18. A film-based wall shear stress sensor for wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2011-07-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flows, determination of wall shear stress is an important task. The main objective of the present work is to develop a sensor which is capable of measuring surface shear stress over an extended region applicable to wall-bounded turbulent flows. This sensor, as a direct method for measuring wall shear stress, consists of mounting a thin flexible film on the solid surface. The sensor is made of a homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible material. The geometry and mechanical properties of the film are measured, and particles with the nominal size of 11 μm in diameter are embedded on the film's surface to act as markers. An optical technique is used to measure the film deformation caused by the flow. The film has typically deflection of less than 2% of the material thickness under maximum loading. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the layer or the shear modulus of the film's material. The paper reports the sensor fabrication, static and dynamic calibration procedure, and its application to a fully developed turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers in the range of 90,000-130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel full height. The results are compared to alternative wall shear stress measurement methods.

  19. Molecular characteristics of stress overshoot for polymer melts under start-up shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohdam; Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2017-12-21

    Stress overshoot is one of the most important nonlinear rheological phenomena exhibited by polymeric liquids undergoing start-up shear at sufficient flow strengths. Despite considerable previous research, the fundamental molecular characteristics underlying stress overshoot remain unknown. Here, we analyze the intrinsic molecular mechanisms behind the overshoot phenomenon using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of entangled linear polyethylene melts under shear flow. Through a detailed analysis of the transient rotational chain dynamics, we identify an intermolecular collision angular regime in the vicinity of the chain orientation angle θ ≈ 20° with respect to the flow direction. The shear stress overshoot occurs via strong intermolecular collisions between chains in the collision regime at θ = 15°-25°, corresponding to a peak strain of 2-4, which is an experimentally well-known value. The normal stress overshoot appears at approximately θ = 10°, at a corresponding peak strain roughly equivalent to twice that for the shear stress. We provide plausible answers to several basic questions regarding the stress overshoot, which may further help understand other nonlinear phenomena of polymeric systems.

  20. Measurement and analysis of flow wall shear stress in an interior subchannel of triangular array rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-08-01

    A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in

  1. Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1989-04-01

    Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.

  2. Direct measurement of wall shear stress in a reattaching flow with a photonic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz, U K; Ioppolo, T; Ötügen, M V

    2013-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements are carried out in a planar backward-facing step flow using a micro-optical sensor. The sensor is essentially a floating element system and measures the shear stress directly. The transduction method to measure the floating element deflection is based on the whispering gallery optical mode (WGM) shifts of a dielectric microsphere. This method is capable of measuring floating element displacements of the order of a nanometer. The floating element surface is circular with a diameter of ∼960 µm, which is part of a beam that is in contact with the dielectric microsphere. The sensor is calibrated for shear stress as well as pressure sensitivity yielding 7.3 pm Pa −1 and 0.0236 pm Pa −1 for shear stress and pressure sensitivity, respectively. Hence, the contribution by the wall pressure is less than two orders of magnitude smaller than that of shear stress. Measurements are made for a Reynolds number range of 2000–5000 extending to 18 step heights from the step face. The results are in good agreement with those of earlier reports. An analysis is also carried out to evaluate the performance of the WGM sensor including measurement sensitivity and bandwidth. (paper)

  3. Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.

  4. Wall shear stress from a rotating cylinder in cross flow using the electrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labraga, L.; Bourabaa, N.; Berkah, T.

    2002-01-01

    The wall shear rate from a rotating cylinder in a uniform flow was measured with flush-mounted electrochemical mass transfer probes. The experiments were performed using two rectangular electrodes in a sandwich arrangement. Initially, the frequency response of that probe was numerically studied using an inverse mass transfer method in order to restore the whole wall shear stress in the time domain starting from the measured transfer coefficients given by the split probe. The experiments were performed in the range of velocity ratios 0 4, points of zero shear stress on the rotating cylinder vanish, which is in fact consistent with the previous arguments that the cylinder is surrounded by a set of closed streamlines. This experimental study shows that, when their dynamic behaviour is known, the electrochemical probes are able to sense complex fine structures not observed up to now by previous analytical, numerical or experimental methods, even when non-linear effects are not negligible. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of gas wall shear stress in horizontal stratified gas-liquid pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.H.; Behnia, M.

    1996-01-01

    Two-phase pipe flows occur in many industrial applications, such as condensers and evaporators, chemical processing equipment, nuclear reactors, and oil pipelines. A variety of basic mechanistic flow models for predicting the pressure gradient and liquid loading characteristics of these types of flows to assist in design calculations has emerged over the past two decades, especially for the stratified and slug flow regimes. These models generally rely on a number of basic assumptions and empirical closure equations. Possibly the most notable of these relates to the evaluation of interfacial shear stresses. However, one of the most important yet least discussed assumptions used in most of these models is that the phase wall shear stresses can be accurately estimated from correlations developed for single-phase pipe flows. The object of this article is to present measurements of gas wall shear up to locations in close proximity to the gas-liquid interface for a variety of interface conditions in developed flow, and to determine the effects of the interface on average gas wall friction factors. In this context the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy

  6. Non-Newtonian stress tensor and thermal conductivity tensor in granular plane shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meheboob; Saha, Saikat

    2014-11-01

    The non-Newtonian stress tensor and the heat flux in the plane shear flow of smooth inelastic disks are analysed from the Grad-level moment equations using the anisotropic Gaussian as a reference. Closed-form expressions for shear viscosity, pressure, first normal stress difference (N1) and the dissipation rate are given as functions of (i) the density or the area fraction (ν), (ii) the restitution coefficient (e), (iii) the dimensionless shear rate (R), (iv) the temperature anisotropy [ η, the difference between the principal eigenvalues of the second moment tensor] and (v) the angle (ϕ) between the principal directions of the shear tensor and the second moment tensor. Particle simulation data for a sheared hard-disk system is compared with theoretical results, with good agreement for p, μ and N1 over a large range of density. In contrast, the predictions from a Navier-Stokes order constitutive model are found to deviate significantly from both the simulation and the moment theory even at moderate values of e. We show that the gradient of the deviatoric part of the kinetic stress drives a heat current and the thermal conductivity is characterized by an anisotropic 2nd rank tensor for which explicit expressions are derived.

  7. Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilute surfactant solution of 25 ppm in the two-dimensional channel is investigated experimentally compared with water flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV system is used to take 2D velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane. Based on the frames of instantaneous vectors and statistical results, the phenomenon of zero Reynolds shear stress appearing in the drag-reducing flow is discussed. It is found that 25 ppm CTAC solution exhibits the highest drag reduction at Re = 25000 and loses drag reduction completely at Re = 40000. When drag reduction lies in the highest, Reynolds shear stress disappears and reaches zero although the RMS of the velocity fluctuations is not zero. By the categorization in four quadrants, the fluctuations of 25 ppm CTAC solution are distributed in all four quadrants equally at Re = 25000, which indicates that turnaround transportation happens in drag-reducing flow besides Reynolds shear stress transportation. Moreover, the contour distribution of streamwise velocity and the fluctuations suggests that turbulence transportation is depressed in drag-reducing flow. The viscoelasticity is possible to decrease the turbulence transportation and cause the turnaround transportation.

  8. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a

  9. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  10. Sensor for direct measurement of the boundary shear stress in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  11. Comparison of erythrocyte dynamics in shear flow under different stress-free configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Yazdani, Alireza; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-04-01

    An open question that has persisted for decades is whether the cytoskeleton of a red blood cell is stress-free or under a stress. This question is important in the context of theoretical modeling of cellular motion under a flowing condition where it is necessary to make an assumption about the stress-free state. Here, we present a 3D numerical study to compare the cell dynamics in a simple shear flow under two different stress-free states, a biconcave discocyte representing the resting shape of the cell, and a nearly spherical oblate shape. We find that whether the stress-free states make a significant difference or not depends on the viscosity of the suspending medium. If the viscosity is close to that of blood plasma, the two stress-free states do not show any significant difference in cell dynamics. However, when the suspending medium viscosity is well above that of the physiological range, as in many in vitro studies, the shear rate separating the tank-treading and tumbling dynamics is observed to be higher for the biconcave stress-free state than the spheroidal state. The former shows a strong shape oscillation with repeated departures from the biconcave shape, while the latter shows a nearly stable biconcave shape. It is found that the cell membrane in the biconcave stress-free state is under a compressive stress and a weaker bending force density, leading to a periodic compression of the cell. The shape oscillation then leads to a higher energy barrier against membrane tank-tread leading to an early transition to tumbling. However, if the cells are released with a large off-shear plane angle, the oscillations can be suppressed due to an azimuthal motion of the membrane along the vorticity direction leading to a redistribution of the membrane points and lowering of the energy barrier, which again results in a nearly similar behavior of the cells under the two different stress-free states. A variety of off-shear plane dynamics is observed, namely, rolling

  12. Monodimensional estimation of maximum Reynolds shear stress in the downstream flow field of bileaflet valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Barbaro, Vincenzo

    2002-05-01

    Turbulent flow generated by prosthetic devices at the bloodstream level may cause mechanical stress on blood particles. Measurement of the Reynolds stress tensor and/or some of its components is a mandatory step to evaluate the mechanical load on blood components exerted by fluid stresses, as well as possible consequent blood damage (hemolysis or platelet activation). Because of the three-dimensional nature of turbulence, in general, a three-component anemometer should be used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor, but this is difficult, especially in vivo. The present study aimed to derive the maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in three commercially available prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) of wide diffusion, starting with monodimensional data provided in vivo by echo Doppler. Accurate measurement of PHV flow field was made using laser Doppler anemometry; this provided the principal turbulence quantities (mean velocity, root-mean-square value of velocity fluctuations, average value of cross-product of velocity fluctuations in orthogonal directions) needed to quantify the maximum turbulence-related shear stress. The recorded data enabled determination of the relationship, the Reynolds stresses ratio (RSR) between maximum RSS and Reynolds normal stress in the main flow direction. The RSR was found to be dependent upon the local structure of the flow field. The reported RSR profiles, which permit a simple calculation of maximum RSS, may prove valuable during the post-implantation phase, when an assessment of valve function is made echocardiographically. Hence, the risk of damage to blood constituents associated with bileaflet valve implantation may be accurately quantified in vivo.

  13. Padé approximant for normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungthong, P.; Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.; Kolitawong, C.; Merger, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS), for continuum or molecular models, normally take the inexact form of the first few terms of a series expansion in the shear rate amplitude. Here, we improve the accuracy of these truncated expansions by replacing them with rational functions called Padé approximants. The recent advent of exact solutions in LAOS presents an opportunity to identify accurate and useful Padé approximants. For this identification, we replace the truncated expansion for the corotational Jeffreys fluid with its Padé approximants for the normal stress differences. We uncover the most accurate and useful approximant, the [3,4] approximant, and then test its accuracy against the exact solution [C. Saengow and A. J. Giacomin, "Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow," Phys. Fluids 29, 121601 (2017)]. We use Ewoldt grids to show the stunning accuracy of our [3,4] approximant in LAOS. We quantify this accuracy with an objective function and then map it onto the Pipkin space. Our two applications illustrate how to use our new approximant reliably. For this, we use the Spriggs relations to generalize our best approximant to multimode, and then, we compare with measurements on molten high-density polyethylene and on dissolved polyisobutylene in isobutylene oligomer.

  14. Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Liu, Xiaofeng; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    on it in an unfavourable manner. Using physical models and 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulations, the velocity and bed shear stresses are investigated in complex scour protections around mono piles in steady current. In the physical model the scour protections consisted of an upper cover layer...... simulations are capable of calculating the flow velocities when the scour protection is represented by regular arranged spheres, while the turbulence in general is underestimated. The velocity can also be calculated using porous media flow approach, but the accuracy is not as good as for spheres...

  15. On Shear Stress Distributions for Flow in Smooth or Partially Rough Annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B; Hedberg, S

    1966-08-15

    It is commonly assumed that for turbulent flow in annuli the radii of zero shear and maximum velocity are coincident. By inspection of the differential equations for such flow and by an integral analysis it is shown that this is not necessarily true. To check whether important differences could occur, experiments were made in which velocity and shear stress distributions were measured in one smooth and two partially rough annuli. The results show no difference in the radii for the smooth annulus, but for the partially rough annuli there was a small but significant difference. This difference explains the breakdown of Hall's transformation theory reported by other investigators. The error introduced by use of Hall's theory is however small, of the order of 10 % or less.

  16. On Shear Stress Distributions for Flow in Smooth or Partially Rough Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.; Hedberg, S.

    1966-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that for turbulent flow in annuli the radii of zero shear and maximum velocity are coincident. By inspection of the differential equations for such flow and by an integral analysis it is shown that this is not necessarily true. To check whether important differences could occur, experiments were made in which velocity and shear stress distributions were measured in one smooth and two partially rough annuli. The results show no difference in the radii for the smooth annulus, but for the partially rough annuli there was a small but significant difference. This difference explains the breakdown of Hall's transformation theory reported by other investigators. The error introduced by use of Hall's theory is however small, of the order of 10 % or less

  17. Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2002-02-01

    We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.

  18. Wall shear stress characterization of a 3D bluff-body separated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi

    2013-10-01

    Efficient flow control strategies aimed at reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles require a detailed knowledge of the reference flow. In this work, the flow around the rear slanted window of a generic car model was experimentally studied through wall shear stress measurements using an electrochemical method. The mean and fluctuating wall shear stress within the wall impact regions of the recirculation bubble and the main longitudinal vortex structures which develop above the rear window are presented. Correlations allow a more detailed characterization of the recirculation phenomenon within the separation bubble. In the model symmetry plane the recirculation structure compares well with simpler 2D configurations; specific lengths, flapping motion and shedding of large-scale vortices are observed, these similarities diminish when leaving the middle plane due to the strong three-dimensionality of the flow. A specific attention is paid to the convection processes occurring within the recirculation: a downstream convection velocity is observed, in accordance with 2D recirculations from the literature, and an upstream convection is highlighted along the entire bubble length which has not been underlined in some previous canonical configurations.

  19. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  20. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  1. Augmentative effect of pulsatility on the wall shear stress in tube flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tatsumi, E; Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Nishimura, T; Nishinaka, T; Takano, H; Masuzawa, T; Ohba, K

    1999-08-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) has been considered to play an important role in the physiological and metabolic functions of the vascular endothelial cells. We investigated the effects of the pulse rate and the maximum flow rate on the WSS to clarify the influence of pulsatility. Water was perfused in a 1/2 inch transparent straight cylinder with a nonpulsatile centrifugal pump and a pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD). In nonpulsatile flow (NF), the flow rate was changed 1 to 6 L/min by 1 L/min increments to obtain standard values of WSS at each flow rate. In pulsatile flow (PF), the pulse rate was controlled at 40, 60, and 80 bpm, and the maximum flow rate was varied from 3.3 to 12.0 L/min while the mean flow rate was kept at 3 L/min. The WSS was estimated from the velocity profile at measuring points using the laser illuminated fluorescence method. In NF, the WSS was 12.0 dyne/cm2 at 3 L/min and 33.0 dyne/cm2 at 6 L/min. In PF, the pulse rate change with the same mean, and the maximum flow rate did not affect WSS. On the other hand, the increase in the maximum flow rate at the constant mean flow rate of 3 L/min augmented the mean WSS from 13.1 to 32.9 dyne/cm2. We concluded that the maximum flow rate exerted a substantial augmentative effect on WSS, and the maximum flow rate was a dominant factor of pulsatility in this effect.

  2. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2014-09-14

    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  3. Shear stress from hot-film sensors in unsteady gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a data analysis procedure is proposed for obtaining unsteady wall shear stress from flush-mounted hot-film anemometer measurements. The method is based on a two-dimensional heat transfer model of the unsteady heat transfer in both the hot-film sensor and in the gas flow. The sensor thermal properties are found from preliminary calibration experiments at zero flow. Numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the data analysis method using simulated sensor signals that are corrupted with noise. The numerical experiments show that noise in the data propagates into the results so that data smoothing may be important in analyzing experimental data. Because the data analysis procedure is linear, a linear digital filter is constructed that could be used for processing large amounts of experimental data. However, further refinements will be needed before the method can be applied to experimental data

  4. Influence of Coherent Structures on the Wall Shear Stress in Axial Flow Between a Cylinder and a Plane Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabbouchi, Imed; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    Synchronised hot-film and hot-wire measurements were made in the narrower region of a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod. The hot-film probe was mounted flush with the channel bottom wall to measure the wall shear stress, while the hot-wire probe was placed at a fixed position, selected in order to easily detect the passage of coherent structures. Mean and rms profiles of the wall shear stress show the influence of the gap to diameter ratio on their respective distributions. The latter presented peculiarities that could only be explained by the presence of coherent structures in the flow between the rod and the wall. Evidence of this presence is seen in the velocity power spectra. The strong influence of the coherent structures on the wall shear stress spatial and temporal distributions is established through velocity-wall shear stress cross-correlations functions and through conditionally sampled measurements

  5. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  6. Measurements of wall shear stress in a planar turbulent Couette flow with porous walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of drag on a moving web in a multi-span festoon show a stronger than expected dependency on the porosity of the web. The experiments suggest a wall shear stress 3-4 times larger than non-porous webs or historical Couette flow data for solid walls. Previous DNS studies by Jimenez et al. (JFM Vol 442) of boundary layers with passive porous surfaces predict a much smaller increase in wall shear stress for a porous wall of only 40%. Other DNS studies by Quadrio et al. (JFM Vol 576) of porous walls with periodic transpiration do show a large increase in drag under certain periodic conditions of modest amplitude. Although those results are aligned in magnitude with this study, the exact reason for the observed high drag for porous webs in this present study is not understood because there was no external disturbance applied to the web. It can be hypothesized that natural flutter of the web results in a similar mechanism shown in the periodic DNS study, but when the natural flutter was reduced by increasing web tension, there was only a small decrease of the drag. A key difference in this study is that because of the multiple parallel spans in a festoon, any transpiration in one layer must act in the opposite manner on the adjacent span.

  7. Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.

  8. Normalization of flow-mediated dilation to shear stress area under the curve eliminates the impact of variable hyperemic stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickleborough Timothy D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The present study was designed to further examine the efficacy of FMD normalization to shear stress in reducing measurement variability. Methods Five different magnitudes of reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress were applied to 20 healthy, physically active young adults (25.3 ± 0. 6 yrs; 10 men, 10 women by manipulating forearm cuff occlusion duration: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, in a randomized order. A venous blood draw was performed for determination of baseline whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. The magnitude of occlusion-induced forearm ischemia was quantified by dual-wavelength near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS. Brachial artery diameters and velocities were obtained via high-resolution ultrasound. The SSAUC was individually calculated for the duration of time-to-peak dilation. Results One-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated distinct magnitudes of occlusion-induced ischemia (volume and peak, hyperemic shear stress, and peak FMD responses (all p AUC (p = 0.785. Conclusion Our data confirm that normalization of FMD to SSAUC eliminates the influences of variable shear stress and solidifies the utility of FMD:SSAUC ratio as an index of endothelial function.

  9. In situ monitoring of localized shear stress and fluid flow within developing tissue constructs by Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2008-02-01

    Mechanical stimuli can be introduced to three dimensional (3D) cell cultures by use of perfusion bioreactor. Especially in musculoskeletal tissues, shear stress caused by fluid flow generally increase extra-cellular matrix (ECM) production and cell proliferation. The relationship between the shear stress and the tissue development in situ is complicated because of the non-uniform pore distribution within the cell-seeded scaffold. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is capable of monitoring localized fluid flow and shear stress in the complex porous scaffold by examining their variation trends at perfusion rate of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ml/hr. Then, we developed the 3D porous cellular constructs, cell-seeded chitosan scaffolds monitored during several days by DOCT. The fiber based fourier domain DOCT employed a 1300 nm superluminescent diode with a bandwidth of 52 nm and a xyz resolution of 20×20×15 μm in free space. This setup allowed us not only to assess the cell growth and ECM deposition by observing their different scattering behaviors but also to further investigate how the cell attachment and ECM production has the effect on the flow shear stress and the relationship between flow rate and shear stress in the developing tissue construct. The possibility to monitor continuously the constructs under perfusion will easily indicate the effect of flow rate or shear stress on the cell viability and cell proliferation, and then discriminate the perfusion parameters affecting the pre-tissue formation rate growth.

  10. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra; Chopp, David L.; Moran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions

  11. Three-dimensional flow structure and patterns of bed shear stress in an evolving compound meander bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.

  12. Shear stress induced by an interstitial level of slow flow increases the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through TAZ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Kim

    Full Text Available Shear stress activates cellular signaling involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation under interstitial flow are not fully understood. Here, we show the increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under exposure to constant, extremely low shear stress created by osmotic pressure-induced flow in a microfluidic chip. The interstitial level of shear stress in the proposed microfluidic system stimulated nuclear localization of TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, a transcriptional modulator of MSCs, activated TAZ target genes such as CTGF and Cyr61, and induced osteogenic differentiation. TAZ-depleted cells showed defects in shear stress-induced osteogenic differentiation. In shear stress induced cellular signaling, Rho signaling pathway was important forthe nuclear localization of TAZ. Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ is an important mediator of interstitial flow-driven shear stress signaling in osteoblast differentiation of MSCs.

  13. Normalization of flow-mediated dilation to shear stress area under the curve eliminates the impact of variable hyperemic stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jaume; Johnson, Blair D; Newcomer, Sean C; Wilhite, Daniel P; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Fly, Alyce D; Mather, Kieren J; Wallace, Janet P

    2008-09-04

    Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio) has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The present study was designed to further examine the efficacy of FMD normalization to shear stress in reducing measurement variability. Five different magnitudes of reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress were applied to 20 healthy, physically active young adults (25.3 +/- 0. 6 yrs; 10 men, 10 women) by manipulating forearm cuff occlusion duration: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, in a randomized order. A venous blood draw was performed for determination of baseline whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. The magnitude of occlusion-induced forearm ischemia was quantified by dual-wavelength near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). Brachial artery diameters and velocities were obtained via high-resolution ultrasound. The SSAUC was individually calculated for the duration of time-to-peak dilation. One-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated distinct magnitudes of occlusion-induced ischemia (volume and peak), hyperemic shear stress, and peak FMD responses (all p index of endothelial function.

  14. An experimental study for the interface shear stress of near vertical air-water separated flow on evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H.; Park, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    The object of experiment is improved model of evaporative heat transfer coefficient using interfacial friction factor on evaporation. Experiments have been conducted with near-vertical(87 .deg.) flat plate on evaporation for air-water countercurrent stratified flow. Experiment facility is consisted of 1.7m length and 0.2 X 0.005m cross section, the one side direct heating system which have 10kw power capacity. The interfacial shear stress, pressure drop and temperatures in test section were measured. These parameters were measured by DP-103 pressure transducer, K-type thermocouple, RTD and Hot Wire Anemometer(HWA). Experimental results were inclination as increased interfacial shear stress with increased the evaporation rate. Interfacial shear stress was increased as increased water flow rate and air flow rate too. For the evaluation of the measured evaporative heat transfer coefficients and physical understanding of the evaporation phenomena, the evaporative heat transfer coefficients were obtained through the simple calculation process by the use of mass transfer coefficient correlation and the experimental data of wavy film surface effect on shear and on evaporation

  15. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  16. 3-D flow characterization and shear stress in a stenosed carotid artery bifurcation model using stereoscopic PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2010-01-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.

  17. Impact of competitive flow on wall shear stress in coronary surgery: computational fluid dynamics of a LIMA-LAD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2010-12-01

    Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.

  18. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  19. Flow and wall shear stress characterization after endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm sealing in an infrarenal aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Versluis, Michel; Slump, Cornelis H; Ku, David N; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-12-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a modular endograft has become the preferred treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. A novel concept is endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), consisting of dual endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags. This dual-lumen configuration is different from a bifurcation with a tapered trajectory of the flow lumen into the two limbs and may induce unfavorable flow conditions. These include low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS), linked to atherosclerosis, and high shear rates that may result in thrombosis. An in vitro study was performed to assess the impact of EVAR and EVAS on flow patterns and WSS. Four abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms were constructed, including three stented models, to study the influence of the flow divider on flow (Endurant [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn], AFX [Endologix, Irvine, Calif], and Nellix [Endologix]). Experimental models were tested under physiologic resting conditions, and flow was visualized with laser particle imaging velocimetry, quantified by shear rate, WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) in the suprarenal aorta, renal artery (RA), and common iliac artery. WSS and OSI were comparable for all models in the suprarenal aorta. The RA flow profile in the EVAR models was comparable to the control, but a region of lower WSS was observed on the caudal wall compared with the control. The EVAS model showed a stronger jet flow with a higher shear rate in some regions compared with the other models. Small regions of low WSS and high OSI were found near the distal end of all stents in the common iliac artery compared with the control. Maximum shear rates in each region of interest were well below the pathologic threshold for acute thrombosis. The different stent designs do not influence suprarenal flow. Lower WSS is observed in the caudal wall of the RA after EVAR and a higher shear rate after EVAS. All stented models have a small region of low WSS and high OSI near the distal outflow

  20. Generation of sheared poloidal flows by electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress in the boundary plasma of HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.

    2005-01-01

    The radial profiles of electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress (Maxwell stress) have been measured in the plasma boundary region of HT-7 tokamak. Experimental results show that the radial gradient of electrostatic Reynolds stress (ERS) changes sign across the last closed flux surface, and the neoclassical flow damping and the damping due to charge exchange processes are balanced by the radial gradient of ERS, which sustains the equilibrium sheared flow structure in a steady state. The contribution of magnetic Reynolds stress was found unimportant in a low β plasma. Detailed analyses indicate that the propagation properties of turbulence in radial and poloidal directions and the profiles of potential fluctuation level are responsible for the radial structure of ERS. (author)

  1. A multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced wall shear stress on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Xia; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yong; Luan, Yong; Liu, Shu-Tian; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    In vivo studies have demonstrated that reasonable exercise training can improve endothelial function. To confirm the key role of wall shear stress induced by exercise on endothelial cells, and to understand how wall shear stress affects the structure and the function of endothelial cells, it is crucial to design and fabricate an in vitro multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system which can closely replicate exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms in artery. The in vivo wall shear stress waveforms from the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer in resting and immediately after 30 min acute aerobic cycling exercise were first calculated by measuring the inner diameter and the center-line blood flow velocity with a color Doppler ultrasound. According to the above in vivo wall shear stress waveforms, we designed and fabricated a parallel-plate flow chamber system with appropriate components based on a lumped parameter hemodynamics model. To validate the feasibility of this system, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) line were cultured within the parallel-plate flow chamber under abovementioned two types of wall shear stress waveforms and the intracellular actin microfilaments and nitric oxide (NO) production level were evaluated using fluorescence microscope. Our results show that the trends of resting and exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms, especially the maximal, minimal and mean wall shear stress as well as oscillatory shear index, generated by the parallel-plate flow chamber system are similar to those acquired from the common carotid artery. In addition, the cellular experiments demonstrate that the actin microfilaments and the production of NO within cells exposed to the two different wall shear stress waveforms exhibit different dynamic behaviors; there are larger numbers of actin microfilaments and higher level NO in cells exposed in exercise-induced wall shear stress condition than resting wall shear stress condition

  2. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  3. Interfacial shear stress and hold-up in an air-water annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, T.; Ousaka, A.; Kawakami, Y.; Tominaga, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation that was made into hold-up, frictional pressure drop and interfacial shear stress of an air-water two-phase annular flow in horizontal and vertical up- and downward flows to make clear the effects of tube diameter and flow direction on them. The tube diameters examined are 10mm, 16mm and 26mm. Both the hold-up and the pressure drop considerably changed with time. Especially, the amplitude of the variation of the hold-up was quite larger in comparison with its averaged value in the cause of disturbance wave flow. for the time averaged hold-up and interfacial friction factor, we got new correlations, by which we can estimate them within an accuracy of ±20% and ±30%, respectively, independent of the flow direction and the tube diameter

  4. Role of symmetry-breaking induced by Er × B shear flows on developing residual stresses and intrinsic rotation in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Shesterikov, I.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Koslowski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of residual stress (force) have been executed at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak using multitip Langmuir and Mach probes, together with counter-current NBI torque to balance the existing toroidal rotation. Substantial residual stress and force have been observed at the plasma boundary, confirming the existence of a finite residual stress as possible mechanisms to drive the intrinsic toroidal rotation. In low-density discharges, the residual stress displays a quasi-linear dependence on the local pressure gradient, consistent with theoretical predictions. At high-density shots the residual stress and torque are strongly suppressed. The results show close correlation between the residual stress and the E r × B flow shear rate, suggesting a minimum threshold of the E × B flow shear required for the k ∥ symmetry breaking. These findings provide the first experimental evidence of the role of E r × B sheared flows in the development of residual stresses and intrinsic rotation. (letter)

  5. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra

    2009-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of Aortic Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in Aortic Stenosis and Its Association With Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Karunaharamoorthy, Achudhan; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Barker, Alex J; Blaszczyk, Edyta; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. Study aim was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of AS patients and determine their association with remodeling. Methods and Results Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age 60±10 years) underwent 4D-flow MRI. Helical and vortical flow formations and flow eccentricity were assessed in the ascending aorta. Normalized flow displacement from the vessel center and peak systolic wall shear stress (WSSpeak) in the ascending aorta were quantified. LV remodeling was assessed based on LV mass index (LVMI-I) and the ratio of LV mass to enddiastolic volume (relative wall mass; RWM). Marked helical and vortical flow formation and eccentricity were more prevalent in patients with AS than in healthy subjects, and AS patients exhibited an asymmetric and elevated distribution of WSSpeak. In AS, aortic orifice area was strongly negatively associated with vortical flow formation (p=0.0274), eccentricity (p=0.0070) and flow displacement (p=0.0021). Bicuspid aortic valve was associated with more intense helical (p=0.0098) and vortical flow formation (p=0.0536), higher flow displacement (p=0.11) and higher WSSpeak (p=0.0926). LVM-I and RWM were significantly associated with aortic orifice area (p=0.0611, p=0.0058) and flow displacement (p=0.0058, p=0.0283). Conclusions In this pilot study, AS leads to abnormal blood flow pattern and WSSpeak in the ascending aorta. In addition to aortic orifice area, normalized flow displacement was significantly associated with LV remodeling. PMID:26917824

  7. Flow under standing waves Part 1. Shear stress distribution, energy flux and steady streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The conditions for energy flux, momentum flux and the resulting streaming velocity are analysed for standing waves formed in front of a fully reflecting wall. The exchange of energy between the outer wave motion and the near bed oscillatory boundary layer is considered, determining the horizontal...... energy flux inside and outside the boundary layer. The momentum balance, the mean shear stress and the resulting time averaged streaming velocities are determined. For a laminar bed boundary layer the analysis of the wave drift gives results similar to the original work of Longuet-Higgins from 1953......-dimensional simulations of standing waves have also been made by application of a general purpose Navier-Stokes solver. The results agree well with those obtained by the boundary layer analysis. Wave reflection from a plane sloping wall is also investigated by using the same numerical model and by physical laboratory...

  8. Flow shear stress differentially regulates endothelial uptake of nanocarriers targeted to distinct epitopes of PECAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Davies, Peter F; Eckmann, David M; Muro, Silvia; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-28

    Targeting nanocarriers (NC) to endothelial cell adhesion molecules including Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) improves drug delivery and pharmacotherapy of inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis and ischemia in animal models. Recent studies unveiled that hydrodynamic conditions modulate endothelial endocytosis of NC targeted to PECAM-1, but the specificity and mechanism of effects of flow remain unknown. Here we studied the effect of flow on endocytosis by human endothelial cells of NC targeted by monoclonal antibodies Ab62 and Ab37 to distinct epitopes on the distal extracellular domain of PECAM. Flow in the range of 1-8dyn/cm(2), typical for venous vasculature, stimulated the uptake of spherical Ab/NC (~180nm diameter) carrying ~50 vs 200 Ab62 and Ab37 per NC, respectively. Effect of flow was inhibited by disruption of cholesterol-rich plasmalemma domains and deletion of PECAM-1 cytosolic tail. Flow stimulated endocytosis of Ab62/NC and Ab37/NC via eliciting distinct signaling pathways mediated by RhoA/ROCK and Src Family Kinases, respectively. Therefore, flow stimulates endothelial endocytosis of Ab/NC in a PECAM-1 epitope specific manner. Using ligands of binding to distinct epitopes on the same target molecule may enable fine-tuning of intracellular delivery based on the hemodynamic conditions in the vascular area of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...

  10. Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Oldroyd 8-constant framework for continuum constitutive theory contains a rich diversity of popular special cases for polymeric liquids. In this paper, we use part of our exact solution for shear stress to arrive at unique exact analytical solutions for the normal stress difference responses to large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow. The nonlinearity of the polymeric liquids, triggered by LAOS, causes these responses at even multiples of the test frequency. We call responses at a frequency higher than twice the test frequency higher harmonics. We find the new exact analytical solutions to be compact and intrinsically beautiful. These solutions reduce to those of our previous work on the special case of the corotational Maxwell fluid. Our solutions also agree with our new truncated Goddard integral expansion for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. The limiting behaviors of these exact solutions also yield new explicit expressions. Finally, we use our exact solutions to see how η∞ affects the normal stress differences in LAOS.

  11. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  12. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  13. Starting solutions for the flow of second grade fluids in a rectangular channel due to an oscillating shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Corina; Rana, Mehwish

    2012-05-01

    The unsteady motion of a second grade fluid between two parallel side walls perpendicular to a plate is studied by means of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Initially, the fluid is at rest and at time t = 0+, the plate applies an oscillating shear to the fluid. The solutions that have been obtained, presented under integral and series form and written as a sum between steady time-periodic and transient solutions can be easily reduced to the similar solutions for Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. They describe the motion of the fluid some time after its initiation. After that time, when the transient solutions disappear, the motion of the fluid is described by the steady time-periodic solutions that are independent of the initial conditions. In the absence of side walls, more exactly when the distance between walls tends to infinity, all solutions reduce to those corresponding to the motion over an infinite plate. As it was to be expected, the steady time-periodic solutions corresponding to sine and cosine oscillations of the shear stress on the boundary differ by a phase shift. Finally, the influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the required time to reach the steady periodic flow, as well as the distance between walls for which the velocity of the fluid in the middle of the channel is unaffected by their presence are established by numerical calculus and graphical illustrations. As expected, the time needed to reach the steady periodic flows is lower in the presence of side walls. It is lower for Newtonian fluids in comparison with second grade fluids and greater for sine oscillations in comparison to the cosine oscillations of the boundary shear.

  14. 19 mm sized bileaflet valve prostheses' flow field investigated by bidimensional laser Doppler anemometry (part II: maximum turbulent shear stresses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, V; Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; D'Avenio, G; Boccanera, G

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the flow field generated by cardiac valve prostheses is a necessary task to gain knowledge on the possible relationship between turbulence-derived stresses and the hemolytic and thrombogenic complications in patients after valve replacement. The study of turbulence flows downstream of cardiac prostheses, in literature, especially concerns large-sized prostheses with a variable flow regime from very low up to 6 L/min. The Food and Drug Administration draft guidance requires the study of the minimum prosthetic size at a high cardiac output to reach the maximum Reynolds number conditions. Within the framework of a national research project regarding the characterization of cardiovascular endoprostheses, an in-depth study of turbulence generated downstream of bileaflet cardiac valves is currently under way at the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita. Four models of 19 mm bileaflet valve prostheses were used: St Jude Medical HP, Edwards Tekna, Sorin Bicarbon, and CarboMedics. The prostheses were selected for the nominal Tissue Annulus Diameter as reported by manufacturers without any assessment of valve sizing method, and were mounted in aortic position. The aortic geometry was scaled for 19 mm prostheses using angiographic data. The turbulence-derived shear stresses were investigated very close to the valve (0.35 D0), using a bidimensional Laser Doppler anemometry system and applying the Principal Stress Analysis. Results concern typical turbulence quantities during a 50 ms window at peak flow in the systolic phase. Conclusions are drawn regarding the turbulence associated to valve design features, as well as the possible damage to blood constituents.

  15. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-11-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier-Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Yielding and flow of sheared colloidal glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petekidis, G; Vlassopoulos, D; Pusey, P N

    2004-01-01

    We have studied some of the rheological properties of suspensions of hard-sphere colloids with particular reference to behaviour near the concentration of the glass transition. First we monitored the strain on the samples during and after a transient step stress. We find that, at all values of applied step stress, colloidal glasses show a rapid, apparently elastic, recovery of strain after the stress is removed. This recovery is found even in samples which have flowed significantly during stressing. We attribute this behaviour to 'cage elasticity', the recovery of the stress-induced distorted environment of any particle to a more isotropic state when the stress is removed. Second, we monitored the stress as the strain rate dot γ of flowing samples was slowly decreased. Suspensions which are glassy at rest show a stress which becomes independent of dot γ as dot γ →0. This limiting stress can be interpreted as the yield stress of the glass and agrees well both with the yield stress deduced from the step stress and recovery measurements and that predicted by a recent mode coupling theory of sheared suspensions. Thus, the behaviours under steady shearing and transient step stress both support the idea that colloidal glasses have a finite yield stress. We note however that the samples do exhibit a slow accumulation of strain due to creep at stresses below the yield stress

  17. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  18. Age-related changes in aortic 3D blood flow velocities and wall shear stress: Implications for the identification of altered hemodynamics in patients with aortic valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pim; Garcia, Julio; Potters, Wouter V.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Collins, Jeremy D.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in peak systolic aortic 3D velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in healthy controls and to investigate the importance of age-matching for 3D mapping of abnormal aortic hemodynamics in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV). 4D flow MRI (fields strengths = 1.5-3T;

  19. Stent implantation influence wall shear stress evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Bosioc, A. I.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamic factors are known affect the natural history of the restenosis critically after coronary stenting of atherosclerosis. Stent-induced flows disturbance magnitude dependent directly on the strut design. The impact of flow alterations around struts vary as the strut geometrical parameters change. Our results provide data regarding the hemodynamic parameters for the blood flow in both stenosed and stented coronary artery under physiological conditions, namely wall shear stress and pressure drop.

  20. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  1. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  2. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....

  3. Statistical analysis of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the shear flow generation in a cylindrical laboratory plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.; Yu, J. H.; Holland, C.; Xu, M.; Mueller, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    The statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress arising from collisional drift turbulence in a magnetized plasma column are studied and a physical picture of turbulent driven shear flow generation is discussed. The Reynolds stress peaks near the maximal density gradient region, and is governed by the turbulence amplitude and cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity fields. The amplitude probability distribution function (PDF) of the turbulent Reynolds stress is non-Gaussian and positively skewed at the density gradient maximum. The turbulent ion-saturation (Isat) current PDF shows that the region where the bursty Isat events are born coincides with the positively skewed non-Gaussian Reynolds stress PDF, which suggests that the bursts of particle transport appear to be associated with bursts of momentum transport as well. At the shear layer the density fluctuation radial correlation length has a strong minimum (∼4-6 mm∼0.5C s /Ω ci , where C s is the ion acoustic speed and Ω ci is the ion gyrofrequency), while the azimuthal turbulence correlation length is nearly constant across the shear layer. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale shear layer.

  4. Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...... wall shear stress of 3 Pa for the standardised EHEDG cleaning test method. The cleaning tests were performed on a test disc placed in a radial flowcell assay. Turbulent flow conditions were generated and the corresponding wall shear stresses were predicted from CFD simulations. Combining wall shear...... stress predictions from a simulation using the low Re k-epsilon and one using the two-layer model of Norris and Reynolds were found to produce reliable predictions compared to empirical solutions for the ideal flow case. The comparison of wall shear stress curves predicted for the real RFC...

  5. Predicting bed shear stress and its role in sediment dynamics and restoration potential of the Everglades and other vegetated flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson; Crimaldi, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Entrainment of sediment by flowing water affects topography, habitat suitability, and nutrient cycling in vegetated floodplains and wetlands, impacting ecosystem evolution and the success of restoration projects. Nonetheless, restoration managers lack simple decision-support tools for predicting shear stresses and sediment redistribution potential in different vegetation communities. Using a field-validated numerical model, we developed state-space diagrams that provide these predictions over a range of water-surface slopes, depths, and associated velocities in Everglades ridge and slough vegetation communities. Diminished bed shear stresses and a consequent decrease in bed sediment redistribution are hypothesized causes of a recent reduction in the topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of this ecosystem. Results confirmed the inability of present-day flows to entrain bed sediment. Further, our diagrams showed bed shear stresses to be highly sensitive to emergent vegetation density and water-surface slope but less sensitive to water depth and periphyton or floating vegetation abundance. These findings suggested that instituting a pulsing flow regime could be the most effective means to restore sediment redistribution to the Everglades. However, pulsing flows will not be sufficient to erode sediment from sloughs with abundant spikerush, unless spikerush density first decreases by natural or managed processes. Our methods provide a novel tool for identifying restoration parameters and performance measures in many types of vegetated aquatic environments where sediment erosion and deposition are involved.

  6. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  7. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  8. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  9. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  10. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation

  11. Determination of wall shear stress from mean velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Schultz, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented for determining the Reynolds shear stress profile in steady, two-dimensional wall-bounded flows using the mean streamwise velocity. The method is then utilized with experimental data to determine the local wall shear stress. The procedure is applicable to flows on smooth and rough surfaces with arbitrary pressure gradients. It is based on the streamwise component of the boundary layer momentum equation, which is transformed into inner coordinates. The method requires velocity profiles from at least two streamwise locations, but the formulation of the momentum equation reduces the dependence on streamwise gradients. The method is verified through application to laminar flow solutions and turbulent DNS results from both zero and nonzero pressure gradient boundary layers. With strong favorable pressure gradients, the method is shown to be accurate for finding the wall shear stress in cases where the Clauser fit technique loses accuracy. The method is then applied to experimental data from the literature from zero pressure gradient studies on smooth and rough walls, and favorable and adverse pressure gradient cases on smooth walls. Data from very near the wall are not required for determination of the wall shear stress. Wall friction velocities obtained using the present method agree with those determined in the original studies, typically to within 2%.

  12. Wall shear stress measurement of near-wall flow over inclined and curved boundaries by stereo interfacial particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John Craig; Nguyen, Chuong Vinh

    2010-01-01

    In investigations of laminar or turbulent flows, wall shear is often important. Nevertheless, conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) is difficult in near-wall regions. A near-wall measurement technique, named interfacial PIV (IPIV) [Nguyen, C., Nguyen, T., Wells, J., Nakayama, A., 2008. Proposals for PIV of near-wall flow over curved boundaries. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics], handles curved boundaries by means of conformal transformation, directly measures the wall gradient, and yields the near-wall tangential velocity profile at one-pixel resolution. In this paper, we show the feasibility of extending IPIV to measure wall gradients by stereo reconstruction. First, we perform a test on synthetic images generated from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) snapshot of turbulent flow over sinusoidal bed. Comparative assessment of wall gradients derived by IPIV, stereo-IPIV and particle image distortion (PID) [Huang, H.T., Fiedler, H.E., Wang, J.J., 1993. Limitation and improvement of PIV. Experiments in Fluids 15(4), 263-273] is evaluated with DNS data. Also, the sensitivity of IPIV and stereo-IPIV results to the uncertainty of identified wall position is examined. As a practical application of IPIV and stereo-IPIV to experimental images, results from turbulent open channel flow over a backward-facing step are discussed in detail.

  13. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  14. Oscillatory fluid flow induces the osteogenic lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells: The effect of shear stress magnitude, frequency, and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenschi, Elena; Labour, Marie-Noelle; Hoey, David A

    2017-04-11

    A potent regulator of bone anabolism is physical loading. However, it is currently unclear whether physical stimuli such as fluid shear within the marrow cavity is sufficient to directly drive the osteogenic lineage commitment of resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Therefore, the objective of the study is to employ a systematic analysis of oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) parameters predicted to occur in vivo on early MSC osteogenic responses and late stage lineage commitment. MSCs were exposed to OFF of 1Pa, 2Pa and 5Pa magnitudes at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz and 2Hz for 1h, 2h and 4h of stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that OFF elicits a positive osteogenic response in MSCs in a shear stress magnitude, frequency, and duration dependent manner that is gene specific. Based on the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers Cox2, Runx2 and Opn after short-term fluid flow stimulation, we identified that a regime of 2Pa shear magnitude and 2Hz frequency induces the most robust and reliable upregulation in osteogenic gene expression. Furthermore, long-term mechanical stimulation utilising this regime, elicits a significant increase in collagen and mineral deposition when compared to static control demonstrating that mechanical stimuli predicted within the marrow is sufficient to directly drive osteogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Experimental Study of Pressure Drop and Wall Shear Stress Characteristics of γ /Al2O3-Water Nanofluid in a Circular pipe under Turbulent flow induced vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature

  16. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  17. Letter: The link between the Reynolds shear stress and the large structures of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Barberá, Sergio; Hoyas, Sergio; Oberlack, Martin; Kraheberger, Stefanie

    2018-04-01

    The length and width of the long and wide structures appearing in turbulent Couette flows are studied by means of a new dataset of direct numerical simulation covering a stepped transition from pure Couette flow to pure Poiseuille one, at Reτ ≈ 130, based on the stationary wall. The existence of these structures is linked to the averaged Reynolds stress, u v ¯ : as soon as in any part of the channel u v ¯ changes its sign, the structures disappear. The length and width of the rolls are found to be, approximately, 50h and 2.5h, respectively. For this Reynolds number, simulations with a domain shorter than 100h cannot properly describe the behaviour of the longest structures of the flow.

  18. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  19. Fabrication of artificial arteriovenous fistula and analysis of flow field and shear stress by using μ-PIV technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Hyun Kyu [Div. of Vascular Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ryun Geun; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Jin Kee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is an operation performed to achieve vascular access for hemodialysis. Although RC-AVF is a reliable and well-known method, this technique presents high rates of early failure depending on the vessel condition. These failures are due to blood shear stress around the anastomosis site and the vascular access failure caused by thrombosis secondary to stenosis formation, as well as vascular access reocclusion after percutaneous interventions. In this work, we fabricate in vitro 3D RC-AVF by using polydimethylsiloxane and 3D printing technology to understand the underlying mechanism and predict AVF failure. Micro- Particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) focusing on the cardiac pulse cycle is used to measure the velocity field within the artificial blood vessel. Results are confirmed by numerical simulation. Accordingly, the in vitro AVF model agrees well with the simulations. Overall, this research would provide the future possibility of using the proposed method to reduce in vivo AVF failure for various conditions.

  20. Shear-stress-induced structural arrangement of water molecules in nanoscale Couette flow with slipping at wall boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jau-Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the structuring of water molecules in a nanoscale Couette flow with the upper plate subjected to lateral forces with various magnitudes and water slipping against a metal wall. It was found that when the upper plate is subjected to a force, the water body deforms into a parallelepiped. Water molecules in the channel are then gradually arranged into lattice positions, creating a layered structure. The structural arrangement of water molecules is caused by the water molecules accommodating themselves to the increase in energy under the application of a lateral force on the moving plate. The ordering arrangement of water molecules increases the rotational degree of freedom, allowing the molecules to increase their Coulomb potential energy through polar rotation that accounts for the energy input through the upper plate. With a force continuously applied to the upper plate, the water molecules in contact with the upper plate move forward until slip between the water and upper plate occurs. The relation between the structural arrangement of water molecules, slip at the wall, and the shear force is studied. The relation between the slip and the locking/unlocking of water molecules to metal atoms is also studied

  1. Analysis of Shear Stress and Energy Consumption in a Tubular Airlift Membrane System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Berube, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    of fouling by imposing high shear stress near the surface of the membrane. Previously, shear stress histograms (SSH) have been introduced to summarize results from an experimental setup developed to investigate the shear stress imposed on the surface of a membrane under different two-phase flow conditions...

  2. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Qi, Haibo; Cohen, Itai; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    -4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow

  3. Sheared flow amplification by vacuum magnetic islands in stellarator plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.

    2001-01-01

    There is some experimental evidence that the E x B flows have radial structure that may be linked to rational surfaces. This flow structure may result from a self-organization process involving nonlinear flow amplification through Reynolds stress and fluctuation reduction by sheared flows. In stellarators, a large contribution to the Reynolds stress comes from the coupling of the magnetic field component of a vacuum field island with a plasma instability. In this process, the self-organization principle seems to be marginal stability for the fluctuations driving the flow

  4. Edge Sheared Flows and Blob Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myra, J.; D' Ippolito, D.; Russell, D., E-mail: jrmyra@lodestar.com [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder (United States); Davis, W. M.; Zweben, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Terry, J.; LaBombard, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A study of sheared flows in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) and their interaction with blob-filaments is presented. Edge sheared flows are believed to be important for the L-H, and H-L transitions. Blob generation and dynamics impacts both the (near-separatrix) scrape-off-layer (SOL) width critical for power handling in the divertor, and the interaction of plasma in the far SOL with plasma-facing components. These topics are critical for ITER and future devices. A fluid-based 2D curvature-interchange model embedded in the SOLT code is employed to study these issues. Sheared binormal flows both regulate the power flux crossing the separatrix and control the character of emitted turbulence structures such as blob-filaments. At a critical power level (depending on parameters) the laminar flows containing intermittent, but bound, structures give way to full-blown blob emissions signifying a transition from quasi-diffusive to convective transport. In order to diagnose sheared flows in experiments and assess their interaction with blobs, a blob-tracking algorithm has been developed and applied to both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod data. Blob motion and ellipticity can be affected by sheared flows, and are diagnosed and compared with seeded blob simulations. A picture of the interaction of blobs and sheared flows is emerging from advances in the theory and simulation of edge turbulence, combined with ever-improving capabilities for edge diagnostics and their analysis. (author)

  5. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  6. Acoustic waves in unbounded shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.; Rogava, A.D.

    1996-05-01

    The linear evolution of acoustic waves in fluid flow with constant density and uniform shear of velocity is investigated. The process of the mean flow energy extraction by the three-dimensional acoustic waves which is due to the non-normality of linear dynamics in shear flows is analyzed. The thorough examination of the dynamics of different physical quantities, specifying the wave evolution, is outlined. The revealing of the behaviour becomes possible owing to the nonmodal approach that has been extensively used in the study of the perturbations evolution in shear flows since the beginning of the nineties. In addition, a detailed analyses of the physics of shear energy gain by vortex and acoustic perturbations is presented. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  7. CCM proteins control endothelial β1 integrin dependent response to shear stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Macek Jilkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic shear stress from blood flow on the endothelium critically regulates vascular function in many physiological and pathological situations. Endothelial cells adapt to shear stress by remodeling their cytoskeletal components and subsequently by changing their shape and orientation. We demonstrate that β1 integrin activation is critically controlled during the mechanoresponse of endothelial cells to shear stress. Indeed, we show that overexpression of the CCM complex, an inhibitor of β1 integrin activation, blocks endothelial actin rearrangement and cell reorientation in response to shear stress similarly to β1 integrin silencing. Conversely, depletion of CCM2 protein leads to an elongated “shear-stress-like” phenotype even in the absence of flow. Taken together, our findings reveal the existence of a balance between positive extracellular and negative intracellular signals, i.e. shear stress and CCM complex, for the control of β1 integrin activation and subsequent adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to mechanostimulation by fluid shear stress.

  8. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  9. Measurement of the temperature-dependent threshold shear-stress of red blood cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Yong-Jin; Shin, Sehyun

    2009-09-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is becoming an important hemorheological parameter, which typically exhibits temperature dependence. Quite recently, a critical shear-stress was proposed as a new dimensional index to represent the aggregative and disaggregative behaviors of RBCs. The present study investigated the effect of the temperature on the critical shear-stress that is required to keep RBC aggregates dispersed. The critical shear-stress was measured at various temperatures (4, 10, 20, 30, and 37 degrees C) through the use of a transient microfluidic aggregometry. The critical shear-stress significantly increased as the blood temperature lowered, which accorded with the increase in the low-shear blood viscosity with the lowering of the temperature. Furthermore, the critical shear-stress also showed good agreement with the threshold shear-stress, as measured in a rotational Couette flow. These findings assist in rheologically validating the critical shear-stress, as defined in the microfluidic aggregometry.

  10. Evaluating interfacial shear stresses in composite hollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiham Adawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical evaluation of the interfacial shear stresses for composite hollowcore slabs with concrete topping is rare in the literature. Adawi et al. (2014 estimated the interfacial shear stiffness coefficient (ks that governs the behavior of the interface between hollowcore slabs and the concrete topping using push-off tests. This parameter is utilized in this paper to provide closed form solutions for the differential equations governing the behavior of simply supported composite hollowcore slabs. An analytical solution based on the deformation compatibility of the composite section and elastic beam theory, is developed to evaluate the shear stresses along the interface. Linear finite element modeling of the full-scale tests presented in Adawi et al. (2015 is also conducted to validate the developed analytical solution. The proposed analytical solution was found to be adequate in estimating the magnitude of horizontal shear stress in the studied composite hollowcore slabs.

  11. Relationship Between Endothelial Wall Shear Stress and High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque Characteristics for Identification of Coronary Lesions That Cause Ischemia: A Direct Comparison With Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Starikov, Anna; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Kolli, Kranthi K; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Baskaran, Lohendran; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K

    2016-12-19

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is an established predictor of coronary atherosclerosis progression. Prior studies have reported that high WSS has been associated with high-risk atherosclerotic plaque characteristics (APCs). WSS and APCs are quantifiable by coronary computed tomography angiography, but the relationship of coronary lesion ischemia-evaluated by fractional flow reserve-to WSS and APCs has not been examined. WSS measures were obtained from 100 evaluable patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography and invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve. Patients were categorized according to tertiles of mean WSS values defined as low, intermediate, and high. Coronary ischemia was defined as fractional flow reserve ≤0.80. Stenosis severity was determined by minimal luminal diameter. APCs were defined as positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, and spotty calcification. The likelihood of having positive remodeling and low-attenuation plaque was greater in the high WSS group compared with the low WSS group after adjusting for minimal luminal diameter (odds ratio for positive remodeling: 2.54, 95% CI 1.12-5.77; odds ratio for low-attenuation plaque: 2.68, 95% CI 1.02-7.06; both Prelationship was observed between WSS and fractional flow reserve when adjusting for either minimal luminal diameter or APCs. WSS displayed no incremental benefit above stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions that caused ischemia (area under the curve for stenosis and APCs: 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.93; area under the curve for stenosis, APCs, and WSS: 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; P=0.30 for difference). High WSS is associated with APCs independent of stenosis severity. WSS provided no added value beyond stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions with significant ischemia. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  13. Mean wall-shear stress measurements using the micro-pillar shear-stress sensor MPS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Große, S; Schröder, W

    2008-01-01

    A new sensor to measure the mean turbulent wall-shear stress in turbulent flows is described. The wall-shear stress sensor MPS 3 has been tested in a well-defined fully developed turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers Re b based on the bulk velocity U b and the pipe diameter D in the range of Re b = 10 000–20 000. The results demonstrate a convincing agreement of the mean wall-shear stress obtained with the new sensor technique with analytical and experimental results from the literature. The sensor device consists of a flexible micro-pillar that extends from the wall into the viscous sublayer. Bending due to the exerting fluid forces, the pillar-tip deflection serves as a measure for the local wall-shear stress. The sensor concept, calibration techniques, the achievable accuracy and error estimates, the fields of application and the sensor limits will be discussed. Furthermore, a first estimate of the pillar dynamic response will be derived showing the potential of the sensor to also measure the turbulent fluctuating wall-shear stress

  14. Scan-rescan reproducibility of segmental aortic wall shear stress as assessed by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Palen, Roel L F; Roest, Arno A W; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; de Roos, Albert; Blom, Nico A; Westenberg, Jos J M

    2018-05-26

    The aim was to investigate scan-rescan reproducibility and observer variability of segmental aortic 3D systolic wall shear stress (WSS) by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers (age 26.5 ± 2.6 years) underwent aortic 4D flow MRI twice. Maximum 3D systolic WSS (WSSmax) and mean 3D systolic WSS (WSSmean) for five thoracic aortic segments over five systolic cardiac phases by phase-specific segmentations were calculated. Scan-rescan analysis and observer reproducibility analysis were performed. Scan-rescan data showed overall good reproducibility for WSSmean (coefficient of variation, COV 10-15%) with moderate-to-strong intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.63-0.89). The variability in WSSmax was high (COV 16-31%) with moderate-to-good ICC (0.55-0.79) for different aortic segments. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was good-to-excellent for regional aortic WSSmax (ICC ≥ 0.78; COV ≤ 17%) and strong-to-excellent for WSSmean (ICC ≥ 0.86; COV ≤ 11%). In general, ascending aortic segments showed more WSSmax/WSSmean variability compared to aortic arch or descending aortic segments for scan-rescan, intraobserver and interobserver comparison. Scan-rescan reproducibility was good for WSSmean and moderate for WSSmax for all thoracic aortic segments over multiple systolic phases in healthy volunteers. Intra/interobserver reproducibility for segmental WSS assessment was good-to-excellent. Variability of WSSmax is higher and should be taken into account in case of individual follow-up or in comparative rest-stress studies to avoid misinterpretation.

  15. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  16. How shear increments affect the flow production branching ratio in CSDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-06-01

    The coupling of turbulence-driven azimuthal and axial flows in a linear device absent magnetic shear (Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment) is investigated. In particular, we examine the apportionment of Reynolds power between azimuthal and axial flows, and how the azimuthal flow shear affects axial flow generation and saturation by drift wave turbulence. We study the response of the energy branching ratio, i.e., ratio of axial and azimuthal Reynolds powers, PzR/PyR , to incremental changes of azimuthal and axial flow shears. We show that increasing azimuthal flow shear decreases the energy branching ratio. When axial flow shear increases, this ratio first increases but then decreases to zero. The axial flow shear saturates below the threshold for parallel shear flow instability. The effects of azimuthal flow shear on the generation and saturation of intrinsic axial flows are analyzed. Azimuthal flow shear slows down the modulational growth of the seed axial flow shear, and thus reduces intrinsic axial flow production. Azimuthal flow shear reduces both the residual Reynolds stress (of axial flow, i.e., ΠxzR e s ) and turbulent viscosity ( χzDW ) by the same factor |⟨vy⟩'|-2Δx-2Ln-2ρs2cs2 , where Δx is the distance relative to the reference point where ⟨vy⟩=0 in the plasma frame. Therefore, the stationary state axial flow shear is not affected by azimuthal flow shear to leading order since ⟨vz⟩'˜ΠxzR e s/χzDW .

  17. The non-monotonic shear-thinning flow of two strongly cohesive concentrated suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Buscall, Richard; Kusuma, Tiara E.; Stickland, Anthony D.; Rubasingha, Sayuri; Scales, Peter J.; Teo, Hui-En; Worrall, Graham L.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour in simple shear of two concentrated and strongly cohesive mineral suspensions showing highly non-monotonic flow curves is described. Two rheometric test modes were employed, controlled stress and controlled shear-rate. In controlled stress mode the materials showed runaway flow above a yield stress, which, for one of the suspensions, varied substantially in value and seemingly at random from one run to the next, such that the up flow-curve appeared to be quite irreproducible. Th...

  18. A patient-specific virtual stenotic model of the coronary artery to analyze the relationship between fractional flow reserve and wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Gook Tae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Chung, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Eun-Seok; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-11-01

    As the stenotic severity of a patient increases, fractional flow reserve (FFR) decreases, whereas the maximum wall shear stress (WSSmax) increases. However, the way in which these values can change according to stenotic severity has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study is to devise a virtual stenosis model to investigate variations in the coronary hemodynamic parameters of patients according to stenotic severity. To simulate coronary hemodynamics, a three-dimensional (3D) coronary artery model of computational fluid dynamics is coupled with a lumped parameter model of the coronary micro-vasculature and venous system. To validate the present method, we first simulated 13 patient-specific models of the coronary arteries and compared the results with those obtained clinically. Then, virtually narrowed coronary arterial models derived from the patient-specific cases were simulated to obtain the WSSmax and FFR values. The variations in FFR and WSSmax against the percentage of diameter stenosis in clinical cases were reproducible by the virtual stenosis models. We also found that the simulated FFR values were linearly correlated with the WSSmax values, but the linear slope varied by patient. We implemented 130 additional virtual models of stenosed coronary arteries based on data from 13 patients and obtained statistically meaningful results that were identical to the large-scale clinical studies. And the slope of the correlation line between FFR and WSSmax may help clinicians to design treatment plans for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shear-flow coupling in non-planar rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makurat, A.; Barton, N.

    1985-01-01

    Crystalline rock masses are regarded as a possible host rock for permanent nuclear waste disposal. During the excavation of the required shafts and tunnels, the initial state of stress will be changed and cause a deformation of the rock mass and discontinuities. During the lifetime of the nuclear repository joint apertures may change due to thermally induced stress variations during the heating and cooling phase. As the conductivity of a joint is very sensitive to its aperture, fluid flow from and towards a repository, as well as the potential transport times of radionuclides are highly dependent on the deformability of the joints. Theoretical calculations of coupled flow in rock joints (Barton et al. 1984) predict an increase of conductivity of several orders of magnitude for the first few millimeters for shear displacement. The shear-dilation-conductivity coupling for two block sizes at two effective stress levels is shown

  20. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Tong Hua; Xu Ning

    2014-01-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution. (special topic — non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters)

  1. Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, G R; Burin, M J; Holland, C; Antar, G; Diamond, P H

    2004-01-01

    A radially sheared azimuthal flow is observed in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. The shear flow is roughly azimuthally symmetric and contains both time-stationary and slowly varying components. The turbulent radial particle flux is found to peak near the density gradient maximum and vanishes at the shear layer location. The shape of the radial plasma potential profile associated with the azimuthal E x B flow is predicted accurately by theory. The existence of the mean shear flow in a plasma with finite flow damping from ion-neutral collisions and no external momentum input implies the existence of radial angular momentum transport from the turbulent Reynolds-stress

  2. 4D Flow Analysis of BAV-Related Fluid-Dynamic Alterations: Evidences of Wall Shear Stress Alterations in Absence of Clinically-Relevant Aortic Anatomical Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Piatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac disease and is a foremost risk factor for aortopathies. Despite the genetic basis of BAV and of the associated aortopathies, BAV-related alterations in aortic fluid-dynamics, and particularly in wall shear stresses (WSSs, likely play a role in the progression of aortopathy, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. To test whether WSS may trigger aortopathy, in this study we used 4D Flow sequences of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR to quantitatively compare the in vivo fluid dynamics in the thoracic aorta of two groups of subjects: (i five prospectively enrolled young patients with normo-functional BAV and with no aortic dilation and (ii ten age-matched healthy volunteers. Through the semi-automated processing of 4D Flow data, the aortic bulk flow at peak systole was quantified, and WSSs acting on the endothelium of the ascending aorta were characterized throughout the systolic phase in terms of magnitude and time-dependency through a method recently developed by our group. Variables computed for each BAV patient were compared vs. the corresponding distribution of values obtained for healthy controls. In BAV patients, ascending aorta diameter was measured on cine-CMR images at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. As compared to controls, normo-functional BAV patients were characterized by minor bulk flow disturbances at peak systole. However, they were characterized by evident alterations of WSS distribution and peak values in the ascending aorta. In particular, in four BAV patients, who were characterized by right-left leaflet fusion, WSS peak values exceeded by 27–46% the 90th percentile of the distribution obtained for healthy volunteers. Only in the BAV patient with right-non-coronary leaflet fusion the same threshold was exceeded by 132%. Also, evident alterations in the time-dependency of WSS magnitude and direction were observed. Despite, these fluid

  3. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, Wim J; Deegan, Anthony J; Yang, Ying; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verdonschot, Nico; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical stability. Since both scaffold strength and stress-strain distributions throughout the scaffold depend on the scaffold's internal architecture, it is important to understand how changes in architecture influence these parameters. In this study, four scaffold designs with different architectures were produced using additive manufacturing. The designs varied in fiber orientation, while fiber diameter, spacing, and layer height remained constant. Based on micro-CT (μCT) scans, finite element models (FEMs) were derived for finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). FEA of scaffold compression was validated using μCT scan data of compressed scaffolds. Results of the FEA and CFD showed a significant impact of scaffold architecture on fluid shear stress and mechanical strain distribution. The average fluid shear stress ranged from 3.6 mPa for a 0/90 architecture to 6.8 mPa for a 0/90 offset architecture, and the surface shear strain from 0.0096 for a 0/90 offset architecture to 0.0214 for a 0/90 architecture. This subsequently resulted in variations of the predicted cell differentiation stimulus values on the scaffold surface. Fluid shear stress was mainly influenced by pore shape and size, while mechanical strain distribution depended mainly on the presence or absence of supportive columns in the scaffold architecture. Together, these results corroborate that scaffold architecture can be exploited to design scaffolds with regions that guide specific tissue development under compression and perfusion. In conjunction with optimization of stimulation regimes during bioreactor cultures, scaffold architecture optimization can be used to improve

  4. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  5. Propagation of waves in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, A L

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside

  6. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  7. Optimization of multiplane ?PIV for wall shear stress and wall topography characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, M.; Lindken, R.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplane ?PIV can be utilized to determine the wall shear stress and wall topology from the measured flow over a structured surface. A theoretical model was developed to predict the measurement error for the surface topography and shear stress, based on a theoretical analysis of the precision in

  8. Shear stress and interleukin-8 (IL-8) on the proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow, are also found ... into tissues and neovascularization, the cells are exposed to fluid shear stress. ... Both shear stress and IL-8 can influence the process of EPCs repair in wound.

  9. Stress relaxation of shear in metals during shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, V.P.; Platova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Constructed determining equation, taking into account stress relaxation of shear, was used to calculate the evolution of plane shock waves of primary and secondary compression in metals. Values of shear stress and viscosity coefficient were

  10. Formation of structural steady states in lamellar/sponge phase-separating fluids under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, P.; Courbin, L.; Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Narayanan, T.

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the effect of shear flow on a lamellar-sponge phase-separating fluid when subjected to shear flow. We show the existence of two different steady states (droplets and ribbons structures) whose nature does not depend on the way to reach the two-phase unstable region of the phase diagram (temperature quench or stirring). The transition between ribbons and droplets is shear thickening and its nature strongly depends on what dynamical variable is imposed. If the stress is fixed, flow visualization shows the existence of shear bands at the transition, characteristic of coexistence in the cell between ribbons and droplets. In this shear-banding region, the viscosity oscillates. When the shear rate is fixed, no shear bands are observed. Instead, the transition exhibits a hysteretic behavior leading to a structural bi-stability of the phase-separating fluid under flow.

  11. Shear flow in smectic A liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, I W; Stewart, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the onset of a shear-induced instability in a sample of smectic A liquid crystal. Unlike many previous models, the usual director n need not necessarily coincide with the local smectic layer normal a; the traditional Oseen constraint (∇xa=0) is not imposed when flow is present. A recent dynamic theory for smectic A (Stewart 2007 Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 18 343-60) will be used to examine a stationary instability in a simple model when the director reorientation and smectic layer distortions are, firstly, assumed not to be coupled to the velocity and, secondly, are supposed coupled to the velocity. A critical shear rate at which the onset of the instability occurs will be identified, together with an accompanying critical director tilt angle and critical wavenumber for the associated smectic layer undulations. Despite some critical phenomena being largely unaffected by any coupling to the flow, it will be shown that the influence of some material parameters, especially the smectic layer compression constant B 0 and the coupling constant B 1 , upon the critical shear rate and critical tilt angle can be greatly affected by flow.

  12. Effect of shear stress on the migration of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Toshihiro; Sumii, Tateki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Kudo, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can change into an activated, highly migratory state. The migration of HSCs may be affected by shear stress due not only to sinusoidal flow but also by the flow in the space of Disse because this space is filled with blood plasma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of shear stress on HSC migration in a scratch-wound assay with a parallel flow chamber. At regions upstream of the wound area, the migration was inhibited by 0.6 Pa and promoted by 2.0 Pa shear stress, compared to the static condition. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB receptor, PDGFR-β, was expressed in all conditions and the differences were not significant. PDGF increased HSC migration, except at 0.6 Pa shear stress, which was still inhibited. These results indicate that another molecular factor, such as PDGFR-α, may act to inhibit the migration under low shear stress. At regions downstream of the wound area, the migration was smaller under shear stress than under the static condition, although the expression of PDGFR-β was significantly higher. In particular, the migration direction was opposite to the wound area under high shear stress; therefore, migration might be influenced by the intercellular environment. Our results indicate that HSC migration was influenced by shear stress intensity and the intercellular environment.

  13. Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2000-03-01

    A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)

  14. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  15. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Larson, Ronald G; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-10-13

    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  16. Laminar shear stress inhibits endothelial cell metabolism via KLF2-mediated repression of PFKFB3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doddaballapur, Anuradha; Michalik, Katharina M.; Manavski, Yosif; Lucas, Tina; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; You, Xintian; Chen, Wei; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Potente, Michael; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Boon, Reinier A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism was recently shown to regulate endothelial cell phenotype profoundly. Whether the atheroprotective biomechanical stimulus elicited by laminar shear stress modulates endothelial cell metabolism is not known. Here, we show that laminar flow exposure reduced glucose uptake and

  17. The distribution of wall shear stress downstream of a change in roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.B.R.; Sousa, F.B.C.C.; Zotin, J.L.Z.; Silva Freire, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, six different experimental techniques are used to characterize the non-equilibrium flow downstream of a rough-to-smooth step change in surface roughness. Over the rough surface, wall shear stress results obtained through the form drag and the Reynolds stress methods are shown to be mutually consistent. Over the smooth surface, reference wall shear stress data is obtained through two optical methods: linear velocity profiles obtained through laser-Doppler anemometry and a sensor surface, the diverging fringe Doppler sensor. The work shows that the two most commonly used methods to determine the wall shear stress, the log-law gradient method and the Reynolds shear stress method, are completely inappropriate in the developing flow region. Preston tubes, on the other hand, are shown to perform well in the region of a non-equilibrium flow.

  18. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  19. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Transport reduction via shear flow modification of the cross phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.S.; Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Carreras, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    As a model example of the effect of E x B shear flow on the cross phase between electrostatic potential and pressure fluctuations, a nonlinear theory of resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence (RPGDT) in a shear flow is presented. This work builds on numerical studies of RPGDT, which have shown that both flow shear and curvature can affect the cross phase as well as the fluctuation levels. In this work, we show that the effect of shear flow on transport can be expressed through the temporal response of pressure to potential. It is shown heuristically that even in the case where the fluctuation levels are not modified, the flow shear still acts to reduce the phase angle between potential and pressure fluctuations, thereby suppressing transport. The scaling of the cross phase with flow shear and flow curvature is presented. (author)

  1. Observation of Droplet Size Oscillations in a Two-Phase Fluid under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    2004-01-01

    Experimental observations of droplet size sustained oscillations are reported in a two-phase flow between a lamellar and a sponge phase. Under shear flow, this system presents two different steady states made of monodisperse multilamellar droplets, separated by a shear-thinning transition. At low and high shear rates, the droplet size results from a balance between surface tension and viscous stress, whereas for intermediate shear rates it becomes a periodic function of time. A possible mechanism for such kinds of oscillations is discussed.

  2. Computational analysis of integrated biosensing and shear flow in a microfluidic vascular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy F.; Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2017-11-01

    Fluid flow and flow-induced shear stress are critical components of the vascular microenvironment commonly studied using microfluidic cell culture models. Microfluidic vascular models mimicking the physiological microenvironment also offer great potential for incorporating on-chip biomolecular detection. In spite of this potential, however, there are few examples of such functionality. Detection of biomolecules released by cells under flow-induced shear stress is a significant challenge due to severe sample dilution caused by the fluid flow used to generate the shear stress, frequently to the extent where the analyte is no longer detectable. In this work, we developed a computational model of a vascular microfluidic cell culture model that integrates physiological shear flow and on-chip monitoring of cell-secreted factors. Applicable to multilayer device configurations, the computational model was applied to a bilayer configuration, which has been used in numerous cell culture applications including vascular models. Guidelines were established that allow cells to be subjected to a wide range of physiological shear stress while ensuring optimal rapid transport of analyte to the biosensor surface and minimized biosensor response times. These guidelines therefore enable the development of microfluidic vascular models that integrate cell-secreted factor detection while addressing flow constraints imposed by physiological shear stress. Ultimately, this work will result in the addition of valuable functionality to microfluidic cell culture models that further fulfill their potential as labs-on-chips.

  3. Time resolved investigations on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration with pulsating jets by means of high speed PIV and a surface hot wire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzke, Timm; Nitsche, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of jet pulsation on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration were investigated experimentally. The excitation Strouhal number and amplitude were varied as the most influential parameters. A line-array with three submerged air jets, and a confining plate were used. The flow field analysis by means of time resolved particle image velocimetry shows that the controlled excitation can considerably affect the near-field flow of an impinging jet array. These effects are visualized as organization of the coherent flow structures. Augmentation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in the jet shear layer depends on the Strouhal number and pulsation magnitude and can be associated with pairing of small scale vortices in the jet. A total maximum of vortex strength was observed when exciting with Sr = 0.82 and coincident high amplitudes. Time resolved interaction between impinging vortices and impingement plate boundary layer due to jet excitation was verified by using an array of 5 μm surface hot wires. Corresponding to the global flow field modification due to periodic jet pulsation, the impact of the vortex rings on the wall boundary layer is highly influenced by the above mentioned excitation parameters and reaches a maximum at Sr = 0.82.

  4. Combined modeling of cell aggregation and adhesion mediated by receptor–ligand interactions under shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Du

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell aggregation and adhesion to endothelial cells under shear flow are crucial to many biological processes such as thrombi formation, inflammatory cascade, and tumor metastasis, in which these cellular interactions are mainly mediated by the underlying receptor–ligand bindings. While theoretical modeling of aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics of interacting cells have been well studied separately, how to couple these two processes remains unclear. Here we develop a combined model that couples cellular aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics under shear flow. The impacts of shear rate (or shear stress and molecular binding affinity were elucidated. This study provides a unified model where the action of a fluid flow drives cell aggregation and adhesion under the modulations of the mechanical shear flow and receptor–ligand interaction kinetics. It offers an insight into understanding the relevant biological processes and functions.

  5. Hemolysis in a laminar flow-through Couette shearing device: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehning, Fiete; Mejia, Tzahiry; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    Reducing hemolysis has been one of the major goals of rotary blood pump development and in the investigational phase, the capability of hemolysis estimation for areas of elevated shear stresses is valuable. The degree of hemolysis is determined by the amplitude of shear stress and the exposure time, but to date, the exact hemolytic behavior at elevated shear stresses and potential thresholds for subcritical shear exposure remain vague. This study provides experimental hemolysis data for a set of shear stresses and exposure times to allow better estimations of hemolysis for blood exposed to elevated shearing. Heparinized porcine blood with a hematocrit of 40% was mechanically damaged in a flow-through laminar Couette shear flow at a temperature of 23°C. Four levels of shear stress, 24, 592, 702, and 842 Pa, were replicated at two exposure times, 54 and 873 ms. For the calculation of the shear stresses, an apparent viscosity of 5 mPas was used, which was verified in an additional measurement of the blood viscosity. The hemolysis measurements were repeated four times, whereby all conditions were measured once within the same day and with blood from the same source. Samples were taken at the inlet and outlet of the shear region and an increase in plasma-free hemoglobin was measured. An index of hemolysis (IH) was thereby calculated giving the ratio of free to total hemoglobin. The results are compared with data from previously published studies using a similar shearing device. Hemolysis was found to increase exponentially with shear stress, but high standard deviations existed at measurements with elevated IH. At short exposure times, the IH remained low at under 0.5% for all shear stress levels. For high exposure times, the IH increased from 0.84% at 592 Pa up to 3.57% at the highest shear stress level. Hemolysis was significant for shear stresses above ∼600 Pa at the high exposure time of 873 ms. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial

  6. Fracture permeability under effect of normal and shear stress: A preliminary experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S.; Manteufel, R.D.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The change in fracture permeability under mechanical loads have been investigated. An apparatus has been developed to measure change in fracture permeability, when a single fracture is subjected to normal and shear stress. Both radial and linear flow experiments have been conducted by modifying a direct shear test apparatus. Preliminary results suggest a 35-percent change in fracture permeability under normal stress to 8 MPa and nearly 350 percent under shear displacement of 9.9254 m (1 in.) at 5 MPa normal stress. Effort is underway to separate the permeability change due to gouge material production from that of due to dilation

  7. Effect of tip clearance on wall shear stress of an axial LVAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, S.; Vikas, R.

    2017-09-01

    Wall shear stress is a crucial parameter used for blood damage analysis, and typically a value of 400 Pa is set as a limit. Tip clearance is a major factor contributing to hemolysis and pump efficiency. In this study, different tip gap configurations are used to analyse the wall shear stress developed on the blade surface of a constant thickness blade design, and a varying thickness blade design using CFD analysis. It was found that, for a particular geometry, as the clearance gap reduces, flow rate over the high wall shear stress area decreases even though the high wall shear stress span is found to extend. For each design, the optimum clearance gap is iteratively attained, keeping the maximum WSS as a limiting factor. Thus a better pump designs is obtained, whose leakage flow patterns are lower than that of the initial design, hence also leading to higher pump efficiency.

  8. Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.

  9. Shear flow stabilization of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Shumlak, U.; Douglas, M.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Ruden, E.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations have indicated that shear flow may help stabilize the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding plasma z-pinches. A simple extension to a model presented in Chandrasekhar has been developed to study the linear stability of incompressible plasma subjected to both a shear flow and acceleration. The model has been used to investigate the stability plasma implosion schemes using externally imposed velocity shear which develops from the plasma flow itself. Specific parameters were chosen to represent plasma implosions driven by the Saturn and PBFA-Z, pulsed power generators at Sandia National Laboratories. Results indicate a high shear is necessary to stabilize the z-pinch implosions studied

  10. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2010-05-11

    Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Fast calculation of microphone array steering vectors with shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for calculating the acoustic time delay between an observer and a receiver in a shear flow. This method is applied to an outdoor microphone array measurement on a large-scale wind turbine. In such a set-up, a shear flow represents the actual wind field better than a

  13. Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J. [K.U. Leuven (Belgium). Center for Plasma Astrophysics; Shukla, R.K. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik IV

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented.

  14. Nonlinear drift waves in a dusty plasma with sheared flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranjes, J.; Shukla, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of dust-modified drift waves and dust-drift waves in a dusty magnetoplasma with equilibrium sheared flows are examined. For this purpose, the relevant nonlinear equations for drift waves are analyzed for various profiles of the perpendicular and parallel plasma flows, and a variety of nonlinear solutions (viz. single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, tripolar and global vortices), which are driven by nommiform shear flows and nommiform dust density, is presented

  15. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses. Keywords. Strengthened beam; interfacial stresses; cohesive zone; shear deformation. 1. Introduction. The FRP plates can be either ...

  16. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment

  17. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-07-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment

  18. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  19. Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengxiong; Kishimoto, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Wang Xiaogang; Dong, J. Q.

    2008-01-01

    Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes are investigated in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic model with slab geometry. It is found that intensive and thin poloidal shear flow layers are generated in the magnetic island region driven by coupled reconnection process at both rational surfaces. The structure of the flow layers keeps evolving after the merging of magnetic separatrices and forms a few narrow vortices along the open field lines in the final stage of magnetic reconnection. The effects of the distance between both rational surfaces and the initial magnetic shear on the nonlinear evolution of the plasma flows are also taken into consideration and the relevant mechanism is discussed

  20. Flow shear suppression of turbulence using externally driven ion Bernstein and Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Ono, M.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of externally-launched radio-frequency waves as a means of active confinement control through the generation of sheared poloidal flows is explored. For low-frequency waves, kinetic Alfven waves are proposed, and are shown to drive sheared E x B flows as a result of the radial variation in the electromagnetic Reynolds stress. In the high frequency regime, ion Bernstein waves are considered, and shown to generate sheared poloidal rotation through the pondermotive force. In either case, it is shown that modest amounts of absorbed power (∼ few 100 kW) are required to suppress turbulence in a region of several cm radial width

  1. Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.

  2. Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-12-01

    It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.

  3. Chirality-specific lift forces of helix under shear flows: Helix perpendicular to shear plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects in shear flow experience a chirality-specific lift force. Shear flows past helices in a low Reynolds number regime were studied using slender-body theory. The chirality-specific lift forces in the vorticity direction experienced by helices are dominated by a set of helix geometry parameters: helix radius, pitch length, number of turns, and helix phase angle. Its analytical formula is given. The chirality-specific forces are the physical reasons for the chiral separation of helices in shear flow. Our results are well supported by the latest experimental observations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The interaction of two spheres in a simple-shear flow of complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouznia, Mohammadhossein; Metzger, Bloen; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    We study the interaction of two small freely-moving spheres in a linear flow field of Newtonian, shear thinning and yield stress fluids. We perform a series of experiments over a range of shear rates as well as different shear histories using an original apparatus and with the aid of conventional rheometry, Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry. Showing that the non-Newtonian nature of the suspending fluid strongly affects the shape of particle trajectories and the irreversibility. An important point is that non-Newtonian effects can be varied and unusual. Depending on the shear rate, nonideal shear thinning and yield stress suspending fluids might show elasticity that needs to be taken into account. The flow field around one particle is studied in different fluids when subjected to shear. Then using these results to explain the two particle interactions in a simple-shear flow we show how particle-particle contact and non-Newtonian behaviors result in relative trajectories with fore-aft asymmetry. Well-resolved velocity and stress fields around the particles are presented here. Finally, we discuss how the relative particle trajectories may affect the microstructure of complex suspensions and consequently the bulk rheology. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044-CAREER).

  5. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovi, Dalila; Berzi, Diego; Richard, Patrick; Brodu, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed av...

  6. Influence of turbulent horseshoe vortex and associated bed shear stress on sediment transport in front of a cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinzhao; Qi, Meilan; Fuhrman, David R.

    2018-01-01

    -normal distribution for uniform channel-open flows. The comparisons of sediment transport rates where turbulent fluctuations in the bed shear stress are, or are not, taken into account show that the sediment transport rates calculated by the mean bed shear stress are under-predicted. Furthermore, a new sediment......This study concerns the flow and associated sediment transport in front of a cylinder in steady currents. The study comprises (i) flow characteristics induced by the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV), (ii) bed shear stress within the THV region, and (iii) predicted sediment transport rates...

  7. Flow behavior at different shear rates for dry powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.; Singh, A.; Luding, Stefan; Nürnberg Messe GmbH,

    2010-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Simulations (DEM), an effort is made to study the so called “Split bottom ring shear cell” where a slow, quasi-static deformation leads to wide shear bands. Density, velocity and deformation gradients as well as structure and stress tensors, can be computed by a single

  8. Triglyceride glucose index and common carotid wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Scavelli, Faustina B; de Franceschi, Maria S; Esposito, Teresa; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in wall shear stress contribute to both clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. Several conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity can impair shear stress, but the role of insulin resistance has never been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin resistance assessed by TyG Index associates with wall shear stress in the common carotid artery. One hundred six individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and cigarette smoking were evaluated. TyG Index was calculated as log[fasting triglycerides × fasting glucose / 2]. Subjects underwent blood viscosity measurement and echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries to calculate wall shear stress. The association between TyG Index and carotid wall shear stress was assessed by simple and multiple regression analyses. TyG Index was significantly and inversely associated with carotid wall shear stress both in simple (r = -0.44, P glucose greater than 100 mg/dL, and triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL. The present findings suggest that increasing insulin resistance, as assessed by TyG Index, associates with atherosclerosis-prone shear stress reduction in the common carotid artery.

  9. Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.

  10. Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.

    1994-04-01

    The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models

  11. Starch-zein beldns formed by shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.; Dekkers, B.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A newly in-house developed shearing device was used to explore the formation of new types of microstructures in concentrated starch¿zein blends. The device allowed processing of the biopolymer blends under homogeneous, simple shear flow conditions. Water and glycerol were added as plasticizers.

  12. Wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, O D; Silin, N

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the construction and characterization of a wall shear stress hot film sensor for use in gases made with MEMS technology. For this purpose, several associated devices were used, including a constant temperature feedback bridge and a shear stress calibration device that allows the sensor performance evaluation. The sensor design adopted here is simple, economical and is manufactured on a flexible substrate allowing its application to curved surfaces. Stationary and transient wall shear stress tests were carried on by means of the calibration device, determining its performance for different conditions.

  13. Shear flow generation and turbulence suppression by resistive ballooning and resistive interchange modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of shear flow by resistive ballooning modes and resistive interchange modes is compared and contrasted using a 3-D fluid code. The resistive ballooning modes give rise to poloidally asymmetric transport and hence drive poloidal rotation due to the Reynold's Stress as well as the anomalous Stringer/Winsor mechanism. On the other hand the resistive interchange mode can drive shear flow only through the Reynold's Stress. The studies show that if the self-consistent sheared flow is suppressed, the resistive ballooning modes give rise to a larger anomalous transport than produced by the resistive interchange modes. Furthermore the shear flow generated by the resistive ballooning modes is larger than that driven by the resistive interchange modes due to the combined effect of the dual mechanisms stated earlier. As a consequence strong suppression of the fluctuations as well as reduction of the transport occurs for resistive ballooning modes. On the other hand, for the resistive interchange modes the level of fluctuation as well as the anomalous transport is not reduced by the self consistent shear flow generated by the Reynold's Stress. This latter result is in agreement with some earlier 3-D simulation of resistive interchange modes

  14. Wall shear stress fixed points in cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2018-05-17

    Complex blood flow in large arteries creates rich wall shear stress (WSS) vectorial features. WSS acts as a link between blood flow dynamics and the biology of various cardiovascular diseases. WSS has been of great interest in a wide range of studies and has been the most popular measure to correlate blood flow to cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have emphasized different vectorial features of WSS. However, fixed points in the WSS vector field have not received much attention. A WSS fixed point is a point on the vessel wall where the WSS vector vanishes. In this article, WSS fixed points are classified and the aspects by which they could influence cardiovascular disease are reviewed. First, the connection between WSS fixed points and the flow topology away from the vessel wall is discussed. Second, the potential role of time-averaged WSS fixed points in biochemical mass transport is demonstrated using the recent concept of Lagrangian WSS structures. Finally, simple measures are proposed to quantify the exposure of the endothelial cells to WSS fixed points. Examples from various arterial flow applications are demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defective fluid shear stress mechanotransduction mediates hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Larrivée, Bruno; Ola, Roxana; Hayward-Piatkowskyi, Brielle; Dubrac, Alexandre; Huang, Billy; Ross, Tyler D.; Coon, Brian G.; Min, Elizabeth; Tsarfati, Maya; Tong, Haibin; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the vascular system is strongly modulated by mechanical forces from blood flow. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an inherited autosomal-dominant disease in which arteriovenous malformations and telangiectasias accumulate with age. Most cases are linked to heterozygous mutations in Alk1 or Endoglin, receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 9 and 10. Evidence suggests that a second hit results in clonal expansion of endothelial cells to form lesions with poor mural cell coverage that spontaneously rupture and bleed. We now report that fluid shear stress potentiates BMPs to activate Alk1 signaling, which correlates with enhanced association of Alk1 and endoglin. Alk1 is required for BMP9 and flow responses, whereas endoglin is only required for enhancement by flow. This pathway mediates both inhibition of endothelial proliferation and recruitment of mural cells; thus, its loss blocks flow-induced vascular stabilization. Identification of Alk1 signaling as a convergence point for flow and soluble ligands provides a molecular mechanism for development of HHT lesions. PMID:27646277

  16. Evaluation of ring shear testing as a characterization method for powder flow in small-scale powder processing equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements...... normal stress were approximately 200Pa and 114Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500Pa and 200Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level......, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress...

  17. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  18. Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.

  19. Shear Stress-Relative Slip Relationship at Concrete Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a simple and rational shear stress-relative slip model of concrete interfaces with monolithic castings or smooth construction joints. In developing the model, the initial shear cracking stress and relative slip amount at peak stress were formulated from a nonlinear regression analysis using test data for push-off specimens. The shear friction strength was determined from the generalized equations on the basis of the upper-bound theorem of concrete plasticity. Then, a parametric fitting analysis was performed to derive equations for the key parameters determining the shapes of the ascending and descending branches of the shear stress-relative slip curve. The comparisons of predictions and measurements obtained from push-off tests confirmed that the proposed model provides superior accuracy in predicting the shear stress-relative slip relationship of interfacial shear planes. This was evidenced by the lower normalized root mean square error than those in Xu et al.’s model and the CEB-FIB model, which have many limitations in terms of the roughness of the substrate surface along an interface and the magnitude of equivalent normal stress.

  20. Understanding the fluid mechanics behind transverse wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2017-01-04

    The patchy distribution of atherosclerosis within arteries is widely attributed to local variation in haemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS). A recently-introduced metric, the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which is the average over the cardiac cycle of WSS components perpendicular to the temporal mean WSS vector, correlates particularly well with the pattern of lesions around aortic branch ostia. Here we use numerical methods to investigate the nature of the arterial flows captured by transWSS and the sensitivity of transWSS to inflow waveform and aortic geometry. TransWSS developed chiefly in the acceleration, peak systolic and deceleration phases of the cardiac cycle; the reverse flow phase was too short, and WSS in diastole was too low, for these periods to have a significant influence. Most of the spatial variation in transWSS arose from variation in the angle by which instantaneous WSS vectors deviated from the mean WSS vector rather than from variation in the magnitude of the vectors. The pattern of transWSS was insensitive to inflow waveform; only unphysiologically high Womersley numbers produced substantial changes. However, transWSS was sensitive to changes in geometry. The curvature of the arch and proximal descending aorta were responsible for the principal features, the non-planar nature of the aorta produced asymmetries in the location and position of streaks of high transWSS, and taper determined the persistence of the streaks down the aorta. These results reflect the importance of the fluctuating strength of Dean vortices in generating transWSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed

  2. Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam

    2013-04-01

    The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  3. Granular shear flows of flexible rod-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Curtis, J.; Wassgren, C.; Ketterhagen, W.; Hancock, B.

    2013-06-01

    Flexible particles are widely encountered in nature, e.g., stalks of plants, fiberglass particles, and ceramic nanofibers. Early studies indicated that the deformability of particles has a significant impact on the properties of granular materials and fiber suspensions. In this study, shear flows of flexible particles are simulated using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to explore the effect of particle flexibility on the flow behavior and constitutive laws. A flexible particle is formed by connecting a number of constituent spheres in a straight line using elastic bonds. The forces/moments due to the normal, tangential, bending, and torsional deformation of a bond resist the relative movement between two bonded constituent spheres. The bond stiffness determines how difficult it is to make a particle deform, and the bond damping accounts for the energy dissipation in the particle vibration process. The simulation results show that elastically bonded particles have smaller coefficients of restitution compared to rigidly connected particles, due to the fact that kinetic energy is partially converted to potential energy in a contact between flexible particles. The coefficient of restitution decreases as the bond stiffness decreases and the bond damping coefficient increases. As a result, smaller stresses are obtained for granular flows of the flexible particles with smaller bond stiffness and larger bond damping coefficient.

  4. Experimental investigation of single small bubble motion in linear shear flow in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongchun; Zhao, Yang; Song, Xiaoming; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Shengyao; Ishii, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble motion in simple linear shear flow was experimentally investigated. • The bubble trajectories, bubble velocity and drag and lift force were obtained using image process routine. • The bubble trajectory was coupled with a zigzag motion and incline path. • The lift force was kept negative and it decreased when bubble diameter and shear flow magnitude increased. - Abstract: The motion of small bubble in a simple shear flow in water was experimental studied. Stable shear flow with low turbulence level was achieved with curved screen and measured using LDV. The bubbles were captured by high speed camera and the captured images were processed with digital image routine. The bubble was released from a capillary tube. The instantaneous bubble position, bubble velocity and forces were obtained based on the captured parameters. The quasi-steady lift coefficient was determined by the linear fitting of the bubble trajectory of several cycles. The results indicated that the lateral migration was coupled with the zigzag motion of bubble in the present experiment. The bubble migrated to the left side and its quasi-steady lift coefficient was negative. Good repeatable results were observed by measurements of 18 bubbles. The bubble motion in shear flow in water was first experimental studied and negative lift force was observed in the present study condition. The lift coefficient decreased when shear stress magnitude or bubble diameter increased in the present experiment condition.

  5. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.; Xu, X.; Rice, S. A.; Dinner, A. R.; Cohen, I.

    2011-01-01

    under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow

  6. Laboratory investigation of nonlinear flow characteristics in rough fractures during shear process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Yang, Jie; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of shear behavior on the transporting properties of fluid through a single fracture, splitting fractures were made in the laboratory and shear flow tests were carried out under constant normal load conditions. The applied normal stress is in the range of 0.5-3.0 MPa. Before the physical test, the fracture's morphology is measured for identification of the roughness. At each shear step, we performed 5-8 high precise hydraulic tests with different hydraulic gradient. The relationship between pressure gradient and volume flow rate demonstrates to be nonlinear and fits very well with Forchheimer's and Izbash's laws. The linear and nonlinear coefficients in Forchheimer's law are quite sensitive to shear deformation (closure or dilation), experienced 1-2 and 1-3 orders of magnitude reduction during shear, respectively. An empirical equation is proposed to quantify the relationship between linear coefficient and nonlinear coefficient based on the experimental observations. The two coefficients in Izbash's law are quantified. The m value is in the range between 1.06 and 1.41 and the λ value experiences a reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude during shear. In addition, the studied critical Reynolds number exhibits a decreasing and increasing variation corresponding to shear contraction and shear dilation of rock fracture. For all the cases in this study, the critical Reynolds number ranges between 1.5 and 13.0.

  7. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  8. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2014-01-01

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling

  9. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.; Kirkwood, K. M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Leal, L. G.; Nikopoulou, A.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Coppola, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  10. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.

    2016-03-31

    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  11. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... structure i.e. no additional filter layers were applied. For both experiments, high-speed video recordings were synchronised with the pressure measurements for a detailed investigation of the coupling between the run-up and run-down flow processes and the measured pressure variations. Outward directed...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order...

  12. Measuring Advection and Diffusion of Colloids in Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Michael H.G.; Ghosh, Somnath; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of colloids in shear flow can be challenging because of the superposition of diffusion and advection. We present a method that separates the two motions, starting from the time-dependent particle coordinates. The restriction of the tracking to flow lanes and the

  13. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    temporary network formed by the fibres, their entangle- ment etc. The structural density is also a function of vol- ume fraction of reinforcing fibres (Amari et al 1992). The complex flow pattern encountered during moulding/ stamping are generally far from simple steady or oscilla- tory shear flow. Therefore, it is important to ...

  14. Augmentation of wall shear stress inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation - Inhibition through reduction of inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R

    2003-01-01

    Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.

  15. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center

    1997-08-01

    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  16. Velocity profile and wall shear stress of saccular aneurysms at the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuhei; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Haida, Sayaka; Nakazawa, Nobuhiko; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the aspect ratio (dome/neck) of an aneurysm correlates well with intraaneurysmal blood flow. Aneurysms with an aspect ratio larger than 1.6 carry a higher risk of rupture. We examined the effect of aspect ratio (AR) on intra-aneurysmal flow using experimental models. Flow visualization with particle imaging velocimetry and measurement of wall shear stress using laser Doppler anemometry were performed on three different aneurysm models: AR 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Intraaneurysmal flow consists of inflow, circulation, and outflow. Rapid inflow impinged on the distal neck creating a stagnant point. Rapid flow and maximum wall shear stress were observed in the vicinity of the stagnant point. By changing the Reynold's number, the stagnant point moved. By increasing the AR of the aneurysm, vortices inside the aneurysm sac closed and very slow flow was observed, resulting in very low shear stress markedly at a Reynold's number of 250, compatible with the diastolic phase. In the aneurysm model AR 2.0, both rapid flow at the neck and vortices inside the aneurysm are sufficient to activate platelets, making a thrombus that may anchor on the dome where very slow flow takes place. Hemodynamics in aneurysms larger than AR 2.0 definitely contribute to thrombus formation.

  17. Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.

    1990-03-01

    Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  18. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 2: Wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the flow in the two inner layers, the Reynolds stress sublayer and the wall layer. Included is the calculation of the shear stress at the wall in the interaction region. The limit processes considered are those used for an inviscid flow.

  19. Critical shear stress produced by interaction of edge dislocation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to the Mott and Nabarro's model, the contribution to the critical shear stress of the material caused by the interaction between edge dislocations and nanoscale cylindrical inhomogeneities with interface stresses is obtained. The influence of the radius and the volume fraction of the inhomogeneity as well as the ...

  20. Critical bed shear stress and threshold of motion of maerl biogenic gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddhi; Duffy, Garret Patrick; Brown, Colin

    2017-07-01

    A determination of the critical bed shear stress of maerl is a prerequisite for quantifying its mobility, rate of erosion and deposition in conservation management. The critical bed shear stress for incipient motion has been determined for the first time for samples from biogenic free-living maerl beds in three contrasting environments (open marine, intertidal and beach) in Galway Bay, west of Ireland. The bed shear stress was determined using two methods, Law of the Wall and Turbulent Kinetic Energy, in a rotating annular flume and in a linear flume. The velocity profile of flowing water above a bed of natural maerl grains was measured in four runs of progressively increasing flow velocity until the flow exceeded the critical shear stress of grains on the bed. The critical Shields parameter and the mobility number are estimated and compared with the equivalent curves for natural quartz sand. The critical Shields parameters for the maerl particles from all three environments fall below the Shields curve. Along with a previously reported correlation between maerl grain shape and settling velocity, these results suggest that the highly irregular shapes also allow maerl grains to be mobilised more easily than quartz grains with the same sieve diameter. The intertidal beds with the roughest particles exhibit the greatest critical shear stress because the particle thalli interlock and resist entrainment. In samples with a high percentage of maerl and low percentage of siliciclastic sand, the lower density, lower settling velocity and lower critical bed shear stress of maerl results in its preferential transport over the siliciclastic sediment. At velocities ∼10 cm s-1 higher than the threshold velocity of grain motion, rarely-documented subaqueous maerl dunes formed in the annular flume.

  1. Statistics on Near Wall Structures and Shear Stress Distribution from 3D Holographic Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.

    2007-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy performs 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. Resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50) is sufficient for resolving buffer layer and lower log layer structures, and for measuring instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the viscous sublayer. Results, based on 700 instantaneous realizations, provide detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall stress components along with characteristic flow structures. Conditional sampling based on maxima and minima of wall shear stresses, as well as examination of instantaneous flow structures, lead to development of a conceptual model for a characteristic flow phenomenon that seems to generating extreme stress events. This structure develops as an initially spanwise vortex element rises away from the surface, due to local disturbance, causing a local stress minimum. Due to increasing velocity with elevation, this element bends downstream, forming a pair of inclined streamwise vortices, aligned at 45^0 to freestream, with ejection-like flow between them. Entrainment of high streamwise momentum on the outer sides of this vortex pair generates streamwise shear stress maxima, 70 δν downstream, which are displaced laterally by 35 δν from the local minimum.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal Grooves with Shear Stress at the Liquid-Vapor Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... A computer model was developed using a finite difference solution which finds the mean velocity, Poiseuille number, and volumetric flow rate in terms of the groove geometry, meniscus contact angle...

  3. A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-11-01

    A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.

  4. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-08-01

    The concept of enhancing structural integrity of mitochondria has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. Flow-induced increase in laminar shear stress is a potent physiological stimulant associated with exercise, which exerts atheroprotective effects in the vasculature. However, the effect of laminar shear stress on mitochondrial remodeling within the vascular endothelium and its related functional consequences remain largely unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies, here, we report that aerobic exercise alleviates the release of endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive individuals and that these salutary effects are, in part, mediated by shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Circulating levels of total (CD31(+)/CD42a(-)) and activated (CD62E(+)) microparticles released by endothelial cells were significantly decreased (∼40% for both) after a 6-mo supervised aerobic exercise training program in individuals with prehypertension. In cultured human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress reduced the release of endothelial microparticles, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis through a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent mechanism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, treatment showed similar effects. SIRT1 knockdown using small-interfering RNA completely abolished the protective effect of shear stress. Disruption of mitochondrial integrity by either antimycin A or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α small-interfering RNA significantly increased the number of total, and activated, released endothelial microparticles, and shear stress restored these back to basal levels. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of endothelial mitochondrial integrity in preserving endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, prolonged laminar shear stress, which is systemically elevated during aerobic exercise in the vessel wall, mitigates endothelial dysfunction by promoting

  5. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  6. Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.

    1990-11-01

    The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs

  7. Effect of sheared flows on neoclassical tearing modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, A [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Chandra, D; Kaw, P [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Bora, M P [Physics Dept., Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO (United States); Ramos, J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The influence of toroidal sheared equilibrium flows on the nonlinear evolution of classical and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is studied through numerical solutions of a set of reduced generalized MHD equations that include viscous force effects based on neoclassical closures. In general, differential flow is found to have a strong stabilizing influence leading to lower saturated island widths for the classical (m/n = 2/1) mode and reduced growth rates for the (m/n = 3/1) neoclassical mode. Velocity shear on the other hand is seen to make a destabilizing contribution. An analytic model calculation, consisting of a generalized Rutherford island evolution equation that includes shear flow effects is also presented and the numerical results are discussed in the context of this model. (author)

  8. Generation of rotation and shear flow in an imploding liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J H; Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    There exist several techniques that can set the liner into rotation and/or excite an embedded shear flow at any desired depth of the liner material. A common element of all these techniques is the use of properly used left-right asymmetric structures, situated either on the liner surface or embedded in the shell. Both rotation and shear flow get enhanced in the course of the liner implosion because of the angular momentum conservation. While fast enough rotation should stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the turn-around point, the shear flow can also have a stabilizing effect on the interface. The specific model presented in the paper shows that a strong enough shear causes stabilization of a broad class of Rayleigh-Taylor perturbations. Thus, the use of left-right asymmetric structure for generation of rotation and shear flow is an interesting new option for improvement of the quality of the liner implosions. (J.U.). 4 figs., 12 refs.

  9. Modelling of fluid flow phenomenon in laser+GMAW hybrid welding of aluminum alloy considering three phase coupling and arc plasma shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoxiang; Li, Pengfei; Cao, Qingnan; Hu, Qingxian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Du, Baoshuai

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to develop a unified three dimensional numerical model for fiber laser+GMAW hybrid welding, which is used to study the fluid flow phenomena in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy and the influence of laser power on weld pool dynamic behavior. This model takes into account the coupling of gas, liquid and metal phases. Laser heat input is described using a cone heat source model with changing peak power density, its height being determined based on the keyhole size. Arc heat input is modeled as a double ellipsoid heat source. The arc plasma flow and droplet transfer are simulated through the two simplified models. The temperature and velocity fields for different laser powers are calculated. The computed results are in general agreement with the experimental data. Both the peak and average values of fluid flow velocity during hybrid welding are much higher than those of GMAW. At a low level of laser power, both the arc force and droplet impingement force play a relatively large role on fluid flow in the hybrid welding. Keyhole depth always oscillates within a range. With an increase in laser power, the weld pool behavior becomes more complex. An anti-clockwise vortex is generated and the stability of keyhole depth is improved. Besides, the effects of laser power on different driving forces of fluid flow in weld pool are also discussed.

  10. Effects of shear flow on phase nucleation and crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Federica; Zaccone, Alessio

    2016-04-01

    Classical nucleation theory offers a good framework for understanding the common features of new phase formation processes in metastable homogeneous media at rest. However, nucleation processes in liquids are ubiquitously affected by hydrodynamic flow, and there is no satisfactory understanding of whether shear promotes or slows down the nucleation process. We developed a classical nucleation theory for sheared systems starting from the molecular level of the Becker-Doering master kinetic equation and we analytically derived a closed-form expression for the nucleation rate. The theory accounts for the effect of flow-mediated transport of molecules to the nucleus of the new phase, as well as for the mechanical deformation imparted to the nucleus by the flow field. The competition between flow-induced molecular transport, which accelerates nucleation, and flow-induced nucleus straining, which lowers the nucleation rate by increasing the nucleation energy barrier, gives rise to a marked nonmonotonic dependence of the nucleation rate on the shear rate. The theory predicts an optimal shear rate at which the nucleation rate is one order of magnitude larger than in the absence of flow.

  11. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  12. Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoua, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)

  13. Adaptation of endothelial cells to physiologically-modeled, variable shear stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Uzarski

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC function is mediated by variable hemodynamic shear stress patterns at the vascular wall, where complex shear stress profiles directly correlate with blood flow conditions that vary temporally based on metabolic demand. The interactions of these more complex and variable shear fields with EC have not been represented in hemodynamic flow models. We hypothesized that EC exposed to pulsatile shear stress that changes in magnitude and duration, modeled directly from real-time physiological variations in heart rate, would elicit phenotypic changes as relevant to their critical roles in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. Here we designed a physiological flow (PF model based on short-term temporal changes in blood flow observed in vivo and compared it to static culture and steady flow (SF at a fixed pulse frequency of 1.3 Hz. Results show significant changes in gene regulation as a function of temporally variable flow, indicating a reduced wound phenotype more representative of quiescence. EC cultured under PF exhibited significantly higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity (PF: 176.0±11.9 nmol/10(5 EC; SF: 115.0±12.5 nmol/10(5 EC, p = 0.002 and lower TNF-a-induced HL-60 leukocyte adhesion (PF: 37±6 HL-60 cells/mm(2; SF: 111±18 HL-60/mm(2, p = 0.003 than cells cultured under SF which is consistent with a more quiescent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic phenotype. In vitro models have become increasingly adept at mimicking natural physiology and in doing so have clarified the importance of both chemical and physical cues that drive cell function. These data illustrate that the variability in metabolic demand and subsequent changes in perfusion resulting in constantly variable shear stress plays a key role in EC function that has not previously been described.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Formato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ measurements of soil shear stress in full field conditions for different types of soils located on the right side of the Sele river, at a distance of about 1 km from each other, along the perpendicular to the Sele river in the direction of the sea. Full field tests using the shearometer unit were performed alongside considered soil characteristic parameter data collection. These parameter values derived from hydrostatic compression and triaxial tests performed on considered soil samples and repeated 4 times and we noticed that the difference between the maximum and minimum values detected for every set of performed tests never exceeded 4%. Full field shear tests were simulated by the Abaqus program code considering three different material models of soils normally used in the literature, the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Cam-Clay models. We then compared all data outcomes obtained by numerical simulations with those from the experimental tests. We also discussed any further simulation data results obtained with different material models and selected the best material model for each considered soil to be used in tyre/soil contact simulation or in soil compaction studies.

  15. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikson, Wim J; Deegan, Anthony J; Yang, Ying; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Verdonschot, Nico; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical

  16. Influence of Additive Manufactured Scaffold Architecture on the Distribution of Surface Strains and Fluid Flow Shear Stresses and Expected Osteochondral Cell Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikson, W.J.; Deegan, A.J.; Yang, Y; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Verdonschot, N.J.; Moroni, L.; Rouwkema, J.

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should instruct cells with the appropriate signals, including biophysical stimuli such as stress and strain, to form the desired tissue. Apart from that, scaffolds, especially for load-bearing applications, should be capable of providing mechanical

  17. Shear-free flows of a perfect fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Previous results on shear-free fluid flows are reviewed. Attention is then restricted to flows which satisfy the additional condition that the Weyl tensor is purely electric: Hsub(ac)=*Csub(abcd)usup(b)usup(d)=O where usup(a) is the velocity vector of the fluid. The analysis is also applied to Einstein spaces admitting a shear-free timelike vector field usup(a). If the Weyl tensor is purely electric or purely magnetic, it is shown that usup(a) is necessarily irrotational unless the spacetime has constant curvature. (author)

  18. Development of generalized correlation equation for the local wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yu Mi; Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    The pressure drop characteristics for a fuel channel are essential for the design and reliable operation of a nuclear reactor. Over several decades, analytical methods have been developed to predict the friction factor in the fuel bundle flows. In order to enhance the accuracy of prediction for the pressure drop in a rod bundle, the influences of a channel wall and the local shear stress distribution should be considered. Hence, the correlation equation for a local shear stress distribution should be developed in order to secure an analytical solution for the friction factor of a rod bundle. For a side subchannel, which has the influence of the channel wall, the local shear stress distribution is dependent on the ratio of wall to diameter (W/D) as well as the ratio of pitch to diameter (P/D). In the case that W/D has the same value with P/D, the local shear stress distribution can be simply correlated with the function of angular position for each value of P/D. While, in the case that W/D has the different value with P/D, the correlation equation should be developed for each case of P/D and W/D. Hence, in the present study, the generalized correlation equation of a local shear stress distribution is developed for a side subchannel in the case that W/D has the different value with P/D

  19. Large scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer and their imprint on wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  20. Hydrodynamic Study of a Hollow Fiber Membrane System Using Experimental and Numerical Derived Surface Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Hunze, M.; Nopens, I.

    2012-01-01

    .39 – 0.69 Pa) were in good agreement, with an error less that 15 %. Based on comparison of the cumulative frequency distribution of shear stresses from experiments and simulation: (i) moderate shear stresses (i.e. 50th percentile) were found to be accurately predicted (model: 0.24 – 0.45 Pa; experimental......Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) models can be used to gain insight into the shear stresses induced by air sparging on submerged hollow fiber Membrane BioReactor (MBR) systems. It was found that the average range of shear stresses obtained by the CFD model (0.30 – 0.60 Pa) and experimentally (0......: 0.25 – 0.49 Pa) with an error of less than 5 %; (ii) high shear stresses (i.e. 90th percentile) predictions were much less accurate (model: 0.60 – 1.23 Pa; experimental: 1.04 – 1.90 Pa) with an error up to 38 %. This was attributed to the fact that the CFD model only considers the two-phase flow (50...

  1. Assessment of shear stress related parameters in the carotid bifurcation using mouse-specific FSI simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, David; Trachet, Bram; Debusschere, Nic; Iannaccone, Francesco; Swillens, Abigail; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Segers, Patrick

    2016-07-26

    The ApoE(-)(/)(-) mouse is a common small animal model to study atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the large and medium sized arteries such as the carotid artery. It is generally accepted that the wall shear stress, induced by the blood flow, plays a key role in the onset of this disease. Wall shear stress, however, is difficult to derive from direct in vivo measurements, particularly in mice. In this study, we integrated in vivo imaging (micro-Computed Tomography-µCT and ultrasound) and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling for the mouse-specific assessment of carotid hemodynamics and wall shear stress. Results were provided for 8 carotid bifurcations of 4 ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice. We demonstrated that accounting for the carotid elasticity leads to more realistic flow waveforms over the complete domain of the model due to volume buffering capacity in systole. The 8 simulated cases showed fairly consistent spatial distribution maps of time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) and relative residence time (RRT). Zones with reduced TAWSS and elevated RRT, potential indicators of atherosclerosis-prone regions, were located mainly at the outer sinus of the external carotid artery. In contrast to human carotid hemodynamics, no flow recirculation could be observed in the carotid bifurcation region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational and experimental assessment of influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Meng, Long; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Lin; Xia, Xiangxiang; Li, Shuai; Zheng, Hairong; Niu, Lili

    2017-07-29

    Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h). Ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to calculate the velocity profile and shear stress distribution in the carotid stenosis phantoms. Inlet/outlet boundary conditions used in CFD were extracted from Echo PIV experiments to make sure that the results were comparable. Echo PIV and CFD results showed that velocity was largest in 70% than those in 30 and 50% at peak systole. Echo PIV results indicated that shear stress was larger in the upper wall and the surface of plaque than in the center of vessel. CFD results demonstrated that wall shear stress in the upstream was larger than in downstream of plaque. There was no significant difference in average velocity obtained by CFD and Echo PIV in 30% (p = 0.25). Velocities measured by CFD in 50% (93.01 cm/s) and in 70% (115.07 cm/s) were larger than those by Echo PIV in 50% (60.26 ± 5.36 cm/s) and in 70% (89.11 ± 7.21 cm/s). The results suggested that Echo PIV and CFD could obtain hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Higher WSS occurred in narrower arteries, and the shoulder of plaque bore higher WSS than in bottom part.

  3. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Foley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.

  4. Discrete element simulation studies of angles of repose and shear flow of wet, flexible fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Wassgren, C; Ketterhagen, W; Hancock, B; Curtis, J

    2018-04-18

    A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate. This Bond number reflects the relative importance of the liquid-bridge force to the particle's inertial force, with a larger Bond number leading to a larger agglomerate. As the fiber aspect ratio (AR) increases, the size of the largest agglomerate increases, while the coordination number in the largest agglomerate initially decreases and then increases when the AR is greater than four. A larger agglomerate with a larger coordination number is more likely to form for more flexible fibers with a smaller bond elastic modulus due to better connectivity between the more flexible fibers. Liquid viscous force resists pulling of liquid bridges and separation of contacting fibers, and therefore it facilitates larger agglomerate formation. The effect of liquid viscous force is more significant at larger shear strain rates. The solid-phase shear stress is increased due to the presence of liquid bridges in moderately dense flows. As the solid volume fraction increases, the effect of fiber-fiber friction coefficient increases sharply. When the solid volume fraction approaches the maximum packing density, the fiber-fiber friction coefficient can be a more dominant factor than the liquid bridge force in determining the solid-phase shear stress.

  5. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A; Cambon, C

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally

  6. Wall Shear Rates in Taylor Vortex Flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolík, V.; Jirout, T.; Havlica, Jaromír; Kristiawan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2011), s. 25-31 ISSN 1735-3572 Grant - others:ANR:(FR) ANR-08-BLAN-0184-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : taylor-couette flow * electrodiffusion diagnostics * membrane reactors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.jafmonline.net/modules/journal/journal_browse.php?EJjid=13

  7. Shear Layer Dynamics in Resonating Cavity Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    .... The PIV data was also combined with the surface pressure measurements through the application of the Quadratic Stochastic Estimation procedure to provide time resolved snapshots of the flow field. Examination of these results indicate the strong pumping action of the cavity regardless of whether resonance existed and was used to visualize the large scale structures interacting with the aft wall.

  8. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  9. Effects of flow shear and Alfven waves on two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jamie; Kim, Eun-jin; Thyagaraja, A.

    2008-01-01

    The suppression of turbulent transport by large scale mean shear flows and uniform magnetic fields is investigated in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by a small-scale forcing with finite correlation time. By numerical integration the turbulent magnetic diffusivity D T is shown to be significantly quenched, with a scaling D T ∝B -2 Ω 0 -5/4 , which is much more severe than in the case of a short or delta correlated forcing typified by white noise, studied in E. Kim and B. Dubrulle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 813 (2001)]. Here B and Ω 0 are magnetic field strength and flow shear rate, respectively. The forcing with finite correlation time also leads to much stronger suppression of momentum transport through the cancellation of the Reynolds stress by the Maxwell stress with a positive small value of turbulent viscosity, ν T >0. While fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies are unaffected by the magnetic field just as in the case of a delta correlated forcing, they are much more severely quenched by flow shear than in that of a delta correlated forcing. Underlying physical mechanisms for the reduction of turbulent transport and turbulence level by flow shear and magnetic field are discussed

  10. Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1995-03-01

    From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory

  11. Shear-stress fluctuations and relaxation in polymer glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriuchevskyi, I.; Wittmer, J. P.; Meyer, H.; Benzerara, O.; Baschnagel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate by means of molecular dynamics simulation a coarse-grained polymer glass model focusing on (quasistatic and dynamical) shear-stress fluctuations as a function of temperature T and sampling time Δ t . The linear response is characterized using (ensemble-averaged) expectation values of the contributions (time averaged for each shear plane) to the stress-fluctuation relation μsf for the shear modulus and the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) . Using 100 independent configurations, we pay attention to the respective standard deviations. While the ensemble-averaged modulus μsf(T ) decreases continuously with increasing T for all Δ t sampled, its standard deviation δ μsf(T ) is nonmonotonic with a striking peak at the glass transition. The question of whether the shear modulus is continuous or has a jump singularity at the glass transition is thus ill posed. Confirming the effective time-translational invariance of our systems, the Δ t dependence of μsf and related quantities can be understood using a weighted integral over G (t ) .

  12. The Effect of a Shear Flow on the Uptake of LDL and Ac-LDL by Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichi; Karino, Takeshi

    The effects of a shear flow on the uptake of fluorescence-labeled low-density lipoprotein (DiI-LDL), acetylated LDL (DiI-Ac-LDL), and lucifer yellow (LY; a tracer of fluid-phase endocytosis) by cultured bovine aortic ECs were studied using a rotating-disk shearing apparatus. It was found that 2hours’ exposure of ECs to a laminar shear flow that imposed ECs an area-mean shear stress of 10dynes/cm2 caused an increase in the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY. By contrast, the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL was decreased by exposure of the ECs to a shear flow. Addition of dextran sulfate (DS), a competitive inhibitor of scavenger receptors, reversed the effect of a shear flow on the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, resulting in an increase by the imposition of a shear flow, while the uptake of DiI-LDL and LY remained unaffected. It was concluded that a shear flow promotes the endocytosis of DiI-LDL and LY by ECs, but suppresses the uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL by ECs by inhibiting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  13. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.

  14. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of lowMach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using theWiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  15. Hard wall - soft wall - vorticity scattering in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytically exact solution, for the problem of low Mach number incident vorticity scattering at a hard-soft wall transition, is obtained in the form of Fourier integrals by using the Wiener-Hopf method. Harmonic vortical perturbations of inviscid linear shear flow are scattered at the wall

  16. Autoignition of hydrogen in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbhor, Abhijit; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Chitilappilly, Lazar

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we compare the autoignition characteristics of laminar, nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jets in two different oxidizer flow configurations: (a) co-flowing heated air and (b) wake of heated air, using two-dimensional numerical simulations coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. In both cases, autoignition is observed to initiate at locations with low scalar dissipation rates and high HO2 depletion rates. It is found that the induction stage prior to autoignition is primarily dominated by chemical kinetics and diffusion while the improved scalar mixing imparted by the large-scale flow structures controls the ignition progress in later stages. We further investigate the ignition transience and its connection with mixing by varying the initial wake conditions and fuel jet to oxidizer velocity ratios. These studies reveal that the autoignition delay times are independent of initial wake flow conditions. However, with increased jet velocity ratios, the later stages of ignition are accelerated, mainly due to enhanced mixing facilitated by the higher scalar dissipation rates. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies for the jet in wake configuration show a significant reduction in ignition delay even for about 0.14% (by volume) hydrogen dilution in the oxidizer. In addition, the detailed autoignition chemistry and the relative roles of certain radical species in the initiation of the autoignition process in these non-premixed jets are investigated by tracking the evolution of important chain reactions using a Lagrangian particle tracking approach. The reaction H2 + O2 ↔ HO2 + H is recognized to be the dominant chain initiation reaction that provides H radicals essential for the progress of subsequent elementary reactions during the pre-ignition stage.

  17. Exercise-mediated wall shear stress increases mitochondrial biogenesis in vascular endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boa Kim

    Full Text Available Enhancing structural and functional integrity of mitochondria is an emerging therapeutic option against endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of fluid shear stress on mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory function in endothelial cells (ECs using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies.Human aortic- or umbilical vein-derived ECs were exposed to laminar shear stress (20 dyne/cm2 for various durations using a cone-and-plate shear apparatus. We observed significant increases in the expression of key genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial quality control as well as mtDNA content and mitochondrial mass under the shear stress conditions. Mitochondrial respiratory function was enhanced when cells were intermittently exposed to laminar shear stress for 72 hrs. Also, shear-exposed cells showed diminished glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Likewise, in in vivo experiments, mice that were subjected to a voluntary wheel running exercise for 5 weeks showed significantly higher mitochondrial content determined by en face staining in the conduit (greater and lesser curvature of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta and muscle feed (femoral artery arteries compared to the sedentary control mice. Interestingly, however, the mitochondrial biogenesis was not observed in the mesenteric artery. This region-specific adaptation is likely due to the differential blood flow redistribution during exercise in the different vessel beds.Taken together, our findings suggest that exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in vascular endothelium through a shear stress-dependent mechanism. Our findings may suggest a novel mitochondrial pathway by which a chronic exercise may be beneficial for vascular function.

  18. Skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent channel flow based on streamwise shear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform DNSs of fully developed turbulent channel flows to explore an active flow control concept using streamwise velocity shear control at the wall. • The structural spacing and wall amplitude parameters are systematically changed to achieve a high-efficient drag reduction rate for longitudinal control surface. • Significant drag reduction is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations. • The generation and evolution of the turbulent vortices in the absence of velocity shear and how they contribute to DR have been examined. - Abstract: It is known that stretching and intensification of a hairpin vortex by mean shear play an important role to create a hairpin vortex packet, which generates the large Reynolds shear stress associated with skin-friction drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows. In order to suppress the mean shear at the wall for high efficient drag reduction (DR), in the present study, we explore an active flow control concept using streamwise shear control (SSC) at the wall. The longitudinal control surface is periodically spanwise-arranged with no-control surface while varying the structural spacing, and an amplitude parameter for imposing the strength of the actuating streamwise velocity at the wall is introduced to further enhance the skin-friction DR. Significant DR is observed with an increase in the two parameters with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stresses and vorticity fluctuations, although a further increase in the parameters amplifies the turbulence activity in the near-wall region. In order to study the direct relationship between turbulent vortical structures and DR under the SSC, temporal evolution with initial eddies extracted by conditional averages for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 events are examined. It is shown that the generation of new vortices is dramatically inhibited with an increase in the parameters

  19. Laminar shear stress modulates endothelial luminal surface stiffness in a tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merna, Nick; Wong, Andrew K; Barahona, Victor; Llanos, Pierre; Kunar, Balvir; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2018-04-17

    Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm 2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness. Lung endothelial cells aligned parallel to flow, while cardiac endothelial cells did not. This rapid alignment was accompanied by increased cell stiffness. The addition of arachidonic acid to cardiac endothelial cells increased alignment and stiffness in response to shear stress. Inhibition of arachidonic acid in lung endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells prevented cellular alignment and decreased cell stiffness. Our findings suggest that increased endothelial luminal surface stiffness in microvascular cells may facilitate mechanotransduction and alignment in response to laminar shear stress. Furthermore, the arachidonic acid pathway may mediate this tissue-specific process. An improved understanding of this response will aid in the treatment of organ-specific vascular disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Temperature dependence of critical resolved shear stress for cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, M.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental measurements for critical resolved shear stress of various BCC and FCC metals have been explained by using Radiation Model. The temperature dependence of CRSS for different cubic metals is found to the first approximation, to upon the type of the crystal. A good agreement between experimental observations and predictions of the Radiation Model is found. (author)

  1. Stabilization of the Friedmann big bang by the shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinski, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    The window is found in the space of the free parameters of the theory of viscoelastic matter for which the Friedmann singularity is stable. By stability we mean that in the presence of the shear stresses, a generic solution of the equations of relativistic gravity possessing an isotropic singularity exists.

  2. Effect of Wall Shear Stress on Corrosion Inhibitor Film Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto Maya, Christian M.

    In oil and gas production, internal corrosion of pipelines causes the highest incidence of recurring failures. Ensuring the integrity of ageing pipeline infrastructure is an increasingly important requirement. One of the most widely applied methods to reduce internal corrosion rates is the continuous injection of chemicals in very small quantities, called corrosion inhibitors. These chemical substances form thin films at the pipeline internal surface that reduce the magnitude of the cathodic and/or anodic reactions. However, the efficacy of such corrosion inhibitor films can be reduced by different factors such as multiphase flow, due to enhanced shear stress and mass transfer effects, loss of inhibitor due to adsorption on other interfaces such as solid particles, bubbles and droplets entrained by the bulk phase, and due to chemical interaction with other incompatible substances present in the stream. The first part of the present project investigated the electrochemical behavior of two organic corrosion inhibitors (a TOFA/DETA imidazolinium, and an alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), with and without an inorganic salt (sodium thiosulfate), and the resulting enhancement. The second part of the work explored the performance of corrosion inhibitor under multiphase (gas/liquid, solid/liquid) flow. The effect of gas/liquid multiphase flow was investigated using small and large scale apparatus. The small scale tests were conducted using a glass cell and a submersed jet impingement attachment with three different hydrodynamic patterns (water jet, CO 2 bubbles impact, and water vapor cavitation). The large scale experiments were conducted applying different flow loops (hilly terrain and standing slug systems). Measurements of weight loss, linear polarization resistance (LPR), and adsorption mass (using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, EQCM) were used to quantify the effect of wall shear stress on the performance and integrity of corrosion inhibitor

  3. Development of Generalized Correlation Equation for the Local Wall Shear Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yu Mi; Park, Ju Hwan

    2010-06-01

    The pressure drop characteristics for a fuel channel are essential for the design and reliable operation of a nuclear reactor. Over several decades, analytical methods have been developed to predict the friction factor in the fuel bundle flows. In order to enhance the accuracy of prediction for the pressure drop in a rod bundle, the influences of a channel wall and the local shear stress distribution should be considered. Therefore, the correlation equation for a local wall shear stress distribution should be developed in order to secure an analytical solution for the friction factor of a rod bundle. For a side subchannel, which has the influence of the channel wall, the local wall shear stress distribution is dependent on the ratio of wall to diameter (W/D) as well as the ratio of pitch to diameter (P/D). In the case that W/D has the same value with P/D, the local shear stress distribution can be simply correlated with the function of angular position for each value of P/D. While in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D, the correlation equation should be developed for each case of P/D and W/D. Therefore, in the present study, the generalized correlation equation of the local wall shear stress distribution was developed for a side subchannel in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D. Consequently, the generalized correlation equation of a local wall shear stress distribution can be represented by the equivalent pitch to diameter ratio, P'/D for the case that P/D and W/D had a different value

  4. Pulsatility Index as a Diagnostic Parameter of Reciprocating Wall Shear Stress Parameters in Physiological Pulsating Waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Avrahami

    Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.

  5. Sheared flow layer formation in tokamak plasmas with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Long, Y.X.; Mou, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.H.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Sheared flow layer (SFL) formation due to magnetic energy release through tearing-reconnections in tokamak plasmas is investigated. The characteristics of the SFLs created in the development of double tearing mode, mediated by electron viscosity in configurations with non-monotonic safety factor q profiles and, therefore, two rational flux surfaces of same q value, are analyzed in detail as an example. Quasi-linear simulations demonstrate that the sheared flows induced by the mode have desirable characteristics (lying at the boundaries of the magnetic islands), and sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. A possible correlation of the SFLs with experimental observations, that double transport barrier structures are preferentially formed in proximity of the two rational surfaces, is also proffered. (author)

  6. NK cell recruitment and exercise: Potential immunotherapeutic role of shear stress and endothelial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2017-11-01

    Positive cancer patient outcomes, including increased time to recurrent events, have been associated with increased counts and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell counts and function are elevated following acute exercise, and the generally accepted mechanism of increased recruitment suggests that binding of epinephrine releases NK cells from endothelial tissue via decreases in adhesion molecules following. I propose that blood flow-induced shear stress may also play a role in NK cell recruitment from the endothelium. Additionally, shear stress may play a role in improving NK cell function by decreasing oxidative stress. The relationship between shear stress and NK cell count and function can be tested by utilizing exercise and local heating with cuff inflation. If shear stress does play an important role, NK cell count and function will be improved in the non-cuffed exercise group, but not the cuffed limb. This paper will explore the mechanisms potentially explaining exercise-induced improvements in NK cell count and function, and propose a model for investigating these mechanisms. This mechanistic insight could aid in providing a novel, safe, relatively inexpensive, and non-invasive target for immunotherapy in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. By activating matrix metalloproteinase-7, shear stress promotes chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and lung colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Pei-Pei; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2015-04-20

    Interstitial fluid flow and associated shear stress are relevant mechanical signals in cartilage and bone (patho)physiology. However, their effects on chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. Using human SW1353, HS.819.T and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines as model systems, we found that fluid shear stress induces the accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn markedly enhance chondrosarcoma cell motility and invasion via the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Specifically, shear-induced cAMP and IL-1β activate PI3-K, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which lead to the synthesis of MMP-7 via transactivating NF-κB and c-Jun in human chondrosarcoma cells. Importantly, MMP-7 upregulation in response to shear stress exposure has the ability to promote lung colonization of chondrosarcomas in vivo. These findings offer a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MMP-7 activation in shear-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells, and provide insights on designing new therapeutic strategies to interfere with chondrosarcoma invasion and metastasis.

  8. Observation of the L-H confinement bifurcation triggered by a turbulence-driven shear flow in a tokamak plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Fonck, R; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H

    2014-03-28

    Comprehensive 2D turbulence and eddy flow velocity measurements on DIII-D demonstrate a rapidly increasing turbulence-driven shear flow that develops ∼100  μs prior to the low-confinement (L mode) to high-confinement (H mode) transition and appears to trigger it. These changes are localized to a narrow layer 1-2 cm inside the magnetic boundary. Increasing heating power increases the Reynolds stress, the energy transfer from turbulence to the poloidal flow, and the edge flow shearing rate that then exceeds the decorrelation rate, suppressing turbulence and triggering the transition.

  9. Self-diffusion in dense granular shear flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Brian; Behringer, R P

    2004-03-01

    Diffusivity is a key quantity in describing velocity fluctuations in granular materials. These fluctuations are the basis of many thermodynamic and hydrodynamic models which aim to provide a statistical description of granular systems. We present experimental results on diffusivity in dense, granular shear flows in a two-dimensional Couette geometry. We find that self-diffusivities D are proportional to the local shear rate gamma; with diffusivities along the direction of the mean flow approximately twice as large as those in the perpendicular direction. The magnitude of the diffusivity is D approximately gamma;a(2), where a is the particle radius. However, the gradient in shear rate, coupling to the mean flow, and strong drag at the moving boundary lead to particle displacements that can appear subdiffusive or superdiffusive. In particular, diffusion appears to be superdiffusive along the mean flow direction due to Taylor dispersion effects and subdiffusive along the perpendicular direction due to the gradient in shear rate. The anisotropic force network leads to an additional anisotropy in the diffusivity that is a property of dense systems and has no obvious analog in rapid flows. Specifically, the diffusivity is suppressed along the direction of the strong force network. A simple random walk simulation reproduces the key features of the data, such as the apparent superdiffusive and subdiffusive behavior arising from the mean velocity field, confirming the underlying diffusive motion. The additional anisotropy is not observed in the simulation since the strong force network is not included. Examples of correlated motion, such as transient vortices, and Lévy flights are also observed. Although correlated motion creates velocity fields which are qualitatively different from collisional Brownian motion and can introduce nondiffusive effects, on average the system appears simply diffusive.

  10. Effect of stable-density stratification on counter gradient flux of a homogeneous shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lida, Oaki; Nagano, Yasutaka [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow under stable-density stratification to study the buoyancy effects on the heat and momentum transfer. These numerical data were compared with those of a turbulent channel flow to investigate the similarity between the near-wall turbulence and the homogeneous shear flow. We also investigated the generation mechanism of the persistent CGFs (counter gradient fluxes) appearing at the higher wavenumbers of the cospectrum, and lasting over a long time without oscillation. Spatially, the persistent CGFs are associated with the longitudinal vortical structure, which is elongated in the streamwise direction and typically observed in both homogeneous shear flow and near-wall turbulence. The CGFs appear at both the top and bottom of this longitudinal vortical structure, and expand horizontally with an increase in the Richardson number. It was found that the production and turbulent-diffusion terms are responsible for the distribution of the Reynolds shear stress including the persistent CGFs. The buoyancy term, combined with the swirling motion of the vortex, contributes to expand the persistent CGF regions and decrease the down gradient fluxes. (author)

  11. The effects of green infrastructure on exceedance of critical shear stress in Blunn Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannak, Sa'd.

    2017-10-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) has attracted city planners and watershed management professional as a new approach to control urban stormwater runoff. Several regulatory enforcements of GI implementation created an urgent need for quantitative information on GI practice effectiveness, namely for sediment and stream erosion. This study aims at investigating the capability and performance of GI in reducing stream bank erosion in the Blackland Prairie ecosystem. To achieve the goal of this study, we developed a methodology to represent two types of GI (bioretention and permeable pavement) into the Soil Water Assessment Tool, we also evaluated the shear stress and excess shear stress for stream flows in conjunction with different levels of adoption of GI, and estimated potential stream bank erosion for different median soil particle sizes using real and design storms. The results provided various configurations of GI schemes in reducing the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff on stream banks. Results showed that combining permeable pavement and bioretention resulted in the greatest reduction in runoff volumes, peak flows, and excess shear stress under both real and design storms. Bioretention as a stand-alone resulted in the second greatest reduction, while the installation of detention pond only had the least reduction percentages. Lastly, results showed that the soil particle with median diameter equals to 64 mm (small cobbles) had the least excess shear stress across all design storms, while 0.5 mm (medium sand) soil particle size had the largest magnitude of excess shear stress. The current study provides several insights into a watershed scale for GI planning and watershed management to effectively reduce the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff and control streambank erosion.

  12. Critical shear stress on the surface of a cuttings bed; Tensao critica de cisalhamento na superficie de um leito de cascalhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Luciana Mancor [Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia de Petroleo]. E-mail: luciana@lenep.uenf.br; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: campos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Braga, Luiz Carvalho [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Ensino Descentralizada]. E-mail: luiz@lenep.uenf.br

    2000-07-01

    The cuttings transport during the drilling of highly inclined and horizontal wells is hindered by the creation of a cuttings bed in the annulus. In this work, it is shown that the equilibrium height of this bed can be determined from the shear stress on its surface. This fact enables the formulation of a methodology for evaluating the equilibrium height of the cuttings bed through the introduction of a new concept, that of critical shear stress. This is the shear stress that acts on the bed surface at the imminence of movement of the particles on the bed surface. The use of the methodology requires the determination of the acting shear stress and of the required critical shear stress. The acting shear stress is calculated by means of a computer program that solve the motion differential equations in the annular space; covering the cases of the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. The actuating shear stress is a function of flow rate and of the annular geometry in the presence of a cuttings bed; it is also a function of the physical properties of the fluid. On the other hand, the required critical shear stress is a function of the particles diameters and physical properties of the fluid and particles. A mechanistic model for the critical shear stress is also presented. (author)

  13. Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cui

    Full Text Available The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1 the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2 the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.

  14. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γLcase of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  15. The Sheer Stress of Shear Stress: Responses of the Vascular Wall to a Haemodynamic Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Cheng (Caroline (Ka Lai))

    2006-01-01

    textabstractStudies in the hemodynamic field point to a strong relation between shear stress and the onset to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Data from in vitro studies using sheared endothelial cells have provided insight into the possible mechanisms involved. However, the lack of an

  16. Experimental study of interfacial shear stress for an analogy model of evaporative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Park, GoonCherl; Min, ByungJoo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we conducted measurements of an evaporative interfacial shear stress in a passive containment cooling system (PCCS). An interfacial shear stress for a counter-current flow was measured from a momentum balance equation and the interfacial friction factor for evaporation was evaluated by using experimental data. A model for the evaporative heat transfer coefficient of a vertical evaporative flat surface was developed based on an analogy between heat and momentum transfer. It was found that the interfacial shear stress increases with the Jacob number, which incorporates the evaporation rate, and the air and water Reynolds numbers. The relationship between the evaporative heat transfer and the interfacial shear stress was evaluated by using the experimental results. This relationship was used to develop a model for an evaporative heat transfer coefficient by using an analogy between heat and mass transfer. The prediction of this model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained for evaporative heat transfer by Kang and Park. (author)

  17. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  18. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A

    2010-01-01

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  19. Observation of Droplet Size Oscillations in a Two Phase Fluid under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal

    2004-11-01

    It is well known that complex fluids exhibit strong couplings between their microstructure and the flow field. Such couplings may lead to unusual non linear rheological behavior. Because energy is constantly brought to the system, richer dynamic behavior such as non linear oscillatory or chaotic response is expected. We report on the observation of droplet size oscillations at fixed shear rate. At low shear rates, we observe two steady states for which the droplet size results from a balance between capillary and viscous stress. For intermediate shear rates, the droplet size becomes a periodic function of time. We propose a phenomenological model to account for the observed phenomenon and compare numerical results to experimental data.

  20. Magnetic field correlations in random flow with strong steady shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, I. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Sizov, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the magnetic kinematic dynamo in a conducting fluid where a stationary shear flow is accompanied by relatively weak random velocity fluctuations. The diffusionless and diffusion regimes are described. The growth rates of the magnetic field moments are related to the statistical characteristics of the flow describing divergence of the Lagrangian trajectories. The magnetic field correlation functions are examined, and their growth rates and scaling behavior are established. General assertions are illustrated by the explicit solution of a model where the velocity field is short-correlated in time.

  1. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  2. Shape oscillations of elastic particles in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Gee, David J

    2016-09-01

    Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow. The resulting deformed shapes reveal a steady-state profile that exhibits a 'tank-treading' motion for initially spherical particles. Wall effects on particle trajectory are seen to include a modified Jeffrey׳s orbit for spheroidal inclusions with a period that varies inversely with the strength of the shear flow. Alternately, spheroidal inclusions may exhibit either a 'tumbling' or 'trembling' motion depending on the initial particle aspect ratio and the capillary number (i.e., ratio of fluid shear to elastic restoring force). We find for a capillary number of 0.1, a tumbling mode transitions to a trembling mode at an aspect ratio of 0.87 (approx.), while for a capillary number of 0.2, this transition takes place at a lower aspect ratio. These oscillatory modes are consistent with experimental observations involving similarly shaped vesicles and thus serves to validate the use of a simple elastic constitutive model to perform relevant physiological flow calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of shear and normal stress paths on rock friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of variable normal stress on the coefficient of friction of smooth artificial surfaces in welded tuff was studied. The shear stress response to changes in normal stress during constant-velocity sliding suggests that friction depends on the history of the normal stress; or, more generally, the path in shear/normal stress space. 6 refs., 5 figs

  4. Hydrostatic pressure and shear stress affect endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release by endothelial cells in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzi, Federico; Bianchi, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti; Domenici, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abundant experimental evidence demonstrates that endothelial cells are sensitive to flow; however, the effect of fluid pressure or pressure gradients that are used to drive viscous flow is not well understood. There are two principal physical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall by the passage of intra-luminal blood: pressure and shear. To analyze the effects of pressure and shear independently, these two stresses were applied to cultured cells in two different types of bioreactors: a pressure-controlled bioreactor and a laminar flow bioreactor, in which controlled levels of pressure or shear stress, respectively, can be generated. Using these bioreactor systems, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were measured under various shear stress and pressure conditions. Compared to the controls, a decrease of ET-1 production by the cells cultured in both bioreactors was observed, whereas NO synthesis was up-regulated in cells under shear stress, but was not modulated by hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the two hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels affect endothelial cell function in different ways, and that both should be considered when planning in vitro experiments in the presence of flow. Understanding the individual and synergic effects of the two forces could provide important insights into physiological and pathological processes involved in vascular remodeling and adaptation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Physics of Transitional Shear Flows Instability and Laminar–Turbulent Transition in Incompressible Near-Wall Shear Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V

    2012-01-01

    Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...

  6. Shear flow simulations of biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarman, Sten

    1997-08-01

    We have calculated the viscosities of a biaxial nematic liquid crystal phase of a variant of the Gay-Berne fluid [J. G. Gay and B. J. Berne, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] by performing molecular dynamics simulations. The equations of motion have been augmented by a director constraint torque that fixes the orientation of the directors. This makes it possible to fix them at different angles relative to the stream lines in shear flow simulations. In equilibrium simulations the constraints generate a new ensemble. One finds that the Green-Kubo relations for the viscosities become linear combinations of time correlation function integrals in this ensemble whereas they are complicated rational functions in the conventional canonical ensemble. We have evaluated these Green-Kubo relations for all the shear viscosities and all the twist viscosities. We have also calculated the alignment angles, which are functions of the viscosity coefficients. We find that there are three real alignment angles but a linear stability analysis shows that only one of them corresponds to a stable director orientation. The Green-Kubo results have been cross checked by nonequilibrium shear flow simulations. The results from the different methods agree very well. Finally, we have evaluated the Miesowicz viscosities [D. Baalss, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 45, 7 (1990)]. They vary by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The viscosity is consequently highly orientation dependent.

  7. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  8. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  9. Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.

  10. Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A

    2016-01-01

    -mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; Ptime in humans, that shear stress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid...... increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle.......01) carotids. Diameter also increased (Ptime course is associated with shear...

  11. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  12. Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...

  13. Enhancing PIV image and fractal descriptor for velocity and shear stresses propagation around a circular pier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Keshavarzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fractal dimensions of velocity fluctuations and the Reynolds shear stresses propagation for flow around a circular bridge pier are presented. In the study reported herein, the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations (u′, v′, w′ and the Reynolds shear stresses (u′v′ and u′w′ of flow around a bridge pier were computed using a Fractal Interpolation Function (FIF algorithm. The velocity fluctuations of flow along a horizontal plane above the bed were measured using Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (ADV and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The PIV is a powerful technique which enables us to attain high resolution spatial and temporal information of turbulent flow using instantaneous time snapshots. In this study, PIV was used for detection of high resolution fractal scaling around a bridge pier. The results showed that the fractal dimension of flow fluctuated significantly in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the vicinity of the pier. It was also found that the fractal dimension of velocity fluctuations and shear stresses increased rapidly at vicinity of pier at downstream whereas it remained approximately unchanged far downstream of the pier. The higher value of fractal dimension was found at a distance equal to one times of the pier diameter in the back of the pier. Furthermore, the average fractal dimension for the streamwise and transverse velocity fluctuations decreased from the centreline to the side wall of the flume. Finally, the results from ADV measurement were consistent with the result from PIV, therefore, the ADV enables to detect turbulent characteristics of flow around a circular bridge pier.

  14. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  15. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm 2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation.

  16. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex

    2012-01-01

    in comparison with endothelial cells grown under static conditions. There was a significant association between the expression of TRPC6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in human vascular tissue. No-flow and atheroprone flow conditions are equally characterized by an increase in the expression of tumor necrosis......The goal of the study was to assess whether pulsatile atheroprone shear stress modulates the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPM7, and TRPV1 mRNA, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of cultured vascular endothelial cells to defined...

  17. Arterial response to shear stress critically depends on endothelial TRPV4 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hartmannsgruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca(2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4(-/- mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In TRPV4(-/- mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch-clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA from TRPV4(-/- mice and wild-type littermates (WT. In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD, arachidonic acid (AA, and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS. In striking contrast, in TRPV4(-/- mice, 4alphaPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4alphaPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4(-/- mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4(-/- mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4(-/- vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress

  18. Arterial Response to Shear Stress Critically Depends on Endothelial TRPV4 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacik, Michael; Kaistha, Anuradha; Grgic, Ivica; Harteneck, Christian; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Joachim; Köhler, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background In blood vessels, the endothelium is a crucial signal transduction interface in control of vascular tone and blood pressure to ensure energy and oxygen supply according to the organs' needs. In response to vasoactive factors and to shear stress elicited by blood flow, the endothelium secretes vasodilating or vasocontracting autacoids, which adjust the contractile state of the smooth muscle. In endothelial sensing of shear stress, the osmo- and mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable TRPV4 channel has been proposed to be candidate mechanosensor. Using TRPV4−/− mice, we now investigated whether the absence of endothelial TRPV4 alters shear-stress-induced arterial vasodilation. Methodology/Principal Findings In TRPV4−/− mice, loss of the TRPV4 protein was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and by in situ-patch–clamp techniques in carotid artery endothelial cells (CAEC). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was determined by pressure myography in carotid arteries (CA) from TRPV4−/− mice and wild-type littermates (WT). In WT CAEC, TRPV4 currents could be elicited by TRPV4 activators 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4αPDD), arachidonic acid (AA), and by hypotonic cell swelling (HTS). In striking contrast, in TRPV4−/− mice, 4αPDD did not produce currents and currents elicited by AA and HTS were significantly reduced. 4αPDD caused a robust and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in WT mice, again conspicuously absent in TRPV4−/− mice. Shear stress-induced vasodilation could readily be evoked in WT, but was completely eliminated in TRPV4−/− mice. In addition, flow/reperfusion-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in TRPV4−/− vs. WT mice. Vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine, and passive mechanical compliance did not differ between genotypes, greatly underscoring the specificity of the above trpv4-dependent phenotype for physiologically relevant shear stress. Conclusions

  19. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  20. Orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers. II. An improved wall shear stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpresa, Paola; Sherwin, Spencer; Weinberg, Peter; van Reeuwijk, Maarten

    2018-03-01

    A new model for the analytical prediction of wall shear stress distributions at the base of orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers is developed. This model is a generalisation of the classical extended Stokes solution and will be referred to as the potential theory-Stokes model. The model is validated using a large set of numerical simulations covering a wide range of flow regimes representative of those used in laboratory experiments. It is demonstrated that the model is in much better agreement with the simulation data than the classical Stokes solution, improving the prediction in 63% of the studied cases. The central assumption of the model—which is to link the wall shear stress with the surface velocity—is shown to hold remarkably well over all regimes covered.

  1. Bed shear stress distribution in straight channels with arbitrary cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The bed shear stress distribution in straight open channels is affected by mechanisms as bed curvature of the cross section profile, shear diffusion, and secondary currents. This paper compares some analytical and numerical methods to estimate the bed shear stress distribution. The methods...

  2. Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  4. Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R E

    1987-09-01

    The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of (0.01, 100). It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa (J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158) in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained.

  5. Stability of unstably stratified shear flow between parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru; Kelly, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The linear stability of unstably stratified shear flows between two horizontal parallel plates was investigated. Eigenvalue problems were solved numerically by making use of the expansion method in Chebyshev polynomials, and the critical Rayleigh numbers were obtained accurately in the Reynolds number range of [0.01, 100]. It was found that the critical Rayleigh number increases with an increase of the Reynolds number. The result strongly supports previous stability analyses except for the analysis by Makino and Ishikawa [J. Jpn. Soc. Fluid Mech. 4 (1985) 148 - 158] in which a decrease of the critical Rayleigh number was obtained. (author)

  6. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-06-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.

  7. The impact of shearing flows on electroactive biofilm formation, structure, and current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.-Andrew; Buie, Cullen

    2016-11-01

    A special class of bacteria exist that directly produce electricity. First explored in 1911, these electroactive bacteria catalyze hydrocarbons and transport electrons directly to a metallic electron acceptor forming thicker biofilms than other species. Electroactive bacteria biofilms are thicker because they are not limited by transport of oxygen or other terminal electron acceptors. Electroactive bacteria can produce power in fuel cells. Power production is limited in fuel cells by the bacteria's inability to eliminate protons near the insoluble electron acceptor not utilized in the wild. To date, they have not been successfully evolved or engineered to overcome this limit. This limitation may be overcome by enhancing convective mass transport while maintaining substantial biomass within the biofilm. Increasing convective mass transport increases shear stress. A biofilm may respond to increased shear by changing biomass, matrix, or current production. In this study, a rotating disk electrode is used to separate nutrient from physical stress. This phenomenon is investigated using the model electroactive bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens at nutrient loads comparable to flow-through microbial fuel cells. We determine biofilm structure experimentally by measuring the porosity and calculating the tortuosity from confocal microscope images. Biofilm adaptation for electron transport is quantified using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Our ultimate objective is a framework relating biofilm thickness, porosity, shear stress and current generation for the optimization of bioelectrochemical systems The Alfred P Sloan Foundation MPHD Program.

  8. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico

    2012-07-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.

  9. Interplay between cytoskeletal stresses and cell adaptation under chronic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Verma

    Full Text Available Using stress sensitive FRET sensors we have measured cytoskeletal stresses in α-actinin and the associated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cells subjected to chronic shear stress. We show that long-term shear stress reduces the average actinin stress and this effect is reversible with removal of flow. The flow-induced changes in cytoskeletal stresses are found to be dynamic, involving a transient decrease in stress (phase-I, a short-term increase (3-6 min (Phase-II, followed by a longer-term decrease that reaches a minimum in ~20 min (Phase-III, before saturating. These changes are accompanied by reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton from parallel F-actin bundles to peripheral bundles. Blocking mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs with Gd(3+ and GsMTx4 (a specific inhibitor eliminated the changes in cytoskeletal stress and the corresponding actin reorganization, indicating that Ca(2+ permeable MSCs participate in the signaling cascades. This study shows that shear stress induced cell adaptation is mediated via MSCs.

  10. MHD shear flows with non-constant transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Viscous conducting flows parallel to a fixed plate are studied. In contrast with the Hartmann setting, the problem is not linearized near a fixed transverse magnetic field, although the field tends to be transversal far from the wall. While general solutions may be formally obtained for all cases, their behavior is far more clear when the magnetic Prandtl number equals one. We consider two different instances: a fixed magnetic field at the wall, or an insulating sheet. The evolution of the flow and the magnetic field both near the plate and far from it are detailed, analyzing the possibility of reverse flow and instability of the solutions. -- Highlights: ► A conducting shear flow does not leave a transverse magnetic field invariant. ► Solutions are found for all cases, but these are more useful when kinetic and magnetic diffusivities coincide. ► Dirichlet and Neumann conditions on the magnetic field are studied. ► Reverse flow, and eventual instability, are possible.

  11. Stationary shear flows in CGL anisotropic toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a general structure of stationary shear flows in toroidal plasmas was obtained in the frame of ideal isotropic-pressure MHD model. The structure of the stationary plasma flows was shown to be determined by a hidden symmetry of MHD equations inherent in the toroidal systems with nested magnetic surfaces. However, the characteristic frequencies of the stationary plasma motion can considerably exceed the collisional frequencies in real plasma experiments. In this case the CGL collisionless MHD model seems to be more adequate than the simplified isotropic-pressure MHD model to describe the stationary plasma flows. In this paper we have generalized our approach to analyze the stationary plasma flows in the frame of the collisionless CGL model. We have found again that the hidden symmetry inherent in the toroidal topology results in two integral invariants which depend on two independent surface functions. The structure of stationary flows for CGL model is still the same as for isotropic MHD, however, the pressure tensor components satisfy a appreciably modifies the steady state force-balance equation. These results are applied to analyze the generalized equilibrium in axisymmetric (tokamak-like) magnetic confinement systems

  12. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, 7th, Stanford University, CA, Aug. 21-23, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 ampersand 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on turbulent shear flows are presented, covering topics such as the structure of pressure fluctuations, fossil two-dimensional turbulence in the ocean, turbulence production and eddy structure in wall turbulence, bypass transition in a heated boundary layer, a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow, the evolution of an axisymmetric jet, plane mixing layer development, vortex models of a pseudoturbulent shear flow, numerical techniques for turbulence studies, Reynolds stress in the wall region of turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent structure of a momentumless wake, the near field of the transverse jet. Additional topics include a turbulent boundary layer disturbed by a cylinder, evolving mixing layers, flow analysis in a vortex flowmeter, ejections and bursts in pulsatile turbulent wall flow measurements, a flat plate oscillating in pitch, turbulent buoyant flows, isothermal lobed mixer flows, flow distortion on a turbulent scalar field, two phase flows. In addition, papers on the applications of turbulent shear flow studies are given, including air pollutant deposition, closures, oceanography, instrumentation, heat transfer, rotating flows, combustion, coherent structures, turbulence control, and scalar transport modeling

  13. Shear stress induces cell apoptosis via a c-Src-phospholipase D-mTOR signaling pathway in cultured podocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunfa, E-mail: chunfa.huang@case.edu [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Bruggeman, Leslie A. [Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hydo, Lindsey M. [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Miller, R. Tyler [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The glomerular capillary wall, composed of endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the podocytes, is continually subjected to hemodynamic force arising from tractional stress due to blood pressure and shear stress due to blood flow. Exposure of glomeruli to abnormal hemodynamic force such as hyperfiltration is associated with glomerular injury and progressive renal disease, and the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the regulation of the process is poorly understood in podocytes. By examining DNA fragmentation, apoptotic nuclear changes and cytochrome c release, we found that shear stress induced cell apoptosis in cultured podocytes. Meanwhile, podocytes exposed to shear stress also stimulated c-Src phosphorylation, phospholipase D (PLD) activation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using the antibodies against c-Src, PLD{sub 1}, and PLD{sub 2} to perform reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro PLD activity assay, our data indicated that c-Src interacted with and activated PLD{sub 1} but not PLD{sub 2}. The inhibition of shear stress-induced c-Src phosphorylation by PP{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase) resulted in reduced PLD activity. Phosphatidic acid, produced by shear stress-induced PLD activation, stimulated mTOR signaling, and caused podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis.

  14. Measurements of wall-shear-stress distribution on an NACA0018 airfoil by liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, N; Oguma, Y; Nakano, T

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of wall-shear-stress distributions along curved surfaces are carried out using non-intrusive experimental methods, such as liquid-crystal coating and near-wall particle image velocimetry (PIV). The former method relies on the color change of the liquid-crystal coating sensitive to the wall shear stress, while the latter is based on the direct evaluation of shear stresses through the near-wall PIV measurement in combination with the image deformation technique. These experimental methods are applied to the measurement of wall-shear-stress distributions of air flow at a free-stream velocity of 15 m s −1 on a flat plate and an NACA0018 airfoil. The experiments are carried out at zero angle of attack for the flat plate and at 0° and ±6° angles of attack for the airfoil, and then the variations of shear-stress distribution along these surfaces are studied. These measurements in wall shear stresses agree with each other within their experimental uncertainties, suggesting the validity of experimental methods for non-intrusive shear-stress measurements. It is found that the wall-shear-stress distribution shows a small negative value upstream of the reattachment point on the NACA0018 airfoil, which is followed by an increase in shear stresses downstream due to laminar–turbulent transition of boundary layers. Such behavior of wall-shear-stress distribution is well correlated with the mean flow and turbulence characteristics along the airfoil surfaces, which are measured by PIV

  15. Influence of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning instability and edge localized mode crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, X. G.; Xia, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The E × B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.

  16. Influence of shear stress and size on viability of endothelial cells exposed to gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fede, C.; Albertin, Giovanna; Petrelli, L.; De Caro, R.; Fortunati, I.; Weber, V.; Ferrante, Camilla

    2017-09-01

    Screening nanoparticle toxicity directly on cell culture can be a fast and cheap technique. Nevertheless, to obtain results in accordance with those observed in live animals, the conditions in which cells are cultivated should resemble the one encountered in live systems. Microfluidic devices offer the possibility to satisfy this requirement, in particular with endothelial cell lines, because they are capable to reproduce the flowing media and shear stress experienced by these cell lines in vivo. In this work, we exploit a microfluidic device to observe how human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) viability changes when subject to a continuous flow of culture medium, in which spherical citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles of different sizes and at varying doses are investigated. For comparison, the same experiments are also run in multiwells where the cells do not experience the shear stress induced by the flowing medium. We discuss the results considering the influence of mode of exposure and nanoparticle size (24 and 13 nm). We observed that gold nanoparticles show a lower toxicity under flow conditions with respect to static and the HUVEC viability decreases as the nanoparticle surface area per unit volume increases, regardless of size.

  17. Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

    2006-06-01

    Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival.

  18. Interaction between the Stress Phase Angle (SPA and the Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI Affects Endothelial Cell Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Amaya

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS and solid circumferential stress (CS. Due to variations in impedance (global factors and geometric complexities (local factors in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle-SPA. Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180° that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous

  19. Exercise-induced shear stress is associated with changes in plasma von Willebrand factor in older humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Thistlethwaite, John R.; Thompson, Benjamin C.; Scheuermann, Barry W.

    2009-01-01

    Shear stress is the frictional force of blood against the endothelium, a stimulus for endothelial activation and the release of von Willebrand factor (vWF). This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in shear stress associated with exercise correlates with plasma vWF. Young (n = 14, 25.7 ± 5.4 y) and older (n = 13, 65.6 ± 10.7 y) individuals participated in 30 min of dynamic handgrip exercise at a moderate intensity. Brachial artery diameter and blood flow were measured using ultrasou...

  20. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  1. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. II - Wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.

  2. Continuous media theory for MR fluids in non-shearing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-López, J A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R; Vicente, J de

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced mechanical response of magnetorheological fluids under slow compression has been investigated by means of experiments, theory and particle-level simulations. A wide range of magnetic field strengths (0–354 kA/m), dispersing medium viscosities (20–500 mPa·s) and particle concentrations (5–30 vol%) were investigated. Plastic media theory in compressive flow was in good agreement with experimental data. Slight deviations from the theory were associated to the so-called strengthening effect as the yield shear stress could increase during compression. Particle-level simulations were in good agreement with both experiments and simulations.

  3. Shear-Rate-Dependent Behavior of Clayey Bimaterial Interfaces at Landslide Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Gianvito; Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Runqiu

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of reactivated and first-failure landslides after large displacements is controlled by the available shear resistance in a shear zone and/or along slip surfaces, such as a soil-bedrock interface. Among the factors influencing the resistance parameter, the dependence on the shear rate can trigger catastrophic evolution (rate-weakening) or exert a slow-down feedback (rate-strengthening) upon stress perturbation. We present ring-shear test results, performed under various normal stresses and shear rates, on clayey soils from a landslide shear zone, on its parent lithology and other lithologies, and on clay-rock interface samples. We find that depending on the materials in contact, the normal stress, and the stress history, the shear-rate-dependent behaviors differ. We discuss possible models and underlying mechanisms for the time-dependent behavior of landslides in clay soils.

  4. The theoretical shear strength of fcc crystals under superimposed triaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M., E-mail: cerny.m@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Pokluda, J. [Institute of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, CZ-616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of a triaxial stress applied normally to shear planes and shear direction during affine shear deformation of face-centered cubic crystals on the theoretical shear strength is studied for the <112-bar >{l_brace}111{r_brace} shear system using first-principles methods. The applied relaxation procedure guarantees that the modeled system is subjected to a superposition of shear, normal and in-plane stresses with individually adjustable in-plane and normal stress values. The theoretical shear strengths of individual elements prove to be qualitatively different functions of the superimposed stresses. In the special case of hydrostatic loading, however, these functions are qualitatively uniform. This behavior is discussed in terms of the electronic structure.

  5. Wall Shear Stress Estimation of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Febina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to evaluate the effects of wall shear stress (WSS on thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Aneurysm is an excessive localized swelling of the arterial wall due to many physiological factors and it may rupture causing shock or sudden death. The existing imaging modalities such as MRI and CT assist in the visualization of anomalies in internal organs. However, the expected dynamic behaviour of arterial bulge under stressed condition can only be effectively evaluated through mathematical modelling. In this work, a 3D aneurysm model is reconstructed from the CT scan slices and eventually the model is imported to Star CCM+ (Siemens, USA for intensive CFD analysis. The domain is discretized using polyhedral mesh with prism layers to capture the weakening boundary more accurately. When there is flow reversal in TAA as seen in the velocity vector plot, there is a chance of cell damage causing clots. This is because of the shear created in the system due to the flow pattern. It is observed from the proposed mathematical modelling that the deteriorating WSS is an indicator for possible rupture and its value oscillates over a cardiac cycle as well as over different stress conditions. In this model, the vortex formation pattern and flow reversals are also captured. The non-Newtonian model, including a pulsatile flow instead of a steady average flow, does not overpredict the WSS (15.29 Pa compared to 16 Pa for the Newtonian model. Although in a cycle the flow behaviour is laminar-turbulent-laminar (LTL, utilizing the non-Newtonian model along with LTL model also overpredicted the WSS with a value of 20.1 Pa. The numerical study presented here provides good insight of TAA using a systematic approach to numerical modelling and analysis.

  6. Exercise-induced heat stress disrupts the shear-dilatory relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Lefferts, Wesley K; Wharton, Margret; Fehling, Patricia C; Smith, Denise L

    2016-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although heat stress is known to increase cardiovascular strain, no study, to date, had explored the potential impact of exercise-induced heat stress on vascular function. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that acute exercise tended to reduce flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), owing in part to reduced reactive hyperaemia/shear stimulus; thus, when FMD is normalized to shear no postexercise deficit exists. Exercise-induced heat stress increased reactive hyperaemia, shear rate, coupled with a sustained FMD postexercise, suggests that exercise-induced heat stress increases the amount of shear stimulus to elicit a similar response, indicating reduced vascular responsiveness, or reserve, which might increase cardiovascular susceptibility. Heat stress increases cardiovascular strain and is of particular concern in occupations, such as firefighting, in which individuals are required to perform strenuous work while wearing personal protective equipment. Sudden cardiac events are associated with strenuous activity and are the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, accounting for ∼50% of duty-related fatalities per year. Understanding the acute effects of exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular endothelial function may provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating acute coronary events in firefighters. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the effects of EIHS on vascular endothelial function. Using a balanced crossover design, 12 healthy men performed 100 min of moderate-intensity, intermittent exercise with and without EIHS (personal protective equipment or cooling vest, respectively). Measurements of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), reactive hyperaemia and shear rate area under the curve (SR AUC ) were performed pre- and postexercise. During EIHS, core temperature was significantly higher (38 ± 0.1 versus 37 ± 0.1°C). Postexercise FMD tended to be suppressed

  7. Confocal microscopy of colloidal dispersions in shear flow using a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derks, Didi; Wisman, Hans; Blaaderen, Alfons van; Imhof, Arnout

    2004-01-01

    We report on novel possibilities for studying colloidal suspensions in a steady shear field in real space. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is combined with the use of a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell. This allows imaging of individual particles in the bulk of a sheared suspension in a stationary plane. Moreover, this plane of zero velocity can be moved in the velocity gradient direction while keeping the shear rate constant. The colloidal system under study consists of rhodamine labelled PMMA spheres in a nearly density and refractive index matched mixture of cyclohexylbromide and cis-decalin. We show measured flow profiles in both the fluid and the crystalline phase and find indications for shear banding in the case of a sheared crystal. Furthermore, we show that, thanks to the counter-rotating principle of the cone-plate shear cell, a layer of particles in the bulk of a sheared crystalline suspension can be imaged for a prolonged time, with the result that their positions can be tracked

  8. Velocity-pressure correlation measurements in complex free shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Yoshitsugu; Obi, Shinnosuke

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure were performed in various turbulent free shear flows including a turbulent mixing layer and the wing-tip vortex trailing from a NACA0012 half-wing. Two different methods for fluctuating static pressure measurement were considered: a direct method using a miniature Pitot tube and an indirect method where static pressure was calculated from total pressure. The pressure obtained by either of these methods was correlated with the velocity measured by an X-type hot-wire probe. The results from these two techniques agreed with each other in the turbulent mixing layer. In the wing-tip vortex case, however, some discrepancies were found, although overall characteristics of the pressure-related statistics were adequately captured by both methods.

  9. Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laín

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.

  10. Influence of the tilt angle of Percutaneous Aortic Prosthesis on Velocity and Shear Stress Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alvares de Azevedo Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Due to the nature of the percutaneous prosthesis deployment process, a variation in its final position is expected. Prosthetic valve placement will define the spatial location of its effective orifice in relation to the aortic annulus. The blood flow pattern in the ascending aorta is related to the aortic remodeling process, and depends on the spatial location of the effective orifice. The hemodynamic effect of small variations in the angle of inclination of the effective orifice has not been studied in detail. Objective: To implement an in vitro simulation to characterize the hydrodynamic blood flow pattern associated with small variations in the effective orifice inclination. Methods: A three-dimensional aortic phantom was constructed, reproducing the anatomy of one patient submitted to percutaneous aortic valve implantation. Flow analysis was performed by use of the Particle Image Velocimetry technique. The flow pattern in the ascending aorta was characterized for six flow rate levels. In addition, six angles of inclination of the effective orifice were assessed. Results: The effective orifice at the -4° and -2° angles directed the main flow towards the anterior wall of the aortic model, inducing asymmetric and high shear stress in that region. However, the effective orifice at the +3° and +5° angles mimics the physiological pattern, centralizing the main flow and promoting a symmetric distribution of shear stress. Conclusion: The measurements performed suggest that small changes in the angle of inclination of the percutaneous prosthesis aid in the generation of a physiological hemodynamic pattern, and can contribute to reduce aortic remodeling.

  11. Structural steady states and relaxation oscillations in a two-phase fluid under shear flow: Experiments and phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Benayad, A.; Panizza, P.

    2006-01-01

    By means of several rheophysics techniques, we report on an extensive study of the couplings between flow and microstructures in a two-phase fluid made of lamellar (Lα) and sponge (L3) phases. Depending on the nature of the imposed dynamical parameter (stress or shear rate) and on the experimental conditions (brine salinity or temperature), we observe several different structural steady states consisting of either multilamellar droplets (with or without a long range order) or elongated (L3) phase domains. Two different astonishing phenomena, shear-induced phase inversion and relaxation oscillations, are observed. We show that (i) phase inversion is related to a shear-induced topological change between monodisperse multilamellar droplets and elongated structures and (ii) droplet size relaxation oscillations result from a shear-induced change of the surface tension between both coexisting (Lα) and (L3) phases. To explain these relaxation oscillations, we present a phenomenological model and compare its numerical predictions to our experimental results.

  12. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  13. Computational modeling for prediction of the shear stress of three-dimensional isotropic and aligned fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman

    2017-09-01

    Interstitial flow (IF) is a creeping flow through the interstitial space of the extracellular matrix (ECM). IF plays a key role in diverse biological functions, such as tissue homeostasis, cell function and behavior. Currently, most studies that have characterized IF have focused on the permeability of ECM or shear stress distribution on the cells, but less is known about the prediction of shear stress on the individual fibers or fiber networks despite its significance in the alignment of matrix fibers and cells observed in fibrotic or wound tissues. In this study, I developed a computational model to predict shear stress for different structured fibrous networks. To generate isotropic models, a random growth algorithm and a second-order orientation tensor were employed. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) solid model was created using computer-aided design (CAD) software for the aligned models (i.e., parallel, perpendicular and cubic models). Subsequently, a tetrahedral unstructured mesh was generated and flow solutions were calculated by solving equations for mass and momentum conservation for all models. Through the flow solutions, I estimated permeability using Darcy's law. Average shear stress (ASS) on the fibers was calculated by averaging the wall shear stress of the fibers. By using nonlinear surface fitting of permeability, viscosity, velocity, porosity and ASS, I devised new computational models. Overall, the developed models showed that higher porosity induced higher permeability, as previous empirical and theoretical models have shown. For comparison of the permeability, the present computational models were matched well with previous models, which justify our computational approach. ASS tended to increase linearly with respect to inlet velocity and dynamic viscosity, whereas permeability was almost the same. Finally, the developed model nicely predicted the ASS values that had been directly estimated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present

  14. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  15. Investigation of the Shear Flow Effect and Tip Clearance on a Low Speed Axial Flow Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Varpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of inlet shear flow on the tip leakage flow in an axial flow compressor cascade. A flow with a high shear rate is generated in the test section of an open circuit cascade wind tunnel by using a combination of screens with a prescribed solidity. It is observed that a stable shear flow of shear rate 1.33 is possible and has a gradual decay rate until 15 times the height of the shear flow generator downstream. The computational results obtained agree well with the available experimental data on the baseline configuration. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the tip clearance improves the blade loading near the tip through the promotion of favorable incidence by the tip leakage flow. The tip clearance shifts the centre of pressure on the blade surface towards the tip. It, however, has no effect on the distribution of end wall loss and deviation angle along the span up to 60% from the hub. In the presence of a shear inflow, the end wall effects are considerable. On the other hand, with a shear inflow, the effects of tip leakage flow are observed to be partly suppressed. The shear flow reduces the tip leakage losses substantially in terms of kinetic energy associated with it.

  16. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  17. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Amemiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  18. Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Chul Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.

  19. Viscosity, granular-temperature, and stress calculations for shearing assemblies of inelastic, frictional disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Employing nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics methods the effects of two energy loss mechanisms on viscosity, stress, and granular-temperature in assemblies of nearly rigid, inelastic frictional disks undergoing steady-state shearing are calculated. Energy introduced into the system through forced shearing is dissipated by inelastic normal forces or through frictional sliding during collisions resulting in a natural steady-state kinetic energy density (granular-temperature) that depends on the density and shear rate of the assembly and on the friction and inelasticity properties of the disks. The calculations show that both the mean deviatoric particle velocity and the effective viscosity of a system of particles with fixed friction and restitution coefficients increase almost linearly with strain rate. Particles with a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution show a less rapid increase in both deviatoric velocity and viscosity as strain rate increases. Particles with highly dissipative interactions result in anisotropic pressure and velocity distributions in the assembly, particularly at low densities. At very high densities the pressure also becomes anisotropic due to high contact forces perpendicular to the shearing direction. The mean rotational velocity of the frictional disks is nearly equal to one-half the shear rate. The calculated ratio of shear stress to normal stress varies significantly with density while the ratio of shear stress to total pressure shows much less variation. The inclusion of surface friction (and thus particle rotation) decreases shear stress at low density but increases shear stress under steady shearing at higher densities

  20. Low-level shear stress promotes migration of liver cancer stem cells via the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Lingling; Song, Guanbin

    2018-07-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumour cells that have been proposed to be responsible for cancer initiation, chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. Shear stress activated cellular signalling is involved in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the effects of shear stress on the migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Here, we studied the effects of shear stress that are generated from a parallel plated flow chamber system, on LCSC migration and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), using transwell assay and western blot, respectively. We found that 2 dyne/cm 2 shear stress loading for 6 h promotes LCSC migration and activation of the FAK and ERK1/2 signalling pathways, whereas treatment with the FAK phosphorylation inhibitor PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the shear stress-promoted migration, indicating the involvement of FAK and ERK1/2 activation in shear stress-induced LCSC migration. Additionally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that shear stress lowers LCSC stiffness via the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting that the mechanism by which shear stress promotes LCSC migration might partially be responsible for the decrease in cell stiffness. Further experiments focused on the role of the actin cytoskeleton, demonstrating that the F-actin filaments in LCSCs are less well-defined after shear stress treatment, providing an explanation for the reduction in cell stiffness and the promotion of cell migration. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress promotes LCSC migration through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathways, which further results in a reduction of organized actin and softer cell bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  2. EFFECT OF ION ∇ B DRIFT DIRECTION ON TURBULENCE FLOW AND FLOW SHEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FENZI, C; McKEE, G.R; BURRELL, K.H; CARLSTROM, T.N; FONCK, R.J; GROEBNER, R.J

    2003-01-01

    The divertor magnetic geometry has a significant effect on the poloidal flow and resulting flow shear of turbulence in the outer region of L-mode tokamak plasmas, as determined via two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations with Beam Emission Spectroscopy on DIII-D. Plasmas with similar parameters, except that in one case the ion (del)B drift points towards the divertor X-point (lower single-null, LSN), and in the other case, the ion (del)B drift points away from the divertor X-point (upper single-null, USN), are compared. Inside of r/a=0.9, the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, flow direction, correlation lengths) are similar in both cases, while near r/a=0.92, a dramatic reversal of the poloidal flow of turbulence relative to the core flow direction is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. No such flow reversal is observed in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the divertor X-point. This poloidal flow reversal results in a significantly larger local shear in the poloidal turbulence flow velocity in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. Additionally, these plasmas locally exhibit significant dispersion, with two distinct and counter-propagating turbulence modes. Likewise, the radial correlation length of the turbulence is reduced in these plasmas, consistent with biorthogonal decomposition measurements of dominant turbulence structures. The naturally occurring turbulence flow shear in these LSN plasmas may facilitate the LH transition that occurs at an input power of roughly one-half to one-third that of corresponding plasmas with the ion (del)B drift pointing away from the X-point

  3. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-05-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature.

  4. Plane shear flows of frictionless spheres: Kinetic theory and 3D soft-sphere discrete element method simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; Richard, P.; Brodu, N.

    2014-01-01

    We use existing 3D Discrete Element simulations of simple shear flows of spheres to evaluate the radial distribution function at contact that enables kinetic theory to correctly predict the pressure and the shear stress, for different values of the collisional coefficient of restitution. Then, we perform 3D Discrete Element simulations of plane flows of frictionless, inelastic spheres, sheared between walls made bumpy by gluing particles in a regular array, at fixed average volume fraction and distance between the walls. The results of the numerical simulations are used to derive boundary conditions appropriated in the cases of large and small bumpiness. Those boundary conditions are, then, employed to numerically integrate the differential equations of Extended Kinetic Theory, where the breaking of the molecular chaos assumption at volume fraction larger than 0.49 is taken into account in the expression of the dissipation rate. We show that the Extended Kinetic Theory is in very good agreement with the numerical simulations, even for coefficients of restitution as low as 0.50. When the bumpiness is increased, we observe that some of the flowing particles are stuck in the gaps between the wall spheres. As a consequence, the walls are more dissipative than expected, and the flows resemble simple shear flows, i.e., flows of rather constant volume fraction and granular temperature

  5. Estimation of basal shear stresses from now ice-free LIA glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mauro; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huss, Matthias; Paul, Frank; Linsbauer, Andreas; Hoelzle, Martin

    2013-04-01

    accuracy of the ice thickness determination and thus on the accuracy of the LIA DEMs used. Good results are expected for LIA valley or mountain glaciers with ice thicknesses larger than 100 m at the position of their terminus in 1973. Calculated shear stresses are representative in terms of average values over 20 to 40% of the total glacier length in 1850. Shear stresses strongly vary with glacier size, topographic conditions and climate. This study confirmed that reasonable values for mean basal shear stress of mountain glaciers can be estimated from an empirical and non-linear relation using the vertical extent as a proxy for mass turnover. The now available database could be used to independently test the plausibility of approaches applying simple flow models.

  6. Energy Consumption Related to Shear Stress for Membrane Bioreactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Bérube, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    . A linear empirical correlation between the average shear stress and the blower power per unit of permeate was made. This work uses an empirical relationship to determine the shear stress based on the ratio of aeration blower power to tank volume. This relationship is used in bubble column reactors...... stress measurements and CFD simulation were made. It was found that the average shear stress over the membrane surface from the CFD model is similar compared to experimental data (error less than 8 %). However, some differences in the distribution of shear stress throughout the submerged MBR system were...... observed. It was found that the CFD and experimental data was similar in terms of shear stress. On the other hand, for the HS MBR experimental measurements were not made. Nevertheless, as a proper validation was attained with the HF MBR, it was inferred that the CFD results for the HS MBR were accurate...

  7. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...

  8. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Approximate Dispersion Relations for Waves on Arbitrary Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, S. À.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An approximate dispersion relation is derived and presented for linear surface waves atop a shear current whose magnitude and direction can vary arbitrarily with depth. The approximation, derived to first order of deviation from potential flow, is shown to produce good approximations at all wavelengths for a wide range of naturally occuring shear flows as well as widely used model flows. The relation reduces in many cases to a 3-D generalization of the much used approximation by Skop (1987), developed further by Kirby and Chen (1989), but is shown to be more robust, succeeding in situations where the Kirby and Chen model fails. The two approximations incur the same numerical cost and difficulty. While the Kirby and Chen approximation is excellent for a wide range of currents, the exact criteria for its applicability have not been known. We explain the apparently serendipitous success of the latter and derive proper conditions of applicability for both approximate dispersion relations. Our new model has a greater range of applicability. A second order approximation is also derived. It greatly improves accuracy, which is shown to be important in difficult cases. It has an advantage over the corresponding second-order expression proposed by Kirby and Chen that its criterion of accuracy is explicitly known, which is not currently the case for the latter to our knowledge. Our second-order term is also arguably significantly simpler to implement, and more physically transparent, than its sibling due to Kirby and Chen.Plain Language SummaryIn order to answer key questions such as how the ocean surface affects the climate, erodes the coastline and transports nutrients, we must understand how waves move. This is not so easy when depth varying currents are present, as they often are in coastal waters. We have developed a modeling tool for accurately predicting wave properties in such situations, ready for use, for example, in the complex oceanographic computer models. Our

  10. Experimental investigation of edge sheared flow development and configuration effects in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, A.; Calderon, E.; Orozco, O.; Pablos, J.L. de

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results have shown that the generation of spontaneous perpendicular sheared flow (i.e. the naturally occurring shear layer) requires a minimum plasma density or gradient in the TJ-II stellarator. This finding has been observed by means of multiple plasma diagnostics, including probes, fast cameras, reflectometry and HIBP. The obtained shearing rate of the naturally occurring shear layer results in general comparable to the one observed during biasing-improved confinement regimes. It has been found that there is a coupling between the onset of sheared flow development and an increase in the level of plasma edge fluctuations pointing to turbulence as the main ingredient of the radial electric field drive; once the shear flow develops the level of turbulence tends to decrease. The link between the development of sheared flows and plasma density in TJ-II has been observed in different magnetic configurations and plasma regimes. Preliminary results show that the threshold density value depends on the iota value and on the magnetic ripple (plasma volume). Recent experiments carried out in the LHD stellarator have shown that edge sheared flows are also affected by the magnitude of edge magnetic ripple: the threshold density to trigger edge sheared flows increases with magnetic ripple . Those results have been interpreted as an evidence of the importance of neoclassical effect in the physics of ExB sheared flows. For some TJ-II magnetic configurations with higher edge iota (ι/2π≥ 1.8) there is a sharp increase in the edge density gradient simultaneous to a strong reduction of fluctuations and transport and a slight increase of the shearing rate and perpendicular rotation (≥2 km/s) as density increases above the threshold. The role of the edge ripple, the presence of edge rational surfaces and properties of turbulent transport are considered as possible ingredients to explain the spontaneous development of edge sheared flows in TJ-II. (author)

  11. Shear-stress and wall-stress regulation of vascular remodeling after balloon angioplasty: effect of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); J. Kloet (Jeroen); J.A.F. Oomen; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); B.J. de Smet; M.J. Post (Mark); D.P.V. de Kleijn (Dominique); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); R. Krams (Rob); C. Borst (Cornelius); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); I. Andhyiswara (Ivan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Constrictive vascular remodeling (VR) is the most significant component of restenosis after balloon angioplasty (PTA). Whereas in physiological conditions VR is associated with normalization of shear stress (SS) and wall stress (WS), after PTA

  12. Tripolar vortices of dust-drift waves in dusty plasma with shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear equations governing dust-drift waves in magnetized dusty plasma with transverse shear flow are derived. For the specific profiles of flow and the plasma equilibrium density, a new type of solution in the form of tripolar vortices is found. The results show that the peak magnitude of tripolar vortices increases with increasing shear intensity and dust content

  13. Shear flow over a plane wall with an axisymmetric cavity or a circular orifice of finite thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    1994-01-01

    Shear flow over a plane wall that contains an axisymmetric depression or pore is studied using a new boundary integral method which is suitable for computing three-dimensional Stokes flow within axisymmetric domains. Numerical results are presented for cavities in the shape of a section of a sphere or a circular cylinder of finite length, and for a family of pores or orifices with finite thickness. The results illustrate the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall and inside the cavities or pores. It is found that in most cases, the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall, around the depressions, is well approximated with that for flow over an orifice of infinitesimal thickness for which an exact solution is available. The kinematic structure of the flow is discussed with reference to eddy formation and three-dimensional flow reversal. It is shown that the thickness of a circular orifice or depth of a pore play an important role in determining the kinematical structure of the flow underneath the orifice in the lower half-space

  14. Prediction of stably stratified homogeneous shear flows with second-order turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J C F; Rocha, J M P

    2010-01-01

    dissipation rate equations, it was demonstrated that nonlinear closure provides an improved account of the normal components of the anisotropy tensor over the linear model; however, the vertical velocity correlation and the shear stress still present too large a discrepancy. The observed shortcomings may be intrinsic to the current structure of the pressure-correlation terms. None of the models were able to predict the ultimate collapse of the turbulent fluxes and counter-gradient fluxes. However, this weakness may be beyond the modelling of the redistribution processes, but instead in fundamental shortcomings in the energy dissipation rate equations and the dissipation tensor to adequately represent the phenomenology of the transition from shear- to buoyancy-dominated flows.

  15. Development of a wall-shear-stress sensor and measurements in mini-channels with partial blockages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Samer; Medvescek, James; Mydlarski, Laurent; Baliga, Bantwal R.; MacDonald, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The design, construction, operation and validation of a wall-shear-stress sensor, and measurements obtained using this sensor in air flows downstream of partial blockages in a mini-channel are presented. The sensor consisted of a hot wire mounted over a small rectangular slot and operated using a constant-temperature anemometer. It was used to investigate flows similar to those within the mini-channels inside notebook computers. The overall goal of the present work was to develop a sensor suitable for measurements of the wall-shear stress in such flows, which can be used to validate corresponding numerical simulations, as the latter are known to be often surprisingly inaccurate. To this end, measurements of the wall-shear stress, and the corresponding statistical moments and power spectral densities, were obtained at different distances downstream of the partial blockage, with blockage ratios of 39.7, 59.2, and 76.3 %. The Reynolds number (based on average velocity and hydraulic diameter) ranged from 100 to 900. The results confirmed the presence of unsteadiness, separation, reattachment, and laminar-turbulent transition in the ostensibly laminar flow of air in mini-channels with partial blockages. The present results demonstrate why accurate numerical predictions of cooling air flows in laptop and notebook computers remain a challenging task.

  16. Influence of shear and deviatoric stress on the evolution of permeability in fractured rock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faoro, Igor; Niemeijer, André; Marone, Chris; Elsworth, Derek

    The evolution of permeability in fractured rock as a function of effective normal stress, shear displacement, and damage remains a complex issue. In this contribution, we report on experiments in which rock surfaces were subject to direct shear under controlled pore pressure and true triaxial stress

  17. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D.; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses effects of aerobic exercise training on the release of microparticles from endothelial cells and corroborates these findings using an in vitro experimental exercise stimulant, laminar shear stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis mediates these effects against endothelial cell activation and injury.

  18. On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed

  19. Magnitude of shear stress on the san andreas fault: implications of a stress measurement profile at shallow depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M D; Roller, J C

    1979-10-26

    A profile of measurements of shear stress perpendicular to the San Andreas fault near Palmdale, California, shows a marked increase in stress with distance from the fault. The pattern suggests that shear stress on the fault increases slowly with depth and reaches a value on the order of the average stress released during earthquakes. This result has important implications for both long- and shortterm prediction of large earthquakes.

  20. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  1. Thin liquid films with time-dependent chemical reactions sheared by an ambient gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Achim; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    Chemical reactions in thin liquid films are found in many industrial applications, e.g., in combustion chambers of internal combustion engines where a fuel film can develop on pistons or cylinder walls. The reactions within the film and the turbulent outer gas flow influence film stability and lead to film breakup, which in turn can lead to deposit formation. In this work we examine the evolution and stability of a thin liquid film in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and under the influence of a turbulent gas flow. Long-wave theory with a double perturbation analysis is used to reduce the complexity of the problem and obtain an evolution equation for the film thickness. The chemical reaction is assumed to be slow compared to film evolution and the amount of reactant in the film is limited, which means that the reaction rate decreases with time as the reactant is consumed. A linear stability analysis is performed to identify the influence of reaction parameters, material properties, and environmental conditions on the film stability limits. Results indicate that exothermic reactions have a stabilizing effect whereas endothermic reactions destabilize the film and can lead to rupture. It is shown that an initially unstable film can become stable with time as the reaction rate decreases. The shearing of the film by the external gas flow leads to the appearance of traveling waves. The shear stress magnitude has a nonmonotonic influence on film stability.

  2. Influence of equilibrium shear flow in the parallel magnetic direction on edge localized mode crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Xiong, Y. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The influence of the parallel shear flow on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with the BOUT++ four-field code in this paper. The parallel shear flow has different effects in linear simulation and nonlinear simulation. In the linear simulations, the growth rate of edge localized mode (ELM) can be increased by Kelvin-Helmholtz term, which can be caused by the parallel shear flow. In the nonlinear simulations, the results accord with the linear simulations in the linear phase. However, the ELM size is reduced by the parallel shear flow in the beginning of the turbulence phase, which is recognized as the P-B filaments' structure. Then during the turbulence phase, the ELM size is decreased by the shear flow.

  3. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  4. Platelet-free shear flow assay facilitates analysis of shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Emma; Kraus, Kristina; Obser, Tobias; Oyen, Florian; Klemm, Ulrike; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Brehm, Maria A

    2014-12-01

    The multimeric form of von Willebrand factor (VWF), is the largest soluble protein in mammals and exhibits a multidomain structure resulting in multiple functions. Upon agonist stimulation endothelial cells secrete VWF multimers from Weibel-Palade bodies into the blood stream where VWF plays an essential role in platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Elongation of VWF strings on the cells' surface leads to accessibility of VWF binding sites for proteins, such as platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. The prothrombotic strings are size-regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 by shear force-activated proteolytic cleavage. VWF string formation was induced by histamine stimulation of HUVEC cells under unidirectional shear flow and VWF strings were detected employing the VWF binding peptide of platelet glycoprotein Ib coupled to latex beads. VWF strings were then used as substrate for kinetic studies of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13. To investigate specific aspects of the shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13, we developed a shear flow assay that allows observation of VWF string formation and their degradation by ADAMTS13 without the need for isolated platelets. Our assay specifically detects VWF strings, can be coupled with fluorescent applications and allows semi-automated, quantitative assessment of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Our assay may serve as a valuable research tool to investigate the biochemical characteristics of VWF and ADAMTS13 under shear flow and could complement diagnostics of von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura as it allows detection of shear flow-dependent dysfunction of VWD-associated VWF mutants as well as TTP-associated ADAMTS13 mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A potential model for drug screening by simulating the effect of shear stress in vivo on endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingqian; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Liu, Zerong; Zhu, Liancai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to research the potential of a dynamic cell model in drug screening by studying the influence of microvascular wall shear stress on the drug absorption of endothelial cells compared to that in the static state. The cells were grown and seeded on gelatin-coated glass slides and were pretreated with extracts of Salviae miltiorrhizae (200 μg/ml) for 1 h. Then oxidative stress damage was produced by H2O2 (300 μmol/l) for 0.5 h under the 1.5 dyn/cm2 shear stress incorporated in a parallel plate flow chamber. Morphological analysis was conducted with an inverted microscope and image analysis software, and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the detection of active compounds. We compared the drug absorption in the dynamic group with that in the static group. In the dynamic model, five compounds and two new metabolite peaks were detected. However, in the static model, four compounds were absorbed by cells, and one metabolite peak was found. This study indicated that there were some effects on the absorption and metabolism of drugs under the microvascular shear stress compared to that under stasis. We infer that shear stress in the microcirculation situation in vivo played a role in causing the differences between drug screening in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm 2 ) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  7. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yokota, Hiroki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungna@iupui.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  8. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue.

  9. Contact stresses by rounded punch subject to axial and transverse shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu

    1999-01-01

    Contact shear stresses by rounded punch were evaluated numerically. Numerical program was successfully implemented by using an influence function method. To simulate the physical fretting problem, a closed load path of shear was considered. The influence functions on surface displacements fo both axial and transverse direction were calculated using a triangular shear traction element. Behaviour of the contact surface, such as stick and slip region during the load path was investigated together with compliance change. Irreversibility of the shear stress was shown. The importance and the utilization of the present research were discussed for analyzing the material failure induced by contact such as fretting wear and fatigue

  10. Synergistic effects of the safety factor and shear flows on development of internal transport barriers in reversed shear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Qu, W.X.; Qiu, X.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new suppression mechanism of turbulent transport, characteristic of the synergism between safety factor and shear flows, is proposed to explain the internal transport barriers (ITBs) observed in neutral-beam-heated tokamak discharges with reversed magnetic shear. It is shown that the evolution of turbulent transport with the strength of the suppression mechanism reproduces the basic features of the formation and development of ITBs observed in experiments. In addition, the present analyses predict the possibility of global ion and electron heat transport barriers

  11. Shear stress upregulates regeneration-related immediate early genes in liver progenitors in 3D ECM-like microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Kenichiro; Brodin, Erik; Renshaw, Taylor; Weesner, Rachael; Moran, Emma; Soker, Shay; Sparks, Jessica L

    2018-05-01

    The role of fluid stresses in activating the hepatic stem/progenitor cell regenerative response is not well understood. This study hypothesized that immediate early genes (IEGs) with known links to liver regeneration will be upregulated in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) exposed to in vitro shear stresses on the order of those produced from elevated interstitial flow after partial hepatectomy. The objectives were: (1) to develop a shear flow chamber for application of fluid stress to LPCs in 3D culture; and (2) to determine the effects of fluid stress on IEG expression in LPCs. Two hours of shear stress exposure at ∼4 dyn/cm 2 was applied to LPCs embedded individually or as 3D spheroids within a hyaluronic acid/collagen I hydrogel. Results were compared against static controls. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the effect of experimental treatments on gene expression. Twenty-nine genes were analyzed, including IEGs and other genes linked to liver regeneration. Four IEGs (CFOS, IP10, MKP1, ALB) and three other regeneration-related genes (WNT, VEGF, EpCAM) were significantly upregulated in LPCs in response to fluid mechanical stress. LPCs maintained an early to intermediate stage of differentiation in spheroid culture in the absence of the hydrogel, and addition of the gel initiated cholangiocyte differentiation programs which were abrogated by the onset of flow. Collectively the flow-upregulated genes fit the pattern of an LPC-mediated proliferative/regenerative response. These results suggest that fluid stresses are potentially important regulators of the LPC-mediated regeneration response in liver. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nonlinear coupling of the resistive tearing modes under the unperturbed shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Kazuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the unperturbed shear flow on the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is studied. In the case of single helicity, the shear flow activates the unstable mode which finally saturates to a rigid rotor state. In the case of multiple helicity, a variety of flow patterns is created depending on parameters, and always forms the current bubble soon after the collapse of the 3/2 magnetic island. (author)

  13. The effect of shear flow and the density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amininasab, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2018-02-01

    Shear stress effect has been often neglected in calculation of the Weibel instability growth rate in laser-plasma interactions. In the present work, the role of the shear stress in the Weibel instability growth rate in the dense plasma with density gradient is explored. By increasing the density gradient, the shear stress threshold is increasing and the range of the propagation angles of growing modes is limited. Therefore, by increasing steps of the density gradient plasma near the relativistic electron beam-emitting region, the Weibel instability occurs at a higher stress flow. Calculations show that the minimum value of the stress rate threshold for linear polarization is greater than that of circular polarization. The Wiebel instability growth rate for linear polarization is 18.3 times circular polarization. One sees that for increasing stress and density gradient effects, there are smaller maximal growth rates for the range of the propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 propagation angles of growing modes /π 2 < θ m i n < π and /3 π 2 < θ m i n < 2 π in circular polarized plasma.

  14. Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)

  15. Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)

  16. Repetitive Supra-Physiological Shear Stress Impairs Red Blood Cell Deformability and Induces Hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Jarod T; Sabapathy, Surendran; Simmonds, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The supra-physiological shear stress that blood is exposed to while traversing mechanical circulatory assist devices affects the physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), impairs RBC deformability, and may induce hemolysis. Previous studies exploring RBC damage following exposure to supra-physiological shear stress have employed durations exceeding clinical instrumentation, thus we explored changes in RBC deformability following exposure to shear stress below the reported "hemolytic threshold" using shear exposure durations per minute (i.e., duty-cycles) reflective of that employed by circulatory assist devices. Blood collected from 20 male donors, aged 18-38 years, was suspended in a viscous medium and exposed to an intermittent shear stress protocol of 1 s at 100 Pa, every 60 s for 60 duty-cycles. During the remaining 59 s/min, the cells were left at stasis until the subsequent duty-cycle commenced. At discrete time points (15/30/45/60 duty-cycles), an ektacytometer measured RBC deformability immediately after shear exposure at 100 Pa. Plasma-free hemoglobin, a measurement of hemolysis, was quantified via spectrophotometry. Supra-physiological shear stress impaired RBC properties, as indicated by: (1) decreased maximal elongation of RBCs at infinite shear stress following 15 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress protocol (100 Pa) following exposure to 1 duty-cycle (F (1.891, 32.15) = 12.21, P = 0.0001); and (3) increased plasma-free hemoglobin following 60 duty-cycles (P supra-physiological shear stress, impairs RBC deformability, with the extent of impairment exacerbated with each duty-cycle, and ultimately precipitates hemolysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stress and vascular responses: atheroprotective effect of laminar fluid shear stress in endothelial cells: possible role of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Masanori; Abe, Jun-Ichi; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Berk, Bradford C; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in areas of turbulent blood flow and low fluid shear stress, whereas laminar blood flow and high shear stress are atheroprotective. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), stimulate expression of endothelial cell (EC) genes that may promote atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest a steady laminar blood flow decreases EC apoptosis and inhibits TNF-mediated EC activation. EC apoptosis or activation is suggested to be involved in plaque erosion, which may lead to platelet aggregation. TNF-alpha regulates gene expression in ECs, in part, by stimulating mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, which phosphorylate transcription factors. We hypothesized that steady laminar flow inhibits cytokine-mediated activation of MAP kinases in ECs. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of steady laminar flow (shear stress = 12 dynes/cm(2)) on TNF-alpha-stimulated activity of three MAP kinases in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVEC): extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. TNF-alpha activated ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 maximally at 15 min in HUVEC. Pre-exposing HUVEC for 10 min to flow inhibited TNF-alpha activation of JNK, but showed no significant effect on ERK1/2 or p38 activation. Incubation of HUVEC with PD98059, a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor, blocked the flow-mediated inhibition of TNF activation of JNK. Transfection studies with dominant-negative constructs of the protein kinase MEK5 suggested an important role for big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1) in flow-mediated regulation of EC activation by TNF-alpha. Understanding the mechanisms by which steady laminar flow regulates JNK activation by cytokines may provide insight into the atheroprotective mechanisms induced by laminar blood flow.

  18. Freezing of a colloidal liquid subject to shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, B.; Thirumalai, D.

    1988-01-01

    A nonequilibrium generalization of the density-functional theory of freezing is proposed to investigate the shear-induced first-order phase transition in colloidal suspensions. It is assumed that the main effect of a steady shear is to break the symmetry of the structure factor of the liquid and that for small shear rate, the phenomenon of a shear-induced order-disorder transition may be viewed as an equilibrium phase transition. The theory predicts that the effective density at which freezing takes place increases with shear rate. The solid (which is assumed to be a bcc lattice) formed upon freezing is distorted and specifically there is less order in one plane compared with the order in the other two perpendicular planes. It is shown that there exists a critical shear rate above which the colloidal liquid does not undergo a transition to an ordered (or partially ordered) state no matter how large the density is. Conversely, above the critical shear rate an initially formed bcc solid always melts into an amorphous or liquidlike state. Several of these predictions are in qualitative agreement with the light-scattering experiments of Ackerson and Clark. The limitations as well as possible extensions of the theory are also discussed

  19. Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements with Wall Shear Stress and Uncertainty Quantification for the FDA Nozzle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2016-03-01

    We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over

  20. DECOVALEX I - Test Case 1: Coupled stress-flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengren, L.; Christianson, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of the coupled stress-flow model, test case 1 of Decovalex. The model simulates the fourth loading cycle of a coupled stress-flow test and subsequent shearing up to and beyond peak shear resistance. The first loading sequence (A) consists of seven normal loading steps: 0, 5, 15, 25, 15, 5, 0 MPa. The second loading sequence (B) consists of the following eight steps: unstressed state, normal boundary loading of 25 MPa (no shearing), and then shearing of 0.5, 0.8, 2, 4, 2, 0 mm. Two different options regarding the rock joint behaviour were modeled in accordance with the problem definition. In option 1 a linear elastic joint model with Coulomb slip criterion was used. In option 2 a non-linear empirical (i.e. Barton-Bandis) joint model was used. The hydraulic condition during both load sequence A and B was a constant head of 5 m at the inlet point and 0 m at the outlet point. All model runs presented in this report were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element computer code UDEC, version 1.8. 30 refs, 36 figs

  1. Torsional shear flow of granular materials: shear localization and minimum energy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The rheological properties of granular matter submitted to torsional shear are investigated numerically by means of discrete element method. The shear cell is made of a cylinder filled by grains which are sheared by a bumpy bottom and submitted to a vertical pressure which is applied at the top. Regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. The effects of the (i) the applied pressure, (ii) sidewall friction, and (iii) angular velocity are investigated. A model, based on the purely local μ (I)-rheology and a minimum energy principle is able to capture the effect of the two former quantities but unable to account the effect of the latter. Although, an ad hoc modification of the model allows to reproduce all the numerical results, our results point out the need for an alternative rheology.

  2. Influence of sodium chloride on shear flow induced starch-gluten separation from Soissons wheat dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat dough can be separated into a starch-rich and a gluten-rich fraction by subjecting the dough to curvilinear shear flow. This paper presents the effect of salt (NaCl) addition on the shear-induced separation process. The separation (defined as the changes in protein concentration in the various

  3. In vivo 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Wall Shear Stress Estimation in Ascending Aortic Dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieging, Erik T.; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Wentland, Andrew; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate surface-based wall shear stress (WSS) and evaluate flow patterns in ascending aortic dilatation (AscAD) using a high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional velocity encoded, radially undersampled phase contrast magnetic resonance sequence (4D PC-MRI). Materials and Methods 4D PC-MRI was performed in 11 patients with AscAD (46.3±22.0 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (32.9±13.4 years) after written informed consent and IRB-approval. Following manual vessel wall segmentation of the ascending aorta (MATLAB, The Mathworks, Natick, MA), a 3D surface was created using spline interpolation. Spatial WSS variation based on surface division in 12 segments and temporal variation were evaluated in AscAD and normal aortas. Visual analysis of flow patterns was performed based on streamlines and particle traces using EnSight (v9.0, CEI, Apex, NC). Results AscAD was associated with significantly increased diastolic WSS, decreased systolic to diastolic WSS ratio, and delayed onset of peak WSS (all P wall of the ascending aorta. Vortical flow with highest velocities along the anterior wall and increased helical flow during diastole were observed in AscAD compared to controls. Conclusion Changes in WSS in the ascending aorta of AscAD correspond to observed alterations in flow patterns compared to controls. PMID:21563242

  4. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...

  5. Evaluation of shear bond strength and shear stress on zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and high translucency zirconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the shear stress distribution on the adhesive interface and the bond strength between resin cement and two ceramics. For finite element analysis (FEA, a tridimensional model was made using computer-aided design software. This model consisted of a ceramic slice (10x10x2mm partially embedded on acrylic resin with a resin cement cylinder (Ø=3.4 mm and h=3mm cemented on the external surface. Results of maximum principal stress and maximum principal shear were obtained to evaluate the stress generated on the ceramic and the cylinder surfaces. In order to reproduce the in vitro test, similar samples to the computational model were manufactured according to ceramic material (Zirconia reinforced lithium silicate - ZLS and high translucency Zirconia - YZHT, (N=48, n=12. Half of the specimens were submitted to shear bond test after 24h using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min, 50kgf until fracture. The other half was stored (a (180 days, water, 37ºC prior to the test. Bond strength was calculated in MPa and submitted to analysis of variance. The results showed that ceramic material influenced bond strength mean values (p=0.002, while aging did not: YZHT (19.80±6.44a, YZHTa (17.95±7.21a, ZLS (11.88±5.40b, ZLSa (11.76±3.32b. FEA results showed tensile and shear stress on ceramic and cylinder surfaces with more intensity on their periphery. Although the stress distribution was similar for both conditions, YZHT showed higher bond strength values; however, both materials seemed to promote durable bond strength.

  6. Ideal flow theory for the double - shearing model as a basis for metal forming design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Trung, N. T.

    2018-02-01

    In the case of Tresca’ solids (i.e. solids obeying the Tresca yield criterion and its associated flow rule) ideal flows have been defined elsewhere as solenoidal smooth deformations in which an eigenvector field associated everywhere with the greatest principal stress (and strain rate) is fixed in the material. Under such conditions all material elements undergo paths of minimum plastic work, a condition which is often advantageous for metal forming processes. Therefore, the ideal flow theory is used as the basis of a procedure for the preliminary design of such processes. The present paper extends the theory of stationary planar ideal flow to pressure dependent materials obeying the double shearing model and the double slip and rotation model. It is shown that the original problem of plasticity reduces to a purely geometric problem. The corresponding system of equations is hyperbolic. The characteristic relations are integrated in elementary functions. In regions where one family of characteristics is straight, mapping between the principal lines and Cartesian coordinates is determined by linear ordinary differential equations. An illustrative example is provided.

  7. Nonlinear inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge; Tan Liwei

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear equations describing inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow are derived. For some specific parameters chosen, authors have found a new type of electromagnetic coherent structures in the tripolar vortex-like form

  8. Nonlinear vortex structures and Rayleigh instability condition in shear flow plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Q.; Saleem, H.; Mirza, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is shown that the shear flow produced by externally applied electric field can unstable the drift waves. Due to shear flow, the Rayleigh instability condition is modified, which is obtained for both electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas. These shear flow driven drift waves can be responsible for large amplitude electrostatic fluctuations in tokamak edges. In the nonlinear regime, the stationary structures may appear in electron-positron-ion plasmas similar to electron-ion plasmas. The nonlinear vortex structures like counter rotating dipole vortices and vortex chains can be formed with the aid of special type of shear flows. The positrons can be used as a probe in laboratory plasmas, which make it a multi-component plasma. The presence of positrons in electron-ion plasma system can affect the speed and amplitude of the nonlinear vortex structures. This investigation can have application in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. (author)

  9. Shear-coupled grain-boundary migration dependence on normal strain/stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, N.; Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.

    2017-08-01

    In specific conditions, grain-boundary (GB) migration occurs in polycrystalline materials as an alternative vector of plasticity compared to the usual dislocation activity. The shear-coupled GB migration, the expected most efficient GB based mechanism, couples the GB motion to an applied shear stress. Stresses on GB in polycrystalline materials seldom have, however, a unique pure shear component. This work investigates the influence of a normal strain on the shear coupled migration of a Σ 13 (320 )[001 ] GB in a copper bicrystal using atomistic simulations. We show that the yield shear stress inducing the GB migration strongly depends on the applied normal stress. Beyond, the application of a normal stress on this GB qualitatively modifies the GB migration: while the Σ 13 (320 )[001 ] GB shear couples following the 〈110 〉 migration mode without normal stress, we report the observation of the 〈010 〉 mode under a sufficiently high tensile normal stress. Using the nudge elastic band method, we uncover the atomistic mechanism of this 〈010 〉 migration mode and energetically characterize it.

  10. Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel

    2002-01-01

    The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes

  11. Numerical and Theoretical Studies of Turbulence and Transport with E x B Shear Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports: (1) substantial transport reduction by turbulence-driven E x B flows observed in 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas; (2) analytical derivation of the effective shearing rate for the time-dependent E x B flow; (3) interpretation of experimental data using linear gyrokinetic microinstability rotation models of E x B shear; and (4) other developments in gyrokinetic theory and simulation

  12. Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.

  13. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    estimating equations analysis, adjusting for age, sex and carotid wall thickness. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 93 atherosclerotic carotid arteries of 74 participants. In plaques with higher maximum shear stresses, IPH was more often present (OR per unit increase in maximum shear stress (log......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...... formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 74) from the population-based Rotterdam...

  14. Measuring Shear Stress with a Microfluidic Sensor to improve Aerodynamic Efficiency, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Skin friction drag is directly proportional to the local shear stress of a surface and can be the largest factor in an aerodynamic body's total parasitic drag. The...

  15. Influence of polymer charge on the shear yield stress of silica aggregated with adsorbed cationic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yu, Hai; Wanless, Erica J; Jameson, Graeme J; Franks, George V

    2009-08-15

    Flocs were produced by adding three cationic polymers (10% charge density, 3.0x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; 40% charge density, 1.1x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; and 100% charge density, 1.2x10(5) g/mol molecular weight) to 90 nm diameter silica particles. The shear yield stresses of the consolidated sediment beds from settled and centrifuged flocs were determined via the vane technique. The polymer charge density plays an important role in influencing the shear yield stresses of sediment beds. The shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 10% charged polymer were observed to increase with an increase in polymer dose, initial solid concentration and background electrolyte concentration at all volume fractions. In comparison, polymer dose has a marginal effect on the shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 40% and 100% charged polymers. The shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 40% charged polymer are independent of salt concentration whereas the addition of salt decreases the shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 100% charged polymer. When flocculated at the optimum dose for each polymer (12 mg/g silica for the 10% charged polymer at 0.03 M NaCl, 12 mg/g for 40% and 2 mg/g for 100%), shear yield stress increases as polymer charge increases. The effects observed are related to the flocculation mechanism (bridging, patch attraction or charge neutralisation) and the magnitude of the adhesive force. Comparison of shear and compressive yield stresses show that the network is only slightly weaker in shear than in compression. This is different than many other systems (mainly salt and pH coagulation) which have shear yield stress much less than compressive yield stress. The existing models relating the power law exponent of the volume fraction dependence of the shear yield stress to the network fractal structure are not satisfactory to predict all the experimental behaviour.

  16. Influence of Equilibrium Perpendicular Shear Flow on Peeling-ballooning Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The influence of perpendicular ExB shear flow on peeling-ballooning instabilities is investigated with BOUT++ code. In our simulation, a set of reduced MHD equations are solved for a very unstable equilibrium and a marginal unstable equilibrium in shifted-circular tokamak geometry. For ideal MHD cases without diamagnetic terms and resistivity, we find that flow shear shows dramatic stabilizing effect on peeling-ballooning modes and the stabilizing degree increases with mode number. When the flow shear is large enough, we find the curvature of growth rate verse mode number has the same shape like that for the case with only diamagnetic term, and this implies that diamagnetic term and the shear flow have the same mechanism acting on peeling-ballooning instabilities. The role of Kelvin-Helmholtz term is also investigated and we find it is destabilizing and the effect depends on both flow shear and mode number. For cases with both diamagnetic term and the applied shear flow, modes with intermediate mode number are strongest stabilized while high n and low n mode keep unstable. Based on these results, an ELM trigger sketch is proposed. Performed for USDoE by LLNL Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. An interfacial shear term evaluation study for adiabatic dispersed air–water two-phase flow with the two-fluid model using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two

  18. Ribbon phase in a phase-separated lyotropic lamellar-sponge mixture under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.; Narayanan, T.

    2001-07-01

    We report the effect of shear flow on a phase-separated system composed of lyotropic lamellar (Lα) and sponge (L3) phases in a mixture of brine, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Optical microscopy, small-angle light, and x-ray scattering measurements are consistent with the existence of a steady state made of multilamellar ribbonlike structures aligned in the flow direction. At high shear rates, these ribbonlike structures become unstable and break up into monodisperse droplets resulting in a shear-thickening transition.

  19. Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter

  20. Surface shear stress dependence of gas transfer velocity parameterizations using DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Arneborg, L.; Nilsson, H.; Handler, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Air-water gas-exchange is studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of free-surface flows driven by natural convection and weak winds. The wind is modeled as a constant surface-shear-stress and the gas-transfer is modeled via a passive scalar. The simulations are characterized via a Richardson number Ri=Bν/u*4 where B, ν, and u* are the buoyancy flux, kinematic viscosity, and friction velocity respectively. The simulations comprise 0Ric or kg=AShearu*Sc-n, Ri

  1. Shear Stress in Nickel and Ni-60Co under One-Dimensional Shock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, A.; Wallwork, A.; Meziere, Y. J. E.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic response of pure nickel (Ni), and its alloy, Ni-60Co (by weight %), has been investigated during one-dimensional shock loading. Few materials' properties are different and the only significantly altered feature is the reduced stacking fault energy (SFE) for the Ni-60Co. This paper considers the effect of this reduced SFE on the shear strength. Data (in terms of shock stress, particle velocity and shock velocity) are also presented. The influence on the shear stress, τ of cobalt additions in nickel are then investigated and presented. Results indicate that the lateral stress is increasing in both materials with the increasing impact stress. The shear stress was found to be higher in the nickel than in the Ni-60Co. The progressive decrease of the lateral stress noted during loading indicates a complex mechanism of deformation behind the shock front

  2. Direct test of a nonlinear constitutive equation for simple turbulent shear flows using DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, François G.

    2007-10-01

    Several nonlinear constitutive equations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the linear eddy-viscosity models to describe complex turbulent flows. These nonlinear equations have often been compared to experimental data through the outputs of numerical models. Here we perform a priori analysis of nonlinear eddy-viscosity models using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of simple shear flows. In this paper, the constitutive equation is directly checked using a tensor projection which involves several invariants of the flow. This provides a 3 terms development which is exact for 2D flows, and a best approximation for 3D flows. We provide the quadratic nonlinear constitutive equation for the near-wall region of simple shear flows using DNS data, and estimate their coefficients. We show that these coefficients have several common properties for the different simple shear flow databases considered. We also show that in the central region of pipe flows, where the shear rate is very small, the coefficients of the constitutive equation diverge, indicating the failure of this representation for vanishing shears.

  3. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  4. Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation Following Exercise with Augmented Oscillatory and Retrograde Shear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Blair D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented retrograde SR during exercise influences post-exercise endothelial function. This study tested the hypothesis that (1 increased doses of retrograde SR in the brachial artery during lower body supine cycle ergometer exercise would attenuate post-exercise flow-mediated dilation (FMD in a dose-dependent manner, and (2 antioxidant vitamin C supplementation would prevent the attenuated post-exercise FMD response. Methods Twelve men participated in four randomized exercise sessions (90 W for 20 minutes on separate days. During three of the sessions, one arm was subjected to increased oscillatory and retrograde SR using three different forearm cuff pressures (20, 40, 60 mmHg (contralateral arm served as the control and subjects ingested placebo capsules prior to exercise. A fourth session with 60 mmHg cuff pressure was performed with 1 g of vitamin C ingested prior to the session. Results Post-exercise FMD following the placebo conditions were lower in the cuffed arm versus the control arm (arm main effect: P P > 0.05. Following vitamin C treatment, post-exercise FMD in the cuffed and control arm increased from baseline (P P > 0.05. Conclusions These results indicate that augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR in non-working limbs during lower body exercise attenuates post-exercise FMD without an evident dose–response in the range of cuff pressures evaluated. Vitamin C supplementation prevented the attenuation of FMD following exercise with augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the adverse effects of oscillatory and

  5. Analysis of wall shear stress around a competitive swimmer using 3D Navier-Stokes equations in CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C V; Zaidi, H; Arfaoui, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Fohanno, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flow dynamics around a competitive swimmer during underwater glide phases occurring at the start and at every turn. The influence of the head position, namely lifted up, aligned and lowered, on the wall shear stress and the static pressure distributions is analyzed. The problem is considered as 3D and in steady hydrodynamic state. Three velocities (1.4 m/s, 2.2 m/s and 3.1 m/s) that correspond to inter-regional, national and international swimming levels are studied. The flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved with the standard k-ω turbulent model by using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) numerical method based on a volume control approach. Numerical simulations are carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT® CFD code. The results show that the wall shear stress increases with the velocity and consequently the drag force opposing the movement of the swimmer increases as well. Also, high wall shear stresses are observed in the areas where the body shape, globally rigid in form, presents complex surface geometries such as the head, shoulders, buttocks, heel and chest.

  6. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  7. Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomofumi

    2007-09-15

    The fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear processes has been an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this thesis using Finite Element Method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking method, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness features of replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow-tracer tests in laboratory performed using a newly developed testing apparatus in Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Three rock fractures of granite with different roughness characteristics were used as parent samples from which nine plaster replicas were made and coupled shear-flow tests was performed under three normal loading conditions (two levels of constant normal loading (CNL) and one constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions). In order to visualize the tracer transport, transparent acrylic upper parts and plaster lower parts of the fracture specimens were manufactured from an artificially created tensile fracture of sandstone and the coupled shear-flow tests with fluid visualization was performed using a dye tracer injected from upstream and a CCD camera to record the dye movement. A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations by using FEM, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport, but was often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements, which were also captured

  8. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; hide

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  9. Electromotive force and large-scale magnetic dynamo in a turbulent flow with a mean shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2003-09-01

    An effect of sheared large-scale motions on a mean electromotive force in a nonrotating turbulent flow of a conducting fluid is studied. It is demonstrated that in a homogeneous divergence-free turbulent flow the alpha effect does not exist, however a mean magnetic field can be generated even in a nonrotating turbulence with an imposed mean velocity shear due to a "shear-current" effect. A mean velocity shear results in an anisotropy of turbulent magnetic diffusion. A contribution to the electromotive force related to the symmetric parts of the gradient tensor of the mean magnetic field (the kappa effect) is found in nonrotating turbulent flows with a mean shear. The kappa effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion reduce the growth rate of the mean magnetic field. It is shown that a mean magnetic field can be generated when the exponent of the energy spectrum of the background turbulence (without the mean velocity shear) is less than 2. The shear-current effect was studied using two different methods: the tau approximation (the Orszag third-order closure procedure) and the stochastic calculus (the path integral representation of the solution of the induction equation, Feynman-Kac formula, and Cameron-Martin-Girsanov theorem). Astrophysical applications of the obtained results are discussed.

  10. Relations Between Shear and Normal Stresses in a Step-Shear Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Pedersen, Sven

    1978-01-01

    The Lodge-Meissner step-shear relation for simple fluids is examined. It is demonstrated that the relation depends critically on two assumptions for the integral expansion of the simple fluid: First, the use of the Cauchy strain tensor as strain measure, and second, that the memory functions...... are bounded. It is pointed out that many simple differential and integral models do not satisfy these criteria and hence predict deviations from the Lodge-Meissner relation....

  11. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  12. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liangjie

    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  13. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisha, M.D. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor-Ashikin, M.N.K. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Sharaniza, A.B.R. [DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Nawawi, H. [Center for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Clinical Training Center, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia); Froemming, G.R.A., E-mail: gabriele@salam.uitm.edu.my [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. - Highlights: • OFS stress transmits anabolic signals to osteoblasts. • Actin and tubulin fibers are rearranged under OFS stress. • OFS stress increases mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation. • Reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in response to OFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis. • OFS stress prevents apoptosis and stimulates ALP and OCN.

  14. Conductivity of an inverse lyotropic lamellar phase under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, P.; Soubiran, L.; Coulon, C.; Roux, D.

    2001-08-01

    We report conductivity measurements on solutions of closed compact monodisperse multilamellar vesicles (the so-called ``onion texture'') formed by shearing an inverse lyotropic lamellar Lα phase. The conductivity measured in different directions as a function of the applied shear rate reveals a small anisotropy of the onion structure due to the existence of free oriented membranes. The results are analyzed in terms of a simple model that allows one to deduce the conductivity tensor of the Lα phase itself and the proportion of free oriented membranes. The variation of these two parameters is measured along a dilution line and discussed. The high value of the conductivity perpendicular to the layers with respect to that of solvent suggests the existence of a mechanism of ionic transport through the insulating solvent.

  15. Experimental investigation of edge sheared flow development and configuration effects in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, A.; Calderon, E.; Orozco, R. O.; Pablos, J. L. de

    2005-07-01

    It is well known the importance of the shear as a stabilizing mechanism to control plasma fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas [1]. It has been clearly established that Ex B shear stabilization mechanisms are an important piece for the improvement of confinement on fusion devices. In particular both edge and core transport barriers are related to a large increase in the Ex B sheared flow. As a consequence clarifying the driving mechanisms of sheared flow in fusion plasmas is a main issue. The existence of parallel and perpendicular sheared flows at the plasma edge, and the interplay between them in different plasma conditions has been studied in the TJ-II [2]. Recent experiments carried out by means of different approaches in the TJ-II stellarator have shown that the generation of spontaneous edge perpendicular sheared flow can be externally controlled by means of plasma density with good reproducibility and reliability [3, 4]. Although experimentally the plasma density has been used as an external control knob, it would be more appropriate to characterize experimental results in terms of edge plasma gradient (e.g. ion saturation current gradient) [3]. It has also been found that there exists a coupling between the onset of sheared flow development and an increase in the level of plasma edge turbulence; once sheared flow is fully developed the level of fluctuations and turbulent transport slightly decreases whereas edge gradients and plasma density increase. It has been experimentally established that the minimum plasma density (or/and minimum level of plasma turbulence) essential for the development of the shear layer depends on the plasma magnetic configuration [5, 6]. For some plasma magnetic configurations with high iota value a sheared flow-induced regime with characteristics resembling those of an improved confinement one has been found. The similarity in the structure of the velocity shear layer and in the turbulence characteristics [7] in different

  16. Steady shear flow properties of Cordia myxa leaf gum as a function of concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharlang, Mahmood; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-08-01

    The steady shear flow properties of dispersions of Cordia myxa leaf gum (CMLG) were determined as a function of concentration (0.5-2.5%, w/w), and temperature (10-50 °C). The CMLG dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior at all concentrations and temperatures. The Power-law (Ostwald-Waele's) and Herschel-Bulkley models were employed to characterize flow behavior of CMLG solutions at 0.1-100 s(-1) shear rate. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was observed at all temperatures and concentrations. While increase in temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior indices, adverse effect was obtained by increasing the concentration. The Power-law model was found the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior of CMLG. The pseudoplasticity of CMLG increased markedly with concentration. An Arrhenius-type model was also used to describe the effect of temperature. The activation energy (Ea) appeared in the range of 5.972-18.104 kJ/mol, as concentration increased from 0.5% to 2.5%, at a shear rate of 10 s(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheology of dense granular flows in two dimensions: Comparison of fully two-dimensional flows to unidirectional shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the rheology of steady two-dimensional granular flows, in different geometries, using discrete element method-based simulations of soft spheres. The flow classification parameter (ψ ), which defines the local flow type (ranging from pure rotation to simple shear to pure extension), varies spatially, to a significant extent, in the flows. We find that the material behaves as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The μ -I scaling proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006), 10.1038/nature04801] is found to be valid in both two-dimensional and unidirectional flows, as observed in previous studies; however, the data for each flow geometry fall on a different curve. The results for the two-dimensional silo flow indicate that the viscosity does not depend directly on the flow type parameter, ψ . We find that the scaling based on "granular fluidity" [Zhang and Kamrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 058001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.058001] gives good collapse of the data to a single curve for all the geometries. The data for the variation of the solid faction with inertial number show a reasonable collapse for the different geometries.

  18. Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.

  19. On equivalent roughness of mobile bed at high shear stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 191-199 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/06/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : bed shear * experiment * hydraulic transport * sediment transport Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  20. Rational surfaces, ExB sheared flows and transport interplay in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Erents, K.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence of a strong interplay between magnetic topology (rational surfaces) and the generation of ExB sheared flows has been observed in the plasma edge region of stellarator (TJ-II) and tokamak (JET) devices. Both constant and varying in time ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes, but below the power threshold to trigger the formation of transport barriers. Flows driven by fluctuations are candidates to explain these experimental results. (author)

  1. Rational surfaces, ExB sheared flows and transport interplay in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Carlos; Pedrosa, Maria A.; Erents, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Experimental evidence of a strong interplay between magnetic topology (rational surfaces) and the generation of ExB sheared flows has been observed in the plasma edge region of stellarator (TJ-II) and tokamak (JET) devices. Constant and varying in time ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes. The plasma conditions where this has been observed are clearly below the power threshold to trigger the formation of transport barriers. Flows driven by fluctuations are candidates to explain these experimental results. (author)

  2. Exact coherent structures in an asymptotically reduced description of parallel shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaume, Cédric; Knobloch, Edgar; Chini, Gregory P.; Julien, Keith

    2015-02-01

    A reduced description of shear flows motivated by the Reynolds number scaling of lower-branch exact coherent states in plane Couette flow (Wang J, Gibson J and Waleffe F 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 204501) is constructed. Exact time-independent nonlinear solutions of the reduced equations corresponding to both lower and upper branch states are found for a sinusoidal, body-forced shear flow. The lower branch solution is characterized by fluctuations that vary slowly along the critical layer while the upper branch solutions display a bimodal structure and are more strongly focused on the critical layer. The reduced equations provide a rational framework for investigations of subcritical spatiotemporal patterns in parallel shear flows.

  3. Exact coherent structures in an asymptotically reduced description of parallel shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaume, Cédric; Knobloch, Edgar; Chini, Gregory P; Julien, Keith

    2015-01-01

    A reduced description of shear flows motivated by the Reynolds number scaling of lower-branch exact coherent states in plane Couette flow (Wang J, Gibson J and Waleffe F 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 204501) is constructed. Exact time-independent nonlinear solutions of the reduced equations corresponding to both lower and upper branch states are found for a sinusoidal, body-forced shear flow. The lower branch solution is characterized by fluctuations that vary slowly along the critical layer while the upper branch solutions display a bimodal structure and are more strongly focused on the critical layer. The reduced equations provide a rational framework for investigations of subcritical spatiotemporal patterns in parallel shear flows. (paper)

  4. Nature of turbulent transport across sheared zonal flows: insights from gyrokinetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R; Newman, D E; Leboeuf, J-N; Decyk, V K

    2011-01-01

    The traditional view regarding the reduction of turbulence-induced transport across a stable sheared flow invokes a reduction of the characteristic length scale in the direction perpendicular to the flow as a result of the shearing and stretching of eddies caused by the differential pull exerted in the direction of the flow. A reduced effective transport coefficient then suffices to capture the reduction, that can then be readily incorporated into a transport model. However, recent evidence from gyrokinetic simulations of the toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode suggests that the dynamics of turbulent transport across sheared flows changes in a more fundamental manner, and that the use of reduced effective transport coefficients fails to capture the full dynamics that may exhibit both subdiffusion and non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution, after briefly reviewing these results, we propose some candidates for the physical mechanisms responsible for endowing transport with such non-diffusive characteristics, backing these proposals with new numerical gyrokinetic data.

  5. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-01-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low (≤1.5 dyn/cm 2 ) or high (25 dyn/cm 2 ) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Study of Bubbles on a Patterned Superhydrophobic Surface under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Hou, Guoxiang; Leng, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies shear flow over a 2D patterned superhydrophobic surface using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Single component Shan-Chen multiphase model and Carnahan-Starling EOS are adopted to handle the liquid-gas flow on superhydrophobic surface with entrapped micro-bubbles. The shape of bubble interface and its influence on slip length under different shear rates are investigated. With increasing shear rate, the bubble interface deforms. Then the contact lines are depinned from the slot edges and move downstream. When the shear rate is high enough, a continuous gas layer forms. If the protrusion angle is small, the gas layer forms and collapse periodically, and accordingly the slip length changes periodically. While if the protrusion angle is large, the gas layer is steady and separates the solid wall from liquid, resulting in a very large slip length.

  7. Eigenmode characteristics of the double tearing mode in the presence of shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Aohua; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.; Liu Jinyuan

    2013-01-01

    The double tearing mode (DTM) is characterized by two eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure, referred to as the even or odd DTM. In this work, we systematically revisit the DTM instabilities in the presence of an antisymmetric shear flow with a focus on eigenmode characteristics as well as the stabilization or destabilization mechanism in a wide parameter region. Both initial value simulation and eigenvalue analysis are performed based on reduced resistive MHD model in slab geometry. A degenerated eigen state is found at a critical flow amplitude v c . The even (or odd) DTM is stabilized (or destabilized) by weak shear flow below v c through the distortion of magnetic islands mainly due to the global effect of shear flow rather than the local flow shear. The distortion can be quantified by the phase angles of the perturbed flux, showing a perfect correspondence to the growth rates. As the shear flow increases above v c , the degenerated eigen state bifurcates into two eigen modes with the same growth rate but opposite propagating direction, resulting in an oscillatory growth of fluctuation energy. It is identified that two eigen modes show the single tearing mode structure due to the Alfvén resonance (AR) occurring on one current sheet. Most importantly, the AR can destabilize the DTMs through enhancing the plasma flow exerting on the remaining island. Meanwhile, the local flow shear plays a remarkable stabilizing role in this region. In addition, the eigenmode characteristic of the electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is also discussed.

  8. Gyrokinetic analysis of ion temperature gradient modes in the presence of sheared flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    The linearized gyrokinetic equation governing electrostatic microinstabilities in the presence of sheared equilibrium flow in both the z and y directions has been systematically derived for a sheared slab geometry, where in the large aspect ratio limit z and y directions correspond to the toroidal and poloidal directions respectively. In the familiar long perpendicular wavelength regime (κ perpendicular ρi > 1), the analysis leads to a comprehensive kinetic differential eigenmode equation which is solved numerically. The numerical results have been successfully cross-checked against analytic estimates in the fluid limit. For typical conditions, the Ion Temperature Gradient (ηi) modes are found to be stabilized for y-direction flows with a velocity shear scale comparable to that of the ion temperature gradient and velocities of a few percent of the sound speed. Sheared flows in the z-direction taken along are usually destabilizing, with the effect being independent of the sign of the flow. However, when both types are simultaneously considered, it is found that in the presence of shared z-direction flow, sheared y-direction flow can be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the relative sign of these flows. However, for sufficiently large values of υ' y the mode is completely stabilized regardless of the sign of υ' z υ' y . The importance of a proper kinetic treatment of this problem is supported by comparisons with fluid estimates. In particular, when such effects are favorable, significantly smaller values of sheared y-direction flow are required for stability than fluid estimates would indicate

  9. Effect of shear stress on iPSC-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Jackson G; Xu, Zinnia S; Williams, Ashley J; Yimam, Nahom; Searson, Peter C

    2017-08-04

    The endothelial cells that form the lumen of capillaries and microvessels are an important component of the blood-brain barrier. Cell phenotype is regulated by transducing a range of biomechanical and biochemical signals in the local microenvironment. Here we report on the role of shear stress in modulating the morphology, motility, proliferation, apoptosis, and protein and gene expression, of confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. To assess the response of derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs) to shear stress, confluent monolayers were formed in a microfluidic device. Monolayers were subjected to a shear stress of 4 or 12 dyne cm -2 for 40 h. Static conditions were used as the control. Live cell imaging was used to assess cell morphology, cell speed, persistence, and the rates of proliferation and apoptosis as a function of time. In addition, immunofluorescence imaging and protein and gene expression analysis of key markers of the blood-brain barrier were performed. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells exhibit a unique phenotype in response to shear stress compared to static conditions: (1) they do not elongate and align, (2) the rates of proliferation and apoptosis decrease significantly, (3) the mean displacement of individual cells within the monolayer over time is significantly decreased, (4) there is no cytoskeletal reorganization or formation of stress fibers within the cell, and (5) there is no change in expression levels of key blood-brain barrier markers. The characteristic response of dhBMECs to shear stress is significantly different from human and animal-derived endothelial cells from other tissues, suggesting that this unique phenotype that may be important in maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. The implications of this work are that: (1) in confluent monolayers of dhBMECs, tight junctions are formed under static conditions, (2) the formation

  10. Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.

    2018-03-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.

  11. Linear analysis of sheared flow stabilization of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities based on the Hall fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Paraschiv, I.; Makhin, V.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Dawson, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of the linear stage of sheared flow stabilization of Z-pinch plasmas based on the Hall fluid model with equilibrium that contains sheared flow and an axial magnetic field is presented. In the study we begin with the derivation of a general set of equations that permits the evaluation of the combined effect of sheared flow and axial magnetic field on the development of the azimuthal mode number m=0 sausage and m=1 kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities, with the Hall term included in the model. The incorporation of sheared flow, axial magnetic field, and the Hall term allows the Z-pinch system to be taken away from the region in parameter space where ideal MHD is applicable to a regime where nonideal effects tend to govern stability. The problem is then treated numerically by following the linear development in time of an initial perturbation. The numerical results for linear growth rates as a function of axial sheared flow, an axial magnetic field, and the Hall term are reported

  12. Flow stress asymmetry and cyclic stress--strain response in a BCC Ti--V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, D.A.; Wojcik, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The cyclic stress-strain response of relatively stable bcc β-phase Ti--40 percent V alloy single crystals was studied. Flow stress asymmetry found in the alloy is attributed to the fact that screw dislocations, when gliding on a (211) plane, are more mobile in the twinning direction than in the antitwinning direction. Thus the flow stress of the crystal is greater when it is sheared in the antitwinning direction than in the twinning direction (the latter case results when crystals of the 100 orientation are stressed in tension and those of the 110 orientation are stressed in compression). Such behavior can be a result of the core of a screw dislocation being asymmetric under stress which causes the flow stress asymmetry observed. It should be noted that screw dislocations dominate the low temperature deformation structure of Ti-40V, which strongly suggests deformation is controlled by screw dislocation motion. The observation in Mo that the microyield stress is independent of crystal orientation could be a result of edge dislocation motion controlling microyield in that instance and this observation would not be inconsistent with screw dislocation motion controlling the macroscopic (epsilon/sub p/ greater than 0.05 percent) deformation measured here

  13. Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with tetrahedrally close-packed structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Douglas A. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0156 (United States); Kraynik, Andrew M. [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to quasistatic, simple shearing flow is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by using the Surface Evolver to calculate foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3}, where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new structure associated with each stable solution branch results from an avalanche of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.

  14. A sensitive dynamic viscometer for measuring the complex shear modulus in a steady shear flow using the method of orthogonal superposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.C.H.; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Blom, C.; Altena, E.G.; Beukema, Gerrit J.; Beukema, G.J.; Mellema, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new instrument to carry out complex viscosity measurements in equilibrium and in a steady shear flow has been developed. A small amplitude harmonic excitation is superimposed orthogonally to the steady shear rate component. It is realized by a thin-walled cylinder, which oscillates in the axial

  15. Exercise-induced shear stress is associated with changes in plasma von Willebrand factor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Thistlethwaite, John R; Thompson, Benjamin C; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2009-07-01

    Shear stress is the frictional force of blood against the endothelium, a stimulus for endothelial activation and the release of von Willebrand factor (vWF). This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in shear stress associated with exercise correlates with plasma vWF. Young (n = 14, 25.7 +/- 5.4 years) and older (n = 13, 65.6 +/- 10.7 years) individuals participated in 30 min of dynamic handgrip exercise at a moderate intensity. Brachial artery diameter and blood flow were measured using ultrasound Doppler and blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and following 30 min of recovery from exercise with plasma levels of vWF. Plasma levels of vWF increased (P exercise. The change in plasma vWF was linearly correlated with the increase in shear stress during exercise in older individuals (post-exercise: r = 0.78, 30 min recovery: r = 0.77, P < 0.01), but no association was found in the young individuals. These changes in plasma levels of vWF in humans suggest that aging influences endothelial activation and hemostasis.

  16. Effect of stress-state and spacing on voids in a shear-field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    in the overall average stress state can be prescribed. This also allows for studies of the effect of different initial void spacing in the two in-plane coordinate directions. The stress states considered are essentially simple shear, with various levels of tensile stresses or compressive stresses superposed, i.......e. low positive stress triaxiality or even negative stress triaxiality. For high aspect ratio unit cells a clear localization band is found inside the cell, which actually represents several parallel bands, due to periodicity. In the materials represented by a low aspect ratio unit cell localization...

  17. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sedimentation under variable shear stress at lower reach of the Rupnarayan River, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan Kumar Maity

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lower reach of the Rupnarayan River has been deteriorated and incapacitated due to continuous sedimentation (26.57 million m3 shoaling in last 25 years. Attempts have been made to explain the causes and mechanisms of sedimentation in connection to the seasonal fluctuation of shear stress. River depth and water velocity was measured by echo-sounder and current meter respectively. Textural analysis of grains was done by sieving technique. Available and critical shear stress (N/m2 have been calculated following Du Boys (1879, Shield (1936 and Van Ledden (2003 formula. The lack of available energy to transport a particular grain size during low tide (in dry season is the main reason behind the rapid sedimentation in this area. Most of the places (>75% having negative deviation of shear stress (available shear stress lesser than critical shear stress, during low tide are characterized by deposition of sediments. The presence of mud (silt and clay above the critical limit (15% in some of the sediment samples generates the cohesive property, restricts sediments entrainment and invites sedimentation.

  19. Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.

  20. Origins of the anomalous stress behavior in charged colloidal suspensions under shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Higdon, Jonathan J L

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to determine microstructure and rheology of sheared suspensions of charged colloidal particles at a volume fraction of ϕ=0.33. Over broad ranges of repulsive force strength F0 and Péclet number Pe, dynamic simulations show coexistence of ordered and disordered stable states with the state dependent on the initial condition. In contrast to the common view, at low shear rates, the disordered phase exhibits a lower viscosity (μ(r)) than the ordered phase, while this behavior is reversed at higher shear rates. Analysis shows the stress reversal is associated with different shear induced microstructural distortions in the ordered and disordered systems. Viscosity vs shear rate data over a wide range of F0 and Pe collapses well upon rescaling with the long-time self-diffusivity. Shear thinning viscosity in the ordered phase scaled as μ(r)∼Pe(-0.81) at low shear rates. The microstructural dynamics revealed in these studies explains the anomalous behavior and hysteresis loops in stress data reported in the literature.

  1. Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Gillibrand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to consider the potential effects of energy extraction by an array of tidal turbines on the ambient near-bed velocity field and local bed shear stress in a coastal channel with strong tidal currents. Local bed shear stress plays a key role in local sediment dynamics. The model solves the Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations on an unstructured mesh using mixed finite element and finite volume techniques. Tidal turbines are represented through an additional form drag in the momentum balance equation, with the thrust imparted and power generated by the turbines being velocity dependent with appropriate cut-in and cut-out velocities. Arrays of 1, 4 and 57 tidal turbines, each of 1.5 MW capacity, were simulated. Effects due to a single turbine and an array of four turbines were negligible. The main effect of the array of 57 turbines was to cause a shift in position of the jet through the tidal channel, as the flow was diverted around the tidal array. The net effect of this shift was to increase near-bed velocities and bed shear stress along the northern perimeter of the array by up to 0.8 m·s−1 and 5 Pa respectively. Within the array and directly downstream, near-bed velocities and bed shear stress were reduced by similar amounts. Changes of this magnitude have the potential to modify the known sand and shell banks in the region. Continued monitoring of the sediment distributions in the region will provide a valuable dataset on the impacts of tidal energy extraction on local sediment dynamics. Finally, the mean power generated per turbine is shown to decrease as the turbine array increased in size.

  2. Evolution of shear stress, protein expression, and vessel area in an animal model of arterial dilatation in hemodialysis grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A.; Misra, Khamal D.; Glockner, James F.; Mukhopadyay, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the wall shear stress, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9), and the inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and -2 (TIMP-2)), and vessel area over time in a porcine model for hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Materials and methods In 21 pigs, subtotal renal infarction was performed and 28 days later, a PTFE graft was placed to connect the carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein. Phase contrast MR was used to measure blood flow and vessel area at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after graft placement. Wall shear stress was estimated from Poiseuille’s law. Animals were sacrificed at day 3 (N=7), day 7 (N=7), and day 14 (N=7) and expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were determined at the grafted and control arteries. Results The mean wall shear stress of the grafted artery was higher than the control artery at all time points (P<0.05). It peaked by day 3 and decreased by days 7–14 as the vessel area nearly doubled. By days 7–14, there was a significant increase in active MMP-2 followed by a significant increase in pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 (P<0.05, grafted artery versus control). TIMP-1 expression peaked by day 7 and then decreased while TIMP-2 expression was decreased at days 7–14. Conclusions The wall shear stress of the grafted artery peaks by day 3 with increased MMP-2 activity by days 7–14 followed by pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 and the vessel area nearly doubled. PMID:20123196

  3. Numerical modeling of injection, stress and permeability enhancement during shear stimulation at the Desert Peak Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, David; Kelkar, Sharad; Davatzes, Nick; Hickman, Stephen H.; Moos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System relies on stimulation of fracture permeability through self-propping shear failure that creates a complex fracture network with high surface area for efficient heat transfer. In 2010, shear stimulation was carried out in well 27-15 at Desert Peak geothermal field, Nevada, by injecting cold water at pressure less than the minimum principal stress. An order-of-magnitude improvement in well injectivity was recorded. Here, we describe a numerical model that accounts for injection-induced stress changes and permeability enhancement during this stimulation. In a two-part study, we use the coupled thermo-hydrological-mechanical simulator FEHM to: (i) construct a wellbore model for non-steady bottom-hole temperature and pressure conditions during the injection, and (ii) apply these pressures and temperatures as a source term in a numerical model of the stimulation. In this model, a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and empirical fracture permeability is developed to describe permeability evolution of the fractured rock. The numerical model is calibrated using laboratory measurements of material properties on representative core samples and wellhead records of injection pressure and mass flow during the shear stimulation. The model captures both the absence of stimulation at low wellhead pressure (WHP ≤1.7 and ≤2.4 MPa) as well as the timing and magnitude of injectivity rise at medium WHP (3.1 MPa). Results indicate that thermoelastic effects near the wellbore and the associated non-local stresses further from the well combine to propagate a failure front away from the injection well. Elevated WHP promotes failure, increases the injection rate, and cools the wellbore; however, as the overpressure drops off with distance, thermal and non-local stresses play an ongoing role in promoting shear failure at increasing distance from the well.

  4. Factors Associated With Callus in Patients with Diabetes, Focused on Plantar Shear Stress During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Masako; Mori, Taketoshi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. The effect of shear flow on the rotational diffusivity of a single axisymmetric particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Brian; Koch, Donald; Cohen, Itai

    2014-11-01

    Colloidal suspensions of nonspherical particles abound in the world around us, from red blood cells in arteries to kaolinite discs in clay. Understanding the orientation dynamics of these particles is important for suspension rheology and particle self-assembly. However, even for the simplest case of dilute suspensions in simple shear flow, the orientation dynamics of Brownian nonspherical particles are poorly understood at large shear rates. Here, we analytically calculate the time-dependent orientation distributions of particles confined to the flow-gradient plane when the rotary diffusion is small but nonzero. For both startup and oscillatory shear flows, we find a coordinate change that maps the convection-diffusion equation to a simple diffusion equation with an enhanced diffusion constant, simplifying the orientation dynamics. For oscillatory shear, this enhanced diffusion drastically alters the quasi-steady orientation distributions. Our theory of the unsteady orientation dynamics provides an understanding of a nonspherical particle suspension's rheology for a large class of unsteady flows. For particles with aspect ratio 10 under oscillatory shear, the rotary diffusion and intrinsic viscosity vary with amplitude by a factor of ~ 40 and ~ 2 , respectively.

  6. Enhancement of human mesenchymal stem cell infiltration into the electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold by fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    The infiltration of the cells into the scaffolds is important phenomenon to give them good biocompatibility and even biodegradability. Fluid shear stress is one of the candidates for the infiltration of cells into scaffolds. Here we investigated the directional migration of human mesenchymal stem cells and infiltration into PLGA scaffold by fluid shear stress. The human mesenchymal stem cells showed directional migrations following the direction of the flow (8, 16 dyne/cm(2)). In the scaffold models, the fluid shear stress (8 dyne/cm(2)) enhanced the infiltration of cells but did not influence on the infiltration of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress modeling in colloidal dispersions undergoing non-viscometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2017-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the stress tensor for a colloidal dispersion undergoing non-viscometric flow. In such flows, the non-homogeneous suspension stress depends on not only the local average total stresslet-the sum of symmetric first moments of both the hydrodynamic traction and the interparticle force-but also on the average quadrupole, octupole, and higher-order moments. To compute the average moments, we formulate a six dimensional Smoluchowski equation governing the microstructural evolution of a suspension in an arbitrary fluid velocity field. Under the conditions of rheologically slow flow, where the Brownian relaxation of the particles is much faster than the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow, the Smoluchowski equation permits asymptotic solution, revealing a suspension stress that follows a second-order fluid constitutive model. We obtain a reciprocal theorem and utilize it to show that all constitutive parameters of the second-order fluid model may be obtained from two simpler linear-response problems: a suspension undergoing simple shear and a suspension undergoing isotropic expansion. The consequences of relaxing the assumption of rheologically slow flow, including the appearance of memory and microcontinuum behaviors, are discussed.

  8. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  9. On the link between ExB sheared flows and rational surfaces in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Erents, K.; Matthews, G.

    2000-11-01

    Experimental evidence of flattening in plasma profiles has been observed in the edge region of the JET tokamak. This observation has been interpreted in terms of the influence of rational surfaces on plasma profiles. In the framework of this interpretation, significant ExB sheared flows linked to rational surfaces have been identified. These ExB sheared flows are close to the critical value to trigger the transition to improved confinement regimes. These results can explain the link between the magnetic topology and the generation of transport barriers reported in fusion devices. (author)

  10. Microturbulence and Flow Shear in High-performance JET ITB Plasma; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.V. Budny; A. Andre; A. Bicoulet; C. Challis; G.D. Conway; W. Dorland; D.R. Ernst; T.S. Hahm; T.C. Hender; D. McCune; G. Rewoldt; S.E. Sharapov

    2001-01-01

    The transport, flow shear, and linear growth rates of microturbulence are studied for a Joint European Torus (JET) plasma with high central q in which an internal transport barrier (ITB) forms and grows to a large radius. The linear microturbulence growth rates of the fastest growing (most unstable) toroidal modes with high toroidal mode number are calculated using the GS2 and FULL gyrokinetic codes. These linear growth rates, gamma (subscript lin) are large, but the flow-shearing rates, gamma (subscript ExB) (dominated by the toroidal rotation contribution) are also comparably large when and where the ITB exists

  11. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  12. The role of shear stress and arteriogenesis in maintaining vascular homeostasis and preventing cerebral atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Della-Morte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear stress (SS is a biomechanical force that is determined by blood flow, vessel geometry, and fluid viscosity. Although a wide range of known vascular risk factors promote development of atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic changes occur predominately at specific sites within the arterial tree, suggesting a critical role for local factors within the vasculature. Atherosclerotic lesions develop predominantly at branches, bends, and bifurcations in the arterial tree because these sites are exposed to low or disturbed blood flow and low SS. Low SS predisposes arteries to atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction. A natural system of preexisting cerebral collateral arteries protects against ischemia by bypassing sites of arterial occlusion through a mechanism of arteriogenesis. The main trigger for arteriogenesis is impaired vascular homeostasis (VH in response to local changes in SS induced by ischemia. VH is a critical process for maintaining the physiological function of cerebral circulation. It is regulated through a complex biological system of blood flow hemodynamic and physiological responses to flow changes. Restoration of VH by increasing arteriogenesis and SS may provide a novel therapeutic target for stroke, especially in the elderly, who are more prone to VH impairment. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms and structures necessary to maintain VH in brain circulation, the role of SS, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis, including the effects of aging. We also discuss arteriogenesis as an adaptive and protective process in response to ischemic injury, the imaging techniques currently available to evaluate arterogenesis such as magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (MRI/PET, and the potential therapeutic approaches against ischemic injury that target arteriogenesis.

  13. An In Vitro Comparative Study of Intracanal Fluid Motion and Wall Shear Stress Induced by Ultrasonic and Polymer Rotary Finishing Files in a Simulated Root Canal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Jon; Borg, John; Mattson, Abby; Olsen, Kris; Bahcall, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study compared the flow pattern and shear stress of an irrigant induced by ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file activation in an acrylic root canal model. Flow visualization analysis was performed using an acrylic canal filled with a mixture of distilled water and rheoscopic fluid. The ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file were separately tested in the canal and activated in a static position and in a cyclical axial motion (up and down). Particle moveme...

  14. Domino structures evolution in strike-slip shear zones; the importance of the cataclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N.; Dias, R.

    2018-05-01

    The Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo dextral Shear Zone is one of the most important structures of the Iberian Variscides. In its vicinity, close to Abrantes (Central Portugal), a localized heterogeneous strain pattern developed in a decimetric metamorphic siliceous multilayer. This complex pattern was induced by the D2 dextral shearing of the early S0//S1 foliation in brittle-ductile conditions, giving rise to three main shear zone families. One of these families, with antithetic kinematics, delimits blocks with rigid clockwise rotation surrounded by coeval cataclasites, generating a local domino structure. The proposed geometrical and kinematic analysis, coupled with statistical studies, highlights the relation between subsidiary shear zones and the main shear zone. Despite the heterogeneous strain pattern, a quantitative approach of finite strain was applied based on the restoration of the initial fracture pattern. This approach shows the importance of the cataclastic flow coupled with the translational displacement of the domino domain in solving space problems related to the rigid block rotation. Such processes are key in allowing the rigid block rotation inside shear zones whenever the simple shear component is a fundamental mechanism.

  15. Critical shear stress for erosion of cohesive soils subjected to temperatures typical of wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Dungan, Smith J.; Ragan, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Increased erosion is a well-known response after wildfire. To predict and to model erosion on a landscape scale requires knowledge of the critical shear stress for the initiation of motion of soil particles. As this soil property is temperature-dependent, a quantitative relation between critical shear stress and the temperatures to which the soils have been subjected during a wildfire is required. In this study the critical shear stress was measured in a recirculating flume using samples of forest soil exposed to different temperatures (40??-550??C) for 1 hour. Results were obtained for four replicates of soils derived from three different types of parent material (granitic bedrock, sandstone, and volcanic tuffs). In general, the relation between critical shear stress and temperature can be separated into three different temperature ranges (275??C), which are similar to those for water repellency and temperature. The critical shear stress was most variable (1.0-2.0 N m-2) for temperatures 2.0 N m-2) between 175?? and 275??C, and was essentially constant (0.5-0.8 N m-2) for temperatures >275??C. The changes in critical shear stress with temperature were found to be essentially independent of soil type and suggest that erosion processes in burned watersheds can be modeled more simply than erosion processes in unburned watersheds. Wildfire reduces the spatial variability of soil erodibility associated with unburned watersheds by eliminating the complex effects of vegetation in protecting soils and by reducing the range of cohesion associated with different types of unburned soils. Our results indicate that modeling the erosional response after a wildfire depends primarily on determining the spatial distribution of the maximum soil temperatures that were reached during the wildfire. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Closed compact Taylor's droplets in a phase-separated lamellar-sponge mixture under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.

    2001-09-01

    We have studied by optical microscopy, small-angle light scattering, and rheology, the behavior under shear flow of a phase-separated lamellar-sponge (Lα - L3) ternary mixture. We observe in the Lα-rich region (ΦLα > 80%) the existence of a Newtonian assembly made of closed compact monodisperse lamellar droplets immersed in the sponge phase. Contrary to the classical onion glassy texture obtained upon shearing Lα phases, the droplet size scales herein as dot gamma-1, the inverse of the shear rate. This result is in good agreement with Taylor's picture. Above a critical shear rate, dot gammac, the droplets organize to form a single colloidal crystal whose lattice size varies as dot gamma-1/3. To the memory of Tess Melissa P.

  17. Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinell, Julio J.

    2014-01-01

    Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence

  18. Sphere interaction in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2017-11-01

    It is well-known that, up to the initial sphere displacement, binary encounters of spheres in bounded shear flow of a Newtonian fluid can have either swapping or non-swapping trajectories under creeping flow conditions. The motion of dilute sphere suspensions in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids at zero Reynolds number has been studied. The pass and return trajectories of the two ball mass centers in a two wall driven shear flow are similar to those in a Newtonian fluid; but they lose the symmetry due to the effect of elastic force arising from viscoelastic fluids. A tumbling chain of two balls (a dipole) may occur, depending on the value of the Weissenberg number and the initial vertical displacement of the ball mass center to the middle plane between two walls. The two ball tumbling motion has also been compared with that of an ellipsoid in bounded shear flow Oldroyd-B fluids. This work was supported by NSF (Grant DMS-1418308).

  19. An Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil Traversing Across a Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Borhan A.; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamics of an airfoil in a uniform approach flow is well understood, less attention has been paid to airfoils in non-uniform flows. An aircraft encounters such flow, for example, during landing through the air wake of an aircraft carrier. The present work is focused on investigating the fundamental aerodynamics of airfoils in such an environment using canonical flow experiments. To generate a shear approach flow, a shaped honeycomb block is employed in a wind tunnel setup. Direct force measurements are performed on a NACA 0012 airfoil, with an aspect ratio of 1.8, as the airfoil traverses steadily across the shear region. Measurements are conducted at a chord Reynolds number Rec 75k, based on the mean approach stream velocity at the center of the shear zone, for a range of airfoil traverse velocities and angles of attack (0 - 12 degree). The results are compared to those obtained for the same airfoil when placed statically at different points along the traverse path inside the shear zone. The comparison enables examination of the applicability of quasi-steady analysis in computing the forces on the moving airfoil. This work is supported by ONR Grant Number N00014-16-1-2760.

  20. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-12-23

    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.

  1. Yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids based on exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chu-wen; Chen, Fei; Meng, Qing-rui; Dong, Zi-xin

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic chain model that considers the interaction between particles and the external magnetic field in a magnetorheological fluid has been widely accepted. Based on the chain model, a yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids was proposed by introducing the exponential distribution to describe the distribution of angles between the direction of magnetic field and the chain formed by magnetic particles. The main influencing factors were considered in the model, such as magnetic flux density, intensity of magnetic field, particle size, volume fraction of particles, the angle of magnetic chain, and so on. The effect of magnetic flux density on the yield shear stress was discussed. The yield stress of aqueous Fe 3 O 4 magnetreological fluids with volume fraction of 7.6% and 16.2% were measured by a device designed by ourselves. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used for calculation of yield shear stress with acceptable errors. - Highlights: • A yield shear stress model of magnetorheological fluids was proposed. • Use exponential distribution to describe the distribution of magnetic chain angles. • Experimental and predicted results were in good agreement for 2 types of MR

  2. On Howard's conjecture in heterogeneous shear flow problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Mathematics, H.P. University, Shimla 171 005, India. ∗. Sidharth Govt. Degree College, Nadaun, Dist. Hamirpur 177 033 ... in proving it in the case of the Garcia-type [3] flows wherein the basic velocity distribution has a point of ...

  3. A multi-axis confocal rheoscope for studying shear flow of structured fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Neil Y. C.; McCoy, Jonathan H.; Cheng, Xiang; Leahy, Brian; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    of confinement effects. By using our shear cell in conjunction with a biaxial force measurement device and a high-speed confocal microscope, we are able to measure the real-time biaxial stress while simultaneously imaging the material three-dimensional structure

  4. Degradation of homogeneous polymer solutions in high shear turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, B. R.; Winkel, E. S.; Solomon, M. J.; Ceccio, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study quantifies degradation of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer solutions in large diameter (2.72 cm) turbulent pipe flow at Reynolds numbers to 3 × 105 and shear rates greater than 105 1/s. The present results support a universal scaling law for polymer chain scission reported by Vanapalli et al. (2006) that predicts the maximum chain drag force to be proportional to Re 3/2, validating this scaling law at higher Reynolds numbers than prior studies. Use of this scaling gives estimated backbone bond strengths from PEO and PAM of 3.2 and 3.8 nN, respectively. Additionally, with the use of synthetic seawater as a solvent the onset of drag reduction occurred at higher shear rates relative to the pure water solvent solutions, but had little influence on the extent of degradation at higher shear rates. These results are significant for large diameter pipe flow applications that use polymers to reduce drag.

  5. The shear flow processing of controlled DNA tethering and stretching for organic molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guihua; Kushwaha, Amit; Lee, Jungkyu K; Shaqfeh, Eric S G; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-25

    DNA has been recently explored as a powerful tool for developing molecular scaffolds for making reproducible and reliable metal contacts to single organic semiconducting molecules. A critical step in the process of exploiting DNA-organic molecule-DNA (DOD) array structures is the controlled tethering and stretching of DNA molecules. Here we report the development of reproducible surface chemistry for tethering DNA molecules at tunable density and demonstrate shear flow processing as a rationally controlled approach for stretching/aligning DNA molecules of various lengths. Through enzymatic cleavage of λ-phage DNA to yield a series of DNA chains of various lengths from 17.3 μm down to 4.2 μm, we have investigated the flow/extension behavior of these tethered DNA molecules under different flow strengths in the flow-gradient plane. We compared Brownian dynamic simulations for the flow dynamics of tethered λ-DNA in shear, and found our flow-gradient plane experimental results matched well with our bead-spring simulations. The shear flow processing demonstrated in our studies represents a controllable approach for tethering and stretching DNA molecules of various lengths. Together with further metallization of DNA chains within DOD structures, this bottom-up approach can potentially enable efficient and reliable fabrication of large-scale nanoelectronic devices based on single organic molecules, therefore opening opportunities in both fundamental understanding of charge transport at the single molecular level and many exciting applications for ever-shrinking molecular circuits.

  6. The role of flow shear in the ballooning stability of tokamak transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.J.; Wilson, H.R.; Scaife, A.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    A tokamak's economic performance is strongly affected by the plasma pressure that it may sustain, which in turn is limited by the maximum pressure gradients that may be supported. Ballooning modes are typically driven unstable by increasing the pressure gradient, and because they can radially extend across many rational surfaces, they can seriously reduce a plasma's energy confinement. Here an eigenmode formulation is used to study the stability of ballooning modes in internal transport barriers ('ITBs'), in which very strong pressure gradients and flow shears may be found. This extends previous studies that used an 'eikonal' formulation, as it enables the study of: ballooning modes with a finite toroidal mode-number n (finite wavelength perpendicular to the magnetic field), to find new solution branches, to obtain the eigenmode structures, and to investigate the effects of a radially varying equilibrium. The structure of a finite n ballooning mode in flow shear is found to be significantly affected by a radially varying equilibrium, and at low flow shears the growth rates are increased above those of modes studied in the limit of n→∞. The different solution branches can couple as the flow shear is increased, leading to a pair of asymmetric mode structures with complex conjugate growth rates. These effects are shown to be a consequence of the mode trying to localize at the most unstable radial location, and its desire to rotate with the flow. In addition, closer to marginal stability a sufficiently strong flow-shear can (at least for some cases), destabilize a previously stable mode

  7. Toroidal equilibrium states with reversed magnetic shear and parallel flow in connection with the formation of Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2015-08-01

    We construct nonlinear toroidal equilibria of fixed diverted boundary shaping with reversed magnetic shear and flows parallel to the magnetic field. The equilibria have hole-like current density and the reversed magnetic shear increases as the equilibrium nonlinearity becomes stronger. Also, application of a sufficient condition for linear stability implies that the stability is improved as the equilibrium nonlinearity correlated to the reversed magnetic shear gets stronger with a weaker stabilizing contribution from the flow. These results indicate synergetic stabilizing effects of reversed magnetic shear, equilibrium nonlinearity and flow in the establishment of Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs).

  8. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  9. Shear flow instability in a partially-ionized plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T. C.; Rose, D. V.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The stability of ion acoustic waves in a sheared-flow, partially-ionized compressible plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle in the upper atmosphere, is described and evaluated for different flow profiles. In a compressible plasma with shear flow, instability occurs for any velocity profile, not just for profiles with an inflection point. A second-order differential equation for the electrostatic potential of excited ion acoustic waves in the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals is derived and solved numerically using a shooting method with boundary conditions appropriate for a finite thickness sheath in contact with the vehicle. We consider three different velocity flow profiles and find that in all cases that neutral collisions can completely suppress the instability.

  10. The role of shear stress and altered tissue properties on endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and tumor-endothelial cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara G; Huang, Peter; Murray, Bruce T; Mahler, Gretchen J

    2017-07-01

    Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties. A three-dimensional (3D) culture microfluidic device was developed for investigating the role of steady low shear stress (1 dyne/cm 2 ) and altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and stiffness on EndMT. Shear stresses resulting from fluid flow within tumor tissue are relevant to both cancer metastasis and treatment effectiveness. Low and oscillatory shear stress rates have been shown to enhance the invasion of metastatic cancer cells through specific changes in actin and tubulin remodeling. The 3D ECM within the device was composed of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. An increase in collagen and GAGs has been observed in the solid tumor microenvironment and has been correlated with poor prognosis in many different cancer types. In this study, it was found that ECM composition and low shear stress upregulated EndMT, including upregulation of mesenchymal-like markers (α-SMA and Snail) and downregulated endothelial marker protein and gene expression (VE-cadherin). Furthermore, this novel model was utilized to investigate the role of EndMT in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Cancer cell spheroids were embedded within the 3D ECM of the microfluidic device. The results using this device show for the first time that the breast cancer spheroid size is dependent on shear stress and that the cancer cell migration rate

  11. Influence of shear flow on the specific volume and the crystalline morphology of isotactic polypropylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, M.H.E.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of shear flow on the temperature evolution of the specific volume and the crystalline morphology of two iPP's, differing in weight-averaged molar mass w, was investigated at nonisothermal conditions and elevated pressures, using a custom-designed dilatometer. These conditions are

  12. Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-01-01

    From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained...... magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers....

  13. Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...

  14. Effects of biaxial oscillatory shear stress on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amlan; Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric

    2012-03-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) on anchored cells affects their responses, including cell proliferation and morphology. In this study, the effects of the directionality of pulsatile WSS on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology were investigated for cells grown in a Petri dish orbiting on a shaker platform. Time and location dependent WSS was determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At low orbital speed (50 rpm), WSS was shown to be uniform (0-1 dyne/cm(2)) across the bottom of the dish, while at higher orbital speed (100 and 150 rpm), WSS remained fairly uniform near the center and fluctuated significantly (0-9 dyne/cm(2)) near the side walls of the dish. Since WSS on the bottom of the dish is two-dimensional, a new directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI) was developed to quantify the directionality of oscillating shear. DOSI approached zero for biaxial oscillatory shear of equal magnitudes near the center and approached one for uniaxial pulsatile shear near the wall, where large tangential WSS dominated a much smaller radial component. Near the center (low DOSI), more, smaller and less elongated cells grew, whereas larger cells with greater elongation were observed in the more uniaxial oscillatory shear (high DOSI) near the periphery of the dish. Further, cells aligned with the direction of the largest component of shear but were randomly oriented in low magnitude biaxial shear. Statistical analyses of the individual and interacting effects of multiple factors (DOSI, shear magnitudes and orbital speeds) showed that DOSI significantly affected all the responses, indicating that directionality is an important determinant of cellular responses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nested separatrices in simple shear flows: the effect of localized disturbances on stagnation lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, M.C.T.; Gaskell, P.H.; Savage, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of localized two-dimensional disturbances on the structure of shear flows featuring a stagnation line are investigated. A simple superposition of a planar Couette flow and Moffatt's [J. Fluid Mech. 18, 1--18 (1964)] streamfunction for the decay of a disturbance between infinite stationary parallel plates shows that in general the stagnation line is replaced by a chain of alternating elliptic and hyperbolic stagnation points with a separation equal to 2.78 times the half-gap betwee...

  16. Influence of Normal and Shear Stress on the Hydraulic Transmissivity of Thin Cracks in a Tight Quartz Sandstone, a Granite, and a Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Ernest H.; Mecklenburgh, Julian

    2018-02-01

    Transmissivity of fluids along fractures in rocks is reduced by increasing normal stress acting across them, demonstrated here through gas flow experiments on Bowland shale, and oil flow experiments on Pennant sandstone and Westerly granite. Additionally, the effect of imposing shear stress at constant normal stress was determined, until frictional sliding started. In all cases, increasing shear stress causes an accelerating reduction of transmissivity by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude as slip initiated, as a result of the formation of wear products that block fluid pathways. Only in the case of granite, and to a lesser extent in the sandstone, was there a minor amount of initial increase of transmissivity prior to the onset of slip. These results cast into doubt the commonly applied presumption that cracks with high resolved shear stresses are the most conductive. In the shale, crack transmissivity is commensurate with matrix permeability, such that shales are expected always to be good seals. For the sandstone and granite, unsheared crack transmissivity was respectively 2 and 2.5 orders of magnitude greater than matrix permeability. For these rocks crack transmissivity can dominate fluid flow in the upper crust, potentially enough to permit maintenance of a hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient in a normal (extensional) faulting regime.

  17. Experimental analysis of minimum shear stress to drag particles in a horizontal bed; Analise experimental da tensao de cisalhamento minima para arraste de particulas em um leito horizontal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornelas, Breno Almeida; Soares, Edson Jose [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil)], e-mails: bad@ucl.br, edson@ct.ufes.br; Quirino Filho, Joao Pedro; Loureiro, Bruno Venturini [Faculdade do Centro Leste (UCL). Laboratorio de Fluidos e Fenomenos de Transporte (Brazil)], e-mails: joaoquirino@ucl.br, brunovl@ucl.br

    2009-12-15

    Efficient hole cleaning is still a challenge in well bore drilling to produce oil and gas. The critical point is the horizontal drilling that inherently tends to form a bed of sediment particles at the well bottom during drilling. The cuttings bed erosion depends mainly on the shear stress promoted by the drilling fluid flow. The shear stress required to cause drag in the cuttings bed is investigated according to the fluid and particles properties, using an experimental assembly, composed of: a system for fluid circulation, a particle box, a pump system and measuring equipment. The observation area is a box below the flow line in an acrylic duct used to calibrate sand particles. The test starts with the pumps in a low frequency which is increased in steps. At each frequency level, images are captured of carried particles and the established flow rate is recorded. The images are analyzed when the dragged particle is no longer random and sporadic, but becomes permanent. The shear stress is identified by the PKN correlation (by Prandtl, von Karman, and Nikuradse) for the minimum flow rate necessary to cause drag. Results were obtained for just water and water-glycerin solution flows. (author)

  18. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.

  19. Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  20. Cloning the Gravity and Shear Stress Related Genes from MG-63 Cells by Subtracting Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Dai, Zhong-quan; Wang, Bing; Cao, Xin-sheng; Li, Ying-hui; Sun, Xi-qing

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to clone the gravity and shear stress related genes from osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by subtractive hybridization. Method MG-63 cells were divided into two groups (1G group and simulated microgravity group). After cultured for 60 h in two different gravitational environments, two groups of MG-63 cells were treated with 1.5Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) for 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. The gravity and shear stress related genes were cloned by subtractive hybridization. Result 200 clones were gained. 30 positive clones were selected using PCR method based on the primers of vector and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analyzed by blast. changes of 17 sequences were confirmed by RT-PCR and these genes are related to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, signal transduction and apoptosis. 5 unknown genes related to gravity and shear stress were found. Conclusion In this part of our study, our result indicates that simulated microgravity may change the activities of MG-63 cells by inducing the functional alterations of specific genes.

  1. Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized

  2. Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.

  3. Exercise-mediated changes in conduit artery wall thickness in humans: role of shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Munckhof, I.C. van den; Tinken, T.M.; Drijver, E. den; Hopkins, N.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic increases in shear stress have been proposed as a mechanism that induces training-induced adaptation in arterial wall remodeling in humans. To address this hypothesis in humans, we examined bilateral brachial artery wall thickness using high-resolution ultrasound in healthy men across an

  4. Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok

    2018-04-01

    The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.

  5. Cylindrical shell under impact load including transverse shear and normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, M.; Eslami, M.R.; Ghassaa, M.; Ohadi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general governing equations of shell of revolution under shock loads are reduced to equations describing the elastic behavior of cylindrical shell under axisymmetric impact load. The effect of lateral normal stress, transverse shear, and rotary inertia are included, and the equations are solved by Galerkin finite element method. The results are compared with the previous works of authors. (author)

  6. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria e-mail: zergua.abdesselam@umc.edu.dz. MS received 24 April 2014; revised 14 July 2014; accepted 12 September 2014. Abstract. The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress ...

  7. Long ligands reinforce biological adhesion under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Aleksey V.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, computer modeling has been used to show that longer ligands allow biological cells (e.g., blood platelets) to withstand stronger flows after their adhesion to solid walls. A mechanistic model of polymer-mediated ligand-receptor adhesion between a microparticle (cell) and a flat wall has been developed. The theoretical threshold between adherent and non-adherent regimes has been derived analytically and confirmed by simulations. These results lead to a deeper understanding of numerous biophysical processes, e.g., arterial thrombosis, and to the design of new biomimetic colloid-polymer systems.

  8. Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress of myotube glycocalyx stimulates growth factor expression and nitric oxide production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffer, P.; Bakker, A.D.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Jaspers, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers have the ability to increase their size in response to a mechanical overload. Finite element modeling data suggest that mechanically loaded muscles in vivo may experience not only tensile strain but also shear stress. However, whether shear stress affects biological pathways

  9. Large-scale dynamo action due to α fluctuations in a linear shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Singh, Nishant K.

    2014-12-01

    We present a model of large-scale dynamo action in a shear flow that has stochastic, zero-mean fluctuations of the α parameter. This is based on a minimal extension of the Kraichnan-Moffatt model, to include a background linear shear and Galilean-invariant α-statistics. Using the first-order smoothing approximation we derive a linear integro-differential equation for the large-scale magnetic field, which is non-perturbative in the shearing rate S , and the α-correlation time τα . The white-noise case, τα = 0 , is solved exactly, and it is concluded that the necessary condition for dynamo action is identical to the Kraichnan-Moffatt model without shear; this is because white-noise does not allow for memory effects, whereas shear needs time to act. To explore memory effects we reduce the integro-differential equation to a partial differential equation, valid for slowly varying fields when τα is small but non-zero. Seeking exponential modal solutions, we solve the modal dispersion relation and obtain an explicit expression for the growth rate as a function of the six independent parameters of the problem. A non-zero τα gives rise to new physical scales, and dynamo action is completely different from the white-noise case; e.g. even weak α fluctuations can give rise to a dynamo. We argue that, at any wavenumber, both Moffatt drift and Shear always contribute to increasing the growth rate. Two examples are presented: (a) a Moffatt drift dynamo in the absence of shear and (b) a Shear dynamo in the absence of Moffatt drift.

  10. The effect of shear stress on solitary waves in arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, H

    1997-09-01

    In the present work, we study the propagation of solitary waves in a prestressed thick walled elastic tube filled with an incompressible inviscid fluid. In order to include the geometric dispersion in the analysis the wall inertia and shear deformation effects are taken into account for the inner pressure-cross-sectional area relation. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the propagation of weakly non-linear waves in the long-wave approximation is examined. It is shown that, contrary to thin tube theories, the present approach makes it possible to have solitary waves even for a Mooney-Rivlin (M-R) material. Due to dependence of the coefficients of the governing Korteweg-deVries equation on initial deformation, the solution profile changes with inner pressure and the axial stretch. The variation of wave profiles for a class of elastic materials are depicted in graphic forms. As might be seen from these illustrations, with increasing thickness ratio, the profile of solitary wave is steepened for a M-R material but it is broadened for biological tissue.

  11. Shear-induced autorotation of freely rotatable cylinder in a channel flow at moderate Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Lin, Jianzhong; Ku, Xiaoke; Chan, Tatleung

    2018-04-01

    Flow past a center-pinned freely rotatable cylinder asymmetrically confined in a two-dimensional channel is simulated with the lattice Boltzmann method for a range of Reynolds number 0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 200, eccentricity ratio 0/8 ≤ ɛ ≤ 7/8, and blockage ratio 0.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. It is found that the inertia tends to facilitate the anomalous clockwise rotation of the cylinder. As the eccentricity ratio increases, the cylinder rotates faster in the counterclockwise direction and then slows down at a range of Re 40, there exists an anomalous clockwise rotation for the cylinder at a low eccentricity ratio and the domain where the cylinder rotates anomalously becomes larger with the increase in the Reynolds number. In a channel with a higher blockage ratio, the rotation of the cylinder is more sensitive to the change of cylinder lateral position, and the separatrix at which the cylinder remains a state of rest moves upward generally. The cylinder is more likely to rotate counterclockwise and the rotating velocity is larger. At a lower blockage ratio, the anomalous clockwise rotation is more likely to occur, and the largest rotating velocity occurs when the blockage ratio is equal to 0.3. The mechanism of distinct rotational behavior of the cylinder is attributed to the transformation of distribution of shear stress which is resulted from the variation of pressure drop, the shift of maximum or minimum pressure zones along the upper and lower semi-cylinder surface, and the movement of stagnant point and separate point. Finally, the effects of the cylinder rotation on the flow structure and hydrodynamic force exerted on the cylinder surface are analyzed as well.

  12. Role of shear stress in nitric oxide-dependent modulation of renal angiotensin II vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, K; Muller, C; Barthelmebs, M; Helwig, J J

    1999-08-01

    1. Renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II (ANGII) is known to be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). Since shear stress stimulates the release of a variety of vasoactive compounds from endothelial cells, we studied the impact of shear stress on the haemodynamic effect of ANGII in isolated perfused kidneys of rats under control conditions and during NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME (100 microM). 2. Kidneys were perfused in the presence of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (10 microM indomethacin) with Tyrode's solution of relative viscosity zeta=1 (low viscosity perfusate, LVP) or, in order to augment shear stress, with Tyrode's solution containing 7% Ficoll 70 of relative viscosity zeta=2 (high viscosity perfusate, HVP). 3. Vascular conductance was 3.5+/-0.4 fold larger in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys, associated with an augmentation of overall wall shear stress by 37+/-5%. During NO inhibition, vascular conductance was only 2.5+/-0.2 fold elevated in HVP vs LVP kidneys, demonstrating shear stress-induced vasodilatation by NO and non-NO/non-prostanoid compound(s). 4. ANGII (10 - 100 pM) constricted the vasculature in LVP kidneys, but was without effect in HVP kidneys. During NO inhibition, in contrast, ANGII vasoconstriction was potentiated in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys. 5. The potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition has been shown to be mediated by endothelium-derived P450 metabolites and to be sensitive to AT2 receptor blockade in our earlier studies. Accordingly, in HVP kidneys, increasing concentrations of the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 (5 and 500 nM) gradually abolished the potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition, but did not affect vasoconstriction in response to ANGII in LVP kidneys. 6. Our results demonstrate, that augmentation of shear stress by increasing perfusate viscosity induces vasodilatation in the rat kidney, which is partially mediated by NO. Elevated levels of shear stress attenuate

  13. Methodology for calculating shear stress in a meandering channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Seop Sin; Christopher I. Thornton; Amanda L. Cox; Steven R. Abt

    2012-01-01

    Natural channels never stop changing their geomorphic characteristics. Natural alluvial streams are similar to living creatures because they generate water flow, develop point bars, alter bed profile, scour the bed, erode the bank, and cause other phenomena in the stream system. The geomorphic changes in a natural system lead to a wide array of research worldwide,...

  14. Large eddy simulation in a rotary blood pump: Viscous shear stress computation and comparison with unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Benjamin; Konnigk, Lucas; Hallier, Sebastian; Kumar, Jitendra; Witte, Matthias; Wurm, Frank-Hendrik

    2018-06-01

    Numerical flow analysis (computational fluid dynamics) in combination with the prediction of blood damage is an important procedure to investigate the hemocompatibility of a blood pump, since blood trauma due to shear stresses remains a problem in these devices. Today, the numerical damage prediction is conducted using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Investigations with large eddy simulations are rarely being performed for blood pumps. Hence, the aim of the study is to examine the viscous shear stresses of a large eddy simulation in a blood pump and compare the results with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. The simulations were carried out at two operation points of a blood pump. The flow was simulated on a 100M element mesh for the large eddy simulation and a 20M element mesh for the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. As a first step, the large eddy simulation was verified by analyzing internal dissipative losses within the pump. Then, the pump characteristics and mean and turbulent viscous shear stresses were compared between the two simulation methods. The verification showed that the large eddy simulation is able to reproduce the significant portion of dissipative losses, which is a global indication that the equivalent viscous shear stresses are adequately resolved. The comparison with the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation revealed that the hydraulic parameters were in agreement, but differences for the shear stresses were found. The results show the potential of the large eddy simulation as a high-quality comparative case to check the suitability of a chosen Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes setup and turbulence model. Furthermore, the results lead to suggest that large eddy simulations are superior to unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations when instantaneous stresses are applied for the blood damage prediction.

  15. Interaction between drug delivery vehicles and cells under the effect of shear stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Jansman, M. M. T.

    2015-01-01

    models. An important factor within the complex and dynamic human in vivo environment is the shear flow observed within our circulatory system and many other tissues. Within this review, recent advances to leverage microfluidic devices to better mimic these conditions through novel in vitro assays...

  16. Numerical investigations of two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration in shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mengke; Han, Yang; Li, Jian; Gui, Mingyue; Chen, Zhihua, E-mail: zhanghui1902@hotmail.com [Science and Technology on Transient Physics Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Exponential-polar coordinates attached to a moving cylinder are used to deduce the stream function-vorticity equations for two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration, the initial and boundary conditions, and the distribution of the hydrodynamic force, which consists of the vortex-induced force, inertial force, and viscous damping force. The fluid-structure interactions occurring from the motionless cylinder to the steady vibration are investigated numerically, and the variations of the flow field, pressure, lift/drag, and cylinder displacement are discussed. Both the dominant vortex and the cylinder shift, whose effects are opposite, affect the shear layer along the transverse direction and the secondary vortex along the streamwise direction. However, the effect of the cylinder shift is larger than that of the dominant vortices. Therefore, the former dominates the total effects of the flow field. Moreover, the symmetry of the flow field is broken with the increasing shear rate. With the effect of the background vortex, the upper vortices are strengthened, and the lower vortices are weakened; thus, the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the upper shedding vortices are strengthened, while the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the lower shedding vortices are weakened. Therefore, the amplitudes of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the upper vortex are larger than those of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the lower vortex. (paper)

  17. Direct numerical simulations of agglomeration of circular colloidal particles in two-dimensional shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Joon; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified

  18. Review Article: Advances in modeling of bed particle entrainment sheared by turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhasish; Ali, Sk Zeeshan

    2018-06-01

    Bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow is a key topic of interest in hydrodynamics because it plays a major role to govern the planetary morphodynamics. In this paper, the state-of-the-art review of the essential mechanisms governing the bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow and their mathematical modeling is presented. The paper starts with the appraisal of the earlier multifaceted ideas in modeling the particle entrainment highlighting the rolling, sliding, and lifting modes of entrainment. Then, various modeling approaches of bed particle entrainment, such as deterministic, stochastic, and spatiotemporal approaches, are critically analyzed. The modeling criteria of particle entrainment are distinguished for hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes. In this context, the responses of particle size, particle exposure, and packing condition to the near-bed turbulent flow that shears the particles to entrain are discussed. From the modern experimental outcomes, the conceptual mechanism of particle entrainment from the viewpoint of near-bed turbulent coherent structures is delineated. As the latest advancement of the subject, the paper sheds light on the origin of the primitive empirical formulations of bed particle entrainment deriving the scaling laws of threshold flow velocity of bed particle motion from the perspective of the phenomenological theory of turbulence. Besides, a model framework that provides a new look on the bed particle entrainment phenomenon stemming from the stochastic-cum-spatiotemporal approach is introduced. Finally, the future scope of research is articulated with open questions.

  19. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Bao Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid. In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  20. Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under linear shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Han, Zhaolong [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tu, Jiahuang, E-mail: tujiahuang1982@163.com, E-mail: han.arkey@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear flow by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M {sub r} = 2, while the reduced velocity, U {sub r}, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of Δ U {sub r} = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the flow patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio ( k  = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers ( Re  = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X – Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform flow ( k  = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear flows ( k  = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of flow patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear flow. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U {sub r} = 5. (paper)

  1. One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available - dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model in which as many dislocations are poised for backward jumps as for forward jumps, the experimental activation volume Vye(C27a) under applied stresses close to C...27a is different from the true activation volume V(C27) evaluated at C27 ?C27a. The relations between the two are developed. A model is then discussed in which fewer dislocations are available for backward than for forward jumps. Finally...

  2. Fracture transmissivity as a function of normal and shear stress: first results in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R.J.; Milodowski, A.; Noy, D.J.; Harrington, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Rock-mass failure around openings is usually observed in the form of a highly complex fracture network (EDZ), which is heterogeneous in distribution around a circular tunnel opening because of the heterogeneous stress distribution. The orientation of stress with respect to the fracture network is known to be important. The complex heterogeneous stress trajectory and heterogeneous fracture network results in a broad range of stresses and stress directions acting on the open fracture network. During the open stage of a repository, stress will slowly alter as shear movements occur along the fractures, as well as other time-dependent phenomena. As the repository is back filled, the stress field is further altered as the backfill settles and changes volume because of re-saturation. Therefore, a complex and wide ranging stress regime and stress history will result. In a purely mechanical sense, fracture transmissivity is a function of normal stress, shear stress, and fracture aperture. The Selfrac test from Mont Terri showed the change in transmissivity with effective normal stress. This work showed that fracture transmissivity decreased with increasing normal load and that an effective normal stress of 2.5 MPa is sufficient to yield a transmissivity similar to that seen in intact Opalinus clay (OPA). Therefore fracture closure because of normal stresses has been proven to be a quite efficient mechanism in OPA. A new shear rig was designed to investigate the detail of fracture transmissivity in OPA. The experimental configuration uses two prepared blocks that are 60 x 60 mm in size and approximately 20 mm thick. The first test sample had machine ground surfaces in contact with each other, with pore fluid being delivered through the centre of the top block directly to the fracture surface. The experimental programme included two distinct stages. In the first normal load was altered to investigate fracture transmissivity

  3. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat...... subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured...... and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber...

  4. The effect of viscosity on the resistive tearing mode with the presence of shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.L.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of small isotropic viscosity on the ''constant ψ'' tearing mode in the presence of shear flow, is analyzed by the boundary layer approach. It is found that the influence of viscosity depends upon the parameter (G'(0)/F'(0)), where G'(0) and F'(0) denote that shear and magnetic field shear at the magnetic null plane, respectively. When |(G'(0)/F'(0))| much-lt 1, the tearing mode growth rate is s